Eugenio Zolli’s Path to Rome (Chief Rabbi converted after mystical vision of Jesus Christ

It’s little wonder that biographer Judith Cabaud considers Eugenio Zolli one of the most remarkable men of the twentieth century. Born in 1881 in Ukraine, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Zolli's baby boy was given the first name Israel. Sixty years later he was chief Rabbi of Rome. In 1944, while in the synagogue celebrating Yom Kippur, Zolli experienced a mystical vision of Jesus Christ. Within a year he was baptized a Catholic at which time he changed his first name from Israel to Eugenio, the same Christian name as Pope Pius XII. He did this to honor the Pope for the help he gave Jews trying to escape the Nazi's extermination program during World War II. The First Act Let’s backtrack and look at the life of this Central European Jew whose restless and courageous mind enabled him to step beyond the Old Testament and become a follower of Jesus Christ. That long path from Judaism to Catholicism was also taken by Madame Cabaud, who likened it to "wanting to see the second act of a play of which we have attended only the first act." The late nineteenth century provided the backdrop for Israel Zolli’s formative years. It was a particularly turbulent period in Europe. France was reeling from a prolonged bout of political instability exacerbated by military defeat at the hands of Prussia. The philosophical and scientific theories of Darwin, Marx, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer were starting to blur Europe’s Christian perspective, while inside the Russian Empire antiSemitism was on the march. The Zolli family had substantial business interests in what had become Russian controlled territory. The Russian Government classified the Zollis as foreigners and being Jewish made them even more vulnerable, so it was not unexpected they lost virtually everything to a confiscation order issued by Tsar Alexander III. Like many Russian Jews, the suddenly poverty stricken family moved to Poland where the older children had to leave home to find work. However, young Israel was sent to a strict Jewish school where the students spent much of their time studying the books of the Pentateuch. That young restless Jewish mind had been agitating about God’s inner life since the age of eight. "What did God do before He created the world? And why did He create it?" Questions, questions: the answer must lie somewhere. One of Israel’s classmates at the school was Christian and when visiting this boy’s home, Israel had been deeply affected by the sight of a crucifix hanging on the wall. Who was that man? What had he done to deserve such a punishment? Surely he couldn’t have been bad? But then maybe he had been and so deserved crucifixion! But why was that image treated so reverently? Perhaps the man represented truth? Israel eventually concluded that the man on the cross was good and had been wrongly punished. During his teenage years, the image of that crucifix sparked Israel’s curiosity so much that he began secretly studying the New Testament, often taking a copy into the fields where he would read quietly and contemplate. He found delight in Christ’s sayings, especially those from the Sermon on the Mount: "But I say to you: love your enemies," and "blessed are the pure in heart." And from the cross: "Father, forgive them." The New Testament really was a new covenant crammed with messages of extraordinary beauty and importance. For Israel Zolli the teachings of Christ truly marked out the Kingdom of Heaven, as a place reserved for those persecuted, who in eschewing vengeance had loved instead. From then on the Gospel would prove an irresistible attraction and when studying the Old Testament for the Rabbinate he read further on into the New, regarding it as the natural continuation of the Old. Many years later, Zolli’s daughter Miriam would tell Judith

Cabaud that her father had once taken her to the Sistine Chapel in Rome and used the prophets, apostles, and saints painted on the ceiling to explain the bond uniting the Old and New Testament. But in Israel’s youth the clue connecting the two was how closely the man on the cross matched the identity of the suffering servant from Isaiah. That Zolli would hit on the idea that the Gospels were inside the Old Testament from the beginning was seemingly inevitable. Naturally enough Judaism exerted a powerful pull on Israel Zolli. For his family, it was a way of life tied up with community, a cultural identity that tended to steer religion away from any personal relationship with God. His mother had always wanted him to be a Rabbi and she scrimped and saved to pay for his studies. And still the young man fretted about the years of hard study ahead and the purpose of the 613 commandments of the Torah. "Surely," he thought, "it would be better for the Torah to be lived?" He felt isolated from the talk and ideas of other young Jews and his thoughts returned many times to the crucifix in the home of his friend Stanislas. The person of Isaiah’s suffering servant of God continued to provoke questions about God, suffering, and, of course, the identity of the servant referred to by Isaiah. Rabbi in Rome Israel fell in with his mother’s plans and began studying, first in Poland, then Vienna and ending in Florence where he completed his rabbinical studies. Next he gained a professorship at the University of Padua. In 1918 he was appointed chief Rabbi of Trieste in Italy. It was the period between the wars and the political scene in Europe was rapidly assuming a sinister look. Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini took charge in Italy in 1922 and Hitler came into power in Germany eleven years later. Just as World War II broke out, Zolli moved from Trieste to Rome to take up the post of the city’s chief Rabbi. The Jews of Rome were confident they could survive any fallout from Fascism and Nazism and observed no safety precautions. But Zolli, knowing what was happening in Germany, predicted Hitler would soon occupy Italy. His warnings to Jews to destroy their records and go underground went unheeded. While the Italian army fought alongside the Germans things went reasonably well, but then the Allies invaded Italy and it wasn’t long before the Italian military called it a day. With the collapse of Mussolini’s regime in 1943 and Italy’s defection from the Axis, the Nazis immediately seized control of all Italian territory not in Allied hands and occupied Rome. The Nazis quickly established their usual routine: find the Jews, squeeze them for their wealth, and then deport them to death camps. Enter Colonel Kappler, a senior German officer who saw a chance to line his pockets. Kappler issued the Jewish community an ultimatum: either hand over 50 Kg of gold or, failing that, deliver 300 named hostages – a list headed by none other than Zolli himself. Within a short time the Jews managed to scrape together 35 Kg of gold but it was insufficient to satisfy Kappler’s monstrous appetite and so, on behalf of the Jewish community, Israel Zolli was deputed to approach the Vatican for the shortfall. This was his first contact with the institutional Church and it took place in secret since the Gestapo watched all Vatican City’s exits. Zolli met with the Vatican’s Secretary of State Cardinal Maglione and appealed to him saying, "The New Testament cannot abandon the Old." Maglione immediately approached Pius XII to help with the needed gold. The Pope agreed to the request and Zolli was told to return later for the "package." Not only did the Pope act with alacrity, the Catholic parishes of Rome hurriedly gathered together a further 15 Kg of gold, something Zolli found out about from his daughter when he returned home. For the time being, the hostage crisis was averted. That Pius XII played an enormous role in saving Jews from the Nazis was well known to Zolli. He was aware that monasteries and convents in Rome and all over Italy had opened their doors to Jews at the urging of the Pope. In addition, thousands more were being sheltered by ordinary Italian Catholic families, and both the

Vatican and the Pope’s summer residence in Castel Gandolfo were filled with Jews who had nowhere else to hide. Zolli, who met Pius XII, was impressed with the Pope’s open attitude and willingness to help. The Zolli family lived underground during the Nazi occupation of Rome and saw first hand the charity of the Church in action, inspired as it was by the personal courage of the pope, who did more than anyone else at that time to frustrate the arrest and execution of European Jews. Official Jewish sources cite a figure of 850,000 Jews saved as a result of the direct intervention of Pius XII, a fact that flies in the face of the current media smear campaign directed at Pius over his alleged failure to speak out publicly against Nazi Germany’s race policy. The Second Act In June 1944, an agreement was reached between the German and Allied High Commands; the German Army withdrew from Rome and the Allies occupied the city without a shot being fired. At the time the Jewish Community Council in Rome was full of collaborators and the American military wanted them out and Zolli back in control. But the very day he was asked to resume leadership of the Jewish Council, he confided to his Jesuit priest friend Father Dezza that he had other plans. "How can I continue living in this way when I think very often of Christ and how I love Him?" Zolli was then sixty-five years old, weary and wanting to retire. Four months later, while in the synagogue for the feast of Yom Kippur, Zolli received a vision in which Christ spoke to him saying, "You are here for the last time: from now on you will follow Me." For Israel Zolli there would be no going back. Relaxing at home that evening he was at first reluctant to mention what had happened but when he did his wife admitted that she to had seen the same vision of Christ standing next to him. Miriam, their eighteen-year-old daughter then told her parents that she had recently seen Jesus in a dream. Zolli saw it all as confirmation of what he should do and immediately resigned from the synagogue. He and his wife took instruction from a priest and were baptized within a year: Israel taking the additional step of changing his first name to Eugenio, the same Christian name as Pope Pius XII. Miriam converted a year after her parents. The Chief Rabbi of Rome converting to Catholicism was a big story in Italy, but the secular media tried to rationalize the matter. In his autobiography, Before The Dawn, Eugenio Zolli refuted all assertions that his conversion was out of gratitude to Pope Pius XII. Certainly he was extremely grateful for what the Pope had done to protect Jews, but the singular reason behind his conversion was his attraction to the person of Christ the Messiah – an attraction that had been growing steadily since Zolli’s childhood. Fifty years have elapsed since Zolli’s autobiography was first published in English and only within the last four years has Judith Cabaud’s well-researched book, Eugenio Zolli, Prophet of a New World (de Guibert, Paris 2000), been available, but not yet in English. However, in a recently published interview, Cabaud provided this perceptive insight into current relations between Jews and Christians. "Zolli's experience certainly has a great significance for Jews today, but also for Christians. In the first place, through his exegetical findings, we are led to understand that we do indeed have only one religion – the Judeo-Christian faith. It began with Judaism, in the Law and the Prophets: it continues today with the Catholic Church. The pivot is Jesus Christ, the Messiah for whom all religious Jews at that time were waiting and whom all Christians recognize as the Son of God… it is indispensable for the Church and her members to be more fully aware of their Jewish inheritance. It is in this way that Christianity assumes its permanence in the world. If not, we are only poor orphans who strive for good and truth without knowing who our parents were."… "If we listen to the message of Rabbi Zolli, I am sure that in searching for Truth on both sides, we could mend many of the wounds which have created this cruel separation between brothers.

The quest for Truth will and can enfold us together with all our diversity in the loving arms of our One and Eternal God."

After his conversion, Eugenio Zolli was given a post at the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Early in 1956 he contracted bronchopneumonia and was admitted to hospital. The week before his death, Zolli told a nun looking after him that like Our Lord he would die on the first Friday of the month at three o'clock in the afternoon. On Friday, March 2, 1956, after receiving Holy Communion in the morning, he drifted into a coma and died as he predicted, at 3.00 p.m.

Eugenio Zolli

Below is an extract from Rabbi Zolli’s article in the 1962 edition of the DICTONARY OF MORAL THEOLOGY by Cardinal Roberti Burnes & Oates





Christian Rabbi, The


by Wlodzimierz Redzioch
Rabbi Zolli (1881-1956) was one of the most remarkable men of the 20th century. A leading European Jewish intellectual, chief rabbi of Rome, he underwent a mystical conversion to Christianity — and was promptly forgotten. Reading through the recent history books of Italian Jews, one notes an extraordinary fact: these books speak little or not at all about a Jew, Israel Zolli, who throughout the crucial period of World War II was chief rabbi of Rome. Why has Rabbi Zolli's story been condemned to oblivion? The answer is quite simple: in 1945, Zolli asked to be baptized and, out of his profound respect for Pope Pius XII, decided to take as his new Christian name the first name of the Pope — Eugenio. The decision troubled many Jews and outraged some, not only those of the Roman Jewish community (for whom he was an "apostate") but also around the world. But Zolli's choice was also an embarrassment for some Catholic circles. In a word, the story of Eugenio Zolli, since it was both politically and theologically incorrect," has been expunged from the history books. Even in recent years, during the great debate over the alleged "silence" of Pope Pius XII during the persecution of the Jews, Zolli's case has remained hidden. Now this silence has been broken by Judith Cabaud, an American Jew who converted to Catholicism and now lives in France with her French husband. Her biography of Zolli first appeared in France and has just been published in Italy. Finally, someone has filled the missing gap in modern historiography. — Wlodzimierz Redzioch Would you tell us something about your life? JUDITH CABAUD: I was born in the United States into a Jewish family. My grandparents had emigrated from Poland and Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. Everyone practiced traditional Judaism without ever questioning its meaning. At the time of Passover, the youngest of the family would ask four ritual questions. This was a pretext for the oldest member of the family to explain the Books of Genesis and Exodus. However, I had other questions about what it meant to be a Jew. If we were the "chosen people" as I was told, what did God choose us for? Was it to accomplish something? How did the Law of the Torah fulfill this requirement? Why were Jews hostile to Gentiles? There were no satisfying answers to these questions and you were not even supposed to ask them. Then, I felt that my father's premature death was too heavy a price to pay for his success in business. I wanted to find a less materialistic purpose in life than to become a work addict, even for the best of reasons. My discovery of music showed me that another world did exist and my studies led me to take up literature, science and French. In 1960, in France, I read a lot of French writers, thinkers and philosophers. Blaise Pascal particularly fascinated me because he made it clear to me that there was a link between science and faith. He gave me answers to the questions I had had in my mind for such a very long time.


While trying to improve my French, I would go to Catholic churches to listen to sermons, as I would go to the theater to hear good texts. One day, something very strange struck me: I had the feeling that there was a link between the Passover meal and the Catholic Mass. Something warm and familiar came flowing out of that beautiful liturgy, especially from all those marks of adoration shown by the priest and the assembly — kneeling, praying with the same fear of offending God as the Jewish people who hardly dare to utter His Name. I learned that the Catholic Church had been saying this for the past 2,000 years. Then, by the grace of God, I realized that Jesus Christ is God, that the Old and the New Testaments were one and the same religion, Christianity being the continuation of ancient Judaism, and Christ being the Messiah announced by the prophets of old. Later on, I married a Frenchman and we raised nine children. I read an article about Eugenio Zolli by an American priest. Father Arthur Klyber, and I also read Zolli's autobiography Before the Dawn. But it was only when our son went to Rome to study at the French seminary that I had the occasion to find documents about Zolli and meet his daughter Miriam. I thought it would be necessary to write a book about him, but I hesitated for about 10 years because of all the polemical aspects of the story: the problem of World War II and Fascism. Who was Israel Zolli? CABAUD: He was born in 1881 in Brody, in Galicia (now Ukraine), a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time. His father had a textile factory in Lodz. At the end of the 19th century, this zone of Poland was occupied by the Russian Empire and measures were taken to confiscate all the factories belonging to foreigners, especially if they were Jews. Zolli's family was reduced to poverty. They moved to Stanislawow and there he began his studies. In order to earn the necessary money to do his university studies, Zolli had to give private lessons. He worked first in Vienna and then in Florence where he also did his rabbinical studies. He became professor at the University of Padua and was named vice-rabbi of Trieste. In 1918, he became chief rabbi of this city, which had just turned Italian, and Zolli opted for Italian nationality. After 1922, the Jewish community of Trieste was divided between Zionists who thought that the only solution for Jews was the state of Israel, and in those who wanted to collaborate with the Fascists because, they argued, the Fascists had no intention of harming the Jews. (It is true that Mussolini did nothing against the Jews until 1938. But even with the racial laws at that time by which they had to Italianize their names and many did lose their jobs, it was obviously nothing in comparison with Hitler's Nazi Germany.) Zolli tried to help both sides: he obtained passports and money for the Zionists who wished to go to Israel, and he helped those who collaborated with the Fascists in order to find them jobs. During this period, Zolli led a double life: the life of a rabbi who had to celebrate a certain number of rituals and exercises with his people, and the life of a writer and thinker. This latter work eventually brought him onto the road leading to Christ. He had always been attracted to the Gospel. As a young rabbi studying the Old Testament, he could not just stop at the end of it: so he continued, and read the New Testament. For him, it was the natural continuation of the Old. He had always been attracted to the figure of Christ on the cross in which he saw the evidence of His being the "Suffering Servant of God" spoken of by Isaiah. In 1938, he wrote The Nazarene in which he explored the exegetical problems concerning the relations between the Old and the New Testaments. I think, but I have no real proof of this, that this work was not appreciated by his people. In any case, it is probably one of the reasons why he was transferred to Rome and named chief rabbi

of this city. The former chief rabbi of Rome had left for the United States and the rabbinical college had been closed. In Rome, the majority of Jews thought that both Fascism and Nazism would blow over. After all, the Roman Jews had been in Rome for more than 2,000 years and the present problems seemed nothing in comparison with those that had occurred during the Roman Empire. When Zolli arrived in Rome, it was wartime. The Italians were Hitler's allies, but there was still no real discrimination against Jews in Italy. However, Zolli knew what was going on in Nazi Germany: he also was certain that Hitler would ultimately occupy Italy and that there would be trouble for Jews. In 1941, he tried to warn the Jewish community of Rome. He asked them to destroy the archives of the community members. But no one believed what he said and they did not trust him. Was he not a foreigner? What did he know about the Jews of Rome? They repeated that they had been there for more than 2,000 years. In September 1943, the Nazis invaded Rome, and Zolli wanted to immediately destroy all the files and send Jewish people into hiding. The head of the community still refused to do anything, saying it would only alarm the Jewish population. The first thing that happened is that Colonel Kappler wanted to take advantage of the situation for himself and he ordered the community to hand over 50 kg of gold. The ultimatum was: 50 kg or 300 hostages. The Jews managed to assemble 35 kg and a friend of Zolli's asked Zolli to go to the Vatican to ask for the missing quantity. This was his first contact with the institutional Church. In the Vatican, he was received by the administrator of the Holy See, Nogara. Zolli declared: "The New Testament cannot abandon the Old." Nogara was moved and went immediately to ask Pius XII for the missing gold. The Pope agreed on the spot and Zolli was asked to return in the afternoon to fetch the "package." In the meantime, Zolli's daughter informed him that 15 kg of gold had been assembled by the Catholic parishes of Rome. What was Zolli's attitude toward Pius XII? CABAUD: Zolli was a witness to the generosity of Pius XII. He knew that the Pope had ordered the monasteries and convents of Rome to open their doors to Jews. He knew that there were thousands of Jews being protected by Catholic families, also in the Vatican itself as well as in the Pope's residence in Castel Gandolfo. He was very struck by the openness of the Pope. Zolli lived during the whole war in Rome, not in the U.S. or in Switzerland, and he was an eyewitness to the action of the Church. Now we know, in fact, that during the war, Pius XII saved more Jews than any other person at that time. What happened to Rabbi Zolli after the liberation of Rome? CABAUD: In June 1944, the Americans arrived in Rome. Colonel Poletti. an Italo-American commander of the American army, asked to dissolve the Jewish community council by saying: "Get all these collaborators out and give me Zolli back." But Zolli was now 65 years old, quite tired and on the point of retiring. In fact, Father Dezza, the Jesuit General, said that on August 15, 1944, Zolli had come to him and said: "How can I continue living in this way when I think very often of Christ and I love Him?" In October 1944, he had an extraordinary experience, which was to be decisive: on the holy day of Yom Kippur, he was in the synagogue in contemplation and suddenly, in a vision, Christ said to him: "You are here for the last time: from now on you will follow Me." That was it. Zolli was profoundly moved. At home that evening, he did not want to say anything to his family, but his wife told him that while he was celebrating in the synagogue, she too had seen a figure of Christ next to him. His daughter Miriam, who was

then 18, added that she had seen Jesus in a dream. For Rabbi Zolli it was the last sign he needed. He resigned from the synagogue and asked a priest to give him instruction in view of entering the Church. He was baptized in 1945 and took the Christian name of Eugenio in honor of Pius XII.

What can be the significance of Zolli's experience for Christians and for Jews? CABAUD: Zolli's experience certainly has a great significance for Jews today, but also for Christians. In the first place, through his exegetical findings, we are led to understand that we do indeed have only one religion — the Judeo-Christian faith. It began with Judaism, in the Law and the Prophets: it continues today with the Catholic Church. The pivot is Jesus Christ, the Messiah for whom all religious Jews at that time were waiting and whom all Christians recognize as the Son of God. Present-day Judaism does not take into account the duality of the old Judaic faith: it was composed of the Law written in the Torah which ensured all the necessary prescriptions of daily life, therefore the letter: and then it contained the Messianic Promise which was announced by the prophets. This was the spirit. These two components were fused together in the person and the teachings of Jesus Christ. From the Christian point of view, there is no turning back to ancient customs and laws which had been made for God's children before Christ. However, it is indispensable for the Church and her members to be more fully aware of their Jewish inheritance. It is in this way that Christianity assumes its permanence in the world. If not, we are only poor orphans who strive for good and truth without knowing who our parents were. If we contemplate Zolli's experience, we can see that the interreligious dialogue occurring today between Catholics and Jews is not satisfactory because, in reality, we are already one in the same Judeo-Christian religion. Zolli tells us to seek truth, on both sides, and to fight against ignorance. This obviously means that we should take ancient Judaism as it was and continue it. This is only possible in spirit. This spiritual logic brings us forward. And all men of good will naturally desire this continuity, for it's like wanting to see the second act of a play of which we have attended only the first act. The road to reconciliation between the older and younger brothers can come about by seeing the relationship, which exists between the Old and the New Testaments. Jews who become Christians are often seen in Jewish circles as traitors. Why? CABAUD: Today, Jews have a tendency to consider Judaism a way of life. And this way of life is a part of social community life. The result is that the importance of the community overrides that of the individual. Religion becomes more of a tribal concern than a personal relationship with God. In this way, the community determines one's behavior, and cultural identity is mistaken for religious identity. So, if one begins to act according to one's individual conscience, one is actually committing an act of treachery against the community norm. A Jew who chooses to become an agnostic, a Buddhist, a Hindu, a Muslim or a Communist (all options of social-religious identity) is truly betraying Jewish customs and rituals, while not engaging his inner spiritual self: whereas, on the other hand, a Jew who becomes a Catholic is guilty of rejecting social exterior behavior, but also adopts a spiritual allegiance to Christ, the Son of God, who represents the epitome of Jewish conscience. In the United States, many Jews who have witnessed the decline of their religious faith due in part to assimilation, have resorted to claiming the Holocaust perpetrated during World War Two as a source of religious identity. In this, no reference to God can be stronger for them than the attraction of human bonds. The circle of general confusion is then widened to the false responsibility of the Catholic Church, which has been greatly

exploited by the media on ignorant public opinion. I think this recent development is a very important part of the long misunderstanding that has existed between Jews and Christians for the past 2,000 years. If we listen to the message of Rabbi Zolli, I am sure that in searching for Truth on both sides, we could mend many of the wounds which have created this cruel separation between brothers. The quest for Truth will and can enfold us together with all our diversity in the loving arms of our One and Eternal God.