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Crane Safeties: 1. Upper and lower limit switch for hoisting 2. Jib max. and min.

angle and rest position limit switch 3. Differential limit switch between luffing and hoisting (to keep a minimum distance between jib top and hook block, irrespective of jib angle) 4. Slewing limit switch (not for 360deg full slewing type) 5. Slack limit switch for hoisting rope (to protect the hoisting rope from irregular winding or slackening, hoisting device stops automatically by the limit switch) 6. Interlock switch for control handles (to prevent misoperation, when starting and restarting the crane after the limit sw are acted) 7. Overload protector fm hydraulic parts ie relief valve (one each for hoisting n luffing and usually two for slewing, one for clockwise, second for anti clockwise) 8. Resistance thermometer sensor for oil cooler 9. Oveccurrent protector for induction motor 10. Low level switch for oil tank 11. Jib emergency limit switch (to stop the jib motion if due to sticky or smthin the luffing ckt is malfunctioning) 1. WHAT IS CSC PALTE ON CONTAINERS..(DIS U WILL GET ON NET ..SINCE I HAD SAILED ON CONTAINERS AND CAR CARRIERS) SECURING AND STACKING ARRANGEMENT OF CONTAINERS.. 2.SAFETIES IN RAMP OF CAR CARRIER AND THEIR SEALING ARRANGEMENT ( I SAID ABT MANUAL PIN N ALL ..REST I DIDNT KNOW MUCH 3. TORSION BOX ( I SAID THEY ARE STRENGTHENING MEMBERS N ...) AND HOW THEY ACT AS STRENGTHENING ...( DEN I WAS BOUNCED BY HIS MANY QUES ON THIS... 4. SERVO CONTOLLER IN 100% REDUNDANCY STEERING GEAR( I HAD NO IDEA.) 5.CAUSES OF SLUGGISH ACTION OF STEERING GEAR 6. LOAD DEPENDENT LUBRICATORS APART FROM ALPHA LUB ....HE GAVE HINT FREQUENCY MOTORS... ...N HOW TO CHECK TIMING OF SIP LUBRICATOR... 7. VIT AND SUPER VIT ( I SAID DE ANS OF GULIA ie OBLIQUE PROFILE AND FIXED BREAK POINT ..HE SAID HOW OBLIQUENESS HELPS IN CHANGING TIIMING OF INJECTION AS COMPARED TO FLAT ONES( DIS I HAD NO EXACT IDEA)...ALSO DIA OF SIMPLE VIT AND SUPER VIT ...LOAD AND PMAX ONE ..COMPRESSION ONES... HOW TO ADJUST BREAK POINT IN SUPER VIT... 9.SHORT CKT TEST AND OPEN CKT TEST OF MOTOR...AND HW DO U DO OPEN TEST IF MOTOR IS OVERHAULED?..I SAID DE ANS OF NET AND LITTLE BIT ABT CONTINUITY TEST ..HE SAID U HAV READ FROM HALL AND IT HAS NT GIVEN ENOUGH ... 10. Y RUDDER ANGLE IS 35' MAX...( I SAID DE ANS OF A K MITRA ...EDDIES ,,STALLED ACTION ..TORQUE..BRAKING FORCE... HE SAID EXPLAIN TO ME AS IF I AM A LAYMAN ...I CUD NT ... 11. STARTER OF BT ..I SAID SOFT STARTER..N ALL ..HE SAID WHAT IF U HAV CYCLO CONVERTER ?( NO IDEA) 12.PURIFIR VIBRATING TOO MUCH ...CAUSES.. 13. SATIC AVR AND BRUSHLESS GEN..Y NT STATIC USED EVEN IF VOLTAGE PIK IS BTTR?

14.REGULATION ON TANKERS ...ORB...IOPP....OWS...ODMCS,,?,PUMP ROOM SAFETIES... 15.DIFF BW DAMPERS DETUNERS..GESLINGER.... Copy paste hai ....Thanx to Dhanno and Pawan 1) lpg tanks construction material used2 ( INVAR: steel or 9% nickel steel- higher temp.) 36% nickel

2) what all certificate to be carried according to annex 6 ( IAPP and supplements: particulars of ship, control of emissions from ship* ozone depleting subs * NOx *SOx * volatile organic compound)+ EIAPP 3) under which clause in ISM sms is there (part A: clause 1.4, part A is IMPLEMENTATION and part B is certification and verification) 4) Actions taken during boiler uptake fire? (Boiler uptake fire is because of wet soot deposited during low steaming and also during uptake fire do not carry out soot blow reduce the load and stop the engine , cover the m/e t/c with the canvas so that no air is supplied). 5) Needle vv lift. (1.4mm for 250 bar lifting pressure)

6) Boiler corrosion how it happens and how to prevent. (Acidic corrosion-CO2, O2, OIL, CHLORIDES, BICARBONATES and pitting corrosion: scales such as calcium and magnesium salts.) 7) accumulation pressure test in boiler ( accumulation pr should not more than 10 percent of working pr. when boiler is firing on full load for boiler). 8) how to reduce maintenance in exhaust vv (good quality fuel usage , vit adjustment, avoid running engine on low load, check fuel injection system, good scavenging, maintaining cooling water temp, check rotation of exhaust v/v) 9) refrigeration gases how its classified according to environment hazard (ozone depletion potential- max R11, for R22 is 0.05 and global warming potential- max is R11.and R22 is 0.365) 10) Contactors maintenance on starter what is the material of contactor (1. Check for loose, missing, broken contactors, 2. Cleaning and checking contact surfaces for improper wear or discoloration 3. Remove oxides from faces using fine files, main contacts are high conductivity copper coz they ll not heat up due to lower resistance, arcing contacts are made of sintered silver tungsten or other materials which dont weld at high temps)

11) Crane jib is cracked how u r going to weld. (arrest crack and weld plates) uestions by biswas and bhaumik.. on 28 july2011 fn 3 and 4 1. wat is stability?, intact stability, damage stability 2 wat is ur opinion abt the location of e/m fire p/p. 3 wat is class a bulkhead 4 marpol anx 2 certification and pumping criterian? free fall life boat , testing on ship, maintenance on ship, how to lower to water , how to hoist back, etc.. rquirements. 6. fixed fire fighting system for lpg carrier on deck, 7wat is pintles in relation to rudder, wats their purposes, if bearing pintle is there the y rudder carrier bearing provided.. why so much of jhamela..? 8. wat is 100% redundant steering gear,bypass v/v, shock v/v. 9. complete reversing system for any main engine(2/s). how after starting automatic air v/v closes. 10 fuel p/p zero setting.. 11... automatic humidity control of air conditioning system. 12. rest i am unable to recollect now .. will post later ... 12 hours ago Like Subscribe 1. ballast tank inspection. 2how to check trueness of rudder stock, how will u take out the rudder, 3 what checks ae necessary before fitting a keyed and keyless propeller 4how will u make out that which one is gas cutters nozzle, and which one is used for gas welding. 5wat is thust block , purpose, 6. wat is there to adjust excitation, volt trimmer, wat is its fuction , and its role in ckt. 7. magnetic particle crack detection test 8. spectroscope, maintenance, 9.draw cards and power cards. 12) Junior engineer boxed back the purifier after cleaning then its found vibrating probable causes. ( bowl may not be cleaned properly, lock ring not tightening properly, bowled assembled with wrong parts, gear can be in damaged condition, bowl springs not fitted correctly, top bearing springs damaged, discs not properly assembled or tightened, some external tool left inside .) 13) insulation of motor is found to be 0.5 mega ohms what we can do to bring back the insulation (dry the motor by heating lamp and then test insulation n put fast drying varnish, check visually for any wires broken) SAE 20 means it ll have a viscosity of 20cst at 100 C and SAE 15W40 means viscosity of 40cst at 100 C and 15cst at 0 C. 14) Mooring arrangement on crude oil tanker. ( headlines, breast lines-athwart ship movt, spring lines- longitudinal movt., cable for towing)

15) LSA equipment in life boat. (6 hand flares> 15000 cd and 1 min, 4 rockets>30,000cd and 40secs, 2 buoyant smoke signals>3mins,anti-sea sickness tablets, tpa, portable fire extinguisher, search light, a manual pump, efficient radar deflector, food ration, fresh water, tool kit) 16) What is power factor? (Power factor is the ratio of true power to the apparent power. i.e. watt/volt amp.) 17) residual magnetism (residual magnetism is the property in which certain amount of excitation remains back in the conductor even after removal of the magnets) 18) mc. Reverse power trip location and drawing. (In the A.C.B. pg 58-

19) container capacity- how much load a container can carry (32tonnes for 40ft container) 20) How container is placed on tank top with drawing. Pg 121ship cons reeds) 21) IOPP supplement ( pg 22- gautam sen)

22) hyper mist system maintenance (Areas-a/e, m/e, incinerator, boiler, purifier,IGG , blow through with air, pump operation, if correct solenoid is functioning after manually activating the system from each area) 23) Anchor not coming up, reasons? (windlass oil level low, anchor stuck, slipping of clutch, high oil temp cut-out, power failure, pump or motor not functioning, actuating valves prob. ) 24) About co2 sys, all values temp and test pr etc. (pipes15yearsh.p.sec-180bar,? m.p.sec-80bar, l.p.sec-6bar, spring loaded safety v/v in main pipe-180bar, bottle-228bar, seal bursting disc-63 C, storage temp. <55 C) 25) AE inlet vv big or exhaust vv big and y? (a/e inlet valves are bigger, no back pressure in t/c free flow, better scavenging exhaust gas expelled easily, and exhaust v/v is smaller due to less power required to open .) 26) What and why material of sounding bob. (brass- non sparking, softer than steel) 27) min. thickness of feeler gauge (0.05mm or 0.01mm)

28) causes of pump wear ring being worn (strainer faulty, bearing damage, cavitations, high temp. water, unbalanced impellar)

29) SCR system, ammonia slip, catalyst? (selective catalyst reaction- exhaust is mixed with ammonia and passed through a catalytic reactor, hence reduction in NOx. And soot in exhaust. Temp.-290-450 C. FINAL PRODUCTS WATER AND NITROGEN PG 78-80 POUNDERS) ASTM means American society for testing of materials, it develops standard for materials, product, systems used in construction, manufacturing and transportation. SAE is society of automotive engineers; it gives the viscosity of oil based on a classification involving 2 temperatures 30) if the dip stick breaks in co2 bottle then what will happen? (if co2 bottle dip stick is broken, once the liquid level reaches below the broken siphon tube , co2 will freeze as latent heat is absorbed from the remainder CO2.Earlier with intact tube , co2 changed from liquid to gas at end of hose outside but now it turns to gas inside , reducing the discharge rate) 31) composition of lpg, lng and cng (lpg-propane, butane, lngmetane, cng-methane) 32) Maintenance on QCV? (try out once every 3 months, drain air bottle, check hand operation, spring condition, check piston) 33) If life boat falls suddenly while lowering then how will u troubleshoot? (falls broken, falls releasing mechanism operated accidently, centrifugal break check) 34) manhole door elliptical...why?( manhole door elliptical: longitudinal pressure = pd/4t or circumferential pressure=pd/2t where p=pressure, d=diameter, circumferential pressure is more) 35) Advantages and disadvantages of flare? (Flare advantage: prevents water to come to the deck, more space for deck machinery, avoids anchor from striking at bottom and improves buoyancy fwd. disadv.-more flare means parametric rolling..when waves freq is half of rolling freq and same as pitching freq) 36) 37) meggar operation? (pg-399, b.l.thareja vol1) Hydrometer working and diagram? (pg-145- d.t.hall)

38) Economiser if the area of heat transfer is 1000 sq m what all will come under it and draw the construction of fins (surface area of fins and tubes) 39) Why 3 injectors are used in modern 2 stroke engines (There will be better turbulence since three fuel injectors at an angle and the scavenge air enters at an angle so there will be better turbulence, there will be more proper heat dissipation in piston and cylinder head)

40) Why steam is grey in color and not transparent? (water content in soot release) 41) How does MGPS works? (2purpose: Cu kills sea growth and Al stops corrosion, the system is based on electrolytic reaction and dc supplied to anode) 42) What is Muntz metal, monel metal, white metal compositions and which is more electrochemically active of them? (monel- copper-38 n nickel-60,al and manganese-2, white metal- tin-88, antimony-7.5, copper-4,lead-0.35, muntz metal-copper-60, zinc-40) 43) A compressor was overhauled and bumping clearance was found to be normal inspite of that piston strikes the head. Give reasons? (in unloaded condition: Bottom end bearing wear down of lower half will cause this--maybe 44) What is dealuminification where is it observed and why? (form of corrosion in which amount of aluminium decreases in an alloypumps, valves coz Al is comparatively more reactive) 45) Function of motor on governor (remote operation of speed setting knob-by adjusting spring pressure) 46) How to prevent Dezincification? (put soft iron anodes) 47) How will you make camshaft float while adjusting its position? (hydraulic pressure) 48) Limitations of ODME (difficulty in analyzing- bad weather, muddy water, discharge capacity increases in bad weather as speed is measured when the ship is not moving as much) 49) COFFIN PLATE (attaches sole piece in stern frame with keel plate in aft and attaches keel plate with stem in fwd) 50) INTERNATIONAL SHORT VOYAGE (in which a ship doesnt exceed 200 nm distance from nearest land and total voyage should not exceed 600 nm) 51) DESUPERHEATED STEAM. WHY AFTER SUPERHEATING WE ARE USING DESUPERHEATER Desuperheating, sometimes called attemperation or steam conditioning, is the reduction of gas temperature. Its most common application is the reduction of temperature in a steam line through the direct contact and evaporation of water. Most Desuperheaters incorporate the venturi design which uses the velocity of the steam to atomize the cooling water. In addition, Ejector Atomizing Desuperheaters, Attemperator Desuperheaters, Surface Absorption Desuperheaters and Mechanical Atomizing Desuperheater designs are available. In most types, water pressure requirements are the same as the steam line pressure

52) COP OF REFERIGERATION. (A refrigerator is a device for removing heat at a cold temp so heat absorbed in the evaporator fi(in),the cop is also called advantage and is defined as C.O.P. In a refrigeration cycle, the ratio of the heat energy extracted by the heat engine at the low temperature to the work supplied to operate the cycle; when used as a heating device, it is the ratio of the heat delivered in the high-temperature coils to the work supplied) 53) WHEN REMOVING LOWERHALF MAIN BRG.IT IS STUCK WHAT WILL YOU DO? (sanyal 250) 54) SOOT BLOWING DIFFERNT METHOD AND ARRANGEMENTS,THE ULTRASONIC TYPE HOW IS IT WORKING? CHEMICAL TYPE, WHAT TYPE OF CHEMICAL? (sodium chloride, magnesium oxide, cupric chloride, zinc oxide, copper oxide) 55) DRY DOCK STRENTUBE CHECKS? (liner, seals, bearing condition) 56) Where do you find underslung bearing in Man B&W main engine (camshaft bearing) 57) Refrigerant properties? (pg-335 mc. G: the heat of vaporization of the refrigerant should be high, the specific heat of the refrigerant should be low. the specific volume of the refrigerant should be low to minimize the work required per kg of refrigerant circulated, since evaporation and condenser temperatures are? xed by the temperatures of the surroundings - selection is based on operating pressures in the evaporator and the condenser selection is based on the suitability of the pressure-temperature relationship of the refrigerant other factors include chemical stability toxicity cost environmental friendliness does not result in very low pressures in the evaporator (air leakage) does not result in very high pressures in the condenser (refrigerant leakage) OR condensing pressure should be moderate. b) But the pressure should be preferably above the atmospheric pressure so as to prevent air from entering the system in the event of leak. c.) Low freezing point d.)Volume of refrigerant gas need to be pumped per ton of refrigerating effect should be low. d.) it should have high thermodynamic efficiency. Thermodynamic efficiency is the ratio between heat abstracted by the refrigerating machinery and the heat equivalent of the power supplied the compressors e.) it should not be flammable or explosive. f.) it should not be toxic. g.) the tendency of a refrigerant to leak should be low, and the detection of leak should be easy. h.) for good heat transfer viscosity should be low, thermal conductivity high. i.) it is preferred that there should not be a chemical reaction between the refrigerant and the lub oil. j.) cheaper in cost. k.) non corrosive, non flammable, chemically stable, non explosive, miscibility with oil, ozne depletion potential, high critical temperature. 58) What is lean mixture in dual fuel combustion engine? (lean burn means the mixture of air and gas in the cylinder has more air than needed for complete combustion, reducing peak temp- less NOx, eff inc bcoz of higher compression ratio and optimsed injection timing.

60) Whats the time period to discard a chain and renew with new one in B&W tell the percentage elongation max allowed in 1 inch chain link? (max allowable limit of elongation is 1.2% , chains should be removed once in 8 yrs or 50,000 hours) 61) Thrust pad removal? Diagram of front view along with retainer and top cover fitting screws? How do you remove pads? Where do you fix the tool? (reeds vol. 8 pg 242) 62) Exhaust gas of all units high cause? (bad quality fuel, faulty fuel system, poor scavenging) 63) What is the purpose of lead screw and tool feeder? (lead screw for THREADING and tool feeder for TURNING) 64) IS INERT GAS REQUIRED ON PRODUCT TANKERS? IF IT IS NOT PRESENT WHAT ARE THE OTHER ARRANGEMENT PROVIDED IN THE PRODUCT TANKERS? (Nitrogen purging) 65) IS CHEMICAL TANKERS AND PRODUCT CARRIERS CAN CARRY DIFFERENT GRADES OF CARGO, IF CARRIED WAT R THE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN? WHAT ARE ARRANGEMENTS PROVIDED ON THE SUCH TANKERS? (crude tankers: different pumping arrangements for all the tanks and for chemical tankers every tank have different pumps, all tanks have different insulations) 66) AS A 2ND ENGR. WHAT ARE THE PREPAREDNES FOR ISM SURVEY ONBOARD? (IMO SYMBOLS, D.P.A, SMS, DRILLS, TRAINING, CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS, CONTIGENCY PLANS, SAFETY EQUIPMENTS, P.M.S., NAVIGATIONAL EQ, BUNKERING PROCEDURES, POLLUTION PREVENTION PROCEDURES ) 67) BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT? (pg-117, gautam sen)

68) WHAT ARE CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS? (sudden operational failure of which may result in hazardous situation) 69) LONG STROKE AND SUPER LONG STROKE ENGINES CONSTRUCTION DIFF. AND ADVANTAGES OF SUPERLONG OVER LONG STROKE. (super long adv is more time for scavenging and more air so more eff, less speed) 70) WHAT IS CCAI NUMBER? (calculated carbon aromaticity index, 800-860 refer saif tole motor pg-13) 71) SHORE SUPPLY 50 TO 60 Hz AND 60 TO 50 hz? (freq convertor) 72) SHIP 'S LOAD TO INDUCTIVE LOAD, HOW TO IMPROVE POWER FACTOR? (put capacitor bank) 73) VALENCE BAND? (Is the highest range of electron energies in which electrons are normally present at absolute zero temp.)



75) how ll u rectify ovality of crankpin n how ll u run engine on this condition ( we will use oil stone to get the crank pin in the circular shape as far as possible. as with oval crank pin the oil film will not be proper and bearing though undersized will run hot. Lube pressure will be less. Then afterwards we use undersized bearing, if the engine has thick shell bearings same procedure with shims have to be put in, the oil pressure should never fall below 3.5 bars under full load condition.) 76) DEWATERING system (provide draining and or pumping facility to pump out water from spaces which are located fwd of foremost cargo hold in case of detection inflow into corresponding spaces. Solas chapter 12 regulation 13.1. The sys task is to operate and supervise the operation of drainage sys by control and position indication of relevant butterfly valves in corresponding spaces. Spaces can be connected to educator for drainage and tanks r drained by ship water ballast system. Water level detector in hold at 0.5 mts and another on height not less than 15% or not more than 2mts) 77) SPCV IN SULZER (spcv is stagnation pressure control suppress the after injection on RTA engines. If the SPCV the fuel pump is directly connected to the high pressure stagnation pressure to drop to a level where cavitations valve used to is removed, pipe allowing can occur.)

78) Why AE NOX is less (time is very less for producing NOx as reaction time is less) 79) As per solas define high speed craft, bulk carrier (high speed craft is a craft capable of a maximum speed in meters per second equal to or exceeding 3.7XV*0.1667 where V is volumetric displacement corresponding to the design waterline and BULK CARRIER means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck, top-side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk and includes such types as ore carriers and combination carriers) 80) Angle of loll (angle of loll: If ship is initially unstablenegative GM, the ship will heel till the B comes under G, then GM is now the ship is inclined and in a kind of neutral equilibrium. now if the ship is further heeled, the ship rolls about this point .this is because on further heeling beyond loll angle, GZ becomes positive) 81) The m/e t/c lub is supplied by m/e lo p/p, during sudden lub p/p failure how t/c is protected. (POST LUBRICATION TANK and lubrication system. During normal engine operation the post lubrication system is continuously filled by lube oil via a small bypass line from the m/e l.o. system that also supplies the t/c. Excessive ...l.o. is unpressurised supplied back to the m/e l.o. circuit by means of a free o'flow.In case of a shutdown or blackout of the m/e where the l.o.

supply from the m/e to the t/c is interrupted, the l.o. flows down from the from the post lubrication tk by gravity, ensuring the lubrication and cooling of the two plain bearings during running out of the rotor for up to 20 mins. The m/e should be stopped within this time!! This system features 2 separate oil inlet pipes and 2 running down pipes with different levels from the post lubrication tk to the brgs. This ensures that in case of standstill of m/e and shut off l.o. supply that the turbine side brg is longer lubricated and cooled than the blower side brg. This tk is @ atmospheric pressure.) 82) What is no volt coil? (No Volt coil is used in trip ckt . this is energized by one phase and if there is any dip in the voltage then this coil is insufficiently energised and hence the breaker trips. OR no volt coil can also be used in starter, when handle is on ON position motor gets supply and entire starting resistance is series with armature and field. The current thru no volt coil energize it when handle is moved to run position, the no volt coil holds the handle by attracting the soft iron piece on the handle. Hence the no volt coil is also known as hold on coil. The no volt coil is designed in such a way that it holds the handle in run position only when sufficient current is flowing for which motor can run safely. If there is loss of load current drawn by motor decreases due to which it loses its required magnetism and release the handle. Under spring load it comes back to off position, protecting the motor from over speeding. Similarly if there is any voltage decrease then also no volt coil releases the handle. And in D.O.L. pg-70 mc.g ) 83) Skin effect (tendency of ac current to distribute itself within a conductor with the current densities being largest near the surface. Causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller thus reducing effective cross section of the conductor) 84) why we use soft iron core in transformer (hysteresis loss reduces due to less residual magnetism) 85) how will u check the O2 bottle supplied by the shore in large numbers if they are full or not (bottles are checked by radio isotopes or by weighing them...since u mention large numbers then radios isotopes s the best method...its similar to a laser gun used in checking temperatures) 86) What is bastard file? ( bastard file is a rough file. bastard is the degree of roughness generally files are rough, bastard, smooth and super smooth) 87) Under which condition would u change the stuffing box spring (stuffing box spring should/can be changed 1) when from tell tale hole of individual unit of stuffing box lot of oil is coming and lube oil loss is there, u dont have sealing ring, scrapper ring, or for time being u can change the spring. 2)when u completely overhaul stuffing box 3) when spring elongation is exceeded

as per manual.....usually checked by hanging it from a fixed point and applying fixed amount of force at the other end . new length -original length gives the elongation, check with manual for limits.....discard, replace with new one ) 88) What does the markings on the valve 5K-50 mean? (5k- 50 means a valve designed for 5 kg pressure and pcd is 50 mm) 89) Why water drained from air bottle is milky white in color? (due to emulsion of water and oily) As per marpol annex II what is water performance test? ( pg275-276, annex 2, Procedure- fill cargo tank with water to a depth necessary to carry out normal end of unloading procedure. cargo tank pumped and stripped with associated piping in accordance with ships approved manual. Collect water remaining in cargo tank & piping in calibrated container for measurement. Residue should be collected from - cargo tank suction and its vicinity, any entrapped area in cargo tank bottom, low point drain of cargo pump, all low point drain in piping upto manifold valve. Total quantity collected above determines stripping quantity for cargo tank. If more than one tank is using pump and piping then all drained and distributed amongst the tank if mentioned in approved manual. Condition of testing- trim (minimum) by stern and list <1 to facilitate proper drainage at suction point. and during test back pressure maintained at minimum 1 bar at cargo tank unloading manifold 90) What is gusset plate, stealer plate, docking bracket, swash bulk head n thr purpose. (pg-21/47 ship cons, stealer plate: a single wide plate which replaces two narrow plates in adjacent strakes of a ship plating/ the girth of the ship decreased toward the ends and so the width of the plates is also decresed in these parts. To save making the plates too narrow at the ends of the ship, it is usual to run a number of pairs of adjacent strakes into one. ) 91) what is d difference between pipe thread and bolt thread (pipe thread is bsp, less deep, lesser pitch and bolt thread is metric 92) WAT IS AFRAMAX TANKER.EXACT DIFINITION. ( Aframax are ships with dwt b/w 80000 and 120000 and breadth over 32 mts. And the word afra means "average freight rate assessment" 93) If chief officer says that cow machine is not working how will 2/e go about to convince him that it is working satisfactorily? ( There is an indicator on top of the cow machine which will show its operation. you can show him that OR you can do top wash. when u stand on the top of the tank i.e deck..the oils hits the inside top of the tank during top wash so when u stand on the deck u can feel it and make him convince that its all working fine) 94) To which part of the ship is the pintle attached and how is it attached? is it fixed or is it floating with the rudder stock? ( pintle brg,refer reeds-page86.. pintle has a tapered face which

matches the tapered surface of rudder arm and then bolted. Pintle rotates along with the rudder) 95) what are the safeties on air bottle (relief valve, bursting disc, pressure cut-out switch, low pr. Alarm) 96) 30-40) Cylinder lubrication, TBN how much it should be (HFO-70, LSFO-

97) What all checks to be made on liner before giving it for survey (ovality, wear, surface condition, polishing, glazing, cracks) 98) What causes ovality of liner (crosshead guideshoe and guide clearance) 99) What is propeller law (a series of relationship for an installed power transmission system which refers to shaft power, engine speed and mean effective pressure. These relationships place particle limits on engine designer. An engine under test and coupled to a dynamometer will operate according to the propeller law.) 100) 127) What do we infer from Admiralty coefficient (reeds naval arch-

101) what are liner ribs and why they are in segments and use (provided at upper parts of liner to withstand combustion pressure and strengthening, in segments for freedom of coolant to flow) 102) how piezo electric crystal looks (tetragonal crystals)

103) what is the special construction of pedestal bearing on free end of rotor in auxiliary engine (margin for expansion) 104) What is fitted bolt? How is it fitted? Where is it used? (Fitted bolts are used to connect rudder stock with rudder. This is a closely fitted bolt. The holes are initially drilled to undersize and are reamed in the assembling place before the bolts are tightened in place. Accuracy is required in the machining. These bolts could be of two types one having ...a slight taper of about 1:100 on diameter and the other having a large taper of about 1:15 on diameter. However, the holes in either case are reamed in final place. Sometimes an oversized bolt is stretched hydraulically reducing the bolt diameter. When tightened down and the hydraulic pressure is released the final exact fit in the bolt hole is achieved, like a pilgrim nut on coupling shafts. These bolts find place in engine / boiler mountings, coupling shafts etc. and form a rigid fixture. On main engine mounting these are situated aft of the engine in the way of thrust block. 105) interference bolt and fitted bolt are they same? What i have heard is fitted bolt dia and hole dia are the same. They are fitted by hammering. Interference bolt dia is slightly bigger than the hole dia

and these bolts are fitted by hydraulic stretching and later bolted and the hydraulic pressure released. A waste gate arrangement is a valve in turbocharger that regulate amount of exhaust gases in the turbine side of tc diverting some of the exhaust gases directly in exhaust piping this will regulate the speed of tc and thus the compression ratio on the compressor side of tc. this is sometimes required in winter season as the air is cold thereby dense and less compression is needed as tc are designed on normal temp so this arrangement is sometimes there for winter season. 106) What is VIT and super VIT. (Before the Super VIT was introduced variable injection timing was obtained by means of a special profile on the fuel pump plunger. Hence there was a fixed relationship between the injection timing and the fuel index. Thus it was not possible to adjust the fuel index of the individual pumps without also altering the injection timing. For this reason the Super VIT was introduced, where it is possible to adjust the fuel index and the injection timing independently In VIT beginning of injection could be controlled, but end of injection was fixed, due to profile of plunger n thus amount of fuel injected could not be changed with varying angle of injection at beginning. Thus MAN came up with super VIT where beginning n end both could be controlled by raising or lowering barrel in relation to plunger. Sulzer system when introduced vit way back in 80's it could control both beginning n end. Thus super VIT is for MAN B&W engines only 107) What is a float free arrangement? (Float Free Arrangement is required on Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) and life rafts. This allows the unit to float free and operate automatically if the vessel sinks. Units may still be able to be launched / released manually. Float-free launching is the method of launching a life raft whereby it is automatically released from a sinking ship and is ready for use. Float-free arrangements may either be an HRU or some other means. Whatever type it is, if your vessel capsizes too quickly for you to release the life raft manually the float-free arrangement may be your only chance of survival. A hydrostatic release unit used in a float free arrangement must have a Coast Guard approval number starting with 160.062. A float free link may be used with a Buoyant Apparatus or a Life Float and must be certified to meet 46 CFR, subpart 160.073 108) wat is nitriding? (Nitriding is a heat treating process that alloys nitrogen onto the surface of a metal to create a case hardened surface. Three methods are there for nitriding 1. gas nitriding 2. salt bath nitriding. 3. plasma nitriding.) Nitriding is a surfacehardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into the surface of steel at a temperature range (500 to 550C or 930 to 1020F), while it is in the ferrite condition. Thus, nitriding is similar to carburizing in that surface composition is altered, but different in that nitrogen is added into ferrite instead of austenite.

Because nitriding does not involve heating into the austenite phase field and a subsequent quench to form martensite, nitriding can be accomplished with a minimum of distortion and with excellent dimensional control. 109) explain how survey of rudder is done? how is the load of the rudder is transmitted to the ships hull? discuss about the stationary and moving cones? (pg 88 ship construction, wt of rudder acts down thru stock. This is supported by rudder carrier bearing. From stock load is transferred to pilgrim nut then to tiller then to distance piece, then to upper cone, then to base cone which is fixed to steering gear flat. upper cone is moveable &amp; lower cone is fixed as it is attached to steering flat rudder survey a. Visual examination of the rudder plating for cracks and distortion. Air plugs and drain plugs are to be opened in the presence of the class surveyor, repair superintendent and chief officer. Water draining out indicates a breached rudder and the breach to be located by air pressure testing and applying soap repairs to be planned. Check the rudder drop in the steering gear compartment (trammel gauge). Check the pintle clearances, jumping bar clearance and the palm coupling bolts tightness to be checked. Check the rudder stock for corrosion, erosion and any damage. The inspection plates in the way of the upper, the lower pintle to be cut open, and the pintle nuts checked for proper securing. Later the plates to be welded and tested. Hydraulic test the rudder for a static head of about 2.45m of sea water. After draining and re oiling the internals, plug the drain and check the effectiveness by a vacuum check and cement the plug. The rudder stock gland packing has to be checked and 110) what is the similarity and difference between a m/e governor and flywheel ( gov maintains speed of engine, flywheel controls cyclic fluctuation of engine rpm, flywheel works on virtue of inertia alone, govnr uses inertia to actuate fuel linkage to counter change in rpm) 111) What is a thermal boiler? Water and steam are typically used as heat carriers in process heating systems. But at high temperatures, water and steam requires a corresponding high operating pressure. In industrial heating systems this high temperature level is often a great advantage in order to get a high output of the process. Thus establishing this with water and steam, you must deal with systems and components of high pressure. This means large dimensions, weights, more safety issues and thus extra costs. In thermal oil boilers (thermal oil heaters), a special oil-based thermal fluid is used as the heat carrier, instead of water or steam. This oil operates at atmospheric pressure up to 300C. Comparing to water and steam, it would require a corresponding pressure of 85 bar to obtain this temperature. This system is used in ships which carry cargo like bitumin n coaltar). 112) use) What is a double stage evaporator boiler (turbine and auxiliary

113) Draw the diagram(side-view) of an axial vibration damper for a MAN B and W engine (sanyal 157-158, leaf springs and oil chambers) 114) Describe the items of a RO plant that require frequent overhaul and maintenance. How is sterilization carried out in it? (semi permeable membrane, acid addition, chlorination, u.v.sterlizers) 115) What is a torsion meter? (it is a device to determine the torque or torsion in a shaft usually by measuring the twist in a calibrated length of shaft. ) 116) how will you avoid oil leaking from stern tube to sea( i think answer is by reducing the head of oil, by adding high viscosity oil, biodegradable oil) 117) How high pressure pipes are manufactured? (seamless pipes )

118) The classification societies accept a diminution of the chain thickness up to 11%. ( open joining shackle) 119) how can we get a plate from lets say 16 mm thick two plate of equal dimensions just 8 mm thick plate ( is cutting from its thickness but then the question is how to cut? doesnt want laser cutting : it could be done by heating the plate and passing thru rollers to reduce thickness and then cutting it into two equal) 120) What are persistent oils? What are its effects on marine environment? (persistent oils generally contain a large proportion of heavy fractions or boiling materials. Dont dissipate rapidly) 121) What is differential switch in crane? What are the safety features in crane other than limit switches? (braking, override controls, hydraulic oil high temp. alarm and trip, hydraulic oil tank low level alarm) 122) Principle of wake (reeds naval arch pg 137)


WHT ARE THE DIFFERENT CORROSIONS IN BOILER( BOTH ON WATER AND SMOKE SIDE) HOW TO REDUCE THE AXIAL VIBRATIONS OF M/E, WHAT ARRANGEMENTS MADE AND WHERE, HOW AXIAL VIBRATIONS DEVELOP ON M/E? WHAT IS TRIBOPACK? WHAT IS THE USE OF SUPERLONG STROKE? WHAT IS DOUBLE EVAPORATION BOILER? CAUSES OF PURIFIER VIBRATION ABNORMALLY DURING STARTING, BUT AT LAST STOPPAGE ITS EVERYTHNG ALRIGHT. FUNC5 WHAT IS LLL? WHAT IS ZENER BARRIER POTENTIAL? WHAT IS HOT WIRE INSTRUMENT? WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF BRUSHLESS ALTERNATOR? DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THERMAL TRIP ND MAGNETIC TRIP, WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES? FUNC6 BOILER PREPARATION FOR SURVEY.. TOP END BEARING PREPARATION FOR SURVEY.. HOW TO WITHDRAW THE TAIL END SHAFT? WHAT ALL CHECKS ARE DONE ON RUDDER, HOW TO CHECK PINTLE CLEARANCES,? WHAT STEPS TO BE TAKEN IF U FOUND RUDDER CARRIER BEARING CLEARANCE BEYOND THE PERMISSIBLE LIMIT? Fun 4 1.What are the advantages of Deep honed Liner ( lub + metallurgic ) 2. What is the advantage of refrigerant having boiling temp. above Atmos. Pressure? ( Not Satisfied with the answer that the boiling point decreases with increase in pressure, I dont knw the answer ) 3. M/E top bracing-- why? how? advantages? types? 4. Main Air comp. -- What happens if the Suc. filter is chocked? ( Low eff., less out put, rise in temperature, excess LO consumption, oil carry over, Carbanization at valves, volumetric efficiency reduced, may lead to start air exp., ) 5. What are the checks on A/E Bottom end brg bolts? (Written question) dye penetrate test? ( Normal Dye Pen. test ) sound test? ( Striking Hammer) Why the renewal of A/E Bottom end Brg bolt is so important compared to M/E? a. No. of stress cycles in ME is too less b. the A/E bolt do not have adequate strength due to size limitation. Running hrs for renewal of A/E bolt (Hyundai Himsen 20000 hrs) Fun 6 1. why do the air coolers have fins but LO coolers or FW coolers dont? (Air has very low heat conductivity thus large surface Area is required ) 2. what is the least count for a screw gauge with pitch 0.5 and circular Scale has 50 deviations find least count? (.01 mm)

3. Sulphate and hyadrazene test for H.P. boiler ? ( I said that I had LP boiler with phousphate reserve) phousphate test and the PPM of phousphate to be maintained? 4. Boiler furnace distorted-- Inspection?? ( Fuel System to be check for proper injection, Air system for Swirl formation, water side for scale formation or oil layer, refractory failure) 1) what are void spaces,which is the biggest void space on ur last ship 2) Draw transverse section of a container ship 3) Draw a torsion box,showing all the strengthing members 4) how are shear strake and bollard(bit) attached to the hull 5) SCR and ammonia slip 6) docking bracket 7) minimum no of transverse bulkheads ,factors on which this depends , 2 methods to decide factor of subdivison func 4 1) which area of the liner is subjected to max bending stress 2) if u have a piston/centrifugal pump,and u have to draw water from a tank containing water at 33 degrees, what is the max ht u can place this pump at 3) what is sweating of a AC compresser 4) boundary and elastohydrodynamic lubrication func 5 1) the factors on which hystrysis losses of transformer depend upon 2) what is a relay,why not a direct switch 3) why motor on governer 4) AVR func 6 1) what is mechanical seal,draw and explain each part 2) what is grease 3) what is universal coupling ,where is it used 4) what are the thread sizes used onboard 5) what is nominal dia of a pipe 6) how will u order a pipe func 3 1. about COW... everything u know including pressure, line diagram, nozzle diagram, abt indications, hw it move, wt is the mechanism behind it... till i told him i had not seen it actually. 2. advantage of single screw ship over tween screw ship other then economy, cost, complex m/c etc... law of propeller... 3. y contra flow propeller has more efficiency then normal one... i told coz of rotational losses cancel each other n less cavitation but he don agree... 4. type of wavelength of sea wave due to which ship may even sink... i told if it is equal to ship length, he was not satisfied... then i told abt parametric rolling, he get too much angry thinking tht i m diverting the topic.

5. wt is intact stablity. value of GM for normal ship, tanker n log carrier. values of GZ, area under GZ-theta curve from 30 to 40 degree of roll. 6. functions of fin stablizers, hw thy operate, principle etc. func-6 1. hw to determine if tie rod broken or not in running engine. where to keep thumb n where to keep nail. then i told him about flexing of washer as given in alphi delphi. he was not satified. 2. wt is piston ring collapse? hw it happen why it happen n y it happen in new piston and liner? 3. who takes the load of impeller in a vertical sea water pump. 4. wt will happen if we fit oversize o-ring in a liner. liner will bulge in. then wt will happen.? liner may get worn out n even can get seize. then y it get seize n wt is volumetric binding? 5. result of unequal size of shims in two sides of bearing shell? bolts will get bend n break. 6. types of impeller, their drawing, material. Ashlendra Tripathi 12:06pm Jul 28 by Biswas nd BND, func 3 nd 4.... 1: harmonized survey 2: annex 6, wat all comes under this regulation, pre combustion methods to reduce NOX emission? 3: COW washing? 4: ship safety survey, wat all survey under dis ? 5: incinerator's important parameters? 6: static , dynamic stability curve with parameters ? 7: panting, pounding arrangement ? 9: stinger stiffner girder , wash bulkhead? func 4: 1: moment compensator , fly weight? 2: alpha lubricator? 3: alfa lever purifiers principle , ckt diagram? 4: alkaline nd non alkaline salts nd their effect? 5: y least bumping clearance is important in compressor not in m/E? 6: back pressure v/v, thermostatic expansion v/v, nd solenoid v/v, wat is d difference in their function? 7: wat r d limiters in MAN B&w engines? y torque limiter is required? 8: MAN B &W governor ckt diagram? 9: fuel p/p timing adjustment in B&W? 10: VIT, super VIT, how to adjust breakpoint in super vit? there r few more questions in func 3 , unable to recall By Sinha and behra...only behra asking:(25th jul/monday) F3: 1.Why manholes on deck are made in fwd and aft?(i was explaining about limited area between hatch opening and sideshell, behra was agreeing but sinha interruptted , he was not satisfied even with hoop stress funda)

2. all specifications of DCP portable extinguisher (weight of... powder, chemical,co2 bo ttle weight , test pressure,range of discharge,time of discharge). 3. what are persistent oil ,how they do harm to marine enviourment ? 4. acquired and required FOS(check reg-25 of chap-XII) 5. A ship is passing through deep channel, why is it necessary to keep engine speed slow.(he was not agreeing to banking effect, he was telling it is related to basic naval arch concept.) 6.Rudder is moved to port direction, which direction the ship will heel to? F4 &F6: 1.Why AC piston rings are at higher level than combustion engine? 2.Advantages of two piece piston in medium speed engine. 3.Sn(tin) has a major disadvantage in white metal, what is that? does shrouding of Exhaust valve affects M/E performance? 5.Which part of liner is subjected to bending stress? 6.material of fusible plug? 7.where in crankpin there is hole for lubrication, with reason? 8.function of inducer in centrifugal pump? 9.Reasons of having double volute casing?(saying that it boosts pressure is not enough for him) F5: 1.What is the use of motor on governor? How does it function? How motion is transferred to spring? 2.What is name of device which monitors vibration?(accelerometer),how does it function? T/C RPM is measured and transferred to control room? How permanent magnet is fixed on rotor shaft? 4 what are electrical and mechanical advantages of GI armour on wires? (provides longitudinal strength) 5. how leakage of flux is restricted in transformers? Fun#4 1.Hows do u decide firing order of a 4-stroke engine wat ws ur last ship firing order nd y? how cn u change firng order..y nt 123456? 2.L.O. properties for trunk type engine how each of them is achieved..additives for each property? 3.wat is dual boilers? 4.draw cards/power cards for 2s nd 4s engine power cards if broken piston rings Fun #5 1. construction of induction motor? 2 maintainence of lead acid batteries? 3. how alarm system is tested with batteries 4. undervoltage trip in alternator 5. how to check insulation and continuity of a motor Fun#6(last 2mins) 1.if u see oil in boiler guage glass...ur action/

2. fittede bolts? Biswas and S.K.Mukherjee Function 3 1)What happens when a vessel is passing through a wide shallow channel at high speed? 2)What are the requirements of Intact Stability? GZ -Theta curve , Cross curves of stability 3)DCP extinguisher (All details) 4)All elements in SOPEP locker , working of wilden pump , 5)Ship side shell is cracked , how do u put a cement box in place? Function 4 and 6 1)What is the average liner wear rate ? What is the maximum allowable liner wear for a large 2 stroke engine?At what time intervals do u generally change the liner? 2)What is critical speed ? 3)How do u take bottom end bearing clearance in a 4 stroke engine? 4)What is the waste gate arrangement ? Why do we need such an arrangement? 5)Where does the liner experience the maximum bending moment? 6)Why is turbocharging best suited (or most efficient) for medium speed engines and not for high speed or low speed engines? 7)Why is 2 stroke connecting rod of circular cross section and 4 stroke conn. rod of I section? 8)What will happen if u put shims of varying thickness in a connecting rod bearing? 9)What is the advantage of double volute casing? 10)When changing a liner , u use an oversize o-ring at the lower end , what will the consequence be ? 11)Before a main bearing survey , how do u make sure that the white metal bearing is not separated from its backing? Result ..Fn 3 and 4 cleared 3. normalising? 4.maiantainence of alfa lubricator 1. what is COW ? whole details regarding this...including piping,requirements,advantages?,gun...testing of COW line.. 2. Safety of P/P room. 3. ISM code, ISPS code...details of each 4. ICCP ? what all other methods of avoiding corrosion of hull..? 5. Why rudder fitted in after? fabricated rudder ? 6. bridge equipments ? AIS and ECDIS ? 7. Made any tank entry ? I said yes Ballast tank..asked me arrangement 8. type of floors ? why watertight flooors at every watertight bulkhead?? 9. panting n pounding arrangement ? 10. lifeboat n rescue boat regulations? Fun. 4 1. A/E bottom end bold found to b loose for one unit? what wil b ur action ? 2. why centrifugal P/P nt able to create suction?

3. accumulation test of boiler? 4. diff between high lift n improved lift safety v/v...draw Fun.5 1. what is diode? zener diode? 2. Exi and Exd ? 3. tanker lighting ? pump room lighting? deck lighting ? are all equipments on deck Exd ?? he was nt satisfied with any answer..:( 4. Steering gear motor electrical safety ? i answered wrong fr this..and he never another questions :( Fun.6 1. methods of fresh water generations of board? advantages n disadvantages 2. tie rod bolt broken..reasons? how wil u take it out ? 3. m/e decarb.. 4. cylinder liner calibration? why ? what is ovality and how much? 5. cold starting of life boat? if batteries discharged how wil u start life boat ? 6. maintenance of life boat davits ? Fun 3 1. What was size and other details of your last vessel (for Size I answered with TEUs of my vessel then with GrT and NT) 2. What is TEU, Gross Tonnage and Net Tonnage. Relationship between GrT and NT 3. Approval Plate on containers ( Can google with CSC plate keyword) 4. Methods of securing containers above and below hatch covers 5. A type bulkheads, B type bulkheads 6. Everything about foam applicator 7. EEBD and SCBA, What gases in SCBA and EEBD 8. Emergency Shore Connection 9. Special requirements for Oil discharge in Special area (told him whatever in MARPOL... still looked unconvinced) 10. Intact Stability Code, Static Stability Curve, Dynamic Stability Fun 4 1. Why engine strokes are being increased and why slow speed engines are gaining poularity 2. If T/C is fitted athwartship, why bearing life reduces 3. How Pig Iron is generated and what is Open Hearth Process 4. Difference between Sand Casting and Centrifugal Casting 5. Different ranges of carbon percentage in Steel, Is tempering possible for mild steel Fun 5 1. Structure of Cable, why it is braided 2. Construction and Reactions of Lead Acid Battery 3. Ni-Cd battery voltage and construction

4. Impedence 5. What do you mean by Di-electric 6. What is seebeck effect Fun 6 1. Prussian Blue testing, What to do if large rectagular plate has uneven surface. 2. How fluctuating stress is generated in bottom end bolt of a Reciprocating Air Compressor 3. How to check new and old bearing diff between container and bulk carrier 2 which ship have u sailed......which is the biggest vessel in ur company....give the specs of that ship where does it sail... 3 where is water spray as a alternate mean of fire fighting used on ships in addition to co2 system....according to rules.....i said purifier room...... generators.....boiler platform....main engine platform.....he did not agreee 4 how stability maintained on container ships which are not fitted with hatch cover.... ........................electrical............................ 1 tell me six topics u are good in within 15 sec or i will start asking questions i gve him six topics 2 safeties on busbars not on msb he wants to listen three phase system with neutral earth and three phase system with neutral isolated....which is better and why.... 3 regulation for supply from emergency genearator dnt say interlocks.....fuel flash point and all he wont agree just say the time peroid the supply has to be available and transient batteries....and where it is supplied 4 maintanence on alternators 5 regulation for starting of emergency generators 6 any electronic circuit and explain .................motor general.................. 1 water washing procedure 2 safety valve setting 3 backlash on gears he was not convinced MAN Diesel & Turbo has signed a cooperation agreement with Swedish energy and environmental technology company, Opcon.

The agreement aims to exploit the possibilities arising from the merging of Opcons Powerbox waste-heat-recovery (WHR) technology with MAN Diesel & Turbos market-leading diesel engines for cutting fuel consumption and reducing emissions.

Together, MAN Diesel & Turbo and Opcon will examine how best to exploit the possibilities offered by re-using waste-heat energy from low-temperature heat sources utilising the Opcon Powerbox technology.

The first, groundbreaking reference, a marine installation that utilises waste heat for electricity production, is currently underway. Here, the Opcon Powerbox is being integrated with a two-stroke MAN B&W 8S60ME-C8 engine aboard a newbuilding owned by Wallenius, the Swedish shipping group.

Opcon Powerbox A waste-heat recovery unit is an energy-recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from hot streams with potentially high energy-content. Waste-heat recovery is currently considered one of the most promising avenues within the shipping sector for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by increasing energy efficiency.

The Opcon Powerbox is unique in that it caters for low-temperature applications and uses robust technology. Accordingly, it can be integrated with smaller engines in contrast with existing WHR units that are targeted at higher-temperature applications and larger engines.

The Opcon Powerbox directly influences the performance of ships by reducing the amount of fossil fuels they consume during operation by 5-10%. It significantly reduces consumption and directly cuts carbon, NOx and sulphur emissions. There are currently around 16,000 registered marine vessels in the world with power outputs above 10 MW, while the global, commercial-shipping fleet is considered to account for between 4 - 5% of global carbon emissions. Basic operation of the Opcon Powerbox ORC waste heat recovery system. Opcon Powerbox is an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system. The Opcon Powerbox is an ORC implementation. Waste heat is used by a heat exchanger to vaporize a working fluid with a boiling point lower than water (thereby enabling the exploitation of low grade waste heat). The gas expands over an expander, which drives a generator to produce electricity. The fluid is then cooled, and a pump increases its pressure to 30 bar, and circulates it back through the first heat exchanger.

The theoretical level of efficiency is controlled by the temperature difference between hot and cold media. A key element in the Opcon Powerbox is the SRM turbine, developed by Opcons Svenska Rotor Maskiner, SRM. Through the years it has been experienced some unlucky cases of rapid cylinder liner wear, also known as scuffing, during and following engine load-up. These unwelcome incidents led to investigate a safer load-up procedure. The research has revealed that loading up with caution and patience is the best way to prevent such costly incidents. MAN B&W engines are designed and manufactured to withstand long-term and constant heavy load. However, as with all other engines, service life and service reliability depend heavily on how engine load-up is carried out. The most significant load-up issue is the mechanical and thermal load causing deformations of piston crown, cylinder liner and piston ring. These deformations affect the shape of the piston ring running surface, which is designed to adapt to deforming cylinder components. If the load changes too fast, however, the piston ring may lack sufficient time to adapt. The outcome can be excessive cylinder liner wear that, in severe cases, may develop into cylinder liner scuffing. Load control: MAN B&W two-stroke engine load-up is controlled in three ways. All operators should ensure that these three limiters are set and used correctly: P scav limiter: The p scav limiter ensures sufficient scavenge air supply for maintaining an efficient and smoke-free combustion. The p scav limiter balances the air/fuel ratio by limiting fuel injection in case of insufficient air supply. Insufficient air supply is most common below 35% engine load, where the auxiliary blowers are running and the turbocharger not yet has reached sufficient capacity. The purpose of the scavenge air pressure limiter is to ensure that the engine is not being over fuelled during acceleration, as for example during maneuvering. The scavenge air pressure limiter algorithm compares the calculated fuel pump index and measured scavenge air pressure with a reference limiter curve giving the maximum allowable fuel pump index at a given scavenge air pressure. If the calculated fuel pump index is above this curve, the resulting fuel pump index will be reduced correspondingly. The reference limiter curve is to be adjusted to ensure that sufficient air will always be available for a good combustion process Torque limiter:

The torque limiter prevents excessive torque/mechanical overload by ensuring that the engine load never exceeds the boundaries of the load diagram. The torque limiter algorithm compares the calculated fuel pump index (fuel amount) and the actually measured engine speed with a reference limiter curve giving the maximum allowable fuel pump index at a given engine speed. If the calculated fuel pump index is above this curve, the resulting fuel pump index will be reduced correspondingly.

Load-up program: The load-up program prevents mechanical and thermal overload during load-up and ensures sufficient time for the auxiliary system to adapt, by controlling the load-up rate.

Boiler steel is often protected from the effects of corrosion by a thin layer of magnetite. This thin film is found to be most stable in the pH range 11-12 and provided the film remains intact, the underlying steel will not corrode. Dissolved oxygen constitutes the main danger to this protective sheath. An additional advantageous property of a magnetite film is its excellent thermal conductivity, i.e. heat transfer efficiency is promoted by magnetite. Deposits have a lower thermal conductivity than steel and make it necessary to raise the temperature on the combustion side of the boiler. Thus more fuel is needed to generate steam. The heat transfer efficiency (ratio of fuel consumed to steam generated) reduces. Steam has the very important characteristic that at a specific elevated temperature it reacts with the iron ions on the boiler wall steel on the water side, to form a uniform layer of iron oxide (Fe3O4), known as magnetite. In a reducing atmosphere at temperatures above 100C where the water acts as an oxidizing agent, the electrochemical reaction takes place and a layer of magnetite is formed. This magnetite layer is a typically black, extremely thin adherent film that passivates the steel surface and therefore protects it from corrosion. The layer of magnetite is thus a desirable deposit in a steam boiler and in an ideal situation the water side of a boiler would be coated with just this thin film of magnetite. This is often achieved by using a boiler water treatment programme. However, in time the magnetite ages, it can become porous or even detached. Then there is a chance of excessively thick localized deposits so that the film is no longer thin and strong. In addition to the negative effect on heat transfer, such irregularities also form a source of adhesion for other undesirable salt deposits such as calcium carbonate. When the efficiency of the steam boiler becomes too low or when there is a possibility of blockages and leaks, the decision is often made to

clean the water side of the boiler chemically. An inspection is carried out prior to chemical cleaning. Magnetite is the most important natural protective film formed on boiler surfaces since it resists the influence of water and contaminants to further react with the steel material. However, normal treatment chemicals have nothing, absolutely nothing, to do with the formation, improvement or retardation of the pure magnetite under operational conditions. Magnetite is formed on clean, pickled steel by two reactions: 1. Electro chemical reaction called Schikorr reaction that takes place as follows: 3Fe (OH)2 = Fe3 O4 + H2 + 2H2O The iron hydroxide is initially produced by reaction between iron and water. No other chemicals assist in this process. The reactions start around 100C and increase as the temperature increases. 2. Hot oxidizing reaction when magnetite is formed directly on the steel without hydroxide intermediate phase. This reaction starts at temperatures 300 C or approximately at 30 bar boiler pressure. The reaction follows this route: 3Fe + 4H2O ( 300C+) = Fe3 O4 + 4H2

BOILER BLOWDOWN Even with the best pretreatment programs, boiler feedwater often contains some degree of impurities, such as suspended and dissolved solids. The impurities can remain and accumulate inside the boiler as the boiler operation continues. The increasing concentration of dissolved solids may lead to carryover of boiler water into the, causing damage to piping, steam traps and even process equipment. The increasing concentration of suspended solids can form sludge, which impairs boiler efficiency and heat transfer capability. To avoid boiler problems, water must be periodically discharged or blown down from the boiler to

control the concentrations of suspended and total dissolved solids in the boiler. Surface water blowdown is often done continuously to reduce the level of dissolved solids, and bottom blowdown is performed periodically to remove sludge from the bottom of the boiler. The importance of boiler blowdown is often overlooked. Improper blowdown can cause increased fuel consumption, additional chemical treatment requirements, and heat loss. In addition, the blowdown water has the same temperature and pressure as the boiler water. This blowdown heat can be recovered and reused in the boiler operations. Boiler Blowdown Benefits Less water, fuel and treatment chemicals needed; Less maintenance and repair cost (minimized carryover and deposits); Saves manual supervision for other tasks (with automatic control); Cleaner and more efficient steam; Reduced operating cost (reduction in consumption, disposal, treatment and heating of water); Minimized energy loss from boiler blowdown can save about 2 percent of a facilitys total energy use with an average simple payback of less than one year. Flash Tank System The flash tank system shown in the figure below can be used when expense and complexity must be reduced to a minimum. In this system, the blowdowns from the boilers are sent through a flash tank, where they are converted into low-pressure steam. This low-pressure steam is most typically used in deaerators or makeup water heaters. see diagrams on post dated 3-02-2011 by me(felix pinto) Flash Tank Heat Exchanger System

The system shown below consists of a flash tank and a heat exchanger. The temperature of the blowdown leaving the flash tank is usually still above 220F. The heat of this flash blowdown can be used to heat makeup water by sending it through the heat exchanger, while cooling the blowdown at the same time. Heating boiler makeup water saves on fuel costs. An additional advantage of cooling blowdown is in helping to comply with local codes regulating the discharge of high temperature liquids into the sewer system. see diagrams on post dated 3-02-2011 by me(felix pinto) Func #6 cleared (with answers given by Ameya) 1.In case OMD alarm comes in voyage what action to take ? (Stop Engine & Leave Engine Room immediately) 2.4-Stroke Engine Con-Rod Checks 3.M/E Lub oil Care (purifier,regular testing on board,sending ashore) Can ALCAP be used if YES why & if NOT why (Not to be used since it works normally as a clarifier) 4.Sulzer Engine X-Hd brg. worn out clearances are higher & 1 Hr. left for sailing can we sail or not ? (YES we can sail since SULZER has forced Lubrication so oil film can be maintained by increasing the pressure, sail to next port then change the bearing) 5.In case a Tie-Rod is found broken can we sail with a broken Tie-Rod (YES we can sail normally with broken Tie-Rod no extra precautions as said in the manual) 6.Which Engines u 've worked on ? In case of LMC Engine can a unit be cut off in running condition (NO Stoppage of Engine is required) How to cut off Engine in running (Disconnect the link to the Fuel Rack & pull it back to Zero) The Paris MoU will introduce a new port state control inspection regime from the 1st of January 2011. This New Inspection Regime (NIR) was developed by the Paris MoU following consultation with the industry on a mechanism to focus port State control inspections and to reward quality shipping. The NIR was developed in cooperation with the European Union and with a significant contribution from EMSA and all of the member Authorities of the Paris MoU. The NIR requirements are aligned with the legislative requirements of the new EU Directive on Port State Control and with the national legislation of the PMoU Member States. Under the NIR quality ships will be rewarded with longer inspection intervals. High risk ships will be subject to expanded inspections every 6 months. Ships with 3 or more detentions will be banned for minimum period of 3 months.

The new target of full coverage

With the introduction of the NIR the PMoU will change its target of inspecting 25% of individual ships calling at each member State to a shared commitment for full coverage of inspecting all ships visiting ports and anchorages in the PMoU region as a whole. Ship Risk Profile The Target Factor will be replaced by the Ship Risk Profile. The Ship Risk Profile classifies ships into Low Risk Ships (LRS) and High Risk Ships (HRS). If a ship is neither Low Risk or High Risk it is classified as Standard Risk Ship (SRS). The Ship Risk Profile is based on the following criteria, using details of inspections in the PMoU area in the last 3 years: - type of ship; - age of ship; - performance of the flag of the ship, including undertaking Voluntary IMO Member State Audit Scheme (VIMSAS); - performance of the recognized organization(s); - performance of the company responsible for the ISM management; - number of deficiencies; - number of detentions. Low risk ships will be awarded with longer inspection intervals by port State control. Up to 36 months, compared to 6 months in the current system. In order to qualify for low risk ship several criteria need to be met. With regard to flag the following will be decisive: - flag appears in the White List published in the annual report of the Paris MoU, and

- flag has informed the Paris MoU Secretariat that a final audit report including, where relevant, a corrective action plan has been drawn up in accordance with the Framework and Procedures for the Voluntary IMO Member State Audit Scheme (VIMSAS). In practice this means that the flag has to write a letter to the Paris MoU Secretariat stating the above and enclosing as evidence the Executive Summary of the final audit report. The secretariat will maintain on the Paris MoU public web site an upto-date list of flag States which meet the flag criteria for a low risk ship. All ship types, regardless of age, can qualify for low risk ship. Other criteria are: - High performance recognized organization (RO), as listed in annual report; - RO recognized by one or more Paris MoU member States; - High performance company; - 5 or less deficiencies found during each inspection carried out in previous 36 months; and - no detention within previous 36 months. Low risk ships, in principle, may be inspected after 24 months and shall be inspected when calling at a Paris MoU port after 36 months. Company performance The company performance criteria for the calculation of the Ship Risk Profile is a new parameter in the PMoU. The PMoU has established a formula which takes into consideration the deficiencies and detentions in the last 36 months of the companys fleet, based on the IMO company number and compares it to the

average of all vessels inspected in the PMoU to determine the performance level. The companies will be ranked into very low, low, medium and high. Any Refusal of Access (Ban) will have a negative impact on the ranking of the company. Inspection Categories, Time Window, Selection Scheme and Inspection Types Recognising the rights of Port States to inspect foreign flagged ships in their ports at any time, the Paris MoU is introducing the following regime. The NIR includes two categories of inspection, a periodic and an additional inspection. Periodic inspections are determined by the time window. Additional inspections are triggered by overriding or unexpected factors depending on the severity of the occurrence. Time Window The time window is set according to the Ship Risk Profile as follows: - HRS: between 5-6 months after the last inspection in the PMoU region; - SRS: between 10-12 months after the last inspection in the PMoU region; - LRS: between 24-36 months after the last inspection in the PMoU region. The time span for the next periodic inspection re-starts after any inspection. Selection Scheme: If the time window has passed a ship becomes Priority I. The ship will be selected for a periodic inspection. When the time window opens a ship becomes Priority II. The ship can be selected for a periodic inspection. If an overriding factor is logged against a ship it becomes Priority I irrespective of the time window and the ship will be selected for inspection.

If an unexpected factor is logged against a ship it becomes Priority II irrespective of the time window and the ship can be selected for inspection. Before the window opens for any risk profile and there are no overriding or unexpected factor is logged, the ship has no priority status and member States are not obliged to perform an inspection on such ship but if deemed appropriate may still choose to do so. Inspection types (Initial, more detailed and expanded inspection): The PMoU will not change the inspection types but will extend the expanded inspection to all ship types. In case of a periodic inspection each ship with a HRS profile and each bulk carrier, chemical tanker, gas carrier, oil tanker or passenger ship older than 12 years will have to undergo an expanded inspection. Each ship with a SRS and LRS profile which is not one of the above mentioned ship types, will undergo an initial inspection or if clear grounds are established a more detailed inspection. Any additional inspection shall be, at least, a more detailed inspection. If the ship has a HRS profile or is of one of the above mentioned ship types, the member State may decide to perform an expanded inspection instead. Refusal of access (banning) The PMoU will widen the banning for multiple detentions from certain ship types to all ship types and extend the flag from the black to the grey listed ones. The banning criteria for the first and second ban will be amended as follows: If the ship flies a black listed flag it will be banned after more than 2 detentions in the last 36 months; If the ship flies a grey listed flag it will be banned after more than 2 detentions in the last 24 months. Any subsequent detention after the 2 nd banning will lead to a ban, regardless of the flag. Furthermore a time period until the banning can be lifted will be introduced which is as follows: 1. 3 months after the first ban;

2. 12 months after the second ban; 3. 24 months after the third ban; 4. permanent ban. To lift the 3 rd ban more stringent conditions are applied which have to be fulfilled before the 24 months has elapsed. Reporting obligations With the NIR the PMoU has widened the arrival notifications. The former regime had already a 72 hour pre-arrival (ETA72) message in place. This was only relevant for a few ship types and only in case these were eligible for an expanded inspection. The ETA72 is now widened to all ships with a HRS profile and also to each bulk carrier, chemical tanker, gas carrier, oil tanker and passenger ship older than 12 years eligible for an expanded inspection. Further, as previous, it is required that all ships provide a prearrival notification 24 hours in advance (ETA24). Both the ETA72 and ETA24 notifications are obligations for the ship and shall be made to the Port State in accordance with their national arrangements. A new reporting requirement which is introduced with the NIR is the notification of the actual time of arrival (ATA) and the actual time of departure (ATD) of all ships calling at all ports and anchorages in the PMoU region. Implementation of new information system On 1 January the Paris MoU will also launch a new information system Thetis. Named after a Greek goddess of the sea. To facilitate planning of inspections, the new system will be linked to the Port Call information systems of the PMoU Members which includes the SafeSeaNet (SSN) system for the EU Member States. This information from the port call information systems will provide information on ships in, or expected at, all ports of the Paris MoU. THETIS will indicate which ships have priority for inspection and will allow the results of inspections to be recorded. Via THETIS these reports will be made available to all port State control authorities in the Paris MOU.

THETIS will also interface with a number of other maritime safetyrelated databases including those of the recognized organizations, national information systems and other port State control regimes so as to exchange data and provide a full picture for the inspector. Inspection results will also be available through the Paris MoU website. The European Maritime Safety Agency is responsible for the development, hosting and management of the system. CO2 system Maintainence :

*** weekly*** * CO2 release box to be opened up - will give alarm & in some ships blowers may trip. * Check CO2 release alarms * There are 2 master cyliders in the release box check their - pressure ; securing arrangement ; piping

Checks in CO2 room

* make sure that vent is open * open the door - once the door opens blowers must start * Allow for ventilation & then enter inside * Check the 2 pilot, master & bank of cylinders for secure location * Pipe connection between the cylinders & main header to be checked for crack or slackness * Feel each cylinder by hand ; if cylinder leaks it will be cold * Check the bursting disc for each cylinder to be in good condition * Check the pilot cylinder pulleys -n free & greased * Check the pulling wires - greased & no slackness , no strands broken * Check lighting in CO2 room

* Main CO2 v/v to E/R - hand operate to ensure it's free usually pneumatically operated * Co2 room is insulated , check it's insulation * Check the temp. of the room

Every 6 months * blow though the lines with compressed air to chk it's free

Every 2 years * Co2 cylinder content to be chkd by weighing or level checking method maximum reduction in weight allowed is 5%

Every 5 years * chek & if required o/h the safety v/v

Every 10 years * Each cylinder to be pressure tested @ 250 bar * All lines to be pressure tested L.P. pipes - 6 bar

M.P. pipes - 80 bar H.P. pipes - 190 bar

Miscellaneous * If Co2 system is used blow through by air

mep: 1. what will u check in a liner after fitting back the top end bearing? 2. what do u check on a piston crown? 3.what do u do in a crankcase inspection and what do u check for? 4.what is the purpose of the crankcase relief valve? 5.indicator diagrams: blowpast, early combustion. 6.what do u do and check before taking over a watch? do u ch...eck that the holding bolts are loose during a engine room round. 8.what is the problem if piston cooling oil temp. decreases and jacket water temperature increases and all the other parameters are normal. 9. what is the setting for the boiler safety valves and why are they different. 10.what happens if the lip clearance of a safety valve is less.

electrical: 1.what is armature reaction. how to take care of is the interpole different in a generator and motor. 2. what are alternator safeties, main switchboard safeties. are the generators synchronised, what are conditions required for synchronising. 4.what happens if the load on the generator increases. Safety 1. Types of chemical tankers 2.watertight Bulkhead 3.angle of loll 4.Co2 Total flooding system

Electrical 1.Emergency gen regulations 2.frequency,in phase meaning ckt and short ckt of three phase induction motor

MEp 1.Fuel p/p ,how to inject fuel early 2.refrigeration cycle .how to remove air Final Inspection B4 Undocking :Check paintwork is completed. Hull repair is completed. All Tank plugs are in place. All Anodes are fitted, grease/paper used to cover them during painting is removed. Echo Sounder Transducer is cleaned of paper & grease. Propeller rope guard is fitted properly in place. Oil is not leaking from stern tube. Propeller is free from paint & free from any other object. Check freedom of movement of rudder with steering gear, smooth movement.

Jumping & Pintle clearances taken. Rudder plugs are in place. Sea Grids are in place & secured properly. Ensure all sea v/v's are shut. Ensure all tanks are at same level as when entry ~ to maintain s