You are on page 1of 67


Regulations 2008 Curriculum B.TECH. BIOTECHNOLOGY SEMESTER III

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subject Code MA1201 CH1203 HS1201 BT1201 BT1202 BT1203 BT1204 BT1205 BT1206 Subject Theory Transforms and Partial Differential Equations Principles of Chemical Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering Cell Biology Bioorganic Chemistry Biochemistry I Practical Cell Biology Laboratory Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory Biochemistry Laboratory 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 Total 2 2 2 25 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 3 3 3 3 L T P C

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subject Code MA1256 BT1251 BT1252 BT1253 BT1254 BT1255 BT1256 BT1257 BT1258 Subject Theory Probability and Statistics Basic Industrial Biotechnology Unit Operations Chemical Thermodynamics and Biothermodynamics Instrumental Methods of Analysis Microbiology Practical Chemical Engineering Laboratory Instrumental Methods of Analysis Laboratory Microbiology Laboratory 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 Total 2 2 2 25 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 3 3 3 3 L T P C

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subject Code BT1301 BT1302 BT1303 BT1304 BT1305 BT1306 BT1307 BT1308 BT1309 Subject Theory Mass Transfer Operations for Bioprocesses Bioprocess Principles Food Technology Enzyme Engineering and Technology Biochemistry II Molecular Biology Practical Mass Transfer Operations Laboratory Bioprocess Laboratory I Molecular Biology Laboratory 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 Total 2 2 2 27 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 3 4 3 3 L T P C

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subject Code GE1352 BT1351 BT1352 BT1353 E1**** E2**** BT1354 BT1355 HS1301 Subject Theory Process Economics and Industrial Management Genetic Engineering Bioprocess and Bioreactor Engineering Protein Structure, Function and Engineering Elective I Elective II Practical Genetic Engineering Laboratory Bioprocess Laboratory II Communication and Soft Skills Laboratory 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 3 Total 2 2 1 25 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 4 4 3 3 L T P C

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Subject Code BT1401 BT1402 BT1403 BT1404 E3**** E4**** BT1405 BT1406 BT1407 Subject Theory Bioethics and Biosafety Downstream Processing Computational Biology Immunology Elective III Elective IV Practical Downstream Processing Laboratory Computational Biology Laboratory Immunology Laboratory 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 Total 2 2 2 26 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 3 3 3 L T P C

S.No. 1 2 3 Subject Code MG1301 BT1451 BT1455 Subject Theory Total Quality Management Molecular Therapeutics Practical Project Work 0 0 12 Total 6 13 3 4 0 0 0 0 3 4 L T P C

S.No. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Subject Code BT1001 BT1002 BT1003 BT1004 BT1005 BT1006 BT1007 BT1008 BT1009 BT1010 BT1011 BT1012 BT1013 BT1014 BT1015 BT1016 Nanobiotechnology Bioconjugate Technology Process Equipment and Plant Design Spectroscopy for Biotechnology Elective II Biopharmaceuticals Developmental Biology Metabolic Engineering Molecular Pathogenesis Elective III Environmental Biotechnology Plant and Animal Biotechnology Genomics and Proteomics Molecular Modeling and Drug Design Elective IV Cancer Biology Cryopreservation in Biotechnology Biosensors and Transducers Technology Management 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 Subject Elective I 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 L T P C


Regulations 2008 Syllabus B.TECH. BIOTECHNOLOGY
SEMESTER III MA1201 TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS L T P C 3 1 0 4 UNIT I FOURIER SERIES 9 Dirichlets conditions General Fourier series Odd and even functions Half range sine series Half range cosine series Complex form of Fourier series Parsevals identity Harmonic analysis. UNIT II FOURIER TRANSFORMS 9 Fourier integral theorem (without proof) Fourier transform pair Sine and Cosine transforms Properties Transforms of simple functions Convolution theorem Parsevals identity. UNIT III PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9 Formation of partial differential equations Lagranges linear equation Solutions of standard types of first order partial differential equations Linear partial differential equations of second and higher order with constant coefficients. UNIT IV APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9 Solutions of one-dimensional wave equation One-dimensional equation of heat conduction Steady state solution of two-dimensional equation of heat conduction (Insulated edges excluded) Fourier series solutions in cartesian coordinates. UNIT V Z -TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS 9 Z-Transforms Elementary properties Inverse Z-Transforms Convolution theorem Formation of difference equations Solution of difference equations using Z-Transform. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOK 1. Grewal B.S, Higher Engineering Mathematic, 14th Edition, Khanna Publishers, 2007. REFERENCES 1. Bali N.P and Goyal M., A Textbook of Engineering Mathematic, 7th Edition, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., 2007. 2. Ramana B.V., Higher Engineering Mathematics, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publishing Company Ltd., 2007. 3. Glyn J., Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2007. 4. Kreyszig E., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 8th Edition, Wiley India, 2007.


T 0

P 0

C 3

UNIT I OVERVIEW OF PROCESS INDUSTRY 9 Mass and energy conservation Process automation Environment SI units Conservation factors Applied mathematics for experimental curve fitting Numerical differentiation Integration. UNIT II MATERIAL BALANCES 9 Overall and component balances Material balances without and with chemical reactions Degrees of freedom Steady and unsteady state Unit operations Recycle and by pass Humidity calculations. UNIT III FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 9 Energy balances Sensible heat Latent heat Vapour pressure Steady and unsteady state calculations. UNIT IV FLUID MECHANICS 9 Fluids Fluid statics and applications in chemical engineering Fluid flow Laminar Turbulent Pressure drops Compressible fluid flow concepts Multiphase flow concepts. UNIT V FLOW THROUGH PACKED COLUMNS Fluidization Centrifugal and piston pumps Characteristics Compressors Work. 9

Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Bhatt, B.I. and Vora S.M., Stoichiometry, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2004. 2. McCabe W.L., Smith J.C. and Harriot P., Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005. REFERENCES 1. Geankoplis C.J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2007. 2. Coulson J.M. and Richardson J. F., Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Vol-I, 3rd Edition, Butterworth Heinemann Publishers, 2004. 3. Venkataramani, V. and Anantharaman, N., Process Calculations, Prentice Hall, 2004.


INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES 9 Definition, scope and importance Need for public awareness Forest resources Use and over Exploitation Deforestation Case studies Timber extraction Mining Dams and their ground water Floods Drought Conflicts over water Dams Benefits and problems Mineral resources Use effects on forests and tribal people Water resources Use and overutilization of surface and exploitation Environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources Case studies Food resources World food problems Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing Effects of modern agriculture Fertilizer Pesticide problems Water logging, salinity Case studies Energy resources Growing energy needs Renewable and non renewable energy sources Use of alternate energy sources Case studies Land resources Land as a resource Land degradation Man induced landslides Soil erosion and desertification Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 9 Concepts of an ecosystem Structure and function of an ecosystem Producers, consumers and decomposers Energy flow in the ecosystem Ecological succession Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (A) Forest ecosystem (B) Grassland ecosystem (C) Desert ecosystem (D) Aquatic ecosystems (Ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) Introduction to biodiversity Definition genetic, species and ecosystem diversity Biogeographical classification of India Value of biodiversity Consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values Biodiversity at global, national and local levels India as a mega-diversity nation Hot-spots of biodiversity Threats to biodiversity: Habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, manwildlife conflicts Endangered and endemic species of India Conservation of biodiversity: Insitu and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. UNIT III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 9 Definition Causes, effects and control measures of:- (A) Air pollution (B) Water pollution (C) Soil pollution (D) Marine pollution (E) Noise pollution (F) Thermal pollution (G) Nuclear hazards Solid waste management:- Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes Role of an individual in prevention of pollution Pollution case studies disaster management:- Floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 9 From unsustainable to sustainable development Urban problems related to energy Water conservation, Rain water harvesting, Watershed management Resettlement and rehabilitation of people, Its problems and concerns, case studies Environmental ethics:- Issues and possible solutions Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies Wasteland reclamation Consumerism and waste products Environment production act Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) act Wildlife protection act Forest conservation act Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation Public awareness.

UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 9 Population growth, variation among nations Population explosion Family welfare programme Environment and human health Human rights Value education HIV /AIDS Women and child welfare Role of information technology in environment and human health Case studies. Field study of local area to document environmental assets River/forest/grassland/hill/ mountain. Field study of common plants, insects and birds - Field study of simple ecosystems Pond, river, hill slopes, etc. Field study of local polluted site Urban/rural/industrial/agricultural. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Masters, M., Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., 2004. 2. Trivedi, R.K. and Goe, P.K., Introduction to Air Pollution, Techno-Science Publications, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd, 2006 2. Cunningham, Cooper, W.P. and Gorhani. T.H., Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publications, 2001. 3. Wager, K.D., Environmental Management, W.B. Saunders Co., 1998.

BT1201 CELL BIOLOGY L T 3 0 P 0 C 3

UNIT I CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE ORGANELLES 9 Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Principles of membrane organization Membrane proteins Cytoskeletal proteins Types of cell division Mitosis and meiosis Extra cellular matrix Cell cycle and molecules that control cell cycle. UNIT II TRANSPORT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES 9 Passive and active transport Permeases Sodium potassium pump Ca2+ ATPase pumps Lysosomal and vacuolar membrane ATP dependent proton pumps Co-transport symport Antiport Transport into prokaryotic cells Endocytosis and exocytosis Entry of viruses and toxins into cells. UNIT III RECEPTORS AND MODELS OF EXTRA CELLULAR SIGNALLING 9 Cytosolic Nuclear and membrane bound receptors Examples of receptors Autocrine, paracrine and endocrine models of action Quantitation and characterisation of receptors. UNITIV SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION 9 Signal amplification Different models of signal amplifications Cyclic AMP Role of inositol phosphates as messengers Biosynthesis of inositol tri phosphates Cyclic GMP and G proteins Role in signal transduction Calcium ion flux and its role in cell signaling Current models of signal amplification Phosphorylation of protein kinases Regulation of protein kinases Serine-threonine kinases, Tumor necrosis factor receptor families. UNIT V CELL CULTURE 9 Techniques for the propagation of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Cell line Generation of cell lines Maintenance of stock cells Characterization of cells Immunochemistry Morphological analysis techniques in cell culture Ex-plant cultures primary cultures Contamination Differentiation Three dimensional cultures Role of matrix in cell growth. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Darnell J., Lodish H., Baltimore D., Molecular Cell Biology, W.H. Freeman, 2003. 2. Kimball J.W., Cell Biology, 2nd Edition, Wesley Publishers, 1978. REFERENCES 1. Robertis De E.D.P. and Robertis De E.M.F., Cell and Molecular Biology, 8th Edition, B.I. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 2005. 2. Bruce A., Dennis B., Karen H., Alexander J., Julian L., Keith R. and Peter W., Essential Cell Biology, 2nd Edition, Garland Science, 2004. 3. Watson J.D., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd Edition, Garland Publication, 1989.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES 9 Classification of enzymes Mechanisms of enzyme action Concept of active site and energetics of enzyme substrate complex formation Specificity of enzyme action Stereochemistry R,S notation Re-si faces E,Z isomerism Conformers Ethane Cyclohexane Reactivates Mechanisms of SN1, SN2 reactions, E1, E2 reactions Ester formation and hydrolysis, reaction rates Hammond's postulate h/d effects Catalysis General acid Base and covalent catalysis. UNIT II KINETICS OF ENZYME ACTION 9 Allosteric regulation of enzymes Monod-wyman-changeux model pH and temperature effect on enzymes and deactivation kinetics Stereospecific enzymatic reactions Stereochemistry of nucleophilic reactions Chiral methyl group Chiral phosphate. UNIT III ENZYME IMMOBILIZATION AND CASE STUDIES OF ENZYME STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM 9 Physical and chemical techniques for enzyme immobilization Adsorption, matrix entrapment, encapsulation, cross-linking, covalent binding etc., examples, advantages and disadvantages Case studies include dehydrogenases, proteases Lysozyme Stability of proteins. UNIT IV KINETICS OF PROTEIN FOLDING 9 Kinetics of single substrate reactions Estimation of Michaelis-Menten parameters, multi substrate reactions Mechanisms and kinetics Turnover number Types of inhibition and models Substrate, product Folding of peptides. UNIT V FOLDING PATHWAYS AND ENERGY LANDSCAPES 9 Folding of CI2 Nucleation condensation mechanism Folding of barnase Time resolution Insights from theory Optimization of folding rates Molecular chaperones Production and purification of crude enzyme extracts from plant, animal and microbial sources Methods of characterization of enzymes Development of enzymatic assays. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Fersht A.R., Structure and Mechanism in Protein Science: A Guide to Enzyme Catalysis and Protein Folding, W.H. Freeman, 1999. 2. Blanch H.W. and Clark D.S., Biochemical Engineering, CRC Press, 1997. REFERENCES 1. Dugas H., Bioorganic Chemistry, Springer Verlag, 1999. 2. Lee J.M., Biochemical Engineering, Prentice Hall, 1991. 3. Bailey J.E. and Ollis D.F., Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill., 1986. 4. Wiseman A, Enzyme Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, Ellis Horwood Publication, 1985.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO BIOMOLECULES 9 Basic principles of organic chemistry, types of functional groups Biomolecules, chemical nature, water, pH and biological buffers. UNIT II STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF IMPORTANT BIOMOLECULES 9 Carbohydrates (mono, di, oligo and polysaccharides) Proteoglycans Glucosaminoglycans Mutarotation Glycosidic bond Reactions of monosaccharides Reducing sugars. Lipids: Fatty acids Glycerol Saponification Iodination Hydrogenation Phospholipids Glycolipids Sphingolipids Cholesterol Steroids Prostaglandins. Proteins: Amino acids Peptides Proteins Measurement, structures, hierarchy of organization Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures Glycoproteins Lipoproteins Determine of primary structure. Nucleic acids: Purines Pyrimidines Nucleoside Nucleotide RNA DNA Reactions, properties and measurement of nucleic acids Nucleoprotein complexes. UNIT III METABOLISM CONCEPTS 9 Functions of proteins Enzymes Introduction to biocatalysts Metabolic pathways, primary and secondary metabolites. UNIT IV INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM AND REGULATION 9 Glycolysis TCA cycle Gluconeogenesis Pentose phosphate shunt Glyoxalate shunt Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation Reactions of amino acids Deamination Transamination and decarboxylation Urea cycle Interconnection of pathways and metabolic regulation Case study on overproduction of glutamic acid, threonine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine and ethanol. UNIT V BIOENERGETICS 9 High energy compounds Electronegative potential of compounds Respiratory chain ATP cycle and calculation of ATP yield during oxidation of glucose and fatty acids. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Nelson D.L. and Cox M.M., Lehningers Principles of Biochemsitry, 4th Edition, W.H. Freemen and Co., 2005. 2. Stryer L., Biochemsitry, 4th Edition, W.H. Freeman and Co., 2000. REFERENCES 1. Horton R., Moran L.A., Serimgeour G., Perry M. and Rawn J.D., Principles of Biochemistry, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005. 2. Voet D. and Voet, J.G., Biochemistry, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2004. 3. Murray R.K., Harpers Biochemistry, 23rd Edition, Prentice Hall International, 1993.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Introduction to principles of sterile techniques and cell propagation Principles of microscopy, phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy Identification of given plant, animal and bacterial cells and their components by microscopy Grams staining Leishman staining Thin layer chromatography Giemsa staining Separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from blood Osmosis and tonicity Tryphan blue assay Staining for different stages of mitosis in Allium Cepa (Onion) Total: 60 REFERENCE 1. Laboratory Investigations in Cell and Molecular Biology, Allen Bregman Wiley, 2001. EQUIPMENTS / APPARATUS Microbiological Hood for sterilization with UV lighting (One). Bunsen Burners 10 Nos. Orbital Shaker and Incubator 2 Nos. Refrigerator 1 No. Microscope 2 Nos. Reagents and consumables Required amount.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Synthesis of aspirin Hydrolysis of sucrose Preparation of pyruvic acid Preparation of oleic acid Preparation of -D- glucopyranose pentaacetate Preparation of 1,2,5,6 dicyclohexylnoine -D-glucofuranose Isolation of lycopene from tomato paste Preparation of L-proline Preparation of L-cysteine from hair Preparation of S-ethyl hydroxybutonate from ethyl acetoacetate using yeast Resolution of S-ethyl hydroxybutonate using 3,5 dinitrobenzoate. Preparation of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakisphenyl porphyrin. Total: 60 REFERENCE 1. Fummis B.S., Hannaford A.J., Smith P.W.G., Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry, Longman Edition, 1995.


Heating Mantles (Nos. 5) / Water baths (Nos. 5) / Bunsen Burners (Nos. 15) Round bottom flasks of various volumes (100ml, 500 ml, 250 ml Nos.5) condensers (Nos. 5), Distillation units (Nos. 2). Reagents and consumables.

BT1206 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY L T 0 0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Demonstration of use of volume and weight measurements devices. Titration of weak acid-weak base. Quantitative test for carbohydrates Distinguish reducing and non-reducing sugars. Using ninhydrin for distinguishing imino and amino acids Protein estimation by Biuret and Lowrys methods. Protein estimation by Bradfords colorometric methods. Extraction of lipids and analysis by TLC. Estimation of nucleus ends by absorbance at 260 nm and hyperchromicity. Enzymatic assay of phosphates. Hydrolysis of starch by an enzyme Total: 60 REFERENCES 1. 2. Wilson and Walker Principles and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry 4th Education, Cambridge Knew pros 1997. Plummer DT An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry 3rd Education, Tata McGrawhill. P 4 C 2


Heating Mantles (5) / Water Baths (5) / Bunsen Buners (10) TLC Plates Required Numbers Colorimeter 2 Nos. Consumables and Reagents.



UNIT I RANDOM VARIABLES 9 Discrete and continuous random variables Properties Moments Moment generating functions and their properties Binomial distribution Poisson distribution Geometric distribution Negative binomial distribution Uniform distribution Exponential distribution Gamma distribution Weibull distribution. UNIT II TWO DIMENSIONAL RANDOM VARIABLES 9 Joint distributions Marginal and conditional distributions Covariance Correlation and Regression Function of a random variable Transformation of random variables Central limit theorem. UNIT III TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS 9 Sampling distributions Testing of hypothesis for mean Variance Proportions and differences using normal distribution T-distribution Chi-square distribution F-distribution Tests for independence of attributes Goodness of fit. UNIT IV DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS 9 Analysis of variance One-way classification CRD Two-way classification RBD Latin square. UNITV RELIABILTY AND QUALITY CONTROL 9 Concepts of reliability Hazard functions Reliability of series and parallel systems Control charts for measurements (X and R charts) Control charts for attributes (p, c and np charts).

L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Milton, J.S. and Arnold, J.C., Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Tata McGraw Hill, 4th Edition, 2007. 2. Johnson, R.A. and Gupta, C.B., Miller and Freunds Probability and Statistics for Engineers, 7th Edition, Pearson Education, Asia, 2007. REFERENCES 1. Walpole, R.E., Myers, R.H., Myers, R.S.L. and Ye. K, Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, 7th Edition, Pearsons Education, 2002 2. Navidi, W., Statistics for Engineers and Scientists, Special Indian Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2008. 3. Spiegel, M.R., Schiller, J. and Alu Srinivasan, R., Schaums Outlines Probability and Statistics, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2007.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL BIOPROCESS 9 A historical overview of industrial fermentation process Traditional and modern biotechnology A brief survey of organisms, processes, products relating to modern biotechnology Process flow sheeting Block diagrams, pictorial representation. UNIT II PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES 9 A brief outline of processes for the production of some commercially important organic acids (citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid) Amino acids (glutamic acid, phenyalanine, aspartic acid) and alcohols (ethanol, butanol). UNIT III PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES 9 Study of production processes for various classes of secondary metabolites Antibiotics: betalactams (penicillin, cephalosporin) Aminoglycosides (streptomycin) macrolides (erythromycin), vitamins and steroids. UNIT IV PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES AND OTHER BIOPRODUCTS 9 Production of industrial enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipases, cellulases Production of biopesticides, biofertilisers, biopreservatives (Nisin), cheese, biopolymers (xanthan gum, PHB), single cell protein. UNIT V PRODUCTION MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS 9 Production of recombinant proteins having therapeutic and diagnostic applications Production of vaccines Production of monoclonal antibodies Products of plant and animal cell culture. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Casida Jr, L.E., Industrial Microbiology, Wiley, 1968. 2. Presscott S.C. and Dunn C.G., Industrial Microbiology, 4th Edition, AVI Publications, 1982. REFERENCES 1. Cruger W., Crueger A. and Brock T. D., Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Sinauer Associates, 1990. 2. Moo-Young M., Comprehensive Biotechnology: The Principles, Applications, and Regulations of Biotechnology in Industry, Agriculture, and Medicine, Pergamon, 1985.


UNIT I MIXING AND AGITATION 9 Dimensional analysis Power for agitation Agitation of liquids Gas-liquid systems Gassolid suspensions Agitator scale up. UNIT II FILTRATION 9 Constant pressure Constant volume batch filtration Continuous filtration Industrial filters Settling and sedimentation Centrifugation. UNIT III MECHANISM OF HEAT TRANSFER 9 Steady state conduction Combined resistances Unsteady state conduction Lumped heat capacity Extended surfaces Combined conduction and convection. UNIT IV CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER 9 Dimensional analysis Forced and natural convection Convection in flow over surfaces through pipes boiling and condensation. UNIT V HEAT EXCHANGERS 9 Equipments Overall heat transfer coefficients Design of heat exchangers NTU concept Evaporators Single and multiple effects Mass and enthalpy balances. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Geankoplis, C. J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2007. 2. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C. and Harriott, P., Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005. REFERENCES 1. Incropera, F.P., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley, 1998. 2. Coulson, M. and Richardson J.F., Coulson and Richardsons Chemical Engineering", Vol 2, 4th Edition, Butterworth Heineman, 2004. 3. Kern, D.Q., Process Heat Transfer Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.

BT1253 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND BIOTHERMODYNAMICS L T P C 3 0 0 3 UNIT I THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS 9 Volumetric properties of fluids exhibiting non ideal behavior Residual properties Estimation of thermodynamic properties using equations of state Calculations involving actual property exchanges Maxwells relations and applications. UNIT II SOLUTION THERMODYNAMICS 9 Partial molar properties Concepts of chemical potential and fugacity Ideal and non-ideal solutions Concepts and applications of excess properties of mixtures Activity coefficient Composition models Gibbs Duhem equation. UNIT III PHASE EQUILIBRIA 9 Criteria for phase equilibria VLE calculations for binary and multi component systems Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) and solid-solid equilibria (SLE). UNIT IV CHEMICAL REACTION EQUILIBRIA 9 Equilibrium criteria for homogeneous chemical reactions Evaluation of equilibrium constant Effect of temperature and pressure on equilibrium constant Calculation of equilibrium conversion and yields for single and multiple reactions. UNIT V THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES 9 Concept of lost work Entropy generation Calculation of real irreversible processes Power cycle Liquefaction. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Smith, J.M., Van Ness H.C. and Abbott M., Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Edition, Tata McGraw- Hill, 2001. 2. Narayanan, K.V., A Text Book of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Prentice Hall India, 2001. REFERENCES 1. Sandler, S.I., Chemical, Biochemical and Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2006. 2. Haynie, D.T., Biological Thermodynamics, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2008. 3. Nicholls, D.G. and Ferquson, S.J., Bioenergetics 3, 2nd Edition, Elsevier Science Ltd., 2002.


UNIT I BASICS OF MEASUREMENT 9 Classification of methods Calibration of instrumental methods Electrical components and circuits Signal to noise ratio Signal-noise enhancement. UNIT II OPTICAL METHODS 9 General design Sources of radiation Wavelength selectors Sample containers Radiation transducers Types of optical instruments Fourier transform measurements. UNIT III MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY 9 Measurement of transmittance and absorbance Beer's law Spectrophotometer analysis Qualitative and quantitative absorption measurements Types of spectrometers UV-visible IR Raman spectroscopy Instrumentation theory. UNIT IV THERMAL METHODS 9 Thermogravimetric methods Differential thermal analysis Differential scanning calorimetry. UNIT V SEPARATION METHODS 9 Introduction to chromatography Models Ideal separation Retention parameters VanDeemter equation Gas chromatography Stationary phases Detectors Kovats indices HPLC Pumps Columns Detectors Ion exchange chromatography Size exclusion chromatography Supercritical chromatography Capillary electrophoresis. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Willard, H.H., Merrit, L.L., Dean, J.A and Settle, F.A., Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 7th Edition, CBS Publishers, 1996. 2. Skoog, D.A., Holler, F.J. and Crouch, S.R., Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 6th Edition, Thomson Brooks, 2006. REFERENCES 1. Sharma B.K., Instrumental Methods Of Chemical Analysis, Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd., 2007. 2. Gremlich, H. and Yan, B., Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Materials, CRC Press, 2000. 3. Wetzel, D.L.B. and Charalambous, G., Instrumental Methods in Food and Beverage Analysis, Vol. 39, Elsevier, 1998.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Basic of microbial existence History of microbiology Classification and nomenclature of microorganism, microscopic examination of microorganisms, light and electron microscopy; principles of different staining techniques like gram staining, acid fast, capsular staining, flagellar staining. UNIT II MICROBES-STRUCTURE AND MULTIPLICATION 9 Structural organization and multiplication of bacteria, viruses, algae and fungi Life history of actinomycetes, yeast, mycoplasma and bacteriophage. UNIT III MICROBIAL NUTRITION, GROWTH AND METABOLISM 9 Nutritional requirements of bacteria and different media used for bacterial culture Growth curve and different methods to quantifying bacterial growth Aerobic and anaerobic bioenergetics Utilization of energy for biosynthesis of important molecules. UNIT IV CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS 9 Physical and chemical control of microorganisms Host-microbe interactions Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral agents, mode of action and resistance to antibiotics Clinically important microorganisms. UNIT V INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 9 Primary and Secondary metabolites and their applications Preservation of food Production of penicillin, alcohol, vit.b-12 Biogas Bioremediation Leaching of ores by microorganisms Bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides Microorganisms and pollution control Biosensors. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Talaron, K.P., Foundations in Microbiology, 6th Edition, Rex Bookstore, 2007. 2. Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krein, N.R., Microbiology, Tata McGraw-Hill,1993. 3. Prescott, L.M., Harley J.P.and Klein, D.A., Microbiology, 3rd Edition, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1996. REFERENCES 1. Garrity, G., Brenner D.J., Krieg, N.R., Staley, J.T., Boone, D.R., Vos P.D., Godfellow M., Rainey F.A. and Schleifer, K.H., Bergeys Manual of Systemic Bacteriology Vol. II, Part C, 2nd Edition, Springer Science and Business Media Inc., 2005. 2. Ray, B., Fundamental Food Microbiology, 3rd Edition, CRC Press LLC, 2003. 3. Lim, D., Microbiology, 2nd Edition, WCB-Mc Graw Hill, 2001.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Flow measurement 2. Pressure drop in pipes and packed columns 3. Fluidization 4. Filtration 5. Heat exchanger 6. Simple and steam distillation 7. Distillation in packed column 8. Liquid-liquid equilibria in extraction 9. Adsorption equilibrium Total: 60


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Precision and validity in an experiment using absorption spectroscopy and validating Lambert-Beer's law using KMnO4 2. Finding the molar absorbtivity and stoichiometry of the Fe (1,10-phenanthroline)3 using absorption spectrometry. 3. Finding the pKa of 4-nirophenol using absorption spectroscopy. 4. UV spectra of nucleic acids. 5. Estimation of sulphate by nephelometry. 6. Estimation of Al3+ by flourimetry. 7. Chromatography analysis using TLC and Column chromatography. 8. Limits of detection of colorimeter using aluminum-alizarin complex. 9. Jobs plot for funding stoichiometery of iron salicylate complex. 10. UV spectra of proteins. Total: 60

REFERENCE 1. Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, AI Vogal, ELBS edition 1987.

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS UV VIS Spectrophotometer, Fluorimeter (optional). TLC chamber (common to biochemistry) Reagents and consumables Measuring cylinders, bathometric flasks of various volumes.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Laboratory safety and sterilization techniques 2. Microscopic methods in the identification of microorganisms 3. Preparation of culture media nutrient broth and nutrient agar 4. Culturing of microorganisms in broth and in plates (pour plates, streak plates, isolation and preservation of bacterial cultures) 5. Staining techniques Gram's and differential 6. Quantification of microorganisms. 7. Effect of disinfectants on microbial flora 8. Isolation and identification of microorganisms from different sources soil, water and milk 9. Antibiotic sensitivity assay 10. Growth curve Observation and growth characteristics of bacteria and yeast 11. Effect of different parameters on bacterial growth (pH, temperature & UV irradiation) Total: 60 REFERENCE 1. Micro Biology: Laboratory Theory and applications, M.J. Heboffee aw BE Pierce Morten Publishing House, 2006.

EQUIPMENTS / APPARATUS Microbiological Hood for sterilization with UV lighting (One). Bunsen Burners 15 Nos. Orbital Shaker and incubator 2 Nos. Refrigerator 1 No. Reagents and consumables Required amount.



P 0

C 4

UNIT I DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER 12 Molecular diffusion in fluids and solids Interphase mass transfer Mass transfer coefficients Analogies in transport phenomena Mass generation Enzymatic reactions, plant root nutrient uptake and bacterial growth rate. UNIT II GAS LIQUID OPERATIONS 12 Principles of gas absorption Single and multi component absorption Absorption with chemical reaction Design principles of absorbers Industrial absorbers HTU, NTU and HETP concepts Oxygen uptake rate in cell cultures Oxygen transfer in fermenters Measurement methods for kLa in fermenters. UNIT III VAPOUR LIQUID OPERATIONS 12 Vapour liquid equilibrium Methods of distillation - Simple, steam, flash distillation, azeotropic, extractive and molecular distillation Continuous distillation McCabe-Thiele method, principles Industrial distillation equipments. UNIT IV EXTRACTION OPERATIONS 12 L-L equilibrium Staged and continuous extraction Solid-liquid equilibrium Leaching principles. UNIT V SOLID FLUID OPERATIONS 12 Adsorption equilibrium Batch and fixed bed adsorption Drying-mechanism Drying curves Time of batch drying Equipments for batch and continuous dryers. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Johnson, A.T., Biological Process Engineering: An Analogical Approach to Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer Applied to Biological Systems, Wiley-IEEE, 1998. 2. Treybal, R.E., Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1981. REFERENCES 1. Doran, P.M., Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Academic Press, 2005. 2. Geankoplis, C.J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003. 3. Coulson and Richardsons., Chemical Engineering, Vol. I and II, Asian Books Pvt. Ltd., 1998.


UNIT I OVERVIEW OF FERMENTATION PROCESSES 12 Fermentation process Medium requirements Medium formulation of optimal growth and product formation Simple and complex media Design of various commercial media for industrial fermentations Microbial growth Applications of fermentation Microbial biomass Microbial metabolites Microbial enzymes Transformation process Recombinant products Main parameters in fermentation processes Mode of operation of fermentation processes Basic configuration of fermenter and axillaries. UNIT II KINETICS OF IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES AND STERILIZATION 12 Methods of immobilization Kinetics of immobilized enzymes Thermal death kinetics of microorganisms Batch and continuous heat sterilization of liquid media Filter sterilization of liquid media Air sterilization and design of sterilization equipment. UNIT III METABOLIC STICHIOMETRY AND ENERGITICS 12 Stoichiometry of cell growth and product formation Elemental balances Degrees of reduction of substrate and biomass Available electron balances Yield coefficients of biomass and product formation Maintenance coefficients energetic analysis of microbial growth and product formation Oxygen consumption and heat evolution in aerobic cultures Thermodynamic efficiency of growth. UNIT IV KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCT FORMATION 12 Modes of operation Batch, fed batch and continuous cultivation Simple unstructured kinetic models for microbial growth Monad model Growth of filamentous organisms Product formation kinetics Leudeking-piret models, substrate and product inhibition on cell growth and product formation. UNIT V OPTIMIZATION METHODS 12 Overview of response surface methodology Factorial design Central composite design Three level design Plackett-Burman design and Taguchi design of experiments. L: 45 T: 45 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Blanch, H.W. and Clark, D.S., Biochemical Engineering, CRC Press, 1997. 2. Stanbury, P.F., Hall, S.J. and Whitaker, A., Principles of Fermentation Technology, 2nd Edition, Pergamon, 1995. REFERENCES 1. Jack P.C. Kleijnen, Design and Analysis of Simulation Experiments, Springer, 2008. 2. Anderson, M.J. and Whitcomb, P.J., RSM Simplified: Optimizing Processes Using Response Surface Methods for Design of Experiments, Productivity Press, 2005. 3. Roy, R.K., Design of Experiments Using the Taguchi Approach: 16 Steps to Product and Process Improvement, Wiley-IEEE, 2001. 4. Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F., Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2001.


UNIT I FOOD FERMENTATION 9 Technology of conventional and non-conventional fermentation based food products from cereals legumes, fruits, vegetables, milk, fish and meat Secondary fermentation of waste generated in selected food fermentation Pilot and large scale fermentation Continuous and batch culture process monitoring and control. UNIT II FOOD SPOILAGE 9 Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of food that affect microbial growth Microorganisms in food Fresh meats and poultry Processed meats and sea foods Vegetable and Fruits products Dairy and non dairy food products Miscellaneous food products. UNIT III MINIMAL FOOD PROCESSING BY THERMAL METHODS 9 Conduction Convection Radiation Aseptic and semi-aseptic processing Sous-vide processing Infrared heating Microwave heating Inductive electrical heating. UNIT IV MINIMAL FOOD PROCESSING BY NON-THERMAL METHODS 9 High pressure processing Principles, effects, applications, modeling of HP processes and microbiological aspects Pulsed electric field processing of solid foods, liquid foods and beverages Enzyme inactivation and food safety by pulsed electric fields Oscillating magnetic fields Osmotic dehydration High intensity pulsed light technology Radio frequency electric fields Ultrasound Irradiation of foods. UNIT V FOOD PRESERVATION AND TRANSGENIC FOOD 9 Natural food preservatives Food preservation with chemicals Low temperature High temperature Drying Modified atmospheric packaging Hurdle concepts Genetically modified food Beverage and non-beverage food products Food additives like colour, flavors and vitamins GMP in food industry. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Jay, J.M., Loessner, M.J. and Golden, D.A., Modern Food Microbiology, 7th Edition, Springer, 2005. 2. Bengtsson, N., Minimal Processing Technologies in the Food Industry, Woodhead Publishing, 2002. REFERENCES 1. Sun, D., Emerging Technologies for Food Processing, Academic Press, 2005. 2. Barbosa-Cnovas, G.V., Tapia, M.S. and Cano, M.P., Novel Food Processing Technologies, CRC Press, 2005. 3. Campbell, B., Clapton, B. and Tipton, C., Food Technology, Heinemann, 2002.

BT1304 ENZYME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY C 4 UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES 12 General properties of enzymes Mechanisms of enzyme action Concept of active site and energetic of enzyme substrate complex formation Specificity of enzyme action Principles of catalysis Collision theory, transition state theory Thermodynamics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. UNIT II ENZYME REACTIONS WITH SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SUBSTRATES 12 Kinetics of single-substrate enzyme reactions: Effects of substrate concentration on velocity The rapid equilibrium model of enzyme kinetics The steady state model of enzyme kinetics The significance of kcat and Km Experimental Measurement of kcat and Km Linear Transformations of Enzyme kinetic data Enzyme reactions with multiple substrates: Bi Bi reaction mechanisms Distinguishing between random and compulsory ordered mechanisms by inhibition pattern Isotope exchange studies for distinguishing reaction mechanisms. UNIT III ENZYME INHIBITION 12 Reversible inhibitors Modes and equilibrium treatment Graphic determination of inhibitor type Dose-response curves of enzyme inhibition Mutually exclusive binding of two inhibitors Structure-activity relationships and inhibitor design Tight binding inhibitors Inhibitor type Determining Ki for tight binding inhibitors Application over determination of active enzyme concentration Time-dependent inhibition Progress curves for slow binding inhibitors Distinguishing between slow binding schemes Distinguishing between modes of inhibitor interaction with enzyme Determining reversibility Examples of slow binding enzyme inhibitors. UNIT IV PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL ENZYMES 12 Alpha amylase Glucoamylase - Glucose isomerase Cellulase Pectinase Xylanase Lipase Protease Peroxidases Chitinase Invertases Mannanases. UNIT V APPLICATIONS OF ENZYMES 12 Applications of enzymes as bulk activities Laundry detergents, textiles, pulp and paper industry Applications of enzymes as catalysts Processes towards basic chemicals, fine chemicals, crop protection and large scale pharma intermediates Enzyme biosensors. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Pandey, A., Webb, C., Soccol, C. R. and Larroche, C., Enzyme Technology, Springer, 2006. 2. Copeland, R.A., Enzymes A Practical Introduction to Structure, Mechanism and Data Analysis, 2nd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 2000. REFERENCES 1. Buchholz, K., Kasche, V. and Bornscheuer, U.T., Biocatalysts and Enzyme Technology, Wiley-VCH, 2005. 2. Bommarius, A.S. and Rieben, B.R., Biocatalysis Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley-VCH, 2004. 3. Purich, D. and Allison, D.R., A Comprehensive Guidebook to Enzyme Nomenclature, Reactions and Methods, Academic Press, 2002. L 3 T 1 P 0


UNIT I METABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS 9 Nitrogen metabolism and urea cycle Biosynthesis of amino acids (Gly, Ser, Cys, Met, Thr, Lys, Ile, Val and Leu) Regulation of branched chain amino acids (concerted inhibition, allosteric regulation and enzyme multiplicity, sequential feed back) from oxaloacetate and pyruvate Biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids Metabolic disorders associated with branched chain and aromatic amino acid degradation Important molecules derived from amino acids (auxins, DOPA, Serotonian, porphyrins, T3, T4, Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, histamine, GABA, polyamines). UNIT II METABOLISM PROTEINS, VITAMIN AND HARMONES 9 Protein targeting Signal sequence Secretion Folding Chaperons and targeting of organelle proteins Protein degradation Receptor mediated endocytosis Turnover Vitamins (fat and water-soluble) Hormones (steroids like corticoids, amino acids derived like adrenaline and noradrenaline and peptides like insulin and growth hormone ). METABOLISM NUCLEIC ACIDS, POLYSACCHARIDES AND LIPIDS 9 Biosynthesis of nucleotides de novo and salvage pathways for purines and pyrimidines Regulatory mechanisms Degradation of nucleic acid by exo and endo nucleases Biosynthesis and degradation of starch and glycogen Biosynthesis and degradation of Lipids Fatty acid synthesis and oxidative degradation Triacylglycerol and phospholipid biosynthesis and degradation Cholesterol biosynthesis and regulation and targets and action of cholesterol lowering drugs. UNIT IV CYTOSKELETON 9 Eukaryotic cytoskeleton Actin Myosin Actin polymerization Acto-myosin complexes Mechanism of myosin ATPase activity Excitation-contraction coupling and relaxation Microtubules Microfilaments Intermediate filaments and their role in organelle movements Prokaryotic cytoskeleton FtsZ MreB ParM Crescentin. UNIT V BIOMEMBRANE, TRANSPORT AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY 9 Micelles Lipid bi-layer structure of membranes Membrane proteins Passive Careermediated and active transport Ion-selective channels Trans-membrane potential coupled ATP generation Receptors Acetylcholine receptor as a ligand gated ion-channel Neuronal sodium channel as voltage-gated ion channel Neurotransmitters and their mechanism of action Action potential Depolarization and nerve conduction Ion-channel agonists and antagonists as drugs Ion channel defects (Cystic Fibrosis) Total: 45 UNIT III

TEXT BOOKS 1. Champe P.C., Harvey R.A. and Ferrier D.R., Biochemistry, 4th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008. 2. Robert, K.M, Daryl., K.G. and Victor, W.R., Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry, 27th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006. REFERENCES 1. Horton, R., Moran, L. A., Serimgeour, G., Perry, M. and Rawn, J. D., Principles of Biochemistry, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2005. 2. Voet, D. and Voet, G., Biochemistry, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2004. 3. Devlin, T. M., Text Book of Biochemistry, 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2003.


UNIT I MENDELIAN AND BACTERIAL GENETICS 9 Mendelian laws of inheritance Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance Linkage and crossing over Genetic mapping of chromosomes Bacterial genetics Transposons, transformation, conjugation and transduction. UNIT II GENOME AND ITS STRUCTURE 9 Molecular basis of life Central dogma of life Structure of DNA Different forms of DNA and RNA Genome organization in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes Interaction of histones Extranuclear genomes. UNIT III DNA REPLICATION AND EXPRESSION 9 Replication, transcription and translation Codon and anticodon concept Codon usage Inhibitors of transcription and translation Exon and intron concepts Transcription initiation factors Characteristic motifs, promoters and enhancers, RNA splicing, RNA editing Post translational modifications Protein folding, glycosylation, phosphorylation. UNIT IV MUTATION 9 Biochemical basis of mutation Gene as the unit of expression Types of mutation Spontaneous, induced, reverse mutation Suppression of mutation DNA repair mechanisms SOS response Photo reactivation. UNIT V GENE REGULATION 9 Operon concept gal, lac and trp Allosteric enzymes and feed back inhibition Repression DNA looping Homeobox in gene regulation in eukaryotes. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Lewin, B., Genes IX, 9th Edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2008. 2. Turner, P., McLennan, A., Bates, A. and White, M., Molecular Biology, 3rd Edition, Taylor and Francis, 2005. REFERENCES 1. Watson, J. D., Baker, T. A., Bell, S. P., Gann, A. and Levin, M., Molecular Biology of the Gene, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., 2004. 2. Bruce, A., Dennis, B., Alexander, J., Julian, L., Martin, R., Keith, R. and Peter, W., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3rd Edition, Garland Science, 2002. 3. Freifelder, D. and Malacinski, G. M., Essentials of Molecular Biology, 3rd Edition, Jones and Barlett Publishers Inc., 1998.


P 4

C 2

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Determination of diffusivity of vapour in air at constant temperature. 2. Determination of diffusivity of vapour in air at constant pressure. 3. To determine the drying rate of given solid in tray dryer under atmospheric conditions. 4. Verification of Raleighs equation. 5. Determination of the efficiency of steam distillation. 6. Determination of stage efficiency using cross current leaching. 7. Determination of stage efficiency of counter current leaching. 8. Determination of breakpoint of adsorption. 9. Verification of adsorption isotherm by multistage adsorption. 10. Wetted wall column Determination of mass transfer coefficient. Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Ethanol fermentation process. 2. Crystallization of calcium lactate.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Growth of bacteria Estimation of biomass, calculation of specific growth rate, yield coefficient. 2. Growth of yeast Estimation of biomass, calculation of specific growth rate, yield coefficient. 3. Medium optimization Placket-Burman design. 4. Medium optimization Response surface methodology. 5. Enzyme kinetics Michelis Menton parameters. 6. Enzyme activity Effect of temperature and pH. 7. Enzyme inhibition kinetics. 8. Enzyme immobilization Gel entrapment. 9. Enzyme immobilization Cross linking. 10. Thermal death kinetics. Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Optimization of bioprocess Taguchi methodology. 2. Isolation of amylase and starch hydrolysis.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Isolation and gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA from bacteria. 2. Isolation and gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA from eukaryotic tissue. 3. Isolation and gel electrophoresis analysis of plasmid DNA. 4. Estimation of nucleic acids and purity by UV. 5. Restriction enzyme digestion. 6. Western blotting. 7. UV mutagenesis of bacteria. 8. -galactosidase enzyme assay. 9. Preparation of E.coli competent cells and transformation of bacteria CaCl2 method. 10. Bacterial conjugation. Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Restriction digestion polymorphism. 2. GFP

GE1352 PROCESS ECONOMICS AND INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT L T P C 3 0 0 3 UNIT I VALUE OF MONEY 9 Value of money Equivalence Equations for economic studies and equivalence Amortization Capital recovery Depreciation Depletion. UNIT II COST AND ITS EVALUATION 9 Capital requirements for process plants Cost indices Equipment costs Service facilities Capital requirements for complete plants Balance sheet Cost Earnings Profits and returns Variable costs Fixed costs Income statement Economic production charts Capacity factors. ECONOMICS OF SELECTING ALTERNATES AND ITS BALANCES 9 Annual cost methods Present worth method Equivalent alternate Rate of return and payment time Cash flow analysis Economic balance in batch operations Cyclic operations and multiple equipment units. UNIT IV PROJECT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 9 Choosing a project Market survey Importance of techno-economic viability studies Sourcing of processes Process alternatives Fixing most economic processes Technology Scanning Plant location principles Plant lay out Process flow sheets Preparation of budgetary investment and production costs. UNIT V COST MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 9 Concepts of management Principles Management functions Scientific management Advanced techniques management Bar chart, CPM, Pert technique Types of organizations Merits and demerits. Concepts of Marketing Need Research Sales forecasting Product cycle Fundamentals of labour management and industries relation. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Couper, J. R., Process Engineering Economics, CRC Press, 2003. 2. White, J. A., Case, K. and Prat, D., Principles of Engineering Economics Analysis, 4th Edition, John Wiley Publishers, 1997. REFERENCES 1. Towler, G. and Sinnott, R. K., Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design, Elsevier, 2007. 2. Brown T., Engineering Economics and Economic Design for Process Engineers, CRC Press, 2007. 3. Peters, M. S and Timmerhaus, K. D., Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1991. UNIT III

BT1351 GENETIC ENGINEERING L T P C 3 0 0 3 UNIT I BASICS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY 9 Introduction to gene cloning DNA manipulative enzymes Restriction endonucleases; nomenclature Restriction mapping of DNA Ligation strategies. CLONING VECTORS FOR E.coli, B.subtilis, YEAST, PLANTS AND ANIMAL CELLS 9 Plasmids, ss phage, ds phage, cosmid, phagemid and phasmid PAC and BAC vectors for E. coli, cloning vectors for B.subtilis Ti plasmid based vectors for higher plants Direct transfer of DNA into plants/plant cells and viral vectors for animals/animal cells. CLONE IDENTIFICATION, DNA SEQUENCING AND DNA AMPLIFICATION 9 Introduction of rDNA into living cells Screening and selection of recombinant clones, immunological screening Studying the structure of clones by DNA sequencing In vitro cloning by PCR, RFLP, RAPD; DNA chips DNA fingerprinting techniques. UNIT IV APPLICATIONS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY 9 Transgenic plants Transgenic animals Gene therapy Gene silencing Antisense RNA and siRNA technologies Recombinant proteins and pharmaceuticals. UNIT V PROTEIN PRODUCTION AND BIOSAFETY 9 Production of insulin, interferon and growth hormones Biodegradable plastics Safety guidelines lines for recombinant DNA techniques and waste disposal Industrial and environmental application of recombinant DNA technology. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Primrose, S.B. and Twymann, R.H., Principles of Gene Manipulation: An Introduction to Genetic Engineering, 6th Edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2004. 2. Brown, T.A., Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis, 4th Edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Glick, B.R. and Pasternak, J.J., Molecular Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, ASM Press, 2003. 2. Greene, J.J. and Rao V.B., Recombinant DNA Principles and Methodologies, CRC Press, 1998. 3. Watson J. D., Recombinant DNA, 2nd Edition, Scientific American Books, 1992. UNIT III UNIT II

BT1352 BIOPROCESS AND BIOREACTOR ENGINEERING L T P C 3 1 0 4 UNIT I HOMOGENEOUS REACTIONS 12 Basic reaction theory Reaction thermodynamics Reaction yield Reaction rate Reaction kinetics Effect of temperature and pressure Differential and integral methods of analysis Reaction kinetics for biological systems Zero order kinetics First order kinetics Performance equation and graphical representation for batch, continuous reactors Space time Space velocity concepts. UNIT II HETROGENEOUS REACTIONS 12 Heterogeneous reactions in bioprocessing Concentration gradients and reaction rates in solid catalysts Interaction between mass transfer and reaction Steady state shell mass balance Zero order kinetics and spherical geometry Michaelis-Menten kinetics and spherical geometry Thiele modulus and effectiveness factor. UNIT III BIOREACTOR DESIGN 12 Background of bioreactors Type of bioreactors Airlift bioreactors Airlift pressure cycle bioreactors Loop bioreactor Stirred tank bioreactors Fluidized bed bioreactor Trickle bed bioreactor Bubble column fermenter Design equations for CSTR fermenter Monad model for a chemostat Scale-up of stirred tank bioreactors Two stage reactors Reactors with non ideal mixing. UNIT IV MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF BIOPROCESSES 12 Study of structured models for analysis of various bioprocesses Compartmental models, models of cellular energetic and metabolism Single cell models Plasmid replication and plasmid stability model Dynamic simulation of batch, fed batch, steady and transient culture metabolism. UNIT V FERMENTATION PROCESS CONTROL 12 Bioreactor controlling probes Characteristics of bioreactor sensors Temperature measurement and control DO measurement and control pH/redox measurement and control Detection and prevention of the foam Biosensors. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Najafpour, G.D., Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Elsevier, 2007. 2. Doran, P.M., Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Academic Press, 2005. REFERENCES 1. Dunn, I.J., Heinzle, E., Ingham, J. and Prenosil, J.E., Biological Reaction Engineering: Dynamic Modeling Fundamentals with Simulation Examples, 2nd Edition, WileyVCH, 2003. 2. Walker, J.M. and Rapley, R., Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, 4th Edition, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000. 3. Blanch, H.W. and Clark, D.S., Biochemical Engineering, Marcel Dekker, Inc.1999. 4. Levenspiel, O., "Chemical Reaction Engineering", 3rd Edition, John Wiley, 1999.


C 4

UNIT I BONDS AND ENERGIES IN PROTEIN MAKEUP 12 Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, coordinate, hydrophobic and van der Waals interaction in protein structure Interaction with electromagnetic radiation (radio, micro, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray) and elucidation of protein structure. UNIT II AMINO ACIDS AND THEIR CHARACTERSTICS 12 Amino acids and their molecular properties Chemical reactivity in relation to posttranslational modification (involving amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, thiol, imidazole groups) and peptide synthesis. UNIT III PROTEIN ARCHITECTURE 12 Primary structure: Peptide mapping, peptide sequencing Automated Edman method and massspecs High-throughput protein sequencing setup Secondary structure: Alpha, beta and loop structures and methods to determine Super-secondary structure: Alpha-turn-alpha, beta-turnbeta (hairpin), beta-sheets, alpha-beta-alpha, topology diagrams, up and down and TIM barrel structures nucleotide binding folds, prediction of substrate binding sites Tertiary structure: Domains, folding, denaturation and renaturation, overview of methods to determine 3D structures Quaternary structure: Modular nature, formation of complexes. UNIT IV STRUCTURE-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP 12 DNA-binding proteins Prokaryotic transcription factors Helix-turn-Helix motif in DNA binding Trp repressor Eukaryotic transcription factors Zn fingers Helix-turn-helix motifs in homeodomain Leucine zippers Membrane proteins Genera characteristics Transmembrane segmenta Prediction Bacteriorhodopsin and photosynthetic reaction center Immunoglobulins: IgG Light chain and heavy chain architechture Abzymes and Enzymes Serine proteases Understanding catalytic design by engineering trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase Substrate-assisted catalysis other commercial applications. UNIT V PROTEIN ENGINEERING 12 Advantages and purpose Overview of methods Underlying principles with specific examples: thermal stability T4-lysozyme Recombinant insulin to reduce aggregation and inactivation, de novo protein design. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Petsko, G.A. and Ringe, D., Protein Structure and Function, New Science Press, 2004. 2. Branden, C. and Tooze, J., Introduction to Protein Structures, 2nd Edition, Garland Publishing, 1999. REFERENCES 1. Buxbaum, E., Fundamentals of Protein Structure and Function, Springer, 2007. 2. Primrose, S. B. and Twymann, R. H., Protein Folding, Evolution and Design, 2001. 3. Voet, D. and Voet, G., Biochemistry, 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2001.

BT1354 GENETIC ENGINEERING LABORATORY L T 0 0 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Preparation of genomic DNA and amplification of gene 2. Ligation of DNA into plasmid vector (Construction of rDNA) 3. Primer design for PCR 4. DNA isolation and target gene amplification 5. Cloning the amplified product in His/Taq vector 6. Expression of target protein 7. Purification of expressed protein by IMAC (Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography) 8. Site directed mutagenesis of GFP gene 9. Restriction mapping of DNA / clone 10. Southern blotting Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Multiplex PCR Pathogenic or non-pathogenic strain. 2. Inclusion bodies. P 4 C 2

BT1355 BIOPROCESS LABORATORY II L T 0 0 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Batch sterilization design. 2. Estimation of KLa Sulphite oxidation method. 3. Estimation of KLa Power correlation method. 4. Residence time distribution. 5. Biodegradation of phenol. 6. Biosynthesis of citric acid. 7. Biosynthesis of antibiotics. 8. Biosynthesis secretary proteases. 9. Ethanol fermentation. Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Solid state fermentation. 2. Lab scale fermentor and large scale fermentor.( Distillary industry) P 4 C 2

HS1301 COMMUNICATION AND SOFT SKILLS LABORATORY L T P C 0 0 3 1 Common to All Branches of III Year B.E./ B.Tech students of Anna University Tiruchirappalli and affiliated colleges) The aim of the course is two-fold: to enable the students to develop communication skills in the language laboratory and to arrange discussions for developing soft skills in the laboratory and/or the classroom. Each laboratory session shall last for three periods. List of activities that are to be carried out: (15 sessions x 3 periods = 45) Lab session # 1: Listening and speaking practice exercises with communicative functions. Learning material: the ACD of Spoken English: A Foundation Course for Speakers of Indian Languages (Orient Longman, 2008) Lab session # 2: Practice with more advanced communicative functions. Learning material: the ACD of Spoken English: A Foundation Course for Speakers of Indian Languages (Orient Longman, 2008) Lab session # 3: Pronunciation exercises with Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English or any other standard Dictionary Lab session # 4: Making an oral presentation in English. Learning Material: Professional Presentations VCD (Cambridge University Press) Lab session # 5: Listening to telephone conversations in English and completing the tasks. Learning material: Essential Telephoning in English ACD (Cambridge University Press) Lab session # 6: Giving an exposure to and practice with model group discussion and interviews. Learning material: How to Prepare for Group Discussion and Interview Audio Cassette (McGraw-Hill) Lab session # 7: Giving insights into the format and the task types in the IELTS (International English Language Testing System). Learning Material: Objective IELTS, Intermediate Level (CUP) Lab session # 8: Understanding the format and the task types in the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language). Learning Material: Understanding the TOEFL (Educational Testing Services, Princeton) Lab session # 9: Administering the BEC (Business English Certificate) Diagnostic Test. Learning Material: BEC Practice Materials (British Council, Chennai) Lab session # 10: Completing the steps involved in Career, Life Planning and Change Management. Learning Material: Developing Soft Skills (Pearson Education) Lab session # 11: Setting goals and objectives exercises. Learning Material: Developing Soft Skills (Pearson Education) Lab session # 12: Prioritizing and time planning exercises. Learning Material: Managing Time Multimedia Program CD Lab session # 13: Taking a Personality Typing/ Psychometric Test Learning Material: 200 Psychometric Test prepared by the CUIC, Anna University Chennai. Lab session # 14: Critical and creative thinking exercises.

Lab session # 15: Improving body language and cross-cultural communication with pictures. Learning material: Body Language (S. Chand and Co.) For a detailed plan, refer to the topics given below: UNIT I LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE IN COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS Introductions and meetings Talking about studies and/ or job Expressing likes and dislikes Describing daily routines and current activities Talking about past states and events Talking about future plans and intentions Expressing preferences Giving reasons Expressing opinions, agreement and disagreement Seeking and giving advice Making suggestions UNIT II SPEAKING APPLICATIONS

Making an oral presentation Preparing the presentation Performing the presentation Beginning Language Visual aids and body language Voice Ending Questions Telephone conversations Group Discussion and Interview UNIT III UNDERSTANDING AND PREPARING FOR INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE EXAMINATIONS Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE) Spoken English for Work (SEW) International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Business English Certificate (BEC) UNIT IV SOFT SKILLS (1) Preparing for and dealing with change Motivation, goal-setting and self-esteem Managing time and stress Career and life planning Team work Leadership traits UNIT V SOFT SKILLS (2) Multiple Intelligences Learning Styles and Personality typing Critical and creative thinking People, cultures and self Intercultural Communication RESOURCES 1. Kamalesh Sadanand and Susheela Punitha, Spoken English: A Foundation Course for Speakers of Indian Languages, Part 2 Audio CD, Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 2008. 2. Malcome Goodale, Professional Presentations, (VCD) New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 3. Barbara Garside and Tony Garside, Essential Telephoning in English (Audio CD), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 4. Hari Mohan Prasad and Rajnish Mohan, How to Prepare for Group Discussion and Interview (Audio Cassette) Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing. 5. Graded Examinations in Spoken English and Spoken English for Work downloadable materials from Trinity College, London. 6. International English Language Testing System Practice Tests, CUP. 7. Business English Certificate Materials, Cambridge University Press. 8. Personality Development (CD-ROM), Times Multimedia, Mumbai. 9. Interactive Multimedia Programs on Managing Time and Stress. 10. Robert M. Sherfield and et al Developing Soft Skills 4th edition, New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2009.


UNIT I HUMAN VALUES 9 Moral values and ethics Integrity Work ethics Service learning Civic virtue Respect for others Living peacefully Caring Sharing Honesty Courage Value time Cooperation Commitment Empathy Self confidence Character Spirituality. UNIT II BIOETHICS 9 Ethics in biotechnology Business ethics Positive and negative effects Senses of Bioethics Variety of moral issues Types of inquiry Moral dilemmas Moral autonomy Kohlbergs theory Gilligans theory Consensus and controversy Models of Professional roles Theories about right action Self-interest Customs and religion Uses of ethical theories. UNIT III BIOSAFETY 9 Biosafety regulations national and international guidelines rDNA guidelines IBSC guidelines and its scope Biosafety levels, biosafety guidelines Characterization of the organisms Effects of pathogenicity, toxigenicity and allergenicity Substantial equivalence Effects related to gene transfer and marker genes Ecological effects Field testing of genetically modified organism Field trials. UNIT IV GLOBAL ISSUES 9 Multinational corporations Environmental ethics Computer ethics Weapons development Engineers as managers Consulting engineers as expert witness and advisors Moral leadership Sample code of Ethics. UNIT V INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS 9 Intellectual property rights Origin of the patent regime Early patents act and Indian pharmaceutical industry Types of patents Patent requirements Application preparation, filing and prosecution Patentable subject matter TRIPS agreement The requirements of TRIPS Implementation in developing countries. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Shaleesha, A.S., Bioethics, Wisdom Educational Service, 2008. 2. Nap, J.P., Atanasov, A.I. and Stiekema, W.J., Genomics for Biosafety in Plant Biotechnology, IOS Press, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Taylor, F.W., The Principles of Scientific Management, Cosimo Classics, 2006. 2. Birgitte, A.., Intellectual Property Rights: Innovation, Governance, and the Institutional Environment, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006. 3. Hambleton, P., Melling, J. and Salusbury, T.T., Biosafety in Industrial Biotechnology, Springer, 1994.


UNIT I DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING 12 Introduction to downstream processing Stages of downstream processing Basic principles of engineering analysis Process and product quality Cell disruption for product release Mechanical and chemical methods Flocculation Electrical double layer Flocculation rate Polymer flocculants. UNIT II PHYSICAL METHODS OF SEPARATION 12 Filtration Conventional filtration Cross flow filtration Filter media and equipment Membrane fouling Centrifugation Tubular bowl centrifugation Disk centrifuge and ultracentrifugation. UNIT III ISOLATION OF PRODUCTS 12 Extraction Phase separation and partition equilibria Countercurrent stage calculations Aqueous two-phase extraction Membrane separation Ultra filtration and reverse osmosis Dialysis Precipitation of proteins by different methods. UNIT IV PRODUCT PURIFICATION 12 Adsorption Fixed-bed adsorption, agitated bed adsorption Adsorbent types Silica based resins Polymer based resins Chromatographic techniques Principles and practice Reversed-phase Ion-exchange Size exclusion Hydrophobic interaction Affinity and immobilized metal affinity. UNIT V FINAL PRODUCT FORMULATION AND FINISHING OPERATIONS 12 Crystallization Principles, batch crystallizers, process crystallization of proteins Drying Water in biological solids and in gases Lyophilization in final product formulation. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Harrison, R.G., Todd, P., Rudger, S.R. and Petrides, D.P., Bioseparation Science and Engineering, Oxford University Press, 2003. 2. Belter, P.A., Cussler, E.L. and Wei, S.H., Bioseparation - Downstream Processing for Biotechnology, Wiley Interscience Publication, 1988. REFERENCES 1. Desai, M.A., Downstream Processing of Proteins: Methods and Protocols Springer, 2000. 2. Garcia, A. A., Bioseparation Process Science, Wiley-Blackwell, 1999. 3. Asenjo, J.A., Separation Processes in Biotechnology, CRC Press, 1990.


UNIT I COMPUTER AND OPERATING SYSTEM 12 Introduction to shell programming Linux Windows Mac OS X VM ware Cyg Win Sed, Awk Perl and Bioperl. UNIT II BIOLOGICAL DATABASES AND DATA IMPORT 12 Biological databases XML, HTML and CML Bioinformatics toolbox SimBiology FASTA, PDB, SCF, SBML, Affymetrix, GenePix and ImaGene Retrieving data from online databases Mathworks products for computational biology Genbank, EMBL, NCBI BLAST, and PDB. UNIT III ANALYSING AND VISUALIZING DATA 12 Sequence analysis Microarray analysis Mass spectrometry analysis Biomarkers in MALDI or SELDI mass spectrometry Cellular and molecular imaging Systems biology Physiological modeling. UNIT IV SEQUENCE ASSEMBLY 12 Shotgun sequencing Sequencing by hybridization DNA and protein sequence analysis Tree representation of a sequence Sequence comparison Hashing, statistical content and with most mismatches. UNIT V SEQUENCE ALLIGNMENT 12 Multiple sequence alignment Hidden Markov models RNA secondary structures Combinatorics Trees and sequences. L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Wunschiers, R., Computational Biology, Springer Verlag Publications, 2004. 2. Waterman, M.S., Introduction to Computational Biology: Maps, Sequence and Genomes, CRC Press, 1995. REFERENCES 1. Srinivas, A., Handbook of Computational Molecular Biology, CRC Press, 2006. 2. Jiang, T. and Xu, Y., Current Topics in Computational Molecular Biology, MIT Press, 2002. 3. Pevzner, P., Computational Molecular Biology: An Algorithmic Approach, 2nd Edition, MIT Press, 2000.

BT1404 IMMUNOLOGY L T 3 0 P 0 C 3

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Cells of immune system Innate and acquired immunity Primary and secondary lymphoid organs Antigens Chemical and molecular nature Haptens Adjuvants Types of immune responses Theory of clonal selection. UNIT II CELLULAR RESPONSES 9 Development, maturation, activation and differentiation of T-cells and B-cells TCR Antibodies Structure and functions Antibodies Genes and generation of diversity Antigen-antibody reactions Monoclonal antibodies Principles and applications Antigen presenting cells Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Antigen processing and presentation Regulation of T-cell and B-cell responses. UNIT III INFECTION AND IMMUNITY 9 Injury and inflammation Immune responses to infections Immunity to viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites Cytokines Complement Immunosuppression Tolerance Allergy and hypersensitivity AIDS and immunodeficiencies Resistance and immunisation Vaccines. UNIT IV TRANSPLANTATION AND TUMOR IMMUNOLOGY 9 Transplantation MHC Tests for histocompatibility Prolongation of grafts Tumor immunology Tumor antigens Tumor immune response Tumor immunodiagnosis Tumor immunotherapy. UNIT V IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY 9 Monoclonal antibodies Production and characterization Application of PCR technology to produce antibodies and other immunological reagents immunotherapy with genetically engineered antibodies Western blot analysis Immunoelectrophoresis SDS-PAGE Purification and synthesis of antigens ELISA and Radio immunoassay (RIA) Principles and applications. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Goldsby, R.A., Kindt, T J., Osborne, B.A. and Kuby, J., Immunology, 5th Edition, Freeman and Company, 2003. 2. Roitt, I., Brostoff, J. and Male, D., Immunology, 6th Edition, Mosby Publishers, 2001. REFERENCES 1. Male, R.I and Brostoff, J., Immunology, Mosby Publications, 2002. 2. Kuby, J., Immunology, W. H. Freeman and Co., 2000. 3. Benjamini, E., Sunshine, G. and Leskowitz, S., Immunology: A Short Notes, 3rd Edition, Wiley-Liss, 1996.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Solid liquid separation Centrifugation, dialysis. 2. Cell disruption techniques Ultrasonication, lysozyme EDTA for bacteria. 3. Cell disruption techniques Osmolysis for RBC. 4. Precipitation Ammonium sulphite precipitation 5. Aqueous two phase extraction of biologicals 6. High resolution purification Affinity chromatography (Dye affinity) 7. High resolution purification Ion exchange chromatography. 8. Product polishing Gel filtration chromatography. 9. Product polishing Freeze drying. 10. Isoelectric precipitation of casein. Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Disruption of plant cells. 2. Crystallization of urease from Jack bean meal.

BT1406 COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY LABORATORY L 0 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Study of internet resources in computational biology 2. Internet protocols 3. Basic programming tags with XML, HTML and CML. 4. Algorithm used in data base 5. BLAST 6. FASTA 7. Prediction of DNA sequence 8. Prediction of protein sequence 9. Perl 10. Bioperl Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Phylogenetic analysis 2. Shell Programming T 0 P 4 C 2

BT1407 IMMUNOLOGY LABORATORY L T 0 0 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Identification of cells in a blood smear 2. Identification of blood group 3. Pregnancy, ASO and RPR 4. Immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis 5. Testing for typhoid antigens by Widal test 6. Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) 7. Isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells 8. Isolation of monocytes from blood 9. Identification of T-cells by T-cell rossetting using sheep RBC 10. Lymphocyte proliferation in-vitro Total: 60 DEMO (OPTIONAL) 1. Handling of animals, immunization and raising antisera 2. Immunofluorescence P 4 C 2


UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Definition of quality Dimensions of quality Quality planning Quality costs Analysis techniques for quality costs Basic concepts of total quality management Historical review Principles of TQM Leadership Concepts Role of senior management Quality council Quality statements Strategic planning Deming philosophy Barriers to TQM implementation. UNIT II TQM PRINCIPLES 9 Customer satisfaction Customer perception of quality Customer complaints Service quality Customer retention Employee involvement Motivation, empowerment, teams, recognition and reward Performance appraisal Benefits Continuous process improvement Juran trilogy, PDSA Cycle, 5S, Kaizen, supplier partnership Partnering and sourcing Supplier selection Supplier Rating Relationship development Performance measures Basic concepts Strategy Performance measures. UNIT III STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) 9 The seven tools of quality Statistical fundamentals Measures of central tendency and dispersion Population and sample Normal curve Control charts for variables and attributes Process capability Concept of six sigma New seven management tools. UNIT IV TQM TOOLS 9 Benchmarking Reasons to Benchmark Benchmarking process Quality function deployment (QFD) House of quality QFD process Benefits Taguchi quality loss function Total productive maintenance (TPM) Concept, Improvement needs FMEA Stages of FMEA. UNIT V QUALITY SYSTEMS 9 Need for ISO 9000 and other quality systems, ISO 9000:2000 Quality system Elements Implementation of quality system Documentation Quality auditing QS 9000, ISO 14000 Concept, requirements and benefits. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Kanishka, B., Quality Management, Oxford University Press, 2007. 2. Ross, J.E. and Perry, S., Total Quality Management: Text, Cases and Readings, 3rd Edition, CRC Press, 1999. REFERENCES 1. Oakland, J.S., Total Quality Management: text with cases, 3rd Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 2003. 2. Evans, J.R. and Lidsay W.M., The Management and Control of Quality, 5th Edition, South-Western (Thomson Learning), 2002. 3. Dale H.B., Total Quality Management, Pearson Education Asia, 1999.


UNIT I GENE THERAPY 12 Gene therapy Overview Germ line, Somatic gene carrying vectors Physical and Viral Liposome and Nanoparticle mediated gene delivery Selectable marker Suicide gene therapy Gene therapy for inborn errors of metabolism Neurological disease and cardiovascular gene therapy UNIT II CELLULAR THERAPY AND TRANSPLANTATION 12 Potency of stem cells Sources: embryonic and adult stem cells Clinical applications of stem cell treatment Concept of tissue engineering Scaffold construction Organ transplantation Types of transplant and donor Ethical issues.

UNIT III RECOMBINANT THERAPY 12 Clinical applications of recombinant technology Choice of organisms Recombinant protein production and problems Erythropoietin Insulin analogs and its role in diabetes Recombinant human growth hormone Streptokinase and urokinase in thrombosis Recombinant coagulation factors. UNIT IV IMMUNOTHERAPY 12 AntiIdiotype antibody and DNA Vaccines for immunotherapy Antibody therapy for solid tumors Monoclonal antibodies and their role in cancer therapy Interleukin, Interferons as cancer therapy Role of naturalkiller cells. UNIT V GENE SILENCING TECHNOLOGY 12 Antisense therapy Gene silencing Post and Transcriptional and Meiotic RNA interference Nonsense mediated decay Gene Imprinting Paramutation Transvection Ribozyme therapies Single nucleotide polymorphisms therapy. Total : 60 TEXT BOOKS 1. Pamela Greenwell, Michelle McCulley, Molecular Therapeutics: 21st century medicine, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 2007. 2. Nancy Smyth Templeton, Gene and cell therapy, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2000. REFERENCES 1. Mary L. Disis, Immunotherapy of cancer, Humana Press Inc., 2010. 2. Jennie P. Mather and Penelope E. Roberts, Introduction to cell and tissue culture Theory and Technique, Genentech Inc., 1998. 3. Jeffrey Medin and Daniel Fowler, Experimental and Applied Immunotherapy, 1st Edition., 2011.

BT1455 PROJECT WORK L 0 T 0 P 12 C 6

The project may be considered as the ultimate exercise presented to the final semester student before graduation to measure accumulated engineering knowledge and experience. At the same time, the project itself should provide the students with some new skills, innovation and information and strengthen the acquired ones. The project programme consists of different assignment, allotted time, submission of report under internal faculty guidance and evaluation by external member along with internal faculty. The activities performed during a project may cover one or more of the following: Data collection Critical literature review Laboratory experiments and tests Mathematical modeling Software application Industrial visits Design and/or assembly Process analysis

The topic project may be assigned to individual student. The project topic allotted may be of theoretical, experimental or industrial projects to be carried out under the supervision of internal guide and external guide (in case of industrial projects). The projects are to be executed strictly as per the project schedule prepared during VIII semester. A committee of departmental faculty members comprising the project guide, one more faculty member and the head of department will monitor and review the progress achieved by the student at various stages. The internal assessment will be done by the committee based on the progress achieved on completion of the project work. On completion of the project work, each student has to prepare a project report and submit the same in triplicate to the department. The project work and the report will be evaluated by the internal assessment committee for a total of 100 marks. The external university examination, which carries a total of 100 marks, will have report evaluation and viva voce examination conducted by a committee of one external examiner and one internal examiner appointed by the university.



UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY 9 Background and definition of nanotechnology, chemical bonds in nanotechnology Scales at the bio-nano interface Basic capabilities of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine Biological tradition and mechanical tradition biotechnology Applications in biotechnology. UNIT II STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLES OF BIONANOTECHNOLOGY 9 Biomolecular structure and stability Protein folding Self-assembly Self-organization Molecular recognition Flexibility Information Driven nanoassembly Energetics Chemical transformation Regulation Biomaterials Biomolecular motors Traffic across membranes Biomolecular sensing Self-replication Machine-phase bionanotechnology. UNIT III MICROFLUIDICS MEETS NANO 9 Concepts and advantages of microfluidic devices Materials and methods for the manufacture of microfluidic component Fluidic structures Surface modifications Lab-on-a-chip for biochemical analysis. UNIT IV PROTEIN-BASED NANOSTRUCTURES 9 S-Layers Engineered nanopores Microbial nanoparticle production Magnetosomes Nanoscale magnetic iron minerals in bacteria Nanoparticle Biomaterial hybrid systems. UNIT V DNA-BASED NANOSTRUCTURES 9 DNA-Protein nanostructures Biomimetic fabrication of DNA based metallic nanowires and networks DNA-Gold nanoparticle conjugates Nanoparticles as non-viral transfection agents. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Niemeyer, C.M. and Mirkin, C.A., Nanobiotechnology: Concepts, Applications and Perspectives, Wiley-VCH, 2004. 2. Goodsell, D.S., Bionanotechnology, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2004. REFERENCES 1. Shoseyov, O. and Levy, I., Nanobiotechnology: Bioinspired Devices and Materials of the Future, Humana Press, 2007. 2. Bhushan, B., Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2004. 3. Freitas Jr R.A., Nanomedicine, Vol. II, 1st Edition, Landes Biosciences, 2004. 4. Kohler, M. and Fritzsche, W., Nanotechnology An Introduction to Nanostructuring Techniques Wiley-VCH, 2004.

BT1002 BIOCONJUGATE TECHNOLOGY L T P C 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FUNCTIONAL TARGETS 9 Modification of amino acids, peptides and proteins Modification of sugars, polysaccharides and glycoconjugates Modification of nucleic acids and oligonucleotides. UNIT II CHEMISTRY OF ACTIVE GROUPS 9 Amine reactive chemical reactions Thiol reactive chemical reactions Carboxylate reactive chemical reactions Hydroxyl reactive chemical reactions Aldehyde and ketone reactive chemical reactions Photoreactivc chemical reactions. UNIT III BIOCONJUGATE REAGENTS 9 Zero length cross linkers Homobifuntional cross linkers Heterobifunctional cross linkers Trifunctional cross linkers Cleavable reagent systems Tags and probes. UNIT IV ENZYME AND NUCLEIC ACID MODIFICATION AND CONJUGATION 9 Properties of common enzymes Activated enzymes for conjugation Biotinylated enzymes Chemical modification of nucleic acids Biotin labeling of DNA enzyme conjugation to DNA Fluorescent of DNA. UNIT V BIOCONJUGATE APPLICATIONS 9 Preparation of hapten Carrier immunogen conjugates Antibody modification land conjugation Immunotoxin conjugation techniques Liposome conjugated and derivatives Colloidal gold labeled proteins Modification with synthetic polymers. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Hermanson, G.T., Bioconjugate Techniques, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, 2008. 2. Meares, C.F., Perspectives in Bioconjugate Chemistry, American Chemical Society, 1993. REFERENCES 1. Schreiber, S., Kapoor, T. M. and Wess G., Chemical Biology: from Small Molecules to Systems Biology and Drug Design, Vol. 2, Wiley-VCH, 2007. 2. Niemeyer, C.M., Bioconjugation Protocols: Strategies and Methods Springer, 2004. 3. Aslam, M. and Alastair, D., Bioconjugation: Protein Coupling Techniques for the Biomedical Sciences, Macmillan, 1998.


UNIT I HEAT EXCHANGERS, CONDENSERS, EVAPORATORS 9 Single and multi process exchangers Double pipe U-tube heat exchangers Combustion details supporting structure Single and vertical evaporation Single and multi effect evaporators Forced circulation evaporators. UNIT II STORAGE VESSEL FOR VOLATILE AND NON VOLATILE FLUIDS, PRESSURE VESSEL STRUCTURE 9 Design of the following equipments as per ASME, ISI codes Drawing according to scale; monoblock and multiplayer vessels Combustion details and supporting structure. UNIT III EXTRACTOR, DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION TOWER 9 Construction details and assembly drawing Plate and packed extraction towers Plate and packed adsorption towers Plate and packed distillation towers. UNIT IV PUMPS, MECHANICAL SEALS, VALVES AND SWWITCHES 9 Various types of pumps Principle of working Construction, usages, advantages and disadvantages Various types of seals Effectiveness, usages Pneumatic seals Gate, globe and butterfly valves, their material of construction Pneumatically controlled valves. UNIT V PIPING, PRINT LAY OUT AND DESIGN 9 Various types of piping Material of construction, their usage Pipe lay out Modern plant design and case studies. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Couper, J.R., Penney, W.R., Fair, J.R. and Walas, S., Chemical Process Equipment: Selection and Design, 2nd Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2005. 2. McCabe, W.L. and Smith, J.C., Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, 6th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Sinnott, R.K., Coulson, J.M. and Richardson, J.F., Coulson and Richardson's Chemical Engineering, 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005. 2. Peters, M.S., Timmerhaus, K.D. and West, R.E., Plant design and economics for chemical engineers, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. 3. Kern, D.Q., Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, 1985.


T 0

P 0

C 3

UNIT I ELECTRONIC SPECTRA 9 Introduction of electronic spectra Absorption spectra Ultraviolet spectra of proteins Nucleic acid spectra Prosthetic groups Difference spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy Fluorescence and phosphorescence RecBCD Helicase activity monitored by fluorescence Fluorescence energy transfer Molecular ruler-application of energy transfer to biological systems. CIRCULAR DICHROISM, OPTICAL ROTARY DISPERSION AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION 9 Optical rotary dispersion Circular dichroism Optical rotary dispersion and circular dichroism of proteins Optical rotation and circular dichroism of nucleic acids Small molecule binding to DNA Protein folding Interaction of DNA with zinc finger proteins Fluorescence polarization Integration of HIV genome into host genome and alpha Ketoglutarate. UNIT III VIBRATIONS IN MACROMOLECULES 9 Infrared spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Structure determination with vibrational spectroscopy resonance Raman spectroscopy Structure of enzyme-substrate complexes. UNIT IV PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE 9 NMR spectrometers Chemical shifts Spin-spin splitting Relaxation times Multidimensional NMR Magnetic resonance imaging Electron spin resonance Regulation of DNA transcription Protein DNA interactions Dynamics of protein folding RNA folding Lactose permease. UNIT V MASS SPECTROMETRY 9 Mass analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) Ion detectors Ionization of the sample Sample preparation/analysis Proteins and peptides Protein folding Other biomolecules. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Hammes, G., Spectroscopy for the Biological Sciences-Gordon, Wiley Publications, 2005. 2. Ramamoorthy, A., NMR Spectroscopy of Biological Solids, CRC Press, 2005. REFERENCES 1. Gremlich, H. and Yan, B., Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Materials, CRC Press, 2000. 2. Larsen, B. S. and McEwen, C. N., Mass Spectrometry of Biological Materials, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 1998. 3. Certaines, J.D., Bove, W.M.M.J. and Podo, F., Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Biology and Medicine: Functional and Pathological Tissue Characterization, Pergamon Press, 1992. UNIT II


UNIT I PHARMACEUTICALS OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN 9 Current status and future prospects of biopharmaceuticals Pharmaceuticals of animal origin, plant origin and microbial origin Sources of biopharmaceuticals. UNIT II DRUG DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 9 Drug discovery Gene chips, proteomics, structural genomics Pharmacogenetics Plant as a source of drugs, microbial drugs Pre-clinical trial Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, toxicity studies, clinical trial Clinical trial design, trial size and study population, randomized control studies. UNIT III GROWTH FACTORS AND HORMONES 9 Haemopoietic growth factors Granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor Insulin like growth factors Epidermal growth factor Platelet growth factor Neurotrophic factors Hormones of therapeutic interest Insulin Glucagon Human growth hormones Gonadotrophins UNIT IV BLOOD PRODUCTS AND THERAPEUTIC ENZYMES 9 Disease transmission Whole blood Platelets and red blood cells Blood substitutes Haemostasis Antithrombin Thrombolytic agents Enzymes of therapeutic value UNIT V ANTIBODIES, VACCINES, ADJUVANTS AND ANTI-SENSE TECHNOLOGY 9 Polyclonal antibody Monoclonal antibodies Tumour immunology Vaccine technology Adjuvant technology Anti-sense oligonucleotides Uses, advantages and disadvantages of oligos Vitravene, an approved antisense agent Antigene sequences and ribozymes. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Walsh, G., Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications, 2nd Edition, John Wiley, 2007. 2. Crommelin, D.J.A., Sindelar, R.D. and Meibohm, B., Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications, 3rd Edition, Informa Health Care, 2007 REFERENCES 1. Dutton, R. and Scharer, J., Advanced Technologies in Biopharmaceutical Processing, Blackwell Publishing, 2007. 2. Kayser, O. and Mller R. H., Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Drug Discovery and Clinical Applications, Wiley-VCH, 2004. 3. Walsh, G., Biopharmaceuticals: Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2nd Edition, John Wiley, 2003.


UNIT I PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 9 Developmental anatomy Mathematical modeling Evolution of developmental patterns Mosaic and regulative development Pattern formation Positional information Stages of animal development Experimental embryology. UNIT II SYMMENTRY AND ORGANIZATION 9 Development and axis formation in vertebrates and invertebrates Setting up the body axis Dorsoventral and anteroposterior axis Modes of axes determination Origins of germ line and germ layers Gamete formation Early and later embryonic development. UNIT III GENETICS OF AXIS SPECIFICATION 9 Hox genes and homeotic genes Positional information gradient Gap genes Segment polarity genes Pair-rule of maintenance genes Maternal and zygotic genes Sex determination. UNIT IV OVERVIEW OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT 9 Plant life cycles Gamete production in angiosperms Pollination Fertilization Embryonic Development Dormancy Germination Vegetative growth Vegetative-to-reproductive transition Senescence. UNIT V ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION OF DEVELOPMENT 9 Regulation and disruption of normal development Conditions of existence Developmental correlation Developmental constraints Evolutionary developmental biology. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Slack, J.M.W., Essential Developmental Biology, 2nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. 2. Hall, B.K., Evolutionary developmental biology, 2nd Edition, Birkhuser, 1998. REFERENCES 1. Wolpert, L., Beddington, R., Jessell, T., Lawrence, P., Meyerowitz, E. and Smith, J., Principles of Development, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2002. 2. Gilbert, S.F., Developmental Biology, 5th Edition, Sinauer Associates, 1997. 3. Muller, W. A., Developmental Biology, Springer-Verlag, 1997.


UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Jacob Monod model Catabolite regulation Glucose effect Camp deficiency Feedback regulation Regulation in branched pathways Differential regulation by iso enzymes Concerted feedback regulation Cumulative feedback regulation Amino acid regulation of synthesis Energy charge regulation permeability control passive diffusion Active group transportation. UNIT II BIOSYNTHESIS OF PRIMARY METABOLITES 9 Alteration of feedback regulation Limiting accumulation of end products Feedback Resistant mutants Alteration of permeability Metabolites. UNIT III BIOSYNTHESIS OF SECONDARY METABOLITES 9 Precursor effect prophophase-niodiophase relationship Enzyme induction Feedback regulation Catabolite regulation by passing control of secondary metabolism Producer of secondary metabolites. UNIT IV REGULATION OF ENZYME SYNTHESIS 9 Specificity, yields, factors important to bioconversions Regulation of enzyme synthesis Mutation permeability Co-metabolism Avoidance of product inhibition Mixed or sequential bioconversion Conversion of insoluble substances. UNIT V FERMENTATION DEVELOPMENT 9 Strain selection Recognizing growth cycle peak Induction Feedback repression Catabolite repression Mutants resistant to repression Gene dosage. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Nielsen, J. and Eggeling, L., Metabolic Engineering, Springer, 2001. 2. Lee, S.Y. and Papoutsakis, E.T., Metabolic Engineering, CRC Press, 1999. REFERENCES 1. Cortassa, S., An Introduction to Metabolic and Cellular Engineering, World Scientific, 2002. 2. Stanbury, P. F., Whitaker, A. and Hall S. J., Principles of Fermentation Technology, 2nd Edition, Pergamon Press, 1995. 3. Cruegar, W. and Cruegar, A., Biotechnology A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Sinauer Associates, 1990.

BT1008 MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS C 3 UNIT I OVERVIEW 9 Historical perspective Discovery of microscope Louis Pasteurs contribution Robert Kochs postulates Early discoveries of microbial toxins Toxic assays, vaccines, antibiotics and birth of molecular genetics and modern molecular pathogenesis studies Various pathogen types and modes of entry. UNIT II HOST DEFENSE AGAINST PATHOGENS AND PATHOGENIC STRATEGIES 9 Attributes and components of microbial pathogenesis Host defense: skin, mucosa, cilia, secretions, physical movements Limitation of free iron Antimicrobial compounds Mechanism of killing by humoral and cellular defense mechanisms Complements Inflammation process General disease symptoms Pathogenic adaptations to overcome the above defenses. UNIT III MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS 9 Virulence Virulence factors Molecular genetics and gene regulation in virulence of pathogens Vibrio cholarae Cholera toxin, co-regulated pili, filamentous phage and survival. E.coli pathogens Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Entero-pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Enterohaemerrohogic E. coli (EHEC), Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Shigella Entry, macrophage apoptosis, induction of macropinocytosis, uptake of epithelial cells, intracellular spread, inflammatory response and tissue damage. Plasmodium Life cycle and its processes to support the rapidly growing schizont, parasitiparous vacuoles and knob protein transport, antimalarials based on transport processes. Influenza virus Intracellular stages, neuraminidase and haemagglutinin in entry, M1 and M2 proteins in assembly and disassembly, action of amantidine. UNIT IV EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS 9 Virulence assays Adherence, invasion, cytopathic, cytotoxic effects Criteria and tests in identifying of virulence factors, attenuated mutants Molecular characterization of virulence factors Signal transduction and host responses. UNIT V MODERN APPROACHES TO CONTROL PATHOGENS 9 Classical approaches based on serotyping Modern diagnosis based on highly conserved virulence factors, immune and DNA based techniques New therapeutic strategies based on recent findings on molecular pathogenesis of a variety of pathogens, vaccines DNA, subunit and cocktail vaccines. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Gyles, C.L., Prescott, J.F., Songer, J.G. and Thoen C.O., Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals, 3rd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. 2. McClane, B.A. and Mietzner, T.A., Microbial Pathogenesis: A Principles Oriented Approach, Fence Creek Publishers, 1999. REFERENCES 1. Groismen, E.A., Principles of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Academic Press, 2001. 2. Wagner, E.K. and Hewlett, M.J., Basic Virology, Blackwell Science, 1999. 3. Sirica, A. E., Cellular and Molecular Pathogenesis, Lippincott-Raven, 1996. L T 3 0 P 0


UNIT I BIOGEOCHEMICAL ROLE OF SOIL MICROORGANISMS 9 Microbial flora of soil Interactions among soil microorganisms Nitrogen cycle Carbon cycle Sulfur cycle Phosphorous cycle. UNIT II BIODEGRADATION 9 Aerobic degradation of recalcitrant organic compounds by microorganisms Growth associated degradation of aliphatic Diversity of aromatic compounds Co-metabolic degradation of organopollutants Degradative capacities of fungi. Anaerobic degradation of organic compounds Degradation of hydrocarbons Alkyl compounds ketones Aromatic compounds Halogenated organics Sulfonates Nitroorganics. UNIT III BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES 9 Remediation technologies Bioventing Biosparging and bioslurping Phytoremediation, Biodesulphurization of coal and oil Microbial transformation of heavy metals Bioleaching, bioaccumulation Biosorption and bioprecipitation of heavy metals. UNIT IV ECO-FRIENDLY BIOPRODUCTS FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES 9 Fundamentals of composting process Composting technologies Composting systems Compost quality Biofertilizers Biopesticides Scientific aspects and prospects of biofuel production Bioethanol Biohydrogen and biodiesel. UNIT V BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER 9 Biological processes for wastewater treatment Physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater Activated sludge process Trickling filter Rotating biological contactors Fluidized bed reactor Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) High-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment Comparison between aerobic and anaerobic processes. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Jordening, H.J. and Winter, J., Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Application, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2005. 2. Evans, G.M. and Furlong, J.C., Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application, John Wiley and Sons, 2003. REFERENCES 1. Bhattacharya, B.C. and Banerjee, R., Environmental Biotechnology, Oxford University Press, 2007. 2. Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R., Microbiology, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005. 3. Rittmann, B.E. and McCarty, P.L., Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications, McGraw-Hill, 2001.

BT1010 PLANT AND ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY C 3 UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Scope of plant and animal biotechnology Structure and function of mitochondria Light and dark reaction - Genetic material Rubisco synthesis and assembly Coordination, regulation and transport of proteins Mitochondria Genome, cytoplasmic male sterility and import of proteins Animal biotechnology for production of regulatory proteins, blood products, vaccines, hormones and other therapeutic proteins. UNIT II AGROBACTERIUM AND PLANT VIRUSES 9 Pathogenesis Crown gall disease Genes involved in the pathogenesis Ti plasmid T-DNA Importance in genetic engineering Plant viruses and different types Viral Vectors Gemini virus Cauliflower mosaic virus Benefits of viral vectors Molecular diagnosis of plant diseases. UNIT III CELL CULTURE TECHNOLOGY 9 Culturing of cells Primary and secondary cell lines Cell culture Scaling up of animal cell culture Monolayer culture Suspension culture Various bioreactors used for animal cell culture Roller bottle culture Bioreactor process control Stirred animal cell culture Air lift fermenter Chemostat Turbidostat High technology vaccines Hybridoma technology Cell lines and their applications. UNIT IV GENETIC ENGINEERING 9 Biology of animal viral vectors SV4O, adeno virus, retrovirus, vaccinia virus, herpes virus and baculo virus Gene therapy Prospects and problems Knockout mice and mice model for human genetic disorder Baculo virus in bio-control Enzymes technology Somatic manipulation of DNA Nucleic acid hybridization arid probes in diagnosis Preparation of probes evaluation and applicators. UNIT V APPLICATIONS 9 Outline of plant tissue culture Transgenic plants Herbicide and pest resistant plants Molecular pharming Therapeutic products Functional genomics Whole genome sequencing project eg. Arabidopsis, RNAi. Rumen manipulation Probiotics Embryo transfer technology Invitro fertilization Transgenesis methods of transfering genes into animal oocytes, eggs, embryos and specific tissues by physical, chemical and biological methods Biopharming transgenic animals (Mice, Cow, Pig, Sheep, Goat, Buds arid Insects) Artificial insemination and embryo transfer. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Chawla, H.S., Introduction to Plant Biotechnology, Science Publishers, 2002. 2. Chirikjian, J.G., Biotechnology: Plant Biotechnology, Animal Cell Culture, Immunobiotechnology, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1995. REFERENCES 1. Srivastava, S., Narula, A. and Bhojwani, S.S., Plant Biotechnology and Molecular markers, Springer, 2004. 2. Glick, B.R. and Pasternack, J.J., Molecular Biotechnology, 3rd Edition, ASM Press, 2003. 3. Holland, A. and Johnson, A., Animal Biotechnology and Ethics, Springer, 1998. L T 3 0 P 0


OVERVIEW OF GENOME OF BACTERIA, ARCHAE AND EUKARYOTA 9 Organisation of genes Coding, non-coding chromosomes and high order structures Genomes relatedness. UNIT II PHYSICAL MAPPING TECHNIQUES 9 Top down and bottom up approach Linking and jumping of clones Genome sequencing Placing small fragments on map STS assembly Gap closure Pooling strategies Cytogenetic mapping techniques. UNIT III FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS 9 Gene finding Annotation ORF and functional prediction Subtractive DNA library screening Differential display and representational difference analysis SAGE TOGA. UNIT IV PROTEOMICS TECHNIQUES 9 Protein level estimation Edman protein microsequencing Protein cleavage 2D gel electrophoresis Metabolic labeling Detection of proteins on SDS gels Pattern analysis Mass spectrometry Principles of MALDI-TOF Tandem MS-MS Peptide mass fingerprinting. UNIT V PROTEIN PROFILING 9 Post translational modification Protein-protein interaction Glycoprotein analysis Phosphoprotein analysis. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Primrose, S.B. and Twyman, R.H., Principles of Genome Analysis and Genomics, Blackwell Publishing Co., 2003. 2. Liebler, D.C., Introduction to Proteomics, Humana Press, 2002 REFERENCES 1. Pennington, S.R. and Dunn, M.J., Proteomics, BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2001. 2. Hunt, S.P., Livesey, R. and Livesey, F.J., Functional Genomics: A Practical Approach Oxford University Press, 2000. 3. Suhai S., Genomics and Proteomics: Functional and Computational Aspects, Springer, 2000. 4. Cantor, C.R. and Smith, C.L., Genomics: The Science and Technology Behind the Human Genome Project, Wiley and Sons, 1999.


P 0

C 3 9

UNIT II INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL MECHANICS 9 Boltzmans Equation Ensembles Distribution law for non-interacting molecules Statistical mechanics of fluids. UNIT III QUANTUM MECHNICS 9 Photoelectric effect De Broglies hypothesis Uncertainty principle Schrodingers time independent equation Particle on a one-dimensional box. UNIT IV GROMOS, GROMACS, AMBER and DOCK 9 Energy mitigation, application of fourier transformer Force fields Principal components analysis RMSD calculation Application Dynamics of molecules Concepts of paralyzing work. UNIT V GAUSSIAN 98 Methods Basic sets Model chemistrix Inputs Outputs Uses. 9

Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Hinchliffe, A., Molecular Modeling for Beginners John Wiley and Sons, 2003. 2. Larsen, P.K. and Liljefors, T., Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery, 3rd Edition, CRC Press, 2002. REFERENCES 1. Holtje, H.D., Wolfgang, S., Folkers, G. and Rognan, D., Molecular Modeling: Basic Principles and Applications, 2nd Edition, Wiley-VCH, 2003. 2. Flower, D.R., Drug Design: Cutting Edge Approaches, 2nd Edition, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002. 3. Cohen N.C., Guide Book on Molecular Modeling in Drug Design, Academic Press, 1996.



UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS OF CANCER BIOLOGY 9 Regulation of cell cycle Mutations that cause changes in signal molecules Effect on receptor Signal switches Tumor suppressor genes Modulation of cell cycle in cancer Different forms of cancers, diet and cancer Cancer screening and early detection Detection using biochemical assays Tumor markers Molecular tools for early diagnosis of cancer. UNIT II PRINCIPLES OF CARCINOGENESIS 9 Theory of carcinogenesis Chemical carcinogenesis Metabolism of carcinogenesis X-ray radiation Mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis. UNIT III PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY OF CANCER 9 Signal targets and cancer Activation of kinases Oncogenes Identification of oncogenes Retroviruses and oncogenes Detection of oncogenes Oncogenes/proto oncogene activity Growth factors related to transformation Telomerases. UNIT IV PRINCIPLES OF CANCER METASTASIS 9 Clinical significances of invasion Heterogeneity of metastatic phenotype Metastatic phenotype Metastatic cascade Basement membrane disruption Three step theory of invasion Proteinases and tumor cell invasion. UNIT V NEW MOLECULES FOR CANCER THERAPY 9 Different forms of therapy Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Detection of cancers Prediction of aggressiveness of cancer Advances in cancer detection Use of signal targets towards therapy of cancer. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Weinberg, R.A., The Biology of Cancer, Garland Science, 2007. 2. Pelengaris, S. and Khan, M., The Molecular Biology of Cancer, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. REFERENCES 1. Macdonald, F. and Ford, C.H.J., Molecular Biology of Cancer, BIOS Scientific Publication, 1997. 2. King, R.J.B., Cancer Biology, Addison Wesley Longman, 1996. 3. Ruddon, R. W., Cancer Biology, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 1995.


UNIT I PRINCIPLES OF LARGE SCALE CRYOPRESERVATION 9 Principles in the freezing and thawing of cells Intracellular ice formation Freeze thaw phenomena Cryoconcentration effects Osmotic effects Cell concentration effects Cell damage by mechanical stress and freeze thaw cycles Physicochemical phenomena of the freezing process Estimate and analysis of freezing and melting process. UNIT II LARGE SCALE FREEZING AND THAWING 9 Freezing Thermodynamics of protein cold denaturation Denitritic ice growth Concentration phenomena Interaction of solutes with ice liquid interface Media used in bioseparations Operational considerations of purification methods Systems validation Media validation Cleaning validation. UNIT III LYOPHILIZATION OF PROTEIN PHARMACEUTICALS 9 The freeze drying cycle Optimization of formulations, freezing step, primary and secondary drying Functional limitations of lyophilizers Acute stabilization of proteins during freezing and drying Optimizing formulations for long term storage stability. UNIT IV CRYOPRESERVATION OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AND MICROORGANISMS 9 Procedures for the preservation of mammalian cells Cryoprotectant additives Preparing cells to freeze Cooling Recovery Procedures for the preservation of bacteria and virus infected cells Safety issues. UNIT V CRYO PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES 9 Overview of cryopreservation techniques Deep freeze Lyophilization Biological cooling system Germplasm storage Packaging of biological materials. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Avis, K.E. and Wagner, C.M., Cryopreservation: Applications in Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology, Informa Health Care, 1999. 2. Avis K.E. and Wu V.L., Biotechnology and Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing, Processing and Preservation, CRC Press, 1996 REFERENCES 1. Day, J.G. and Stacey, G.N., Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols, 2nd Edition, Humana Press, 2007. 2. Arora, C.P., Refrigeration and Air-conditioning, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000. 3. Bajaj, Y.P.S., Cryopreservation of Germplasm I, Birkhauser, 1995.


UNIT I BIOLOGICAL SENSORS 9 Study of biological sensors in the human body and their basic mechanism action organization of nervous system Neuronal mechanism and circuit processing Study of various corpuscles like pacinian Functions and modeling Chemoreceptors Hot and cold receptors Barro receptors Sensors for smell, sound, vision, osmolality and taste. UNIT II CHEMICAL TRANSDUCERS 9 Chemical transducers Transducers for the measurement of ions and dissolved gases Reference electrodes Hydrogen electrodes Silver-silver chloride electrodes Calomel electrodes Measurement of pH Glass pH electrodes Measurement of pO2 Measurement of pCO2 Catheter type electrodes for the measurement of pO2 and pCO2. UNIT III BIOSENSORS 9 Biosensors Ion exchange membrane electrodes Oxygen electrodes CO2 electrodes enzyme electrode Construction ISFET for glucose and urea Electrolytic sensors Optical sensor Fiber optic sensors. UNIT IV TRANSDUCTION PRINCIPLES 9 Different Transduction principles Temperature transducers Thermo resistive transducers, thermoelectric, p-n junction, chemical thermometry Displacement transducers Potentiometer Resistive strain gauges Inductive displacement Capacitive displacement transducer Pressure transducer Indirect method Measurement of blood pressure using sphygmomanometer Instrument based on Korotkof sound, strain gauge and LVDT transducers Capacitive and piezo electric type, catheter tip transducers Measurement of intracranial pressure Catheter tip Implantable type. UNIT V TRANSDUCER MEASUREMENT 9 Flow measurement transducer Electromagnetic flow meters and ultrasonic blood flow meters Fibre optic flow transducers and transducers for light Electrodes for ECG, EEG, EMG Electrolyte interface Electrode potential Electrode impedence Surface electrodes Subdermal electrodes Micro electrodes. Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Cooper, J. and Cass, A.E.G., Biosensors, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2004. 2. Wise, D. L., Applied Biosensors, Butterworth, 1989. REFERENCES 1. Khandpur, R.S., Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation Tata McGraw Hill, 2001. 2. Kress-Rogers, E., Handbook of Biosensors and Electronic Noses: Medicine, Food, and the Environment, CRC Press, 1997 3. Cobbold, R.S.C., Transducers for Biomedical Instruments, Prentice Hall, 1986.

BT1016 TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT L T P C 3 0 0 3 UNIT I OVERVIEW OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT 9 Concept and meaning of technology Evolution and growth of technology Role and significance of technology management Impact of technology on society and business Forms of technology Process technology and product technology. UNIT II COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES THROUGH NEW TECHNOLOGIES 9 Product development from scientific breakthrough to marketable product Role of government in technology development Linkage between technology, development and competition Managing research and development (RandD) Managing intellectual property. UNIT III TECHNOLOGICAL FORECASTING 9 Exploratory: Intuitive Extrapolation Growth curves Technology monitoring Normative: Relevance tree Morphological analysis Mission flow diagram. UNIT IV TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT 9 Technology choice Technological leadership and followership Technology acquisition Meaning of innovation and creativity Innovation management. UNIT V TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY AND TRANSFER MANAGEMENT 9 Concept, types, key principles, framework for formulating technology strategy Technology forecasting: Techniques and application Technology transfer management: Technology transfer process Outsourcing strategic issues Joint ventures and technology sourcing.

Total: 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. Betz, F., Strategic Technology Management, 2nd Edition, Imperial College Press, 2003. 2. Tarek, M.K., Management of Technology, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1999. REFERENCES 1. Burgelman, R.A., Christensen, C. M. and Wheelwright, S. C., Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation, McGraw-Hill, 2008. 2. Narayanan, V.K., Managing Technology and Innovation for Competitive Advantage, Prentice-Hall, 2001. 3. Gehani, R.R., Management of Technology and Operations, John Wiley and Sons, 1998. 4. Gaynor, G.H., Handbook of Technology Management, Vol.49, McGraw-Hill, 1996.