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Assignment 2 292 SCRA 422 [1998V437] SOUTHEASTERN COLLEGE, INC., petitioner, vs. COURT OF APPEALS, JUANITA DE JESUS VDA.



Petition for review under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court seeking to set aside the Decision 1 promulgated on July 31, 1996, and Resolution 2 dated September 12, 1996 of the Court of Appeals 3 in CA-G.R. No. 41422, entitled "Juanita de Jesus vda. de Dimaano, et al. vs. Southeastern College, Inc.", which reduced the moral damages awarded below from P1,000,000.00 to P200,000.00. 4 The Resolution under attack denied petitioner's motion for reconsideration.

Private respondents are owners of a house at 326 College Road, Pasay City, while petitioner owns a four-storey school building along the same College Road. On October 11, 1989, at about 6:30 in the morning, a powerful typhoon "Saling" hit Metro Manila. Buffeted by very strong winds, the roof of petitioner's building was partly ripped off and blown away, landing on and destroying portions of the roofing of private respondents' house. After the typhoon had passed, an ocular inspection of the destroyed buildings was conducted by a team of engineers headed by the city building official, Engr. Jesus L. Reyna. Pertinent aspects of the latter's Report 5 dated October 18, 1989 stated, as follows:

"5. One of the factors that may have led to this calamitous event is the formation of the buildings in the area and the general direction of the wind. Situated in the peripheral lot is an almost U-shaped formation of 4-storey building. Thus, with the strong winds having a westerly direction, the general formation of the buildings becomes a big funnel-like structure, the one situated along College Road, receiving the heaviest impact of the strong winds. Hence, there are portions of the roofing, those located on both ends of the building, which remained intact after the storm.

6. Another factor and perhaps the most likely reason for the dislodging of the roofings structural trusses is the improper anchorage of the said trusses to the roof beams. The " diameter steel bars embedded on the concrete roof beams which serve as truss anchorage are not bolted nor nailed to the trusses. Still, there are other steel bars which were not even bent to the trusses, thus, those trusses are not anchored at all to the roof beams."

It then recommended that "to avoid any further loss and damage to lives, limbs and property of persons living in the vicinity," the fourth floor of subject school building be declared as a "structural hazard."

In their Complaint 6 before the Regional Trial Court of Pasay City, Branch 117, for damages based on culpa aquiliana, private respondents alleged that the damage to their house rendered the same uninhabitable, forcing them to stay temporarily in others' houses. And so they sought to recover from petitioner P117,116.00, as actual damages, P1,000,000.00, as moral damages, P300,000.00, as exemplary damages and, P100,000.00, for and as attorney's fees; plus costs.

In its Answer, petitioner averred that subject school building had withstood several devastating typhoons and other calamities in the past, without its roofing or any portion thereof giving way; that it has not been remiss in its responsibility to see to it that said school building, which houses school children, faculty members, and employees, is "in tip-top condition", and furthermore, typhoon "Saling" was "an act of God and therefore beyond human control" such that petitioner cannot be answerable for the damages wrought thereby, absent any negligence on its part.

The trial court, giving credence to the ocular inspection report to the effect that subject school building had a "defective roofing structure," found that, while typhoon "Saling" was accompanied by strong winds, the damage to private respondents' house "could have been avoided if the construction of the roof of [petitioner's] building was not faulty." The dispositive portion of the lower court's decision 7 reads, thus:

"WHEREFORE, in view of the foregoing, the Court renders judgment (sic) in favor of the plaintiff (sic) and against the defendants, (sic) ordering the latter to pay jointly and severally the former as follows:

a) P117,116.00, as actual damages, plus litigation expenses;

b) P1,000,000.00 as moral damages;

c) P100,000.00 as attorney's fees;

d) Costs of the instant suit.

The claim for exemplary damages is denied for the reason that the defendants (sic) did not act in a wanton fraudulent, reckless, oppressive or malevolent manner."

In its appeal to the Court of Appeals, petitioner assigned as errors, 8 that:





As mentioned earlier, respondent Court of Appeals affirmed with modification the trial court's disposition by reducing the award of moral damages from P1,000,000.00 to P200,000.00. Hence, petitioner's resort to this Court, raising for resolution the issues of:

"1. Whether or not the award of actual damage [sic] to respondent Dimaanos on the basis of speculation or conjecture, without proof or receipts of actual damage, [sic] legally feasible or justified.

2. Whether or not the award of moral damages to respondent Dimaanos, without the latter having suffered, actual damage has legal basis.

3. Whether or not respondent Dimaanos who are no longer the owner of the property, subject matter of the case,

during its pendency, has the right to pursue their complaint against petitioner when the case was already rendered moot and academic by the sale of the property to third party.

4. Whether or not the award of attorney's fees when the case was already moot and academic [sic] legally justified.

5. Whether or not petitioner is liable for damage caused to others by typhoon "Saling" being an act of God.

6. Whether or not the issuance of a writ of execution pending appeal, ex-parte or without hearing, has support in law."

The pivot of inquiry here, determinative of the other issues, is whether the damage on the roof of the building of private respondents resulting from the impact of the falling portions of the school building's roof ripped off by the strong winds of typhoon "Saling", was, within legal contemplation, due to fortuitous event? If so, petitioner cannot be held liable for the damages suffered by the private respondents. This conclusion finds support in Article 1174 of the Civil Code, which provides:

"Art 1174. Except in cases expressly specified by the law, or when it is otherwise declared by stipulation, or when the nature of the obligation requires the assumption of risk, no person shall be responsible for those events which could not be foreseen, or which, though foreseen, were inevitable."

The antecedent of fortuitous event or caso fortuito is found in the Partidas which defines it as "an event which takes place by accident and could not have been foreseen." 9 Escriche elaborates it as "an unexpected event or act of God which could neither be foreseen nor resisted." 10 Civilist Arturo M. Tolentino adds that "fortuitous events may be produced by two general causes: (1) by nature, such as earthquakes, storms, floods, epidemics, fires, etc. and (2) by the act of man, such as an armed invasion, attack by bandits, governmental prohibitions, robbery, etc." 11

In order that a fortuitous event may exempt a person from liability, it is necessary that he be free from any previous negligence or misconduct by reason of which the loss may have been occasioned. 12 An act of God cannot be invoked for the protection of a person who has been guilty of gross negligence in not trying to forestall its possible adverse consequences. When a person's negligence concurs with an act of God in producing damage or injury to another, such person is not exempt from liability by showing that the immediate or proximate cause of the damage or injury was a fortuitous event. When the effect is found to be partly the result of the participation of man - whether it be from active intervention, or neglect, or failure to act - the whole occurrence is hereby humanized, and removed from the rules applicable to acts of God. 13

In the case under consideration, the lower court accorded full credence to the finding of the investigating team that subject school building's roofing had "no sufficient anchorage to hold it in position especially when battered by strong winds." Based on such finding, the trial court imputed negligence to petitioner and adjudged it liable for damages to private respondents.

After a thorough study and evaluation of the evidence on record, this Court believes otherwise, notwithstanding the general rule that factual findings by the trial court, especially when affirmed by the appellate court, are binding and conclusive upon this Court. 14 After a careful scrutiny of the records and the pleadings submitted by the parties, we find exception to this rule and hold that the lower courts misappreciated the evidence proffered.

There is no question that a typhoon or storm is a fortuitous event, a natural occurrence which may be foreseen but is unavoidable despite any amount of foresight, diligence or care. 15 In order to be exempt from liability arising from any adverse consequence engendered thereby, there should have been no human participation amounting to a negligent act. 16 In other words, the person seeking exoneration from liability must not be guilty of negligence. Negligence, as commonly understood, is conduct which naturally or reasonably creates undue risk or harm to others. It may be the failure to observe that degree of care, precaution, and vigilance which the circumstances justly demand, 17 or the omission to do something which a prudent and reasonable man, guided by considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do. 18 From these premises, we proceed to determine whether petitioner was negligent, such that if it were not, the damage caused to private respondents' house could have been avoided?

At the outset, it bears emphasizing that a person claiming damages for the negligence of another has the burden of proving the existence of fault or negligence causative of his injury or loss. The facts constitutive of negligence must be affirmatively established by competent evidence, 19 not merely by presumptions and conclusions without basis in fact. Private respondents, in establishing the culpability of petitioner, merely relied on the aforementioned report submitted by a team which made an ocular inspection of petitioner's school building after the typhoon. As the term imparts, an ocular inspection is one by means of actual sight or viewing. 20 What is visual to the eye though, is not always reflective of the real cause behind. For instance, one who hears a gunshot and then sees a wounded person, cannot always definitely conclude that a third person shot the victim. It could have been self-inflicted or caused accidentally by a stray bullet. The relationship of cause and effect must be clearly shown.

In the present case, other than the said ocular inspection, no investigation was conducted to determine the real cause of the partial unroofing of petitioner's school building. Private respondents did not even show that the plans, specifications and design of said school building, were deficient and defective. Neither did they prove any substantial deviation from the approved plans and specifications. Nor did they conclusively establish that the construction of such building was basically flawed. 21

On the other hand, petitioner elicited from one of the witnesses of private respondents, city building official Jesus Reyna, that the original plans and design of petitioner's school building were approved prior to its construction. Engr. Reyna admitted that it was a legal requirement before the construction of any building to obtain a permit from the city building official (city engineer, prior to the passage of the Building Act of 1977). In like manner, after construction of the building, a certification must be secured from the same official attesting to the readiness for occupancy of the edifice. Having obtained both building permit and certificate of occupancy, these are, at the very least, prima facie evidence of the regular and proper construction of subject school building. 22

Furthermore, when part of its roof needed repairs of the damage inflicted by typhoon "Saling", the same city official gave the go-signal for such repairs - without any deviation from the original design - and subsequently, authorized the use of the entire fourth floor of the same building. These only prove that subject building suffers from no structural defect, contrary to the report that its "U-shaped" form was "structurally defective." Having given his unqualified imprimatur, the city building official is presumed to have properly performed his duties 23 in connection therewith.

In addition, petitioner presented its vice president for finance and administration who testified that an annual maintenance inspection and repair of subject school building were regularly undertaken. Petitioner was even willing to present its maintenance supervisor to attest to the extent of such regular inspection but private respondents agreed to dispense with his testimony and simply stipulated that it would be corroborative of the vice president's narration.

Moreover, the city building official, who has been in the city government service since 1974, admitted in open court that no complaint regarding any defect on the same structure has ever been lodged before his office prior to the institution of the case at bench. It is a matter of judicial notice that typhoons are common occurrences in this country. If subject school building's roofing was not firmly anchored to its trusses, obviously, it could not have withstood long years and several typhoons even stronger than "Saling."

In light of the foregoing, we find no clear and convincing evidence to sustain the judgment of the appellate court. We thus hold that petitioner has not been shown negligent or at fault regarding the construction and maintenance of its school building in question and that typhoon "Saling" was the proximate cause of the damage suffered by private respondents' house.

With this disposition on the pivotal issue, private respondents' claim for actual and moral damages as well as attorney's fees must fail. 24 Petitioner cannot be made to answer for a purely fortuitous event. 25 More so because no bad faith or willful act to cause damage was alleged and proven to warrant moral damages.

Private respondents failed to adduce adequate and competent proof of the pecuniary loss they actually incurred. 26 It is not enough that the damage be capable of proof but must be actually proved with a reasonable degree of certainty, pointing out specific facts that afford a basis for measuring whatever compensatory damages are borne. 27 Private respondents merely submitted an estimated amount needed for the repair of the roof of their subject building. What is more, whether the "necessary repairs" were caused ONLY by petitioner's alleged negligence in the maintenance of its school building, or included the ordinary wear and tear of the house itself, is an essential question that remains indeterminable.

The Court deems unnecessary to resolve the other issues posed by petitioner.

As regards the sixth issue, however, the writ of execution issued on April 1, 1993 by the trial court is hereby nullified and set aside. Private respondents are ordered to reimburse any amount or return to petitioner any property which they may have received by virtue of the enforcement of said writ.

WHEREFORE, the petition is GRANTED and the challenged Decision is REVERSED. The complaint of private respondents in Civil Case No. 7314 before the trial court a quo is ordered DISMISSED and the writ of execution issued on April 1, 1993 in said case is SET ASIDE. Accordingly, private respondents are ORDERED to return to petitioner any amount or property received by them by virtue of said writ. Costs against the private respondents.


Narvasa, C .J ., Romero and Kapunan, JJ ., concur.

Footnotes 1. Rollo, pp. 28-41. 2. Ibid., p. 42. 3. Seventh Division, composed of J. Jose de la Rama, ponente; with JJ. Emeterio C. Cui (chairman) and Eduardo G. Montenegro, concurring. 4. CA Decision, p. 13; Rollo, p. 40. 5. Records, pp. 127-128. 6. Ibid., pp. 1-3. 7. CA rollo, pp. 63-69. 8. Rollo, pp. 20-21. 9. Tolentino, Civil Code of the Philippines, 1991 ed., Col IV, p. 126. 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid.

12. Ibid, p. 130, citing Tan Chiong vs. Inchausti, 22 Phil 152, 1912. Nakpil & Sons vs. Court of Appeals, 144 SCRA 596, 607, October 3, 1986. See also Metal Forming Corporation vs. Office of the President, 247 SCRA 731, 738-739. August 28, 1995. 13. Nakpil & Sons, vs. Court of Appeals, Ibid., pp. 606-607. See also Ilocos Norte Electric Co. vs. Court of Appeals, 179 SCRA 5, 15, November 6, 1989. 14. Fuente vs. Court of Appeals, 268 SCRA 703, February 26, 1997; Atlantic Gulf & Pacific Company of Manila, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, 247 SCRA 606, August 23, 1995; Acebedo Optical Co., Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, 250 SCRA 409, November 29, 1995. 15. Nakpil & sons, vs. Court of Appeals, supra, p. 606, citing 1 CJS 1174. 16. Batangas Laguna Tayabas, Bus Co. vs. Intermediate Appellate Court, 167 SCRA 379, 386, November 14, 1988. 17. Valenzuela vs. Court of Appeals, 253 SCRA 303, February 7, 1996. cf. Quibal vs. Sandiganbayan, 244 SCRA 224, May 22, 1995; Citibank, NA vs. Gatchalian, 240 SCRA 212, January 18, 1995. 18. Layugan vs. Intermediate Appellate Court, 167 SCRA 363, 372-373, November 14, 1988; Philippine Bank of Commerce vs. Court of Appeals, GR No. 97626, March 14, 1997. 19. Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co., Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, 178 SCRA 94, 106, September 29, 1989 citing Barcelo vs. Manila Electric Railroad & Light Co., 29 Phil 351, January 28, 1915. 20. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1971 ed. Moreno, Philippine Law Dictionary, 2nd ed. 21. CF. Nakpil & Sons vs. Court of Appeals, supra. See also Quisumbing Sr. vs. Court of Appeals, 189 SCRA 605, September 14, 1990. 22. cf. Yap Kim Chuan vs. Tiaoqui, 31 Phil 433, September 18, 1915. 23. Tatad vs. Garcia Jr., 243 SCRA 436, April 6, 1995; People vs. Figueroa, 248 SCRA 679, October 2, 1995. 24. Toyota Shaw, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, 244 SCRA 320, May 23, 1995; Custodio vs. Court of Appeals, 253 SCRA 483, February 9, 1996; Syquia vs. Court of Appeals, 217 SCRA 624, January 27, 1993. 25. Itan Chiong vs. Inchausti, supra. 26. Baliwag Transit, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, 256 SCRA 746, May 15, 1996. 27. Del Mundo vs. Court of Appeals, 240 SCRA 348, January 20, 1995. 158 SCRA 445 [1988V138] TELEFAST COMMUNICATIONS/PHILIPPINE WIRELESS, INC., petitioner, vs. IGNACIO CASTRO, SR., SOFIA C. CROUCH, IGNACIO CASTRO JR., AURORA CASTRO, SALVADOR CASTRO, MARIO CASTRO, CONRADO CASTRO, ESMERALDA C. FLORO, AGERICO CASTRO, ROLANDO CASTRO, VIRGILIO CASTRO AND GLORIA CASTRO, and HONORABLE INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT, respondents.1988 Feb 292nd DivisionG.R. No. 73867D E C I S I O N


Petition for review on certiorari of the decision** of the Intermediate Appellate Court, dated 11 February 1986, in AC-G.R. No. CV-70245, entitled "Ignacio Castro, Sr., et. al., Plaintiffs-Appellees, versus Telefast Communications/Philippine Wireless, Inc., Defendant-Appellant."

The facts of the case are as follows:

On 2 November 1956, Consolacion Bravo-Castro, wife of plaintiff Ignacio Castro, Sr. and mother of the other plaintiffs, passed away in Lingayen, Pangasinan. On the same day, her daughter Sofia C. Crouch, who was then vacationing in the Philippines, addressed a telegram to plaintiff Ignacio Castro, Sr. at 685 Wanda, Scottsburg, Indiana, U.S.A., 47170 announcing Consolacion's death. The telegram was accepted by the defendant in its Dagupan office, for transmission, after payment of the required fees or charges.

The telegram never reached its addressee. Consolacion was interred with only her daughter Sofia in attendance. Neither the husband nor any of the other children of the deceased, then all residing in the United States, returned for the burial.

When Sofia returned to the United States, she discovered that the wire she had caused the defendant to send, had not been received. She and the other plaintiffs thereupon brought action for damages arising from defendant's breach of contract. The case was filed in the Court of First Instance of Pangasinan and docketed therein as Civil Case No. 15356. The only defense of the defendant was that it was unable to transmit the telegram because of "technical and atmospheric factors beyond its control." 1 No evidence appears on record that defendant ever made any attempt to advise the plaintiff Sofia C. Crouch as to why it could not transmit the telegram.

The Court of First Instance of Pangasinan, after trial, ordered the defendant (now petitioner) to pay the plaintiffs (now private respondents) damages, as follows, with interest at 6% per annum:

"1. Sofia C. Crouch, P31.92 and P16,000.00 as compensatory damages and P20,000.00 as moral damages.

2. Ignacio Castro Sr., P20,000.00 as moral damages.

3. Ignacio Castro Jr., P20,000.00 as moral damages.

4. Aurora Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

5. Salvador Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

6. Mario Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

7. Conrado Castro, P10,000 moral damages.

8. Esmeralda C. Floro, P20,000.00 moral damages.

9. Agerico Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

10. Rolando Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

11. Virgilio Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

12. Gloria Castro, P10,000.00 moral damages.

Defendant is also ordered to pay P5,000.00 attorney's fees, exemplary damages in the amount of P1,000.00 to each of the plaintiffs and costs." 2

On appeal by petitioner, the Intermediate Appellate Court affirmed the trial court's decision but eliminated the award of P16,000.00 as compensatory damages to Sofia C. Crouch and the award of Pl,000.00 to each of the private respondents as exemplary damages. The award of P20,000.00 as moral damages to each of Sofia C. Crouch, Ignacio Castro, Jr. and Esmeralda C. Floro was also reduced to P10,000.00 for each. 3

Petitioner appeals from the judgment of the appellate court, contending that the award of moral damages should be eliminated as defendant's negligent act was not motivated by "fraud, malice or recklessness."

In other words, under petitioner's theory, it can only be held liable for P31.92, the fee or charges paid by Sofia C. Crouch for the telegram that was never sent to the addressee thereof.

Petitioner's contention is without merit.

Art. 1170 of the Civil Code provides that "those who in the performance of their obligations are guilty of fraud, negligence or delay, and those who in any manner contravene the tenor thereof, are liable for damages." Art. 2176 also provides that "whoever by act or omission causes damage to another, there being fault or negligence, is obliged to pay for the damage done."

In the case at bar, petitioner and private respondent Sofia C. Crouch entered into a contract whereby, for a fee, petitioner undertook to send said private respondent's message overseas by telegram. This, petitioner did not do, despite performance by said private respondent of her obligation by paying the required charges. Petitioner was therefore guilty of contravening its obligation to said private respondent and is thus liable for damages.

This liability is not limited to actual or quantified damages. To sustain petitioner's contrary position in this regard would result in an inequitous situation where petitioner will only be held liable for the actual cost of a telegram fixed thirty (30) years ago.

We find Art. 2217 of the Civil Code applicable to the case at bar. It states: "Moral damages include physical suffering, mental anguish, fright, serious anxiety, besmirched reputation, wounded feelings, moral shock, social humiliation, and similar injury. Though incapable of pecuniary computation, moral damages may be recovered if they are the proximate results of the defendant's wrongful act or omission."

Here, petitioner's act or omission, which amounted to gross negligence, was precisely the cause of the suffering private respondents had to undergo.

As the appellate court properly observed:

"[Who] can seriously dispute the shock, the mental anguish and the sorrow that the overseas children must have suffered upon learning of the death of their mother after she had already been interred, without being given the opportunity to even make a choice on whether they wanted to pay her their last respects? There is no doubt that these emotional sufferings were proximately caused by appellant's omission and substantive law provides for the justification for the award of moral damages." 4

We also sustain the trial court's award of P16,000.00 as compensatory damages to Sofia C. Crouch representing the expenses she incurred when she came to the Philippines from the United States to testify before the trial court. Had petitioner not been remiss in performing its obligation, there would have been no need for this suit or for Mrs. Crouch's testimony.

The award of exemplary damages by the trial court is likewise justified and, therefore, sustained in the amount of P1,000.00 for each of the private respondents, as a warning to all telegram companies to observe due diligence in transmitting the messages of their customers.

WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED. The decision appealed from is modified so that petitioner is held liable to private respondents in the following amounts:

(1) P10,000.00 as moral damages, to each of private respondents;

(2) P1,000.00 as exemplary damages, to each of private respondents;

(3) P16,000.00 as compensatory damages, to private respondent Sofia C. Crouch;

(4) P5,000.00 as attorney's fees; and

(5) Costs of suit.


Yap (Chairman), Paras and Sarmiento, JJ., concur.

Separate Opinions

MELENCIO-HERRERA, J., concurring:

I concur. In addition to compensatory and exemplary damages, moral damages are recoverable in actions for breach of contract, as in this case, where the breach has been wanton and reckless, tantamount to bad faith.


** Penned by Justice Serafin E. Camilon, with the concurrence of Justices Crisolito Pascual, Jose C. Campos, Jr. and Desiderio P. Jurado. 1. Rollo at 8. 2. Rollo at 9-10. 3. Rollo at 14. 4. Rollo at 13. 104 PHIL 75 [1958V238E] PRECILLANO NECESITO, ETC., plaintiff-appellant, vs. NATIVIDAD PARAS, ET AL., defendantsappellees.1958 Jun 30En BancG.R. No. L-10605D E C I S I O N

REYES, J.B.L., J.:

These cases involve actions ex contractu against the owners and operators of the common carrier known as Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines, filed by one passenger, and the heirs of another, who were injured as a result of the fall into a river of the vehicle in which they were riding.

In the morning of January 28, 1954, Severina Garces and her one- year old son, Precillano Necesito, carrying vegetables, boarded passenger auto truck or bus No. 199 of the Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines at Agno, Pangasinan. The passenger truck, driven by Francisco Bandonell, then proceeded on its regular run from Agno to Manila. After passing Mangatarem, Pangasinan, truck No. 199 entered a wooden bridge, but the front wheels swerved to the right; the driver lost control, and after wrecking the bridge's wooden rails, the truck fell on its right side into a creek where water was breast deep. The mother, Severina Garces, was drowned; the son, Precillano Necesito, was injured, suffering abrasions and fracture of the left femur. He was brought to the Provincial Hospital at Dagupan, where the fracture was set but with fragments one centimeter out of line. The money, wrist watch and cargo of vegetables were lost.

Two actions for damages and attorney's fees totalling over P85,000 having been filed in the Court of First Instance of Tarlac (Cases Nos. 908 and 909) against the carrier, the latter pleaded that the accident was due to "engine or mechanical trouble" independent or beyond the control of the defendants or of the driver Bandonell.

After joint trial, the Court of First Instance found that the bus was proceeding slowly due to the bad condition of the road; that the accident was caused by the fracture of the right steering knuckle, which was defective in that its center or core was not compact but "bubbled and cellulous", a condition that could not be known or ascertained by the carrier despite the fact that regular thirty-day inspections were made of the steering knuckle, since the

steel exterior was smooth and shiny to the depth of 3/16 of an inch all around; that the knuckles are designed and manufactured for heavy duty and may last up to ten years; that the knuckle of bus No. 199 that broke on January 28, 1954, was last inspected on January 5, 1954, and was due to be inspected again on February 5th. Hence, the trial court, holding that the accident was exclusively due to fortuitous event, dismissed both actions. Plaintiffs appealed directly to this Court in view of the amount in controversy.

We are inclined to agree with the trial court that it is not likely that bus No. 199 of the Philippine Rabbit Lines was driven over the deeply rutted road leading to the bridge at a speed of 50 miles per hour, as testified for the plaintiffs. Such conduct on the part of the driver would have provoked instant and vehement protest on the part of the passengers because of the attendant discomfort, and there is no trace of any such complaint in the records. We are thus forced to assume that the proximate cause of the accident was the reduced strength of the steering knuckle of the vehicle caused by defects in casting it. While appellants hint that the broken knuckle exhibited in court was not the real fitting attached to the truck at the time of the accident, the records show that they registered no objection on that ground at the trial below.

The issue is thus reduced to the question whether or not the carrier is liable for the manufacturing defect of the steering knuckle, and whether the evidence discloses that in regard thereto the carrier exercised the diligence required by law (Art. 1755, new Civil Code).

"ART. 1755.

A common carrier is bound to carry the passengers safely as far as human care and foresight can

provide, using the utmost diligence of very cautious persons, with a due regard for all the circumstances."

It is clear that the carrier is not an insurer of the passengers' safety. His liability rests upon negligence, his failure to exercise the "utmost" degree of diligence that the law requires, and by Art. 1756, in case of a passenger's death or injury the carrier bears the burden of satisfying the court that he has duly discharged the duty of prudence required. In the American law, where the carrier is held to the same degree of diligence as under the new Civil Code, the rule on the liability of carriers for defects of equipment is thus expressed: "The preponderance of authority is in favor of the doctrine that a passenger is entitled to recover damages from a carrier for an injury resulting from a defect in an appliance purchased from a manufacturer, whenever it appears that the defect would have been discovered by the carrier if it had exercised the degree of care which under the circumstances was incumbent upon it, with regard to inspection and application of the necessary tests. For the purposes of this doctrine, the manufacturer is considered as being in law the agent or servant of the carrier, as far as regards the work of constructing the appliance. According to this theory, the good repute of the manufacturer will not relieve the carrier from liability" (10 Am. Jur. 205, s, 1324; see a]so Pennsylvania R. Co. vs. Roy, 102 U. S. 451; 20 L. Ed. 141; Southern R. Co. vs. Hussey, 74 ALR 1172; 42 Fed. 2d 70; and Ed Note, 29 ALR 788; Ann Cas. 1916E 929).

The rationale of the carrier's liability is the fact that the passenger has neither choice nor control over the carrier

in the selection and use of the equipment and appliances in use by the carrier. Having, no privity whatever with the manufacturer or vendor of the defective equipment, the passenger has no remedy against him, while the carrier usually has. It is but logical, therefore, that the carrier, while not an insurer of the safety of his passengers, should nevertheless be held to answer for the flaws of his equipment if such flaws were at all discoverable. Thus Hannen, J., in Francis vs. Cockrell, LR 5 Q. P. 184, said:

"In the ordinary course of things, the passenger does not know whether the carrier has himself manufactured the means of carriage, or contracted with someone else for its manufacture. If the carrier has contracted with someone else the passenger does not usually know who that person is, and in no case has he any share in the selection. The liability of the manufacturer must depend on the terms of the contract between him and the carrier, of which the passenger has no knowledge, and over which he can have no control, while the carrier can introduce what stipulations and take what securities he may think proper. For injury resulting to the carrier himself by the manufacturer's want of care, the carrier has a remedy against the manufacturer; but the passenger has no remedy against the manufacturer for damage arising from a mere breach of contract with the carrier . . . Unless, therefore, the presumed intention of the parties be that the passenger should, in the event of his being injured by the breach of the manufacturer's contract, of which he has no knowledge, be without remedy, the only way in which effect can be given to a different intention is by supposing that the carrier is to be responsible to the passenger, and to look for his indemnity to the person whom he selected and whose breach of contract has caused the mischief." (29 ALR 789)

And in the leading case of Morgan vs. Chesapeake & O. R. Co. 15 LRA (NS) 790, 16 Ann. Cas. 608, the Court, in holding the carrier responsible for damages caused by the fracture of a car axle, due to a "sand hole" in the course of moulding the axle, made the following observations.

"The carrier, in consideration of certain well-known and highly valuable rights granted to it by the public, undertakes certain duties toward the public, among them being to provide itself with suitable and safe cars and vehicles in which to carry the traveling public. There is no such duty on the manufacturer of the cars. There is no reciprocal legal relation between him and the public in this respect. When the carrier elects to have another build its cars, it ought not to be absolved by that fact from its duty to the public to furnish safe care. The carrier cannot lessen its responsibility by shifting its undertaking to another's shoulders. Its duty to furnish safe care is side by side with its duty to furnish safe track, and to operate them in a safe manner. None of its duties in these respects can be sublet so as to relieve it from the full measure primarily exacted of it by law. The carrier selecta the manufacturer of its cars, if it does not itself construct them, precisely as it does those who grade its road, and lay its tracks, and operate its trains. That it does not exercise control over the former is because it elects to place that matter in the hands of the manufacturer, instead of retaining the supervising control itself. The manufacturer should be deemed the agent of the carrier as respects its duty to select the material out of which its cars and locomotive are built, as well as in inspecting each step of their construction. If there be tests known to the crafts of ear builders, or iron moulders, by which such defects might be discovered before the part was incorporated into the car, then the failure of the manufacturer to make the test will be deemed a failure by the carrier to make it. This is not a vicarious responsibility. It extends, as the necessity of this business demands, the rule of respondent

superior to a situation which falls clearly within its scope and spirit. Where an injury is inflicted upon a passenger by the breaking or wrecking of a part of the train on which he is riding, it is presumably the result of negligence at some point by the carrier. As stated by Judge Story, in Story on Bailments, sec. 601a: `When the injury or damage happens to the passenger by the breaking down or overturning of the coach, or by any other accident occurring on the ground, the presumption prima facie is that it occurred by the negligence of the coachmen, and onus probandi is on the proprietors of the coach to establish that there has been no negligence whatever, and that the damage or injury has been occasioned by inevitable casualty, or by some cause which human care and foresight could not prevent; for the law will, in tenderness to human life and limb, hold the proprietors liable for the slightest negligence, and will compel them to repel by satisfactory proofs every imputation thereof.' When the passenger has proved his injury as the result of a breakage in the car or the wrecking of the train on which he was being carried, whether the defect was in the particular car in which he was riding or not, the burden is then cast upon the carrier to show that it was due to a cause or causes which the exercise of the utmost human skill and foresight could not prevent. And the carrier in this connection must show, if the accident was due to a latent defect in the material or construction of the car, that not only could it not have discovered the defect by the exercise of such care, but that the builders could not by the exercise of the same care have discovered the defect or foreseen the result. This rule applies the same whether the defective car belonged to the carrier or not."

In the case now before us, the record is to the effect that the only test applied to the steering knuckle in question was a purely visual inspection every thirty days, to see if any cracks developed. It nowhere appears that either the manufacturer or the carrier at any time tested the steering knuckle to ascertain whether its strength was up to standard, or that it had no hidden flaws that would impair that strength. And yet the carrier must have been aware of the critical importance of the knuckle's resistance; that its failure or breakage would result in loss of balance and steering control of the bus, with disastrous effects upon the passengers. No argument is required to establish that a visual inspection could not directly determine whether the resistance of this critically important part was not impaired. Nor has it been shown that the weakening of the knuckle was impossible to detect by any known test; on the contrary, there is testimony that it could be detected. We are satisfied that the periodical visual inspection of the steering knuckle as practiced by the carrier's agents did not measure up to the required legal standard of "utmost diligence of very cautious persons" - "as far as human care and foresight can provide", and therefore that the knuckle's failure can not be considered a fortuitous event that exempts the carrier from responsibility (Lasam vs. Smith, 45 Phil, 607; Son vs. Cebu Autobus Co., 94 Phil., 892.

It may be impracticable, as appellee argues, to require of carriers to test the strength of each and every part of its vehicles before each trip; but we are of the opinion that a due regard for the carrier's obligations toward the traveling public demands adequate periodical tests to determine the condition and strength of those vehicle portions the failure of which may endanger the safety of the passengers.

As to the damages suffered by the plaintiffs, we agree with appellee that no allowance may be made for moral damages, since under Article 2220 of the new Civil Code, in case of suits for breach of contract, moral damages are recoverable only where the defendant acted fraudulently or in bad faith, and there is none in the case before us. As to exemp]ary damages, the carrier has not acted in a "wanton, fraudulent, reckless, oppressive or

malevolent manner" to warrant their award. Hence, we believe that for the minor Precillano Necesito (G. R No. L10605), an indemnity of P5,000 would be adequate for the abrasions and fracture of the femur, including medical and hospitalization expenses, there being no evidence that there would be any permanent impairment of his faculties or bodily functions, beyond the lack of anatomical symmetry. As for the death of Severina Garces (G. R. No. L-10606) who was 33 years old, with seven minor children when she died, her heirs are obviously entitled to indemnity not only for the incidental loses of property (cash, wrist watch and merchandise) worth P394 that she carried at the time of the accident and for the burial expenses of P490, but also for the loss of her earnings (shown to average P120 a month) and for the deprivation of her protection, guidance and company. In our judgment, an award of P15,000 would be adequate (cf Alcantara vs. Surro, 49 Off. Gaz. 2769; 93 Phil., 472).

The low income of the plaintiffs-appellants makes an award for attorney's fees just and equitable (Civil Code, Art. 2208, par. 11). Considering that the two cases filed were tried jointly, a fee of P3,500 would be reasonable.

In view of the foregoing, the decision appealed from is reversed, and the defendants-appellees are sentenced to indemnify the plaintiffs-appellants in the following amounts: P5,000 to Precillano Necesito, and P15,000 to the heirs of the deceased Severina Garces, plus P3,500 by way of attorney's fees and litigation expenses. Costs against defendants-appellees. So ordered.

Paras, C.J., Bengzon, Reyes, A., Bautista Angelo, Concepcion and Endencia, JJ., concur. Felix, J., concurs in the result.


September 11, 1958

REYES, J.B.L., J.:

Defendants-appellees have submitted a motion asking this Court to reconsider its decision of June 30, 1958, and that the same be modified with respect to (1) its holding the carrier liable for the breakage of the steering knuckle that caused the autobus No. 199 to overturn, whereby the passengers riding in it were injured; (2) the damages awarded, that appellees argue to be excessive; and (3) the award of attorneys' fees.

(1) The rule prevailing in this jurisdiction as established in previous decisions of this Court, cited in our main opinion, is that a carrier is liable to its passengers for damages caused by mechanical defects of the conveyance. As early as 1924, in Lasam vs. Smith, 45 Phil. 659 this Court ruled:

"As far as the record shows, the accident was caused either by defects in the automobile or else through the negligence of its driver. That is not caso fortuito."

And in Son vs. Cebu Autobus Company, 94 Phil., 892, this Court held a common carrier liable in damages to a passenger for injuries caused by an accident due to the breakage of a faulty drag-link spring.

It can be seen that while the courts of the United States are at variance on the question of a carrier's liability for latent mechanical defects, the rule in this jurisdiction has been consistent in holding the carrier responsible. This Court has quoted from American and English decisions, not because it felt bound to follow the same, but merely in approval of the rationale of the rule as expressed therein, since the previous Philippine cases did not enlarge on the ideas underlying the doctrine established thereby.

The new evidence sought to be introduced do not warrant the grant of a new trial, since the proposed proof was available when the original trial was held. Said evidence is not newly discovered.

(2) With regard to the indemnity awarded to the child Precilliano Necesito, the injuries suffered by him are incapable of accurate pecuniary estimation, particularly because the full effect of the injury is not ascertainable immediately. This uncertainty, however, does not preclude the right to an indemnity, since the injury is patent and not denied (Civil Code, Art. 2224). The reasons behind this award are expounded by the Code Commission in its report:

"There are cases where from the nature of the case, definite proof of pecuniary loss cannot be offered, although the court is convinced that there has been such loss. For instance, injury to one's commercial credit or to the goodwill of a business firm is often hard to show with certainty in terms of money. Should damages be denied for that reason? The judge should be empowered to calculate moderate damages in such cases, rather than that the plaintiff should suffer, without redress, from the defendant's wrongful act." (Report of the Code Commission, p. 75)

In awarding to the heirs of the deceased Severina Garces an indemnity for the loss of her "guidance, protection and company," although it is but moral damage, the Court took into account that the case of a passenger who dies in the course of an accident, due to the carrier's negligence constitutes an exception to the general rule. While, as pointed out in the main decision, under Article 2220 of the new Civil Code there can be no recovery of moral damages for a breach of contract in the absence of fraud malice) or bad faith, the case of a violation of the contract of carriage leading to a passenger's death escapes this general rule, in view of Article 1764 in connection with Article 2206, No. 3 of the new Civil Code.

"ART. 1764.

Damages in cases comprised in this Section shall be awarded in accordance with Title XVIII of

this Book, concerning Damages. Article 2206 shall also apply to the death of a passenger caused by the breach of contract by a common carrier."

"ART. 2206.


(3) The spouse, legitimate and illegitimate descendants and ascendants of the deceased may demand moral damages for mental anguish by reason of the death of the deceased."

Being a special rule limited to cases of fatal injuries, these articles prevail over the general rule of Art. 2220. Special provisions control general ones (Lichauco & Co. vs. Apstol, 44 Phil. 138; Sancio vs. Lizarraga, 55 Phil. 601).

It thus appears that under the new Civil Code, in case of accident due to a carrier's negligence, the heirs of a deceased passenger may recover moral damages, even though a passenger who is injured, but manages to survive, is not entitled to them. There is, therefore, no conflict between our main decision in the instant case and that of Cachero vs. Manila Yellow Taxi Cab Co., 101 Phil., 523, where the passenger suffered injuries, but did not lose his life.

(3) In the Cachero case this Court disallowed attorneys' fees to the injured plaintiff because the litigation arose out of his exaggerated and unreasonable demands for an indemnity that was out of proportion with the compensatory damages to which he was solely entitled. Put in the present case, plaintiffs' original claims can not be deemed a priori wholly unreasonable, since they had a right to indemnity for moral damages besides compensatory ones, and moral damages are not determined by set and invariable bounds.

Neither does the fact that the contract between the passengers and their counsel was on a contingent basis affect the former's right to counsel fees. As pointed out for appellants, the Court's award is an indemnity to the party and not to counsel. A litigant who improvidently stipulates higher counsel fees than those to which he is lawfully entitled, does not for that reason earn the right to a larger indemnity; but, by parity of reasoning, he should not be deprived of counsel fees if by law he is entitled to recover them.

We find no reason to alter the main decision heretofore rendered. Ultimately, the position taken by this Court is that a common carrier's contract is not to be regarded as a game of chance wherein the passenger stakes his limb and life against the carrier's property and profits.

Wherefore, the motion for reconsideration is hereby denied. So ordered.

Paras, C.J., Bengzon, Padilla, Montemayor, Reyes, A., Bautista Angelo, Concepcion, Endencia and Felix, JJ., concur. 268 SCRA 105 [1997V117] IGNACIO BARZAGA, petitioner vs. COURT OF APPEALS and ANGELITO ALVIAR, respondents.1997 Feb 121st DivisionG.R. No. 115129D E C I S I O N


The Fates ordained that Christmas 1990 be bleak for Ignacio Barzaga and his family. On the nineteenth of December Ignacio's wife succumbed to a debilitating ailment after prolonged pain and suffering. Forewarned by her attending physicians of her impending death, she expressed her wish to be laid to rest before Christmas day to spare her family from keeping lonely vigil over her remains while the whole of Christendom celebrate the Nativity of their Redeemer.

Drained to the bone from the tragedy that befell his family yet preoccupied with overseeing the wake for his departed wife, Ignacio Barzaga set out to arrange for her interment on the twenty-fourth of December in obedience semper fidelis to her dying wish. But her final entreaty, unfortunately, could not be carried out. Dire events conspired to block his plans that forthwith gave him and his family their gloomiest Christmas ever.

This is Barzaga's story. On 21 December 1990, at about three o'clock in the afternoon, he went to the hardware store of respondent Angelito Alviar to inquire about the availability of certain materials to be used in the construction of a niche for his wife. He also asked if the materials could be delivered at once. Marina Boncales, Alviar's storekeeper, replied that she had yet to verify if the store had pending deliveries that afternoon because if there were then all subsequent purchases would have to be delivered the following day. With that reply petitioner left.

At seven o'clock the following morning, 22 December, Barzaga returned to Alviar's hardware store to follow up his purchase of construction materials. He told the store employees that the materials he was buying would have to be delivered at the Memorial Cemetery in Dasmarinas, Cavite, by eight o'clock that morning since his hired workers were already at the burial site and time was of the essence. Marina Boncales agreed to deliver the items at the designated time, date and place. With this assurance, Barzaga purchased the materials and paid in full the amount of P2,110.00. Thereafter he joined his workers at the cemetery, which was only a kilometer away, to await the delivery.

The construction materials did not arrive at eight o'clock as promised. At nine o'clock, the delivery was still nowhere in sight. Barzaga returned to the hardware store to inquire about the delay. Boncales assured him that although the delivery truck was not yet around it had already left the garage and that as soon as it arrived the materials would be brought over to the cemetery in no time at all. That left petitioner no choice but to rejoin his workers at the memorial park and wait for the materials.

By ten o'clock, there was still no delivery. This prompted petitioner to return to the store to inquire about the materials. But he received the same answer from respondent's employees who even cajoled him to go back to the burial place as they would just follow with his construction materials.

After hours of waiting which seemed interminable to him Barzaga became extremely upset. He decided to dismiss his laborers for the day. He proceeded to the police station, which was just nearby, and lodged a complaint against Alviar. He had his complaint entered in the police blotter. When he returned again to the store he saw the delivery truck already there but the materials he purchased were not yet ready for loading. Distressed that Alviar's employees were not the least concerned, despite his impassioned pleas, Barzaga decided to cancel his transaction with the store and look for construction materials elsewhere.

In the afternoon of that day, petitioner was able to buy from another store. But since darkness was already setting in and his workers had left, he made up his mind to start his project the following morning, 23 December. But he knew that the niche would not be finish in time for the scheduled burial the following day. His laborers had to take a break on Christmas Day and they could only resume in the morning of the twenty-sixth. The niche was completed in the afternoon and Barzaga's wife was finally laid to rest. However, it was two-and-a-half (2-1/2) days behind schedule.

On 21 January 1991, tormented perhaps by his inability to fulfill his wife's dying wish, Barzaga wrote private respondent Alviar demanding recompense for the damage he suffered. Alviar did not respond. Consequently, petitioner sued him before the Regional Trial Court. 1

Resisting petitioner's claim, private respondent contended that legal delay could not be validly ascribed to him because no specific time of delivery was agreed upon between them. He pointed out that the invoices evidencing the sale did not contain any stipulation as to the exact time of delivery and that assuming that the materials were not delivered within the period desired by petitioner, the delivery truck suffered a flat tire on the way to the store to pick up the materials. Besides, his men were ready to make the delivery by ten-thirty in the morning of 22 December but petitioner refused to accept them. According to Alviar, it was this obstinate refusal of petitioner to accept delivery that caused the delay in the construction of the niche and the consequent failure of the family to inter their loved one on the twenty-fourth of December, and that, if at all, it was petitioner and no other who brought about all his personal woes.

Upholding the proposition that respondent incurred in delay in the delivery of the construction materials resulting in undue prejudice to petitioner, the trial court ordered respondent Alviar to pay petitioner (a) P2,110.00 as refund for the purchase price of the materials with interest per annum computed at the legal rate from the date of the filing of the complaint, (b) P5,000.00 as temperate damages, (c) P20,000.00 as moral damages, (d) P5,000.00 as litigation expenses, and (e) P5,000.00 as attorney's fees.

On appeal, respondent Court of Appeals reversed the lower court and ruled that there was no contractual commitment as to the exact time of delivery since this was not indicated in the invoice receipts covering the sale. 2

The arrangement to deliver the materials merely implied that delivery should be made within a reasonable time but that the conclusion that since petitioner's workers were already at the graveyard the delivery had to be made at that precise moment, is non-sequitur. The Court of Appeals also held that assuming that there was delay, petitioner still had sufficient time to construct the tomb and hold his wife's burial as she wished.

We sustain the trial court. An assiduous scrutiny of the record convinces us that respondent Angelito Alviar was negligent and incurred in delay in the performance of his contractual obligation. This sufficiently entitles petitioner Ignacio Barzaga to be indemnified for the damage he suffered as a consequence of delay or a contractual breach. The law expressly provides that those who in the performance of their obligation are guilty of fraud, negligence, or delay and those who in any manner contravene the tenor thereof, are liable for damages. 3

Contrary to the appellate court's factual determination, there was a specific time agreed upon for the delivery of the materials to the cemetery. Petitioner went to private respondent's store on 21 December precisely to inquire if the materials he intended to purchase could be delivered immediately. But he was told by the storekeeper that if there were still deliveries to be made that afternoon his order would be delivered the following day. With this in mind Barzaga decided to buy the construction materials the following morning after he was assured of immediate delivery according to his time frame. The argument that the invoices never indicated a specific delivery time must fall in the face of the positive verbal commitment of respondent's storekeeper.

Consequently it was no longer necessary to indicate in the invoices the exact time the purchased items were to be brought to the cemetery. In fact, storekeeper Boncales admitted that it was her custom not to indicate the time of delivery whenever she prepared invoices. 4

Private respondent invokes fortuitous event as his handy excuse for that "bit of delay" in the delivery of petitioner's purchases. He maintains that Barzaga should have allowed his delivery men a little more time to bring

the construction materials over to the cemetery since a few hours more would not really matter and considering that his truck had a flat tire. Besides, according to him, Barzaga still had sufficient time to build the tomb for his wife.

This is a gratuitous assertion that borders on callousness. Private respondent had no right to manipulate petitioner's timetable and substitute it with his own. Petitioner had a deadline to meet.

A few hours of delay was no piddling matter to him who in his bereavement had yet to attend to other pressing family concerns. Despite this, respondent's employees still made light of his earnest importunings for an immediate delivery. As petitioner bitterly declared in court " . . . they (respondent's employees) were making a fool out of me." 5

We also find unacceptable respondent's justification that his truck had a flat tire, for this event, if indeed it happened, was forseeable according to the trial court, and as such should have been reasonably guarded against. The nature of private respondent's business requires that he should be ready at all times to meet contingencies of this kind. One piece of testimony by respondent's witness Marina Boncales has caught our attention - that the delivery truck arrived a little late than usual because it came from a delivery of materials in Langcaan, Dasmarinas, Cavite. 6 Significantly, this information was withheld by Boncales from petitioner when the latter was negotiating with her for the purchase of construction materials. Consequently, it is not unreasonable to suppose that had she told petitioner of this fact and that the delivery of the materials would consequently be delayed, petitioner would not have bought the materials from respondent's hardware store but elsewhere which could meet his time requirement. The deliberate suppression of this information by itself manifests a certain degree of bad faith on the part of respondent's storekeeper.

The appellate court appears to have belittled petitioner's submission that under the prevailing circumstances time was of the essence in the delivery of the materials to the grave site. However, we find petitioner's assertion to be anchored on solid ground. The niche had to be constructed at the very least on the twenty-second of December considering that it would take about two (2) days to finish the job if the interment was to take place on the twentyfourth of the month.

Respondent's delay in the delivery of the construction materials wasted so much time that construction of the tomb could start only on the twenty-third. It could not be ready for the scheduled burial of petitioner's wife. This undoubtedly prolonged the wake, in addition to the fact that work at the cemetery had to be put off on Christmas day.

This case is clearly one of non-performance of a reciprocal obligation. 7 In their contract of purchase and sale, petitioner had already complied fully with what was required of him as purchaser, i.e., the payment of the

purchase price of P2,110.00. It was incumbent upon respondent to immediately fulfill his obligation to deliver the goods otherwise delay would attach.

We therefore sustain the award of moral damages. It cannot be denied that petitioner and his family suffered wounded feelings, mental anguish and serious anxiety while keeping watch on Christmas day over the remains of their loved one who could not be laid to rest on the date she herself had chosen. There is no gainsaying the inexpressible pain and sorrow Ignacio Barzaga and his family bore at that moment caused no less by the ineptitude, cavalier behavior and bad faith of respondent and his employees in the performance of an obligation voluntarily entered into.

We also affirm the grant of exemplary damages. The lackadaisical and feckless attitude of the employees of respondent over which he exercised supervisory authority indicates gross negligence in the fulfillment of his business obligations. Respondent Alviar and his employees should have exercised fairness and good judgment in dealing with petitioner who was then grieving over the loss of his wife. Instead of commiserating with him, respondent and his employees contributed to petitioner's anguish by causing him to bear the agony resulting from his inability to fulfill his wife's dying wish.

We delete however the award of temperate damages. Under Art. 2224 of the Civil Code, temperate damages are more than nominal but less than compensatory, and may be recovered when the court finds that some pecuniary loss has been suffered but the amount cannot, from the nature of the case, be proved with certainty. In this case, the trial court found that plaintiff suffered damages in the form of wages for the hired workers for 22 December 1990 and expenses incurred during the extra two (2) days of the wake. The record however does not show that petitioner presented proof of the actual amount of expenses he incurred which seems to be the reason the trial court awarded to him temperate damages instead. This is an erroneous application of the concept of temperate damages. While petitioner may have indeed suffered pecuniary losses, these by their very nature could be established with certainty by means of payment receipts. As such, the claim falls unequivocally within the realm of actual or compensatory damages. Petitioner's failure to prove actual expenditure consequently conduces to a failure of his claim. For in determining actual damages, the court cannot rely on mere assertions, speculations, conjectures or guesswork but must depend on competent proof and on the best evidence obtainable regarding the actual amount of loss. 8

We affirm the award of attorney's fees and litigation expenses. Award of damages, attorney's fees and litigation costs is left to the sound discretion of the court, and if such discretion be well exercised, as in this case, it will not be disturbed on appeal. 9

WHEREFORE, the decision of the Court of Appeals is REVERSED and SET ASIDE except insofar as it GRANTED on a motion for reconsideration the refund by private respondent of the amount of P2,110.00 paid by petitioner for the construction materials. Consequently, except for the award of P5,000.00 as temperate damages

which we delete, the decision of the Regional Trial Court granting petitioner (a) P2,110.00 as refund for the value of materials with interest computed at the legal rate per annum from the date of the filing of the case; (b) P20,000.00 as moral damages; (c) P10,000.00 as exemplary damages; (d) P5,000.00 as litigation expenses; and (4) P5,000.00 as attorney's fees, is AFFIRMED. No costs.


Padilla, Vitug, Kapunan and Hermosisima, Jr., JJ., concur.