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MAMGERS GRAMMAR

MODALS

SHOULD45/OUGHT TO
DUTY, RESPONSIBILITY (grev, sorumluluk) NECESSITY (gereklilik) SUGGESTION (tavsiye-neri) PROBABILITY UNHAPPENED EXPECTATION : (PRESENT) gereklememi beklenti. [should be Ving] OFFER, ASKING APPROVAL (teklifte bulunma, onay isteme) [Should we or I]

"Should I apologize to him?" "Yes, I think you should." You should be ashamed of yourselves. There should/ought to be an investigation into the cause of the disaster. This computer isn't working as it should/ought to You should / ought to give him a chance. I enjoyed the first novel, so the new one should / ought to be good. She should be preparing the breakfast now. But she is sleeping instead.46 It's rather cold in here. Should/Shall I (= Do you want me to) turn the heating on? Shall/should I put these books over there? If you should change your mind, let me know.47 Should anyone call, please tell them Im busy. (Birileri ararsa, ltfen megul olduumu syleyin)48 In case you should need my help, here is my number.49 She gripped her sons arm lest he should be trampled by the mob.50 I was just getting off the bus when who should I see but my old school friend Pat!51

LESS POSSIBILITY (dk ihtimal) IF, IN CASE, FOR FEAR THAT veya LEST cmlelerinde

SURPRISE (arma)

SHOULD HAVE V3
NECESSITY (gereklememi gerekliliksorumluluk-ykmllk) (PAST) EXPECTATION (beklenti)54 (FUTURE) SURPRISE (arma)

I had a test this morning. I did not do well. I should have studied last night.52 My back hurts. I should not have carried that heavy box.53 The builders should/ought to have finished by the end of the week.55 You should have seen her face when she found out we were kidding. 56

EXTRAS a) British Englishte I ve WEden sonra would yerine [FORMAL and RARE]
I should like a whisky before I go to bed. (=I would like a whisky)

b) That clausedan nce, tavsiye, aciliyet veya nem belirten bir yklem, bir isim veya bir sfat varsa that clauseun yklemi her koulda bare infinitive olur veya nne SHOULD gelir. Bkz. SUBJUNCTIVE
She recommended that Mr. Smith (should) take some time off. In order that training (should) be effective it must be planned systematically.

c) OUGHT TO bitiiktir, gemii OUGHT TO HAVE V3 eklinde yaplr. NOT, ought ile to arasnda yer alr:
Such things ought not to be allowed. [ought not to] He oughtnt to have been driving so far. [ought not to have V3]

Ayrca bkz. SUBJUNCTIVE in THAT CLAUSE u anda kahvalt hazrlyor olmalyd ama onun yerine uyuyor. 47 Olur da fikrini deitirisen haberim olsun. 48 SHOULD ile balayan cmle bir soru cmlesi deilse, TYPE I formatnda bir if-clausedur. Bkz CONDITIONALS veya INVERSION (devrik yaplar.) 49 te numaram, olur ya yardmma ihtiyacn olur. 50 Kalabalkta inenmesin diye olunun kolunu skca tuttu. 51 Tam otbsten iniyordum ki kimi greyim, eski okul arkadam Pat 52 Dn gece almam gerekirdi. 53 Srtm aryor. O ar kutuyu tamam gerekirdi. 54 Beklenti anlam vermesi iin gelecei gsterir bir zarfla birlikte kullanlmal. E anlamls BE SUPPOSED TO 55 naatlar hafta sonu itibariyle ilerini bitirmi olurlar / diye bekliyorum 56 aka yaptmz farkettiinde yznn halini grmeliydin.
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MAMGERS GRAMMAR

MODALS

BE

ACCUSTOMED TO ST FAMILIAR WITH DOING ST

(alkn olmak, bilmek, accustomed to kalbnda BE yerine zaman zaman get ve become da kullanlr. 99 Im accustomed to tradition in this part of the world. Are you familiar with the computer software they use? GENEL BR TASNF

NOT: GONNA= going to, GOTTA= have got to, WANNA= want to

should ought to shouldnt oughtnt may might could may not

have V3 Yapmas gerekiyordu

They ought to have arrived at lunchtime but the flight was delayed.100 He shouldnt have missed such a detail; he is the expert.101

have V3 Yapmamas gerekiyordu

have V3 Yapm olabilir

The fossil data suggest very tenuously that homo saphiens may have come to exist earlier that we believe.102 These cracks may not have formed after the earthquake; there may have been thousands of reasons else.103 Depending on these clear differences, I insist that bird lungs 104 cannot have evolved from reptile-lungs.

have V3 Yapmam olabilir might not could not cannot could have V3 might Yapabilirdi (ama yapmad) [varsaymsal] Yapm olmal / Yapmam olsa gerek Yapmam olmal / Yapmam olsa gerek [sadece AmEde; BrE dengi cannot have V3] Yapmas gerekmiyordu aslnda (ama yapt) [didnt need todan fark iin bkz. NEED] have V3 Yapm olamaz

I could have saved her life, but he denied my help.

105

must

have V3

Since they coped with the recent crisis very well, they must have forecast it in advance and become prepared.106
She had waved, but they mustn't have seen her as they kept going without stopping to say 'hello'.107

must not

have V3

neednt

have V3

We needn't have mentioned it - they already knew.108

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Dnyann bu ksmndaki geleneklere alknm. le yemeine burada olmalar gerekiyordu ama uaklar rtar yapm. 101 Bylesine bir ayrnty karmamas gerekiyordu, uzman olan o. 102 Fosil verileri belli belirsiz Homo Saphienin sandmzdan daha nce ortaya km olabileceini gsteriyor. 103 Bu atlaklar depremden sonra olumam olabilir: (bunlara yol aabilecek) daha binlerce sebep olabilir. 104 Bu ak farkllklara dayanarak srarla sylyorum ki; ku cierleri srngen cierlerinden evrimlemi olamaz. 105 Hayatn kurtarabilirdim, ama yardm almay kabul etmedi. 106 Yeni krizle ok iyi baa ktklarna gre, nceden tahmin etmi ve hazrlanm olmallar. 107 El sallad fakat merhaba demek iin durmayp gittiklerine gre kendisini grmemi olmallar. 108 Hatrlatmamz gerekmiyordu aslnda, zaten biliyorlarm.
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