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P.otah{d.-igrTe*tlr!U6e-d5--ffi A Redf€fil ve

Example lnq lweefs

"Less than 24 hrc before I head

off for my vacation in lraq and
the kids arc already maktng my
wife miserable. Today Is not
going to be fun."
!t r
"Going to DFAC - Dining 6drrr
Facility - here at BIAP. Try to
get on helicopter to Kalsu
tonight." Twitteris describedas "a
free SocialNetworkingand MicroBloggingoservicethat lets
"Put ofl at BIAP (Baghdad
lntemational Airpoft). Not sure memberskeepin touchwith peopleusingthe web,their
wt'y.' phone,or lM (instantmessaging)."' Twitteris similarto
othersocialnetworkingsitesin that it allowspeopleto create
'Chillin in my tent at Baghdad a communityof interestand/orgroupof onlinefriends.
I ntem atlo nal Ai rport (BIAP).'
Twitterlaunchedin July 2006and has becomean
"Drove off base today down increasinglypopularnetworking venueoverthe pasttwo
Route lrtsh in an'NTV and years.oOn September 26,2008,therewere21,100,000
dldnl get blown fun." GoogleHitsfor doinga searchon, whichwas
advertisedon a multitudeof differentlanguageweb pages,
"Just picked my roomie up
from BIAP, now it's ten lil 2 in includingEnglish,Arabic,Armenian, SimplifiedChinese,
the momlng, ugh." Croatian, Czech,Indonesian, Korean,Thai,andother
"Today is my day oft. 115
already in Camp Bucca,lraq."
WhatmakesTwitteruniqueis thatthe membercansend
Example Afg hanistan Tweets Tweets(messages)
nearrealtimeto Twittercellphone

"l'm in Bagram waiting for a 6 SearchMobileComputing OnlinedefinesMicroBlogging as

flightto Camp Salemo by "Microblogging
Kwost in the volatile easf of
is the practiceof sendingbrief poststo a personal
Afghanistan near the Paki. blog on a microbloggingWeb site, such as Twitteror Jaiku.
border. Hot daydcold nighb." Micropostscan be madepublicon a Web siteand/ordistributedto
a privategroup of subscribers.Subscrberscan read microblog
"Hi from Bagnm air field; 20 postsonlineor requestthat updatesbe deliveredin real time to
minutes from now l'll hopefully their desktopas an instantmessageor sent to a mobiledeviceas
board a flight to the Pakistan an SMS text message."
border," htto:// inition/0..sid40
"Flying to Bagram, Afghanistan
ln 12 hourc. Thejourney ts
about to beginl'
I CrunchBase,'TwitterCompanyProfile,"2008,
Example Foft Huachuca Tweefs
http://www.cru r
"Email I just got: -We are
changing all of the PMstaslrs at e GoogleSearchof,
Ft Huachuca. I hope fhis does
not add a lot of extra work on
your end.' HAI"

" at Ft. Huachuca. ltwas

great s*ing him last night
passing through Tucson
Intemational." -7

groupsand to theironlineTwittersocialnetworkingpage.Theycan also Mashuptheir

Tweetswitha varietyof othertoolsincludinggeo coordinatesand GoogleMapsor other
electronicfiles/artifacts.Memberscan directand re-directaudiencemembersto other
websitesand locationsfrom"Tweets"and can engagein rapid-firegroupsocial
interaction.Forexample,the earthquakethat occurredin LosAngeleson July 29,2008
was reportedvia a Twittermemberapproximately four minutespriorto the information
beingreportedby the newsand withinminutestherewere hundredsof Tweetsfrom
peopleexperiencing the earthquakefirsthand.10Twitterhas also becomea social
activismtoolforsocialists, humanrightsgroups,communists, vegetarians,anarchists,
religiouscommunities, atheists,politicalenthusiasts,hacktivists
and othersto
communicate witheachotherand to sendmessagesto broaderaudiences.ll

Twitteris alreadyusedby somemembersto postand/orsupportextremistideologies

and perspectives.Forexample,thereare multiplepro and anti HezbollahTweets. In
addition,extremistand terroristuse of Twittercouldevolveovertimeto reflecttactics
that are alreadyevolvingin use by hacktivisfsand activistsfor surveillance.This could
theoreticallybe combinedwithtargeting.Twitterwas recentlyusedas a counter-
surveillance,commandand control,and movementtool by activistsat the Republican
NationalConvention(RNC). The activistswouldTweeteachotherand theirTwitter
pagesto add informationon whatwas happeningwith Law Enforcement nearrealtime.

Activist Use of Twitter for Law EnforcementCounter Surveillanceand

MovementCoordinationat the most recent RepublicanNationalConvention

The followingsampleTweetswerecollectedand postedin a ComputerWorldarticle

September8, 2008(htto://

o "Arrestteamsare approaching seatedprotesterson MarionBridge.Resisters

are toldthey'llbe met withforce."
o "Protestors are nowfightingback.Firstreportsof violencenow"
o "WesternAve. Bridge,westof capitolcan be safelycrossed."
o 'City is on lockdown.Go to 14thandJacksonif you needhelpfromtear gas

Thereare multiplered-teaming potential

examplesthat couldbe createdsurrounding
adversarialuseof Twitter. Followingare threered teamscenarios:

toWeaver,Matthew,"Didthe EarthTweetForYou,"UK GuardianBlog,July30, 2008,</news/bloq/2008/iul/30/laearthquakehitsrealihltv
tt 3o4tnMl Bn OSINTTeamReviewof MemberTwitterPages


Terrorist "A" usesTwitterwith(orwithout)usinga cellphonecamera/video
functionto sendbackmessages, andto receivemessages, fromthe restof his cell.
Operative "A"alsohasa GoogleMapsTwitterMashUp of wherehe is undera code
wordfor othermembersof his cell(iftheyneedmorein-depthdirections) postedon the
WWWthatcan be viewedfromtheirmobiles.Othermembersof his cellreceivenear
realtimeupdates(similarto the movement updatesthatweresentby activists at the
RNC)on how,where,andthe numberof troopsthatare movingin orderto conductan

operative"A"hasa mobilephonefor Tweetmessaging andfor takingimages.
Operative "A"alsohasa separatemobilephonethatis actuallyan explosive device
and/ora suicidevestfor remotedetonation.Terroristoperative"8" hasthe detonator
anda mobileto view"A's"Tweetsand images.Thismayallow"B"to selectthe precise
momentof remotedetonationbasedon nearrealtime movementand imagerythat is
beingsentby "A."

CyberTerroristoperative"A"findsU.S.ArmySmith'sTwitteraccount.Operative "A"
joinsSmith'sTweetsand beginsto elicitinformation
fromSmith.Thisinformation is then
usedfor a targeting (targeting
in thissensecouldbe for identity hacking,
and/orphysical.)Thisscenariois notnewand hasalreadybeendiscussed for other
socialnetworkingsites,suchas My Spaceand/orFaceBook.

Sample of other Mobile Phone Topics & Software Recommendations

SampleSource: The mobile phonetechnologyforum in

r Recommends anddebatesmobilephonebrands(Samsung, Nokia,etc.)

. Propaganda multimedia downloads for the phone(videos,audioclips,textfiles,PDF,
. Mobilephonetipsfor surveillance activities
. Usesof SMStextmessaging
. WindowsLiveMessenger for the mobile
r Freeadvancedmobilemessages to yourmobilefromwebsiteHuda76
. MobilePhoneGPStrackingoptions
o Howto uploadsoftwareupdates
. Religious uploadsoftware, suchas prayertimesreminders
. Religious andideologicalbackground wallpaper
o TheSoftwarepackage-Mobile MasterProfessional 7.0.1Build2699
. Xilisoft3GPVideoConverter
o convert3GPto avi or mpg,andviceversa,as wellas 3gp mpg,mpeg2,mpeg4,
wmv,mp4,3gp,mov,rm,dv, yuv,h264and MP3,WAV,AC3,WMA,m4a,ogg
. EgoShareSoftware(datarecovery)
. Howto maintainandcrackmobilephonesecuritycodes
o Howto makemobilesoftwareprograms
. Discussions on howto protectand penetrateBlueToothtechnology
. PDAprogramsfor the mobilephone(Someof the softwaredownloadsthatwere
advertizedare sub-listedbelow)
o BestTaskManv2.01