APPROVAL PAGE This is to certify that this research work has been examined and approved for the award of National Diploma (ND) in Library and Information Science.

………………………. Mallam Ibrahim D. Salisu Project Supervisor

……………… Date

………………………. Nat I. Dachan Head of Department

……………… Date

………………………. External Examiner

……………… Date


CERTIFICATION I here by certify that this project Evaluation of Computer Literacy among Library Staff in a Polytechnic: “A case study of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa” was carried out by Anthonia Amaka Akanno in the Department of Library and Information Science, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State and has been read and found worthy of approval for the fulfillment of the award of the National Diploma (ND)

…………………………… Mallam Ibrahim D. Salisu

……………………… Date


DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to God Almighty who has been the source of my living, to my mother Mrs. Josephine Chioma Akanno and also to my late father Mr. Sebastian Uzoma Akanno.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost my profound gratitude goes to God Almighty the pillar of my life who provide all my needs and gave me strength and aspiration all through the period of my programme am grateful to my Project Supervisor Mallam Ibrahim D. Salisu, a distinguished and experienced professional lecturer who provide a friendly atmosphere for me, he also worked tirelessly to read, guide and correct my work to make it a reality. My thanks also go to the Head of Department Library and Information Science Mr. Nat. I Dachan and the entire lecturers in the Department for the knowledge they impacted in me. I also wish to show appreciation to my lovely mum Mrs. Josephine Chioma Akanno, special thanks to my elder brothers Mr. Chinedu Patrick Akanno and Andrew Akanno for their financial support all through my programme and also my elder sister Ifeoma Caroline Akanno and my younger sister Miss Nneka Mary Akanno for their assistant, love and encouragement. To my lovely friends Adudu Doris Jessica, Ochoga Alan Ochoga, Linda Duru, and Chisom Okoli. Finally my appreciation goes to my best friend Ugwuoke Geoffrey Ifechidere you are really a wonderful friend.

ABSTRACT Recent development in information tends towards a globalize Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The Library as a dynamic institution aim at generating, retrieving and dissemination of information, cannot afford to be left out in the ICT training. This work is centered in finding out the level of Computer Literacy among Library professionals as it affect Library profession as well as the concept of the computer as it affect Library operation in the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library. Finally, the research reviewed professional Librarians are computer literate and few of the Para-Professional and Library Assistant is computer illiterate.


TABLE OF CONTENT Title page Approval page Certification Dedication Abstract i ii iii iv v vi vii

Acknowledgement Table of content -

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Introduction 1 2 4 5 5 6 6 6

Background of the study Statement of the problem Research Questions Research Objectives -

Significance of the study Scope and Limitation -

Operational Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 2.1 Literature review 8

Concept of Computer Literacy in the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa 8


Evaluation of Computer Literacy in the Federal


Polytechnic 2.3









Evaluation of Computer Literacy among Library Staff in the Federal Polytechnic 11 13 14


Problems of Computer Literacy among Library Staff in the Federal Polytechnic Lack of infrastructure for Computer Literacy CHAPTER THREE -


3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Research Methodology Introduction -






15 15 15 16 16 16

Description of Population Sample Sample and Sampling Procedure Instrument for data collectionData Analysis -

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 4.1 Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings Response Rate 17 17

CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 5.1 5.2 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation Summary of Research Finding 22 22 23 25 26

Suggestion for Further Research Bibliography Appendix -


CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The application of computer in Library services has transformed the nature and pattern of Information handling, services and cooperation in Libraries and Information centers worldwide. The emergency of multimedia automated

information packaging and transmission as well as the internet are increasingly reducing the reliance on traditional Library method of information gathered, storage, processing, retrieval and dissemination to the society. Librarian therefore, requires Information and Communication and Technology (ICT) to be relevant to the communities which they serve. Of course, Librarian has even assumed new job designation titles to confirm with their new roles in the Information age. Nwokoji (1999), Libraries are becoming digitalized system where printed copies of information are no longer a concern with a gradual movement into the paperless society. No wonder, Hohriollz, (1999) decided that the printed book is no longer the means of communication for the 21st century. Internet, e-mail and the modern media will replace the book and allow the free exchange of ideas much easier than hard copies of printed books. Academic Libraries

cannot continue to offer service in the traditional way but offer service using the modern communication technology in order to be relevant in global information network. Thus, with the computer, nearly all staff will be devoted to assisting users in finding information, teaching users how to evaluate sources and explaining what is available and how it can be obtained. The library staff function will be almost solely to educate and assist users while the manual routines will be handled for more accurately and expeditiously by computers. It is the intention of this research to look into the staff of Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa Library for the purpose of finding out their level of computer literacy, with a view of assessing their capabilities of becoming ICT compliance.


BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa was established in 1983

by the Federal Government of Nigeria. The intention of the Federal Government to establish the polytechnic was predicated by the government desired to revolutionize the society technologically. This is spelt out in the objective of the polytechnic as contained in the Federal Polytechnic

Decree No. 28 of 1987. Among the important objectives is “to train people to acquire technical and vocational skills which are needed for the economic and social development of Nigeria especially in the field of agriculture, industry and commerce. At the Federal Polytechnic, academic work commence in January 1984 at the Central Primary School Dubbed temporarily site with an initial intake of two hundred and twenty (220) students enrolled in two schools: School of Environmental and Business Studies as well as a

Department of Liberal Studies with the responsibility of General Studies courses and administration of the PreNational Diploma programmes. An important landmark in the development of the polytechnic was an initial accreditation of all programmes in 1985 and commencement of HND programmes in Business Administration, Accountancy,

Secretariat Studies, Town and Regional Planning in the year 1986. In 1986 the then Minister of Education Professor Jibril Aminu turned the sod to begin the physical development at the permanent site. With the completion of classroom blocks and offices for school of environmental studies, the


permanents site was commissioned for use in December, 1989. Indeed, from humble beginning the Polytechnic has grown to an Institution of stature in the country, drawing students and staff from all over the federation and beyond.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In Library profession, traditional routine areas are being

eroded particularly as Libraries are automated, network and hooked on the internet resulting in collection and service exposed to internet subscribers worldwide. The Academic Library of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa is still in the areas of traditional routines of the Library services. Similarly, the training and retraining of Library staff in the area of computers has transformed their traditional routines to confirm with their new roles in the information age. The Academic Library in the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa seem to have training facilities particularly in the aspect of computers and internet facilities. This work therefore, tries to find out the causes of the slow pace in the automation of the Library in Federal


Polytechnic Nasarawa with a view to provide possible solution to the problems.



Based on the statement of the problem above, the work is premised on the following questions: 1. Are Academic Librarians in the Federal Polytechnic

Nasarawa, Nasarawa State literate?
2. What level of computer operation among the Academic

Librarians? 3. To what extent is the Library Services in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa automated? 4. What are the challenges faced in the use of computers?



1. To find out if the Academic Librarians in Federal Polytechnic Narasawa are computer literate 2. To ascertain the level of computer literacy among Academic Librarians in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa 3. To examine the importance of the knowledge of computer in Library service.


4. To identify challenges faced in the use of computers in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library. 5. To proffer solution to the problems identified.


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This work will explore and further reveal the relevance

of the computers to the information work particularly as it relate to the Federal Polytechnic, Library. This will stimulate those in authority to direct their attention towards providing training opportunities to their staff. It will equally assist management in their decision towards the computerization of the Federal Polytechnic Library.



This study covers the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library



1. Computer: - Computer is a machine that can perform task

such as calculation or electronic communication under the control of a set of instruction called a programme.
2. Library: - A library may be defined as a collection of books

and non-books materials which has been carefully selected

and organized by a Librarian for the benefit of the users. However, such a collection must be able to satisfy a recreation, cultural and the information needs of the user.
3. Automation: - means the application of electronic methods,

equipment and other technological devices to facilitate storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. It is concerned with the application of computers and related technology to library operations and services.
4. Paperless Library: - A Paperless Library is one that has

computerized all its operations.
5. Academic Library: - Academic Libraries are Libraries found

in institution of higher learning. In other words, they are Libraries established at the tertiary level of our educational structure, like Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of

Education, Monotechnics, and School of Nursing etc.



FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NASARAWA LIBRARY Globalization is a concept developed during the 1970s. The concept brings countries into global economic and industrial market in which they can compete freely without economic or legal restrictions whatever the strengths or weakness of the concept. It has engulfed the whole world. Ogunmodede (2006) contends that for many countries and people, “globalization is a propelling dream”, a momentous vision that must be realized in the new millennium vision. This paper considers one of the most profound positive affects of globalization and the challenges it poses to Librarians particularly in use of computers and the competence it requires. Computer has collapsed barriers and promoted fast and interaction across boundaries, hence, the need for a sound response under pressure is essential to meet the daily responsibilities and challenges of life. The need to meet this


basis challenges and responsibilities has also informed the invention and the use of information technologies. Prominent among the several offshoot information technologies is the computer, it is all embracing mechanism, and it is also an electronic device that is capable of accepting, storing, retrieving and processing data based on predefined instruction (Owoyemi 2001). Before the advent of computer technology at the close of the 20th century, computers were rare in Libraries. The basic functions of Librarians were carried out manually. The computer is capable of quickly accomplishing a large volume of what can be done manually. The computer has become a basic tool for generating and processing information. Nwachukwu (2005) contents that using computers to make accessible and consumable engages diverse skills needed by information professionals especially Librarians. He goes on to say that computer skill for Academic Librarians will mean the use of computers for giving service quickly and inexpensively. Computers have enhanced efficiency and Librarians must acquire relevant computer skill and competence to make their profession and roles in the information driven – age.







FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC LIBRARY Federal Polytechnic Library Nasarawa State as

Academic Library is an institution that is established to take care of the information need of students, lecturers, researchers and other community of scholars. The mission of Library is to provide quality information service and knowledge (of print and electronic) to resident community of scholars. According to Wolpert (1999) “Academic Libraries are cost effective information service and provider of knowledge products to a resident community of scholars”. In order to function and provide timely information at a faster speed to lecturers, researchers and student, it would appear

administrators of Academic Libraries realized the important role information and communication technologies (ICT) play in their job performance and so made information and communication workforce. The key purpose of the Federal Polytechnic Library is to provide a quality service access to relevant information (Buckland) (1992) to computer information networks and






software application. These technologies will make it possible for the Library to provide a variety of Library and Information services to clienteles. All the functions and services the library staff used to provide manually can be provided through the use of computers which can do a lot of things better and faster. To mention some of the

opportunities presented by the evaluation of computers literacy in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library are: 1. Organization of information for use 2. Capacity building 3. Management information system 4. Resource sharing/document delivery




NASARAWA LIBRARY It has been observed from available literature that ICT use and training in Africa and Nigerian Academic Libraries in particular is a problem. Nonetheless, the future development of ICT literacy and skill and the enhancement relevance of professional and human resource personnel in the country’s academic

libraries depend, according to Nwachukwu (2003) to a great extent on the following factors: 1. The educational system particularly technological education along with other ICT skills must undergo a radical reorganization in both our schools and other related organization that contribute to the training and development of human resources. 2. There is the need or a socio-cultural reorientation of state of the Federal Polytechnic Library on the need for ICT literacy and use this according could be done through public lectures, seminars, workshop etc. this is necessary if our actual and potential information users and originator must appreciate the value of information for development purpose. 3. Furthermore, some institution of higher learning in Africa has taken a bull by the horn by embarking on experiments intended to completely integrate ICT into teaching, learning and research. An example is the University of Botswana Charaukpa (2002), in that university the Senate decides that every graduating student must be computer literate. This challenged the management of the university and the provided computer laboratory for each faulty of the

university. Gradually, the mapped out plans for complete integration of computer into the university.



LIBRARY STAFF IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC LIBRARY The issue of skill acquisition and competence in the use of ICT is significant, particularly in the information age in which we find ourselves. The staff of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library must acquire competence to be relevant in their profession, in which nearly all roles and responsibilities are performed with the use of computers. There is some of their library staff who are not computer literate, and who are deficient in the skill needed to operate a computer effectively like some Para-Professionals, Library Assistants etc. Librarians in many libraries in Nigeria still carryout library routines and functions manually, and the few computers in most Libraries are used for administrative duties by Confidential Secretaries, this study explores Computer Literacy among the Library Staff in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa and the level of ICT implemented in the Library is very low.




1. Electricity: Poor power supply 2. Training and Retraining of Staff: Lack of skills among the

Library Staff like the Para-Professionals and Library Assistants
3. Provision of Software Applications: Such as Cataloging,

circulation, acquisition, statistics, serial services, audit trail, books inventory, data file recovery, interface programme, backup system, validation routine, etc.


CHAPTER THREE 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The research was designed to study computer literacy among Library professional in Nasarawa State using Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library as a case study. With the aim of finding out the effects of the knowledge of computer on the Library profession in the provision of Library services. This chapter will describe the procedure used in gathering data for the study, the research methodology, as well as the description of population. Similarly, it will discuss the description of population, sample and sampling

procedure, instrument for data collection and data analysis technique. This is a survey research method which involves an evaluation of computer literacy among Library staff in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. The reason for adopting the survey method is because it allows the use of sizeable population and also makes use of questionnaires. 3.2 DESCRIPTION OF POPULATION SAMPLE The population is the Librarians of the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library which include 2 professionals Librarians, 11 Para-professionals and 5 non-professionals.


SAMPLE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE The total of eighteen (18) staff were drawn from the

Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library i.e. 2 Professional, 11 Para-Professionals and 5 Library Assistants. The whole population are the respondent, therefore there is no need for a sample size. 3.4 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION The instrument for data collection is the questionnaire. The questionnaire has eighteen (18) questions the questions required the respondents to tick (√) appropriately in the column that corresponds with their choice of answer.



The data collected was analyzed and presented in tables and percentages.


CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS These chapter analyses the data collected for the study and interpret the findings arising from the analysis.


RESPONSE RATE A total number of eighteen (18) questionnaires were administered to the respondent which comprises of two (2) Professional Librarians out of eighteen (18) questionnaires: the complete eighteen (18) were returned. The respondents were analyzed and tabulated as shown in the following table below: Table One

Respondent Professionals Para-professionals Library Assistants Total

No distributed 2 11 5 18

No returned 2 11 5 18

Percentage 10% 60% 30% 100%

The total return rate of the questionnaire administered was 18% which means that the whole questionnaire administered toe the respondents were returned. The percentage rate of the staff administered the questionnaire were ad follows: 10% for Librarians, 60% for


Para-professionals and 30% for Library Assistants, making a total number of 100%

QUESTION ONE Are the Academic Librarians in the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Nasarawa State computer literate? Table two Staff Professionals Para-professionals Library Assistants Responses Yes No Total Yes No Total Yes No Total Total for Yes Total for No All Total Frequency 2 Nil 2 7 4 11 Nil 5 5 9 9 18 Percentage 10% 0% 10% 45% 15% 60% 0% 30% 30% 50% 50% 100%

The above table shows that 2 representing 10% of the Professional Librarians are computer literate, 7 out of 11 are computer literate been the Para-Professionals and 5 Library Assistatns are not computer literate.



Response on internet connectivity of the Library Table three Staff Professionals Para-professionals Library Assistants Responses Yes No Total Yes No Total Yes No Total All Total Frequency 2 Nil 2 11 Nil 11 5 Nil 5 18 Percentage 10% 0% 10% 60% 0% 60% 30% 0% 30% 100%

The table above shows that among the 18 respondents drawn from the Library Staff in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library, the entire 18 representing 100% agreed that their Library are connected to the internet. Again the researcher concluded that the library is connected to the internet.

QUESTION THREE How does the level of understanding of the Computer operation among the Academic Librarians affect the automation of Library service in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa? Table four


Responses in respect to the difficulties in the use of computer Staff Responses Frequency Percentage Professionals Yes Nil 0% No 2 10% Total 2 10% Para-professionals Yes 8 15% No 3 45% Total 11 60% Library Assistants Yes 5 30% No Nil 0% Total 5 30% Total for Yes 13 50% Total for No 5 50% All Total 18 100% The table above shows that out of 18 respondents, 8 from Para-Professionals find it difficult in using computer, 5 from Library Assistants also find it difficult in using computer, while 2 from Professionals, 3 from Para-Professionals does not find it difficult in using computers.



Is the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library Automated? Table 5 Staff Professionals Para-professionals Library Assistants Responses Yes No Total Yes No Total Yes No Total All Total Frequency Nil Yes 2 Nil 11 11 Nil 5 5 18 Percentage 0% 10% 10% 0% 60% 60% 0% 30% 30% 100%

The table above shows that the Federal Polytechnic Nasarwa Library is not automated.




SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: from the data collected and analyzed, the Federal Polytechnic Library is not automated. Most of the Library staff is not computer literate. In fact 13 out of 18 respondents are computer illiterate and that the Library do not use computer at all in spite of its relevance in today’s Library work. In Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library there are 2 Professional Librarians in the Library. From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that almost all the Library Professionals in Federal Polytechnic Library are computer literate despite the multiplicity of advantage offered by computer today’s library service and that the library are not automated. In view of the above, it will generally be concluded that the service provided by the Library are grossly inadequate, inefficient and ineffective. The challenges posed by the digital age in respect to the adoption of information communication technology by Library generally is indicated that the library can only be effective and efficient if it’s information services delivering goes with the tenants of the technology of the 21st century.



1. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research on

the Academic Library in Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa should be automated and hooked to the internet, if the desired 21st century library service must be met. Although this may seem expensive, it is the only way to ensure efficiency and effective service. 2. All Para-Professionals should as a matter of policy is encouraged to undergo computer training to become computer literate as a bases for promotion to the next rank. This is imperative if the library must be automated, computerized and hooked to the super highway, 3. The library management should as a matter of urgency improve on the standard of tools used in the library. This can be done through the provision of computer, electric typewriters, scanners, printers, photocopy machines etc. these can boost the working morale of the staff. 4. The management should take it as a point of duty to be organizing seminars and workshops for the staff to enable them keep abreast with the new trends as it affect the library professionals.

5. Finally, the library management must encourage their staff embarking on computer training by providing them with financial inducements to support them in their training.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Kabbaj Omer (2000) “Information Technology and Africa Development Computer Literacy News Vol. 2

Mohammed Shehu (2000) “The Internet and the Future Nigerian Libraries Prospects and Challenges the Library and Information Scientist Vol. 6 Nwoji, Leonard (1999) “IT and 21st Century Librarianship National Concord, August 21 Otim, John (2000) “The future of Nigerian Libraries and information Science Programme in the digital age. The Library and Information Scientist Vol. 1 Sambo A.A. (1998) “The information profession and the school Nigeria Perspective Vol. 1 Zakari Mohammed (1998) “Redefining Information Profession and Professional Identity and Relevancy in Developing Countries the Issues in the information profession Nigerian Perspective Vol. 1 Zaki M.M (2000) “The Educational in Librarianship, its Values and Relevance to Human Development” The Library and Information Scientist Vol. 6

APPENDIX I Department of Library and Information


Science, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B 001, Nasarawa, Nasarawa State Dear Respondent, Sir/Madam RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE I am a final year student of the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa undertaking a research on the topic “Evaluation of Computer Literacy in a Polytechnic: A case study of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa. The enquiry sought for here is strictly for academic purposes. Therefore, all information supplied will be treated with confidentiality, in each of the questions above, that best reflect your opinion on the issue raised. Thank you.

Yours faithfully, Akanno Anthonia Amaka



Please answer the following question by ticking (√) to signify your response. The research questions are: 1. Are you computer literate? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

2. Is the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library connected to

the internet? a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

3. Automation of Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library will

enhance or help to give efficient and effective delivery of service and encourage productivity a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

4. Is the Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Library Automated?

a. Yes



b. No



5. The use of computerized source of information offer faster retrieval of a greater range of materials than the traditional source a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )

6. What are the challenges faced in the use of computers in Library operations?
a. Difficult



b. Easy




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