Steam Generator Management Program: Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Examination Guidelines, Revision 7

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Steam Generator Management Program: Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Examination Guidelines: Revision 7
1013706

Final Report, October 2007

EPRI Project Manager S. Swilley

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1338 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

and TOGETHER…SHAPING THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICITY are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute. ANY COSPONSOR. Inc. INC. OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.com. ANY MEMBER OF EPRI. APPARATUS. Electric Power Research Institute. METHOD. NEITHER EPRI. PROCESS. call the EPRI Customer Assistance Center at 800. NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER.DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE.313. THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NOTE For further information about EPRI. APPARATUS. Copyright © 2007 Electric Power Research Institute. . OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. (EPRI). OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. EPRI. INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.3774 or e-mail askepri@epri. (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION. METHOD. OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS. OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE. Inc. EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION. PROCESS. All rights reserved.

NC 28262 Principal Investigator S. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Steam Generator Management Program: Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Examination Guidelines: Revision 7.T. Palo Alto. CA: 2007. iii . 1013706. Harris Boulevard Charlotte. Swilley This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. EPRI.CITATIONS This report was prepared by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 1300 West W.

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this document recognizes the improved performance of new SG tubing materials in the absence of foreign objects and in the presence of good chemistry controls. are contained within this document. The qualification for techniques and personnel is described in detail. Implementation of these elements requires maintenance of this document to ensure applicability to the licensee for management of SG issues. when degraded. this document makes a significant contribution to meeting the requirements of NEI 97-06. evaluation.PRODUCT DESCRIPTION This report provides requirements for examination plans and processes that are necessary to meet the performance criteria set forth in the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 97-06. can provide a challenge to the required safety functions in terms of structural stability and leakage. inspection. Value. v . Results and Findings This document continues to provide recommendations and requirements to the industry for sampling and inspection of steam generator (SG) tubing. This document is intended to be used by utility engineers. Data quality parameters continue to be an important attribute of an effective SG inspection. Steam Generator Program. It is imperative that the condition of the SG be known so that appropriate repairs and operating parameters can be applied. Additionally. and plant management in support of: • • • Implementation of NEI 97-06 Meeting the sampling and inspection requirements of TSF 449 Technique and personnel qualification for input to condition monitoring and operational assessments Applications. Challenges and Objectives SG tubing. Steam Generator Tube Integrity. With these recommendations and requirements in place and implemented by the licensee. repair. NDE personnel. program managers. Nondestructive examination (NDE) is the first step in determining the condition of the SG. Inspection frequencies as described in Technical Specification Task Force (TSTF) report TSTF 449. and Use The fundamental elements of NEI 97-06 represent a balance of prevention. and leakage monitoring measures.

6. Since Revision 6 was published. web conferences.EPRI Perspective NEI 97-06 requires condition monitoring and operational assessment of the SG tubing during and after an outage. technique validation. with enhancements where the industry deemed necessary. April 2003 Interim Guidance for Implementation of EPRI PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines: Revision 6. Numerous teleconferences.3. Section 6. This document reflects the current industry practices. and meetings were conducted over an 18-month period to develop the final draft. and qualification of techniques and personnel.3.4. The objective of this approach was to ensure that input was received from across the industry and that the most qualified personnel were available to work on the applicable sections. Keywords Nuclear steam generators In-service inspection Eddy current PWR SG tubing SGMP vi . The inspection frequencies. Each subcommittee contained participants from both utility and vendor organizations.3. March 2004 This revision took into account the interim guidance documents issued since the last revision.5. Additionally. all previous interim guidance is superseded. Approach An ad hoc utility committee under the direction of the NDE Issue Resolution Group (IRG) was convened to complete this revision.3. Upon issuance of this document. April 2003 Interim Guidance for EPRI PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines: Revision 6. the performance-based requirements previously contained in Section 4 have been deleted. A new appendix on qualification of ultrasonic testing (UT) personnel was included to separate UT personnel qualification from Appendix G. as described in TSTF 449. data quality.3. These guidelines provide the recommendations and requirements for inspection. The main committee was organized with utility members chairing individual subcommittees for each report section and appendix. The damage mechanisms in Appendix G were updated as a result of SG replacement projects. 6. Appendix I was added to address the determination of NDE system uncertainties for tube integrity assessments (performance demonstration). The subcommittees developed draft material to be reviewed by the main committee. Data management requirements were addressed for the first time in this document.” and “recommend (should)” was addressed in accordance with the EPRI Steam Generator Management Program Administrative Procedure.3. Sections 6.” “shall. September 2003 Interim Guidance for EPRI PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines: Revision 6. Appendix J was separated from Appendix H for UT technique qualifications in the same manner.2. (1011274). and Appendix H supplements H1 and H2. interim guidance was issued four times: • • • • Interim Guidance on Steam Generator Tube Leak at Comanche Peak Unit 1. were included to ensure compliance with the licensee’s technical specifications. The use of the terms “mandatory.

Lieder T. Miranda D. Mayes G. Smith G. Smith D. Harris B. Ellis T. Weyandt AREVA NP AREVA NP AREVA NP Arizona Public Service Corestar Dominion Florida Power & Light Florida Power & Light Southern Company TXU Power TXU Power vii . Connor A. Korkowski R. Visconti T. Swilley AmerenUE Duke Energy Exelon Exelon Florida Power & Light Nuclear Management Company Progress Energy PSEG Nuclear Southern California Edison Tennessee Valley Authority EPRI Ad Hoc Sub-Committee membership principal contributors: M. Matheny C. Bipes C. Boudreaux M. Webber S. Hansen C. Boyers S. Mayer E.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was prepared by the PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines Ad Hoc Committee Ad Hoc Main Committee membership principal contributors: T. Pettus D. Navratil H. Redner T.

Guill S. Maurer J. Farenbaugh R. Procratsky R.R. Siegel N. Kenefick Westinghouse Westinghouse Zetec Zetec EPRI EPRI viii .

..........................................................................................................1-2 2 COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES ......4 SG In-Service Inspection (ISI) Requirements .....2 3.....5......................................4 3............................................................................................2-2 3 EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS .......1 3...................................3 3........2 1.............................2..............................1 3.............3 3..................................3 Purpose .............................................2.........................3-2 3.3-2 Inspection of Other Tube Repairs ....................................3-1 Inspection of Tube Sleeves..................................................................................................................................5.........1 2.....................................................................3-4 First ISI of Tubes........3-4 Subsequent Inspections of Tubing.....................3 3........................4 3................................2 3...........3-4 ix ......................................3-4 Subsequent Inspection of Sleeves.................5............................2.................................................1 3..........3 Introduction .3-1 3........................................................3-4 First ISI of Sleeves .......................................................................................1-1 1...............................................................................4.............................................................3 3........................................................3-4 First ISI of Other Tube Repairs ........2 3.4.......................3-1 Inspection of Tubes................................................................3-2 Inspection of Tube Plugs............................2-1 Examination and Engineering Responsibilities .........................................................................3-5 Subsequent Inspection of Plugs.............3-2 First ISI .....2 Introduction .......2 2.......................................2-1 Management Responsibilities ....3-5 3.............................................................................................4.........................................................1-1 Scope.....................1 3.......................................................................................................................................................................................CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ...................................3-4 First ISI Examination of Plugs ...........................................1 1.................................1-2 Background........................5.............5 3................3-1 SG PSI Requirements .............................4...............................................................3-5 Subsequent Inspection of Other Repairs .......................4 Subsequent ISIs ............................................................................................................................2..............2-1 2...............

.........................6-9 IQDA Oversight................2..........2.............3...........4 6....................................5-1 6 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ................................................................................3................................................5 6.............9 3.......................................................5-1 5..................................................................................6-3 Bobbin Probe Calibration Standards.......1 6....................................3-9 3....................................2 6.............3-7 Forced Outage Guidance.................3-5 Classification of Sample Plan Results .....................................................................................................................1 6....................2 6............8.................3.............7 3......................................................6-2 Calibration Requirements..............................2 6.....3...............3 6.2.........................3-6 Expansion of the Examination ...................6-5 Site-Specific Performance Demonstration (SSPD) Requirements.....3 6........................3...........................6-8 Automated Data Analysis.......2............................1 Introduction ...........3.................2.............................1 6..3........................4 6.........3................................................................................................6-5 6.....................4-1 5 STEAM GENERATOR ASSESSMENTS .........................................3 Analysis Performance Requirements...........6-5 Data Analysis ...............................................................3.........2 6................3...............6-2 Diagnostic Techniques.....6-1 Technique Performance Requirements .................10 Secondary Side Visual Examination ............................3 6...3................................3........6-5 QDA ...6 3..........................6-10 Data Analysis Feedback ....................................3..............................8 Tube Examination Scope and Sampling Plans........................3-7 Expansion Requirements for Sample Plans...............3............6-10 6..............................................2 Introduction ..........................3..................6-8 Resolution ................................................5 6.........................................6-1 Site-Validated Techniques .....2.........2...........................................1 3......................1 6..3................................3 6......................................................3................................................6-3 Rotating and Array Probe Calibration Standards...................6-1 6.............2...................................6-6 Independent Analysis Teams................................................6 x ...........2 3......3........................6-5 Site-Specific Analysis Guidelines.........6-3 Other Calibration Standards .........................1 6..3-7 Expansion Requirements for Foreign Objects and Possible Loose Parts......................................................................3....................................6-4 Sample Rate Requirements................3-9 4 SAMPLING REQUIREMENTS FOR PERFORMANCE-BASED EXAMINATIONS (DELETED)....................6-3 Voltage Normalization Requirements ...........................................3.................................................................................................8....................................3.....................................................

.7-7 8 REFERENCES ......................4.....................................4..........2...........................................6-12 Final Archiving ....4 6.................7-6 SG Assessments ...7 6................................4.......................1.......................................................................................................................................3 6...............4.6-16 Human Performance Requirements ...................................................................................................5..................7-6 System Performance ............................................................2...................................4.....5 7......6-13 Probe Quality Parameters..............................7-1 Compliance Responsibilities ........1 6..4 7.................................................................................................6-20 Standardized Raw Data Format............................................................................................................1 Sample Size............................2.....1 6.................................................................3 7.....................1...........................5 6.......6-18 Contractor Oversight................................7-1 7..............................................................7-1 Sampling Requirements for Prescriptive-Based Examinations.............6-11 Data Management Personnel Requirements .........................................................4................................. A-1 A......................................................................6-12 Final Closeout .....4................................................................................................... A-1 A......6-17 Verification Responsibilities ................................................ A-1 A....6-20 6.............6-19 Mechanical Plugs .............................6 6.........................2......................6-13 6..........................................6 6.........6-19 Requirements for Visual Inspection .....9 6.....1 7..................................................................................................................................................................................................6-11 Inspection Planning and Sample Plan Expansion ....................2 6.....................4.......................9.............6-11 System Process Requirements............................5 6.......................................1 Level of Confidence Relative to Sample Size and the Number of Tubes Affected by Degradation ..6-12 Scope Completion Accountability ....2 7................................1 6..........................................................................................................6-19 Welded Plugs ............................10 6.............................. A-2 xi .............2 6..................................6-12 Inspection Progress .........2.........................4............4 Data Management .......................................11 7 SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS .............................8-1 A SAMPLING BASIS ................2 6.....................6.....2................................1 Data Quality Requirements.........................................8 6................................................................7 6.....6-12 Rescheduling .............2.........................................................2 Statistical Basis for Level of Confidence .....................................9..............6-11 Uploading Analysis Results ........................................6-19 Standardized Analysis Report Format ..........................................6 Introduction and Background .....................................................7-1 Sampling Requirements for Performance-Based Examinations......

............................... D-1 E APPENDIX ......................................3............ B-1 C APPENDIX ....................4 G....................4........................ G-2 General Requirements ...................2............ G-4 Practical Examination ...................3 G.................................................................2.2 G.F-3 Three-Letter Codes..................................................................... G-3 Qualification Examinations and Data Sets .........................................3....................................................................................4................4...............................4..............................................................3 Definitions ...........................................................................................................2 G..........3............. G-3 SSPD Training .........................................1 Scope .........3............................................. G-2 Transfer of QDA Qualifications ...............................................................1 Responsibilities ............................. G-1 Written Practice......................1 G....3..............................................................4.......3....................................... G-3 Training .............................5 G............................................................................ G-2 Use of an Outside Agency ............2 xii ................................2........................1 G............................3......................................................1.. G-3 QDA Training Course Content and Duration.............................................F-1 Acronyms ........................................1 QDA Examinations...........2 G.........................................................3 G................................................. G-3 Availability of Training Course Materials ...............6 G....................................................3 G......................................1...................................................4........F-6 G QUALIFICATION OF EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION PERSONNEL FOR ANALYSIS OF EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION DATA ........ G-1 General Requirements ...................................................................................................1 G......................... G-2 Training .. C-1 D APPENDIX ...........................................3...................................................1............4......... G-4 G.................................................................................................F-1 F.........2 F......... G-4 Written Examinations ..........................................................................1 G.................. G-2 G...........................................1................ E-1 F TERMINOLOGY ........... G-1 G....................................................... G-2 Examinations....... G-2 Confidentiality...........4....................2 G............................1 F........................1... G-1 Qualification Level......................................................... and Materials...................... G-3 Qualification Requirements ..................................................................................2 G......................................................................................................................................B APPENDIX ....4 G......................1 G..........2.................. G-4 G...................... Facilities..........................................1...................................1................................. G-3 Program.....................................................

...............................1.............................................3 H.. G-9 G.........................................4.......................................................................................................2................1... G-11 Practical Examinations ...3.................................3........ H-3 Essential Variable Ranges .4....4.. G-13 H PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION FOR EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION ......2........3........ G-11 Written Examination ..................3. H-1 Technique Requirements .............2.. G-10 Examinations and Data Sets....................................................................................... H-3 General ...... G-12 Attachment G-1 QDA Training And Laboratory Program Contents.......................................................3.....................4 G...............5 G.....................3 G.......... G-11 G.....1................................4..................... G-12 SSPD Performance Feedback .............4 G....... H-3 Requalification....................................4....................... H-1 General Variables – All Types of Probes (Bobbin.................................................1.................................................. G-7 Re-examination ..............2 H.......1............................... G-12 Re-Grading QDA and SSPD Examinations ....... G-9 Practical Examination ..................................................3 H...................4....3.......1 G....................................... H-4 Essential Variable Tolerances...........................1....2........................1 H............5 Re-Examination................................................. H-2 Specific Essential Variables for Bobbin Coil ...................................... H-3 Specific Variables for Array Probes ....2.....3.................1....................... H-2 Specific Variables for Rotating Probes .....2 G............................................................................4...............1 Performance Demonstration ....4 H........2 H.........1 Interrupted Service..4.3....2......................... G-9 QDA Qualification Records .......................................... G-11 Written Examinations ...4..............................................3 Analyst Qualification Criteria ...........1 H...........3..4 H...... G-9 QDA Requalification............................ G-12 SSPD Examinations....4.....2..................2..............3.........................2 Examination Grading... Rotating and Array)........3 G........................1..........2.4.................................................................................4.......4.............6 G.......................................................................4..............................................................................3...............2 G...... G-11 Practical Examination ..............................................................2 G.............1.......................G..............4... G-11 G..........2........................................ H-1 General Examination System Requirements ........ H-3 Disqualification of Techniques ....................................2......3 H... H-4 xiii .................1........3..... H-1 H..............4 H..............3................. H-1 Examination Technique Specification Sheet ........ G-9 Written Examination ..................................1 G...2.....2..............1 H.............................2 G....................2 H..................1 G............4...........1.......... H-3 H.........2.............................................................2....1 Scope ........................................................3...................................................

....3 H1..........3.... H-15 Probe Characterization ....... H-12 Effective Scan Field Width.............4.......................................... H-5 Array Probe Sensing Area Coverage ..2.............................. H-10 Channel Crosstalk .......................................H.....4.............2.....3......................3 H1...............4 H1..1 H1......2 H1.3...................................3 H........................................2 Computerized System Algorithms.... H-7 Output Impedance............. H-11 Digitizing Rate ....1...........................................1.......2.......................... H-7 Total Harmonic Distortion.......3 H1......5 H1....1 H.................................................................... H-7 Signal Generation ............... H-6 Equipment Characterization ..................................................3 H1................1 H1........... H-11 Supplement H1 H1..........................3 H...........3..3.........................3.................................................................... H-14 Phase-to-Depth Curve (PDC) ..............6 xiv .................................................3..2..1......3. H-12 Coil Configuration Sensing Area....................................4.......... H-7 Scope ... H-6 Calibration Methods ........................2..................2 H1........................................................1.................4...........................................................................1 H1..............................................................................3..................... H-12 H1. H-7 Input Impedance............2..........1....2................. H-8 A/D Conversion................................ H-12 Center Frequency . H-10 A/D Resolution ...1 Instruments and Probes ....................1............................3.......................2................... H-9 Bandwidth and Demodulation Filter Response .........................1........................................................................................................2 H........................................................................2...... H-12 Fill Factor Coefficient.................3......2 H1........................................2 H1.........................................................3....................................3.................... H-11 Impedance ........................2.........3... H-7 Eddy Current Instrument ............. H-6 Record of Qualification.................................2..2...2 H1.........................4....3 H1.................................. H-10 Dynamic Range......................................................... H-8 Phase Linearity............... H-4 Cable ...........2.....4 H1......................2.....2 H.......1 H1...1.......2................................................1 H1......................3............................2.......................................................... H-14 Transverse Width Coefficient (TWC) . Demodulation and Filtering...................................3..............................2 H1.................. H-12 Bobbin Probes.......1................................................4..........................3..................................................................................................... H-13 Depth Coefficient ......1 H1......................................4 H1.........................1..........................................................................3...1 H1.....................................1 H1...............5 H1.....3 Amplification.........................3......................................................................... H-4 Frequency/Material/Wall Thickness ........................ H-13 Axial Length Coefficient (ALC) ............................ H-6 H..3..........1.............2........ H-8 Amplifier Linearity and Stability ....

.................2...........................3.....................3...........................2 H1.................6 H1.........2.............. H-25 New Techniques .................. H-18 Tube Circumference Coverage ................................3.H1.................................. H-19 General .....................................3............................................1 H1. H-15 Effective Scan Field Width..................3.........................................3........ H-26 PDD Peer Review Procedure...........................3..............................3.................................................5 H1...............2 H1.................3..........................3.........3.............................................3..3........................3.........................3............ H-17 PDC ..........................................2 H3...............................2..................................................2 H2....3 H3.........1 H2.3.......2...................3 H1................ H-19 Qualification Data Set Requirements ..1 H2........................................................................... H-22 Supplement H3 Scope ............................................3.. H-25 Administrative Responsibilities..........4 H1...........1 H1..............3.........................3....... H-15 Array Probes .................7 Supplement H2 H2...................3..........3................................................................................3.......... H-18 Rotating Probes....3 H2..2....................... H-19 General ..................................................................2...............................4 H1......3...................................................................................5 Technique Originator Responsibilities.....................................................................................................................7 H1.....3................ H-16 PDC ......... H-24 Protocol for PDD Revision........................... H-17 Qualification Requirements for Examination of SG Tubing ..............................3.............................3..7 H1..........1 H2............3 H1... H-25 H3........3..................................................... H-26 xv ... H-17 Diametral Offset Value (DOV) .....3...............................2...................................... H-15 Lift-Off Value (LOV) ...2......................2......................... H-25 Existing Techniques.................................................. H-19 Detection Data Set........................................................................2 H1.................................3....................2......................................... H-25 H2............................................................3..3 H2...........3......................3.... H-16 ALC.... H-21 Detection Acceptance Criteria ....................... H-21 Sizing Data Set ...................3....... H-16 Depth Coefficient ........................... H-17 Effective Scan Field Width.........2 H3.....................................................3.......3...............................................3.................. H-15 Effective Track Field Width (ETFW) ........................ H-17 ALC.2 Direct Current Saturation Strength (DCSS) .........3.....1.....5 H1........................3.....3..................................1 H3..........................................3 H1................... H-16 TWC ................3.................. H-17 TWC ........... H-17 Depth Coefficient .....3............................................................. H-22 Technique Sizing Performance......2.......3................. H-25 PDD Curator Responsibilities...........................................................1 H3.........4 H3........2 Acceptance Criteria......................6 H1................3.....2......

.....................I-9 xvi ..................................2 I.............3.............2.............................................................................................I-1 Data Set Requirements......... H-27 Team Structure ............................................................. H-27 Peer Review Procedure ...........................................................................................................I-9 Supplement I1 Supplement I2 Supplement I3 I3.3.......3 I..................H3.................................................................. H-26 Conduct of the Review.........................................................................1 H4.................................................................I-1 I...................................5....I-2 Process Overview ................................................................................................3...............................................2............................................5 Team Structure ...... H-27 Technique Originator Responsibilities.........I-4 Performance Demonstration .................................................................................................................4 H4....................................... H-28 H4.....5.........................................................5 I.....I-2 Record of Qualification........2 I2...I-4 Performance Demonstration .......I-3 Data Acceptability Guidelines ........................4 I1..................................................................................................................................................I-1 I.................................1 H3......................................................................................................................................................................................................... H-27 Administrative Responsibilities................2 H4.....................................................................................................1 NDE System Performance Measures ......................................................................................................................................2..................................................................3 H4........ H-26 Protocol for Technique Peer Review ...............................................I-8 Sizing ............................ H-27 Conduct of the Review....2 Scope.........................................3 General ..............1 H4........................................... H-27 Examination Technique Specification Sheet Curator Responsibilities.......................................1 I.......3.............I-8 General Requirements ...............2 I.....................................I-1 Personnel Requirements................3...................................3 I......................2 I2..................................5.......I-2 Determining Noise-Dependent NDE System Performance..............................................................................I-1 Requirements ...........................I-2 Acceptance Criteria..........................I-1 Technique Requirements ..................2 I NDE SYSTEM MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES FOR TUBE INTEGRITY ASSESSMENTS...........................4 I............1 I2......................................................................................I-4 Data Set Requirements.............1 I.........I-8 Probability of Detection ....................................................................................................2 H4.I-2 Protocol ..............................I-3 ETSS Data Set Requirements ...................1 I1................... H-27 Supplement H4 Scope ..........................1 I.........5..............................................................................................I-8 NDE System Performance Measures for Tube Integrity Assessments............3 I.........................................

.......................................................4.....................................I-13 Team Structure .....I3...2 J. J-5 Transducer Wave Propagation Mode ...1 J........................................................................I-14 Supplement I4 J PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION FOR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION................5 I4....... J-6 Focused Search Units.................................................................................................I-13 Peer Review Procedure ..............................................4 J...........................1 J.......................2 J.........................1...........................................................2...1 I4.....1 I4....................3 I4.. J-5 Search Unit Transducer Evaluation .........4...........................................................................................................................................2 Supplement J1 J1.............................2........................ J-3 Equipment Variables .................. J-5 Transducer Measured Angle............................1............ J-2 Record of Qualification.............................................................................................. Receivers.........................................................................2.........4.....2 Scope ...2............................................................. and Cable ..................................... J-1 General ....................................2..........................................3...................................................................................... J-2 Computerized System Algorithms...................1................ J-5 Search Unit .................... J-2 Calibration Methods .....................4 J1.......1.....1 J.................3 J........................................I-13 Curator Responsibilities ......................................... Search Unit.1....I-11 Protocol for NDE System Peer Review........ J-2 Disqualification of Techniques ....2 Probability of Detection .................................................................................................................................... J-1 Requalification.....................................................................................................................................2.........I-13 Scope ................................ J-5 Pulsers........................................................................................3 J1..................... J-7 J1.....................2........................J-1 J........................................1 J1.................................................................................I-13 Administrative Responsibilities............1.......................................................3..........3.......................................I-13 Conduct of the Review ...............1........................................................................................2......................................4 J........1....................................2.................I-9 Sizing ...............3 J......................... J-6 S/N Ratio..................................................... J-1 Performance Demonstration ............................................... J-4 Equipment Characterization ..................4 I4............................................................................ J-3 Technique Variables ....2 I4.........................................................................3 J..5 J1...............................................1 xvii ..1 I3................... J-2 Instruments and Search Units.........................................1 Essential Variable Tolerances ..............................................................2.....2 J1............ J-5 J........... J-3 Examination Technique Specification Sheet..... J-3 J......2...................................2 Scope.2 I4........5...............1 J1..5.......1 J.I-13 Technique Originator Responsibilities. J-1 Essential Variable Ranges ....

.....................................6 K..........3 J2................................................................ J-10 Detection Data Set............................2 K..........................3...................................................................................................2 K... K-2 Confidentiality..............1 K............................................... K-2 Training ... J-10 General ..............................................................................................................2 K..................................................................................................... K-4 Analysis Qualification Criteria.........................1..........3 J2... J-10 Qualification Data Set Requirements .....................2. K-3 Practical Examination...........3..............................................4..................3..... K-3 K..............................................4 K..J1..........................3..... J-13 Technique Sizing Performance.......... J-12 Detection Acceptance Criteria ......................... K-2 Availability of Training Course Materials ........2 K.................3 J1...3 J2..................................................3..........................................................1 K.................. J-9 General ..................................... K-3 Written Examination ........................ J-7 Requirements for Pulse Echo Tip Diffraction Sizing Techniques... J-15 Supplement J2 J2..........................................................................3.........................1 K......................3 xviii ......... K-1 Responsibilities and Records.............................................. J-8 Cable .......1..................................................... K-2 Use of an Outside Agency ..................... K-4 Practical Data Set...............3 Scope...............1 J2..........................................1 K...........................................3 K.........3.................................... J-8 Qualification Requirements for Examination of SG Tubing .................................3........ K-1 Written Practice Requirements .......2 Acceptance Criteria.........................5 K.......... J-12 Sizing Data Set ..................2..................................................................................................2..2................................................................ K-4 K................................... K-2 Training and Examination ...................................................2...........................................................................6 J1....7 J1................................................... J-10 Documentation and Review of Changes.......................................................................4..............................................................................................................................................3.......4....................3........................................1 J2................................... K-2 Responsibilities ...1 J2...................................3 Qualification Requirements...2 J2.........................................................................................................3............... J-7 Substituting a Pulser/Receiver or Ultrasonic Instrument........................2..........................2..2 Confirmation..........................4......... K-4 General........................2 J1...... K-2 Transfer Qualifications ............4 K........ J-13 K QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL FOR ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION DATA........4........................................4....................................................................... K-1 K............

..................................5..................... K-8 Practical Examination.............................................................2 K...3...............6 K.3......................................................... K-8 Detection and Orientation....7 Interrupted Service ..................................... K-7 Written Examinations ................................................5..........................................................................................................................K........ K-8 Attachment K-1 xix ............................................1 K..............................................................................................4 Retesting ...........................................2 K...................... K-7 SSPD Training .............................................7..........7............... K-7 Practical Examination....................................................2 K.............................5 Re-examination.............................................. K-9 K................................................................... K-8 Sizing...................................................................... K-7 K............3 K......7.....................................1 K................ K-8 UQDA Training Program ......................7............7................ K-6 Written Examination ..................1 K........................... K-7 SSPD ...............................................7............

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....................................... H-9 Figure I-1 Correlation Coefficient......I-7 Figure I-3 Calculation of POD and Measurement Uncertainties Using GLM Excel Spreadsheet..................................I-10 Figure I-4 Using GLM Weighted Average to Describe Multiple Analysis Team POD Results ............................................... at 95% confidence level for a positive correlation..................................................................................................... all the grading units are reported as NDD) .............................. G-8 Figure G-2 Requalification Flow Chart...............................................e............I-6 Figure I-2 Minimum Number of Required NDD Grading Units as a Function of Population false call Rate (Plot assumes zero misses i.................................................................................... G-10 Figure H-1 Instrument Linearity .................... r......................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure G-1 Qualification Flow Chart............................................................I-12 xxi ....................................................................................................................I-11 Figure I-5 NDE System Sizing Error for Ten Analysis Teams ........................................

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... A-2 Table F-1 Three-Letter Codes ...........................................6-14 Table 6-3 Bobbin Probe Data Quality Parameters..................I-5 Table J-1 Sample Size Correlation Coefficient .............................................................................................................6-17 Table A-1 Tube Sample Sizes and Associated Numbers of Affected Tubes in SGs Required to Provide a 0........................................................................................................F-7 Table G-1 Damage Mechanisms Included in the Practical Examination ........................................................................... K-5 Table K-3 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection and Sizing ...........................3-8 Table 3-2 Expansion of Sample Plans for Cracks (PWSCC............................................................................................................. G-4 Table G-2 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection........ J-11 Table J-2 Minimum Number of Flawed Grading Units (≥60% TW) That Must Be Detected to Meet the Technique Acceptance Criterion of POD ≥0............................ G-6 Table H-1 Sample Size Correlation Coefficient ....................................................................................................................................................................90 Level of Confidence That At Least One Affected Tube Is Sampled from the SG..............................3-9 Table 6-1 Site-Specific Data Analysis Guidelines and/or Site Specific ETSS’s Contents.LIST OF TABLES Table 3-1 Expansion of Sample Plans for Non-Cracks (Thinning and Wear) ........................................................6-7 Table 6-2 Generic Data Quality Parameters ....6-15 Table 6-5 Array Probe Data Quality Parameters ................................................................................... H-20 Table H-2 Minimum Number of Flawed Grading Units (≥60% TW) That Must Be Detected to Meet the Technique Acceptance Criterion of POD ≥0...................................6-15 Table 6-4 Rotating Probe Data Quality Parameters ............................................................................................80 at a 90% Confidence Level ................................................................................80 at a 90% Confidence Level .......................................................... and Intergranular Attack [IGA])................................................................................................. K-3 Table K-2 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection ........................................................................................ J-12 Table K-1 Damage Mechanisms Categories ................... Outside Diameter StressCorrosion Cracking [ODSCC]..... H-21 Table I-1 Data Sufficiency Requirements for POD .............................................. G-5 Table G-3 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection and Sizing ..................................................................6-16 Table 6-6 Probe Manufacturing Quality Parameters...I-5 Table I-2 Data Sufficiency Requirements for Sizing ............... K-6 xxiii ...............................................

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In particular. “Recommendations are good or best practices that licensees should try to implement when practical.INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1 1. Qualification of NDE systems used to detect and/or size degradation. and 2002. 1997.1 Purpose This document is the seventh revision of the PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines [1]. “Shall requirements … are important to long-term steam generator reliability but could be subject to legitimate deviations due to plant differences and special situations. 1996. shall requirements. The requirements provided by this document assist in meeting the objectives of NEI 97-06. 2. The protocol for deviating from specific requirements of this document is in the EPRI Steam Generator Management Program Administrative Procedures (SGMP) [2]. Steam Generator Program Guidelines [3]. NEI 97-06 brings consistency to the development and implementation of a program that monitors the condition of SG tubes against acceptable performance criteria in a manner sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the SGs remain capable of fulfilling their intended safety function. The EPRI Steam Generator Management Program Administrative Procedures [2] includes protocol that is to be followed by guideline revision committees with regard to establishing the level of implementation expected by a licensee. and recommendations. and provide for subsequent verification of compliance by internal or external audit. “Mandatory requirements … are important to steam generator tube integrity and should not be deviated from by any licensee. These categories are clearly defined in [2]. Steam generator tube integrity is defined as meeting the performance criteria as specified in NEI 97-06 [3]”. 3. The requirements provided within this document promote accountability for the examination process. These categories are summarized below: 1. originally published in 1981 and revised in 1984. Written documentation is not required when a recommendation is not implemented.” Shall requirements appear throughout the document and are listed in Section 7. The purpose of this document is to provide requirements and guidance for meeting the following objectives: • • Identification of degradation that effects SG tube integrity.” This document uses the term “should” interchangeably with the term “it is recommended”. 1988. three categories or elements have been established: mandatory requirements. 1-1 . 1992.

NEI 97-06 is the product of the efforts of the utilities. Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC).3 Background Tube degradation in pressurized water reactor (PWR) SGs has resulted from both corrosion and mechanical mechanisms. nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors. the above mechanisms have been responsible for the early replacement of SGs in a significant number of plants worldwide. the degradation mechanisms cited above become more likely to challenge their operability. Alone or in combination. 1. validation of NDE systems to detect and size tubing flaws. The development and revision protocol of this guideline and subsequent revisions are governed by the EPRI Steam Generator Management Program Administrative Procedures [2]. inspection programs. and structural analyses have been successful in reducing lost capacity due to SG related forced outages. As SGs accrue service life. Tube ruptures and leakage events resulted in numerous forced outages or have had an adverse effect on the schedule of planned outages. inservice inspection (ISI) vendors. Improvements in operations and maintenance practices. and Fatigue. Mechanical wear. 1-2 . Thinning. and various consultants to establish safe and technically sound practices to maximize the service life of nuclear SGs. NEI 97-06 has been developed to manage the effects of these mechanisms. A major industry initiative. The prevention of these events continues to be a major goal of the industry.2 Scope This revision adheres to the guidance of NEI 97-06 and the SGMP Administrative Procedure. The main contributors to tube degradation are the following: • • • • • • Intergranular corrosion. Denting. and specification of requirements for qualification of examination techniques and data analysis personnel. and the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) SNT-TC-1A [5] and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) CP-189 (minimum standards for qualification of NDE personnel) [6].Introduction and Background 1. Additional guidance is found in Sections V and XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code (requirements for eddy current testing [ECT]) [4]. This document provides the requirements for performing SG tube inspections. including selection of sample plans.

When the licensee contracts portions of the SG Program.COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES 2 2. necessary to provide adequate confidence that a structure.1 Introduction The objective of this section is to identify organizational responsibilities necessary to ensure examination activities are effectively implemented for safe and reliable SG operation. there are common programmatic functions that are necessary to effectively implement the SG examination process. It is recommended that specific management responsibilities include the following: • Ensure that areas of SG technical responsibility have been clearly assigned either to a single organization with coordination authority or to multiple organizations with an effective coordination and interface mechanism. or component performs satisfactorily in service. 2. reliability. system.2 Management Responsibilities Nuclear station management is responsible for providing sufficient resources and attention to the SG program. such as inspection. Because the responsibility for SG examination resides with the licensee operating the unit. and overall economic viability of SGs. the responsibility for program implementation and compliance with requirements always remains with the licensee. requires each licensee to assume responsibility for those planned and systematic actions. Support establishment of appropriate levels of training in NDE and structural mechanics for SG engineers to enable them to evaluate inspection results associated with unusual conditions and assess their impact on tube integrity. It emphasizes the desirability of operating in a proactive rather than a reactive mode and the timely application of examination programs to enhance nuclear safety. This section addresses the general role of those functions and is not intended to specify any particular organizational structure. • 2-1 . Appendix B [7]. longevity. The Code of Federal Regulations. Although licensee organizational structures vary. 10CFR50. It is recommended that the authority and duties of persons and organizations planning and performing inspections be clearly established in written procedures and policies. a consistently successful SG program requires the commitment of licensee management and a clear communication of that commitment to those responsible for the SG program.

Designate a licensee individual. Engineering personnel provide a central control of SG examination activities and participate on the licensee’s SG management committee to ensure integration of examination requirements. Develop eddy current examination specifications (detailed work scope) for inclusion in the bid package.3 Examination and Engineering Responsibilities The responsibilities of the SG examination and engineering function include planning.Compliance Responsibilities • Provide resources for NDE training and experience of selected licensee personnel with the goal of achieving formal Level III certification and Qualified Data Analyst (QDA) qualification. Provide independent and knowledgeable auditing organizations to periodically verify compliance with SG examination requirements. This includes technical oversight of all contracted work associated with SG examinations and repairs. to be responsible for NDE within the SG program. preferably a QDA. Prepare for supplemental examination methods and techniques to be utilized for indication resolution and characterization. sleeving. Develop written guidelines and a documented plant-specific performance demonstration program for all data analysts. including rerolling or sleeving. Develop a plan to ensure that examination results are dispositioned in accordance with established criteria. and tube pulls. Prepare for tube pulls and/or in situ pressure testing if condition monitoring or operational assessments so dictate. Establish and maintain a database management system to track inspection results and repairs. • • • 2. routine direction for the inspection element of the SG program. . if applicable. Ensure that tube repair methods have been thoroughly evaluated prior to generation of a repair list. Prepare for tube plugging. licensee or vendor) that conducts SG NDE inspections has a written program for conducting examinations. and evaluating SG examination activities. The expectation is reasonable continuity in this designation. Ensure plant modification and configuration control programs have the flexibility to accommodate SG repair activities such as plugging. This individual is knowledgeable in SG tubing NDE and provides ongoing. Examination and engineering responsibilities include the following: • • • • • • • • • • 2-2 Maintain open communication with plant’s NSSS engineering staff regarding potential degradation mechanisms. directing. Ensure that each organization (for example. stabilization or repair.

2-3 .Compliance Responsibilities • • • • • • • Maintain or have access to modification records. Maintain management involvement by keeping them informed and seeking their endorsement. Following each examination. Communicate information with other responsible individuals involved with the plant’s SG program. Attend eddy current NDE training programs to enhance awareness of the significant aspects of examination techniques and processes. and EPRI. develop a final report that documents the results. Communicate examination results to other plants. drawings. and the SG technical manual. vendors. Prepare for supplemental examination methods and techniques to be utilized for tubes surrounding repairs that could damage in-service tubes.

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but in both cases. It is recommended that the requirements contained within this Section for Alloy 600 TT be applied to Alloy 800. tubesheet expansion anomalies.e. dings) observed during the PSI to provide a basis for signal characterization and historical comparisons. Alloy 600 thermally treated (TT). ISI requirements.2 SG PSI Requirements 3. 3. manufacturing burnish marks. Alloy 690 TT. different techniques may be appropriate based on the DA).. and sample plan expansions for SG materials fabricated from Alloy 600 Mill Annealed.1 Inspection of Tubes The PSI shall be performed after tube installation for replacement SGs or after field hydrostatic tests for new plants. Eddy current inspections shall be performed using techniques selected in accordance with Section 6 for degradation mechanism(s) identified as existing or potential in the degradation assessment (DA).1 Introduction This section outlines pre-service inspection (PSI). unusual signals. and Alloy 800 materials. techniques capable of signal characterization are recommended on a representative sample of abnormal conditions (for example. prior to initial power operation to provide a definitive baseline record against which future in-service inspections can be compared. A full-length examination on 100% of the tubing in each SG shall be performed using techniques that are expected to be employed during future inservice inspections. This requirement should not be construed to inhibit the use of new technology or to imply that the techniques used during the PSI will always remain acceptable for future use (i. Additional inspections may be required based on the degradation and/or tube integrity assessments. and Alloy 690 TT are predicated on the premise that these materials will not experience in-service corrosion degradation within the first inspection period. 3-1 . when only the bobbin coil is employed during the PSI.EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS 3 3.2. Extended inspection periods for Alloy 600 TT. In addition.

9. d. in addition to vendor reviews. As a minimum.. over the full length of all sleeves.2. a licensee review (in addition to any required vendor reviews) of pre-established acceptance criteria (for example.3 below.2. Refer to Section 6. torque traces for rolled plugs.2.Examination Requirements 3. from the tube-to-tubesheet weld at the tube inlet to the tube-to-tubesheet weld at the tube outlet. 3. The PSI shall verify each plug was installed in the proper location and in accordance with pre-established acceptance criteria. the PSI shall be performed after installation. torque trace. and inspection intervals shall be such as to ensure that SG tube integrity is maintained until the next SG inspection.2 for the PSI of welded plugs for additional requirements 3. In addition to meeting the requirements of d.4 Inspection of Other Tube Repairs For all other types of tube repairs. weld process parameters. Periodic SG tube inspections shall be performed.1. the following minimum inspection requirements apply: “Provisions for SG tube inspections.3 SG In-Service Inspection (ISI) Requirements Per NEI 97-06 required implementation of TSTF 449. hydraulic time pressure curve) for each repair shall be performed prior to service. axial and circumferential cracks) that may be present along the length of the tube. volumetric flaws. The PSI shall also include a licensee review. expander travel distance for mechanical plugs) for each plug shall be performed prior to service. Methods for location verification include (but are not limited to) visual and/or the use of an independent tube identification system. to determine which inspection methods need to be employed and at what locations.3 Inspection of Tube Plugs The PSI of tube plugs shall be performed after installation. 3. the inspection scope.g. of the installation process parameters for each installed sleeve to ensure that the sleeve installation process was performed as intended. based on this assessment. inspection methods.2. and d. A licensee review (in addition to any required vendor reviews) of the pre-established acceptance criteria (for example. The number and portions of the tubes inspected and methods of inspection shall be performed with the objective of detecting flaws of any type (e. 3-2 . shall be performed prior to the SG being returned to service. and that may satisfy the applicable tube repair criteria. The tube-to-tubesheet weld is not part of the tube. An assessment of degradation shall be performed to determine the type and location of flaws to which the tubes may be susceptible and.2 Inspection of Tube Sleeves A PSI.

7. then the indication need not be treated as a crack. Inspect 100% of the tubes at sequential periods of 120. inspect 50% of the tubes by the refueling outage nearest the midpoint of the period and the remaining 50% by the refueling outage nearest the end of the period. Inspect 100% of the tubes at sequential periods of 144.Examination Requirements Reviewer’s Note Plants are to include the appropriate Frequency (e. The second Item 2 is applicable to SGs with Alloy 600 thermally treated tubing.8.g. thereafter.) for their SG design.1. The first sequential period shall be considered to begin after the first inservice inspection of the SGs. No SG shall operate for more than 72 effective full power months or three refueling outages (whichever is less) without being inspected.2. requirements for the classification of sample plan results are provided in Section 3. or engineering evaluation indicates that a crack-like indication is not associated with a crack(s). If definitive information. Inspect 100% of the tubes at sequential periods of 60 effective full power months.” Initial examination scope and sample plan requirements are provided in Section 3. and requirements for sample plan expansions are provided in Sections 3. If crack indications are found in any SG tube. d. In addition. No SG shall operate for more than 48 effective full power months or two refueling outages (whichever is less) without being inspected. Inspect 100% of the tubes in each SG during the first refueling outage following SG replacement. The first Item 2 is applicable to SGs with Alloy 600 mill annealed tubing. then the next inspection for each SG for the degradation mechanism that caused the crack indication shall not exceed 24 effective full power months or one refueling outage (whichever is less). 60 effective full power months. 90. 72. The third Item 2 is applicable to SGs with Alloy 690 thermally treated tubing. 108. thereafter. 60 effective full power months. and.] [d. select the appropriate Item 2..3. diagnostic non-destructive testing.2.6.2. such as from examination of a pulled tube. and.] [d. [d. 3-3 . The first sequential period shall be considered to begin after the first inservice inspection of the SGs. In addition. The first sequential period shall be considered to begin after the first inservice inspection of the SGs. No SG shall operate for more than 24 effective full power months or one refueling outage (whichever is less) without being inspected.] d. inspect 50% of the tubes by the refueling outage nearest the midpoint of the period and the remaining 50% by the refueling outage nearest the end of the period.

1 First ISI of Tubes The first ISI establishes the operational baseline to determine if degradation has initiated.2 First ISI of Sleeves The first ISI establishes the operational baseline to determine if degradation has initiated. 3. when only the bobbin coil is employed during the first ISI. techniques capable of signal characterization are recommended on a representative sample of abnormal conditions (for example. condition monitoring and/or operational assessment conducted in accordance with the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines [8]. manufacturing burnish marks. 3. unusual signals.7 and 3. In addition. to establish potential differences between baseline and the first ISI and for future historical comparisons (when applicable). 3. to establish potential differences between the PSI and the first ISI and for future historical comparisons. whether there are differences in SG behavior.Examination Requirements 3. As a minimum.4. 3. therefore all sleeves shall be examined after their first cycle of operation. Therefore. Further adjustments to the inspection scope or periodicity may be warranted based upon the DA.4 First ISI 3.3 First ISI Examination of Plugs A visual inspection on 100% of the installed plugs shall be performed in accordance with Section 6.1 Subsequent Inspections of Tubing Subsequent inspection guidance is provided in Sections 3. 3. 3.4. tubesheet expansion anomalies.5 Subsequent ISIs 3. 3-4 . all other types of tube repairs shall be inspected after their first cycle of operation.9 at the next scheduled primary side inspection of the applicable SG.5. a full-length bobbin coil (or a technique(s) that is expected to be employed during future inservice inspections) examination on 100% of the tubing in each SG shall be performed.8.4.3.4 First ISI of Other Tube Repairs The first ISI establishes the operational baseline to determine if degradation has initiated. and for future historical comparisons. dings) observed during the inspection.4. to provide a basis for signal characterization (when applicable).6.

3 (material specific).6. Planning the SG examination scope begins with establishing sampling plans for each existing or potential degradation mechanism in accordance with the requirements in Section 3. The examination scope may include several discrete pre-defined sample plans based on the degradation mechanisms. then the repair(s) may be considered a separate population. 3. 3. Alloys 600 TT and 690 TT Materials .9 when the SG is opened for scheduled primary side examinations. (a) hot leg expansion transitions. Rotating coil examinations may include three discrete sample plans.During subsequent examinations. The classification of results in accordance with Section 3.5.5.6 Tube Examination Scope and Sampling Plans a. all other repairs in all SGs shall be examined at the end of each fuel cycle. The parent tube pressure boundary behind the sleeve shall be inspected to the parent tube requirement. When plug designs preclude a volumetric examination. 3. 3-5 . The same tube(s) may be selected for multiple sample plans. all installed plugs shall be examined visually in accordance with Section 6. examination techniques to be used and the regions of the tube to be inspected. For each sampling plan in the examination scope.Examination Requirements 3. Sampling serves to monitor the general condition of the SG by detecting the onset of new degradation or the recurrence of previously experienced degradation.8. (b) low row u-bends and (c) dents and dings. 3. 3. a minimum sample size of 20% shall be examined.Visual examination shall be performed on all installed plugs in accordance with Section 6.3 (material specific). a full-length bobbin coil inspection may be one sample plan.During subsequent examinations. The basis for the minimum sample size is provided in Appendix A.8 independently using the technique that detected the degradation and applied to the region affected.7 and 3. If an inspection is required to be performed on tubes for reasons unrelated to the repaired sections of the tubes.7 for each discrete sample plan would drive expansion in accordance with Section 3. 3.For subsequent inspection guidance apply the tubing requirements provided in Sections 3.2 Subsequent Inspection of Sleeves For subsequent inspection guidance.4 Subsequent Inspection of Other Repairs • • Alloy 600 Mill Annealed Material .6.3 Subsequent Inspection of Plugs • Alloy 600 Mill Annealed Plug Material . For example. 3.7 and 3.8.5. • Leaking or defective plugs shall be addressed in the Licensee’s corrective action program.3. apply the applicable tubing requirement provided in Sections 3. all plugs in all SGs shall be examined at the end of each fuel cycle. Alloy 600 TT and 690 TT Plug Material .

upon initial detection of cracking the licensee shall inspect 100% of the current bobbin indications in that region to correctly characterize cracking and volumetric indications with a technique capable of characterization. All inservice tubes that have prior indications of degradation and/or historical possible loose parts (PLP) are examined through the area of interest when the applicable SGs are open for examination. 3. Therefore. Example: When a previously degraded tube. but not more than 1% of the total tubes inspected. or one or more tubes. Tube selection within a sample plan shall be governed by the following requirements: 1. b. grows to 49% TW. C-3: More than 10% of the total tubes inspected are degraded tubes or more than 1% of the inspected tubes are defective.3.7 Classification of Sample Plan Results The results of each sample plan shall be classified into one of the following categories by detection technique and location/region per SG examined.Examination Requirements b. inspect all new indications and sample historical indications with a technique capable of characterization. are defective. including tubes adjacent to no-tube lane regions. 39% through-wall (TW). C-1: Less than 5% of total tubes inspected are degraded tubes and none of the inspected tubes are defective. 2. it is recognized that the bobbin coil technique is not capable of distinguishing between the two mechanisms. c. Note: In all inspections. When cracking and volumetric indications occur in the same region. The tubes are selected on a random or systematic basis. a. During subsequent examinations. previously degraded tubes must exhibit significant (>10%) further wall penetrations or growth greater than 25% of the repair limit to be included in the above percentage calculations. A secondary-side foreign object search and retrieval (FOSAR) examination may be used to meet this requirement. Growth rates are calculated on a per fuel cycle basis. C-2: Between 5% and 10% of the total tubes inspected are degraded tubes. Peripheral tubes.g. 3-6 . c. and evenly distributed across the tube bundle to the extent practical (e. are included or added to a sample plan or considered a separate sample plan when there is reason to expect that loose parts are present or were introduced into the SG secondary side. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations). it need not be included in the above calculations as either a degraded or defective tube. 3. Sample plan result categories listed in this section serve as the basis for expanding the examinations beyond that initially sampled as discussed in the next section. Sampling shall be performed such that all tubing is examined within the periods established in Section 3. exceeding the repair limit of 40% TW.

8.8.Examination Requirements 3. 3-7 . 3.2 Expansion Requirements for Foreign Objects and Possible Loose Parts Requirements are provided in Chapter 10 of the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines.1 Expansion Requirements for Sample Plans Based on the classification results for each sample plan examined.8 Expansion of the Examination 3. Sample plan expansions shall be performed in accordance with Table 3-1 and Table 3-2. additional inspections may be required. The expansion requirements of Table 3-1 do not apply.

Examination Requirements Table 3-1 Expansion of Sample Plans for Non-Cracks (Thinning and Wear) Expansion of a Sample Plan or Expansion Into an Unscheduled SG Results C-1 C-2 Action Required None Inspect an additional 20% of all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG. C-3 Inspect all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG and a 20% sample of the affected sample plan in each unscheduled SG. 3-8 . Inspect all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG and a 20% sample of the affected sample plan in each unscheduled SG. C-3 C-3 Inspect all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG and a 20% sample of the affected sample plan in each unscheduled SG. C-1 None First Expansion Results Action Required Second Expansion Results Action Required C-2 Inspect an additional 20% of all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG. C-1 None C-2 Inspect all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG.

follow the Operational Leakage guidance in the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines. Loss-of-coolant accident requiring actuation of the engineered safeguards d. Seismic occurrence greater than the Operating Basis Earthquake c. follow the guidance in Section 3. and Intergranular Attack [IGA]) Expansion of a Sample Plan or Expansion into an Unscheduled SG Results C-1 C-2 or C-3 Action Required None Inspect all remaining tubes or tube sections in the affected sample plan in this SG and a 20% sample of the affected sample plan in each unscheduled SG.10 Forced Outage Guidance Forced outage examinations shall be performed during plant shutdown subsequent to any of the following conditions: a.6. Outside Diameter Stress-Corrosion Cracking [ODSCC]. First Expansion Results Action Required Second Expansion Results Action Required 3.9 Secondary Side Visual Examination Guidance for this topic has been relocated to the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines. 3. Main steam line or feedwater line break For unscheduled examinations following primary-to-secondary leakage leading to plant shutdown.Examination Requirements Table 3-2 Expansion of Sample Plans for Cracks (PWSCC. 3-9 . SG Primary-to-secondary leakage leading to plant shutdown b. For the other unscheduled examinations identified above leading to plant shutdown.

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4-1 .SAMPLING REQUIREMENTS FOR PERFORMANCEBASED EXAMINATIONS (DELETED) 4 This section has been deleted.

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STEAM GENERATOR ASSESSMENTS 5 5. 5-1 .1 Introduction The following assessments are important elements of a written comprehensive SG program: • • • • • Degradation Assessment Condition monitoring assessment Operational assessment Primary-to-secondary leakage assessment Self-assessment Detailed requirements are provided in the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines and the NEI 97-06 Steam Generator Program Guidelines.

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procedures. the licensee is responsible for the quality and accuracy of the inspection. Ultimately. In combination. data management performance. techniques. The qualification of NDE techniques shall comply with the requirements specified in Appendix H or Appendix I. Sufficient data is defined as the amount of data required to establish a relationship between the techniques used in the past and present inspections. However. and the integrity of the final results. they are referred to as system performance and each part adds value to ensure the tube examination results are useful in condition monitoring and operational assessments. and personnel. work activities. and approval of all processes and procedures being used. system performance is influenced by the capabilities of the process. When implementing a change in technology. it is recommended that personnel and techniques be qualified in accordance with Appendices J and K and the intent of this section’s requirements apply to the extent practical. human performance. verification. 6-1 . analysis performance.2 Technique Performance Requirements Inspection of SG tubes shall be conducted using qualified techniques capable of detecting and characterizing the degradation mechanisms identified in the DA. It is recommended that the DA consider Examination Technique Specification Sheet (ETSS) in effect six months prior to the examination. examination equipment. Incorporating new or revised ETSSs in effect for less than six months prior to examination is optional. contractor oversight and visual inspection. when ultrasonic testing is used as an input to tube integrity assessments. data quality. Ultrasonic testing is not generally used as a production examination technique and therefore the specific requirements in this section do not apply. The bridging of technology is essential for maintaining consistent condition monitoring and operational assessments. review.1 Introduction This section provides requirements for technique performance. Under field conditions. 6.SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 6 6. it is recommended that sufficient data also be collected for comparison purposes using the technique previously documented in the last condition monitoring and operational assessment. providing oversight.

deposits. b. pulled tubes. tube geometry.1 Site-Validated Techniques The purpose of the site validation of examination techniques is to ensure that the detection and sizing capabilities developed in accordance with Appendix H or Appendix I are applicable to site-specific conditions for each damage mechanism identified in the DA. channel and normalization] equivalent to the ETSS?).. 6-2 . then it is recommended that one of the following actions be taken: a.System Performance 6. This review establishes that the tubing extraneous test variables (for example. However. denting. All essential variables on the qualified ETSS as compared to the site-specific ETSS to determine equivalency. If the review determines that a technique cannot be site-validated. Site-specific signals (for existing degradation mechanisms only) compared to ETSS signals to determine if the degradation mechanisms are characterized correctly. A qualified technique’s tubing essential variables to ensure that the application is consistent with site-specific SG conditions. it is recommended that specific conditions being evaluated should be mocked up to demonstrate the technique’s capability prior to use. 6. flaw/noise injection). Explore other techniques. lab samples.2. Develop or augment the ETSS with representative data (for example. The results from a diagnostic technique may be used as input to the tube integrity assessments. This includes dent or ding analysis and reporting when addressed in the qualified ETSS (i. is the site dent or ding calibration and sizing criteria [voltage.2. phase and signal characteristics to in-generator signals.2 Diagnostic Techniques Some techniques may be useful for diagnostic purposes to aid in the evaluation of a specific condition or degradation mechanism within a SG. Determine and document an alternate POD. if non qualified diagnostic techniques are to be used. noise) of the tubes in the qualification data set are comparable in voltage. b. or determines if the potential exists to degrade the probability of detection (POD). Diagnostic techniques do not require specific Appendix H or Appendix I qualification. This shall be accomplished through a documented pre-inspection review of: a. It is recommended that the review document be prepared or reviewed by a QDA and approved by the individual(s) responsible for SG tube integrity for use in the DA. c.e. c.

051 mm]) radial variation (360°) for an axial distance sufficient to cover the entire array b. Additional array probe calibration standard artifacts: o 30% TW OD circumferential groove 360° with a minimum width of 0. shall be defined in the plant specific procedure or ETSS. -0. (12.127 mm [+0.2.) (0. (+0.203 mm [+0.008 in.005 in. 6.025 mm 0. The calibration standard design shall meet the following criteria: 1. signal voltage normalization.System Performance 6. Equivalency shall be established for voltage. alternative notches may be used.2.3 Calibration Requirements Standardization around uniform calibration standard designs. It is recommended that standards include a liftoff reference signal to facilitate evaluation of signals influenced by local profile changes. such as a 30% TW OD spiral groove o 0. 6. (9. and span settings in relation to ETSS calibration requirements.3.700 mm) (+0. above cannot be met. [+0. phase.001 in.500 in. by different NDE vendors. c.525 mm) and a width of 0. Where paragraph a. using variations of qualified techniques.001 in. 6.1 Bobbin Probe Calibration Standards ASME defines the bobbin probe calibration standard requirements.375 in.2 Rotating and Array Probe Calibration Standards a. and minimum sample rate requirements facilitates meaningful comparisons between data produced at different plants. -0.002 in. (+0.002 in. d. Any additional requirements are specified in the plant specific procedure or ETSS.3.2. Rotating and Array Probe calibration standards Electro discharge machining (EDM) notches with a minimum length of 0.3 Other Calibration Standards The design of special calibration standards required for other plant specific ETSSs which cover unique degradation mechanisms or repair processes such as plugs and sleeves.3.051 mm]): o 100% TW axial and circumferential EDM notches o 60% TW inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) axial and circumferential EDM notches o 40% TW ID and OD axial and circumferential EDM notches 2.051 mm] tolerance on depth) o An artifact sufficient to establish channel ordering. 6-3 .002 in.025 mm -0.) (0.2.

4 Voltage Normalization Requirements A standardized method for voltage normalization of data provides the industry with comparable results. profilometry). For the bobbin coil technique. If the 100% TW EDM notch signal is saturated.2. the transfer standard method of voltage correction. or anomalies. Normalizing all standards to a single site-reference standard (the transfer standard method of correction. The following voltage normalization values shall supersede ETSS values provided the normalization does not invalidate voltage based sizing techniques or in situ pressure testing screening criteria. provided the single site-reference standard is normalized to 4 volts peak-to-peak on the four 20% TW flat-bottom holes to develop the transfer voltage. set the peak-topeak voltage to 4 volts for each channel and to 2. AVB wear sizing. individually for each channel. For the array probe technique. For the rotating probe technique. individually for each channel. or 2. which can be used in a database to perform comparisons. b. voltage versus burst pressure) normalized to a single reference standard. Acceptable exceptions to the voltage normalizations above are: • To maintain consistency with past practice or for another specific purpose (i. the voltage values shall be set to 20 volts peak-to-peak on the appropriate 100% TW notch. a. at the maximum amplitude response near the center of the flaw. Appropriate notch means a circumferential notch for a circumferential sensitive channel and an axial notch for axial sensitive and nondirectional channels. similar to the alternate repair criteria method) is acceptable. trending. Using the four 20% TW flat-bottom holes located on the ASME standard. A correction factor for previous examination results may need to be developed and applied to historical data. alternate voltage normalization methodologies and values can be applied. 6-4 . or 3. c. may be applied for NDE parameter normalization in the field to maintain consistency to that correlation.3. the voltage value shall be set to 5 volts peak-to-peak using the 30% TW 360-degree groove. as defined by the alternate repair criteria. the voltage normalization shall be accomplished as follows: 1. The need may arise for changing voltage normalization practices to comply with those identified in this document.System Performance 6.e. or help justify results transients. it is acceptable to normalize on an alternate notch with a voltage setting that correlates with the 100% TW notch.75 volts for the prime/quarter mix channel. When using a repair criterion based on the correlation of a technique parameter to a structural parameter (for example.. sludge height measurement.

All personnel involved in the analysis of degradation shall successfully complete an SSPD for the current outage in accordance with Appendix G.3. As such.4 mm) as established in the ASME code. automated data analysis. 6.3. resolution and independent QDA oversight.3 Analysis Performance Requirements This section provides requirements for data analyst qualification.2 Site-Specific Performance Demonstration (SSPD) Requirements Appendix G specifies personnel training and qualification requirements for a SSPD. 6.3. For rotating and array probe techniques. 6. Important elements of the structured approach to data analysis include: • • • Written site-specific analysis guidelines Independent analysis teams Automated analysis systems (if applicable) 6-5 . instrument digitization rate and pull speed shall be adjusted to obtain a minimum sample rate of 30 samples/inch (30 samples/25. site-specific analysis guidelines.2.System Performance 6.5 Sample Rate Requirements For bobbin probe examinations.1 QDA Appendix G specifies personnel training and qualification requirements for NDE personnel who analyze eddy current data for PWR SG tubing. It is recommended that these examinations be administered immediately prior to analysis activities. data analysis. the minimum sample rates shall be in accordance with the ETSS or as site validated. It is recommended that the licensee monitor each of these areas individually and collectively to ascertain whether corrections or adjustments are necessary. All analysis personnel shall be a QDA in accordance with Appendix G. independent analysis teams. 6. Such an approach is necessary to ensure that the most appropriate analysis practices are used for a given flaw type and that data are analyzed in a consistent and reliable manner.3. there are many individual elements to a successful SG inspection.3 Data Analysis The use of multiple-frequency instrumentation with its numerous possible analysis channels and the diversity of flaw types that might be encountered during a SG inspection have necessitated the use of a highly structured approach towards data analysis.

by extraneous test variables. analysis. system administration. engineering. the process of historical review is reviewing the actual raw or processed eddy current data. and/or procedures used by acquisition operators. • • • 6-6 . Additional process controls and analysis guidance are to be established as follows: • It is recommended that the roles and responsibilities of all personnel (for example. Additional precautionary guidance shall be provided to data analysts on reporting indications that read zero percent TW if the analyst believes the indication is real degradation being influenced.System Performance • • • Resolution IQDA oversight Data analysis feedback Site-Specific Analysis Guidelines 6. the history review comparison is to the PSI data. However. In these circumstances. The site-specific analysis guidelines shall be based on the ETSS for all techniques planned for use. The licensee shall implement a process to track changes made in the instructions.3. When cracking mechanisms are present. and data managers to document that program changes have been acknowledged and understood. review of database report entries is not acceptable. When cracking mechanisms are not present. It is recommended that the material provided in Table 6-1 be included within the site-specific data analysis guidelines and/or site specific ETSS’s. resolution.3. During the first ISI. guidelines. the licensee shall define what constitutes change in terms of voltage and/or phase angle from the Lissajous signal in the current inspection as compared to the same Lissajous signal in the first ISI recorded on optical disk. When historical reviews are performed to determine if supplemental testing is warranted. data management) involved in the inspection be documented and communicated. the analyst should alert the lead analyst about the possible need for analysis guideline modification. or not. acquisition.1 The purposes of analysis guidelines are to provide structure to the analysis process and to promote consistency and reliability in performing data analysis. site-specific data analysis guidelines shall be prepared in a manner that will encourage an analyst to identify possible flaw signals where new conditions are encountered or in situations where the analyst is uncertain about the correct classification of a signal. analysts. review of database report entries is acceptable.

hard copy printouts for reportable indications. and calibration curve generation Defines normal and exceptional signal behavior characteristics required to be identified as flaws Provides test extent and minimum reporting levels for tube wall degradation and damage precursors Appropriate three-letter codes are to be used to convey information about observed degradation indications and SG conditions Evaluation Determines analysis strip chart settings and Lissajous viewing window channel requirements for initial data review Specifies channels to be used for evaluation in different regions of the tube and evaluation method Specifies how phase angles are to be assigned. or others Resolution History Review Data Modifications 6-7 . process channels. voltage normalization settings. rotation and span settings. and SSPD requirements Establishes mixes.System Performance Table 6-1 Site-Specific Data Analysis Guidelines and/or Site Specific ETSS’s Contents Scope/Purpose Applicability References S/G Design Definitions Prerequisites Responsibilities Personnel Qualifications Calibration Flaw Identification Criteria Reporting Requirements Defines the scope and purpose of the guidelines Defines the method and technique for which the analysis guidelines are applicable Specifies all referenced documents Specifies S/G design configuration Defines all three-letter codes Specifies any additional site-specific analyst training requirements Specifies the roles and responsibilities of all personnel Defines minimum analyst qualification and certification requirements. how signal amplitudes are to be measured. tube integrity engineering. and information to be included in the final report Specifies discrepancy conditions and resolution procedures Specifies historical review process requirements Specifies the post resolution data modification process that may be required to correct discrepancies found by data management. and how lengths are determined Specifies how location is to be determined Specifies data quality requirements Specifies precautions for complex signals and potential for mixed mode indications Recording Defines requirements for which signals are to be recorded.

Fully automated mode: The software detects and analyzes the signals and the analysis results are accepted with no human intervention. Automated analysis systems used for degradation analysis are to be qualified through performance demonstration as follows: 1. include review of the analysis set up.3 Automated Data Analysis a. 3. instrument types. Reporting of anomalous signals not caused by degradation (such as bulges.3. and orientation. length. Automated analysis of eddy current data is achieved by systems incorporating software that allows the processing of eddy current data and its presentation in the form of an analyzed output. It is recommended the two teams be from different vendor organizations. the analyses shall be done separately (without knowledge of the other team’s results) and not as a joint effort. drive voltages. It is recommended to use the initial generic performance algorithms as a source of information for help in establishing the site specific algorithms. Different algorithms may be required based on variations in AAPDD essential variables (for example. analysis for tube degradation data shall be completed by two independent analysis teams (designated as primary and secondary). dents. modified. tubing sizes.3. tube support anomalies. 6. The initial generic qualification shall be demonstrated on the applicable EPRI Automated Analysis Performance Demonstration Database (AAPDD) which validates detection and sizing/characterization algorithms for each applicable known damage mechanism found in Table G-1. c. Detection only mode: The software detects signals and the analyst applies manual analysis to provide results. possible loose parts. or rejected. 2. Detailed crack profiling/sizing for tube integrity analysis may be performed by a single analyst. 6-8 . b. with an independent technical review.3. and etc.2 Independent Analysis Teams Each of the signals encountered during the SG inspection needs to be recognized and correctly classified. maximum depth.3. A single missed or incorrectly classified defect indication can lead to a plant shutdown or a tube rupture event. dings. when provided. Application of automated analysis systems shall be limited to the mode that was qualified. 2.) need not be subjected to two-party analysis. To maintain independence. The independent technical review shall be conducted by a QDA and as a minimum. These systems are typically applied in one of the following ways: 1. coil excitation frequencies). Interactive mode: The software detects and analyzes the signals and the analyst reviews the results identified by the software and compares them with his/her own analysis of the signals before the results are accepted. To reduce the likelihood of these consequences. sludge. maximum voltage.System Performance 6.

they are not considered independent. adding. Both teams may use automated analysis systems for sizing/characterization provided they are independent systems.3. Both teams may use automated analysis systems for detection provided they are independent systems. an assessment of previously analyzed data from that outage shall be conducted to determine the need for reanalysis. Key points to be observed in the use of dual automated analysis systems for degradation analysis are the following: 1. 6. and documented. clear definitions of discrepancy conditions. A process shall be established to maintain control of the qualified algorithm revision(s). 5.4 Resolution A discrepancy resolution team (representing primary and secondary) shall review and resolve discrepancies between the results of the two independent analysis teams. or changing a result. d. However. However. When non-conservative adjustments are made to the qualified algorithms. o Equivalent or conservative algorithm rules exist when compared to the site specific guidelines. if the detection algorithms are the same. Where appropriate. 8.System Performance 3. 7. and a well-defined process for discrepancy resolution. are properly screened. at least one of the two analysis teams or the resolution team shall review all the analysis results manually to verify the sizing/characterization algorithm. When adjustments are made to the qualified algorithms during an outage. re-qualification of the adjusted algorithms on the SSPD shall be performed. The site-specific performance capability of an automated analysis system shall be demonstrated and documented in accordance with the SSPD practical examination requirements in Appendix G. It is important that the site-specific data analysis guidelines contain an appropriate delineation of analyst responsibilities. 6. 6-9 . e. 4. o Damage mechanisms. the SSPD qualified algorithms may be adjusted without requalification provided the adjustments are conservative or equivalent. for which the automated data analysis system is being used. and at least one team shall analyze all data manually to ensure the detection algorithms are not missing degradation. An analyst with experience in the automated system being utilized shall verify the following prior to each inspection: o Appropriate tube or region coverage exists for detection of degradation.3. Human intervention is defined as an analyst operating the automated analysis system deleting. 2. SSPD qualifications of automated analysis systems shall be demonstrated independent of human intervention.

Analyst comment resolution process f.6 Data Analysis Feedback Each licensee shall ensure that a Data Analysis feedback process that monitors analyst performance is implemented. It is recommended that the following primary duties are prioritized by the licensee: 1. In the event that the two resolution analysts cannot agree. Missed indication review requirements c.System Performance An extremely important consideration is the deletion of a reported indication of degradation made by either of the two analysis teams. 6. End of job review requirements e. In addition. 6. Monitor data analysis feedback process.3. Overcall review requirements d. then at least two resolution analysts (not from the same team) shall concur and consider review of prior history and/or other techniques before the analysis result is overruled. Auto Analysis review requirements (when applicable) 6-10 . The licensee shall designate one or more IQDA(s) who is not part of the resolution team. If the primary or secondary analyst reports degradation including “I” codes. Provide any necessary feedback to the resolution team (see Section 6. 6. 2. Overall process control requirements (i. It is recommended that the following aspects be identified in the feedback process: a. Randomly sample data to determine if the resolution analysts are resolving calls in a consistent and conservative manner and that calls are being dispositioned properly.3.4). roles.3. Randomly sample NDD and NDF calls by production analysts. 4. to perform analysis oversight.7 and feedback from the IQDA. the resolution team shall consider feedback from the primary and secondary analysts as required in Section 6.5 IQDA Oversight a. Review all repairable calls rejected by resolution.3.e who is responsible for ensuring the process is performed as intended. 3.3. as defined in Appendix F. etc) b. mediate concurrence or the most conservative result will prevail.3. 5. Administrative discrepancies may be corrected by a single resolution analyst. responsibilities.

final closeout. and final archiving. account for the examination scope.System Performance 6.4. inspection progress. The tube inspection plans and subsequent sample plan expansions shall be documented and provided to the licensee prior to implementation. The licensee shall provide the following site-specific information: 1. The purpose of this section is to define the requirements for data management personnel and system process requirements.2. Data management personnel shall develop tube inspection plans and subsequent sample plan expansions in a database management system in accordance with a.2 System Process Requirements Data management includes the initial inspection planning. scope completion accountability.1 Inspection Planning and Sample Plan Expansion a. c. 6. d. 6-11 . (typically those with Alloy 600 Mill Annealed tubing) have had complex inspection and expansion plans due to multiple degradation mechanisms at multiple locations that rely on multiple tube entries in each tube with different techniques. Due to this complexity. The operation of the data management software program(s) utilized.4. 6. Data analysis guidelines and ETSS’s 3. DA including inspection scope 2. it is recommended that dual data management systems be utilized on these types of inspections to minimize the potential for human or software type errors. rescheduling. above. Data management requirements b. Historically.4 Data Management Data management systems are used to manage the inspection. and provide accurate reporting of the results. uploading analysis results.1 Data Management Personnel Requirements It is recommended that organizations performing data management provide training and experience for data managers in the following categories: • • Data management processes and practices as related to SG eddy current inspections.4. some plants. sample plan expansion. 6. It is recommended that inspection plans be electronically transferable between one data management system and the data acquisition system to minimize human input errors.

System Performance

6.4.2.2

Uploading Analysis Results

a. The required analysis results shall be uploaded into the data management system after completion of such analysis. b. The analysis results shall be subject to input quality checks to verify all analysis results fields are valid inputs consistent with site-specific requirements. c. It is recommended that the analysis results be subject to quality checks to verify all historical results are addressed as required by site-specific requirements. 6.4.2.3 Rescheduling

The data management system shall be capable of rescheduling examinations for retests and supplemental testing. 6.4.2.4 Inspection Progress

The data management system shall be capable of tracking individual inspection plans and the entire inspection to its completion. This includes the ability to report on data acquisition progress and analysis progress. When dual data management systems are utilized, only the system that interfaces with the data acquisition system is required to report on data acquisition progress. 6.4.2.5 Scope Completion Accountability

The data management system shall be capable of accounting for the completeness of each scheduled examination validated through queries and/or compiled software. 6.4.2.6 Final Closeout

a. Final closeout begins when the data manager has uploaded all completed analysis results into the data management system. Final closeout is the process data management personnel perform to ensure all required examinations are completed, the database results are accurate, and all site-specific requirements have been met. b. In the absence of a licensee closeout procedure or checklist, the data manager shall provide a written closeout procedure or checklist to the licensee. Prior to entering the final closeout process, the data manager should log the starting date and time on the checklist. c. The closeout checklist shall include the following queries and tasks as a minimum: 1. Completion of all initial inspection plans. 2. Completion of all retests and supplemental test plans. 3. Completion of sample plan expansions as applicable. 4. Proper final disposition of all tubes with addressable indication codes.

6-12

System Performance

5. Required addressing of previous history is complete. 6. Positive identification (PID) requirements have been met. 7. Comparison of data management records to analysis source records showing no discrepancies. d. If two independent data management systems are used, it is recommended that the final databases from both systems be compared line-by-line electronically. Any discrepancies found between the two systems will be either resolved or documented and approved by the licensee if left unresolved. e. The closeout process may uncover discrepancies, which require resolution by additional data acquisition and/or analysis processes. Each addressed discrepancy shall be evaluated against all previously completed steps in the closeout process before the closeout process resumes at the step that discovered the discrepancy. When all discrepancies are resolved or approved and the closeout checklist is complete, the data manager should log the end date and time on the checklist and make official notification to the licensee that the inspection is complete. 6.4.2.7 Final Archiving

After closeout is complete all the results in the analysis system shall be merged and linked back to the appropriate individual raw data files. It is recommended that a procedure be provided for the process of properly archiving the results and the raw data files including quality checks that validate the integrity of the archived results.

6.5

Data Quality Requirements

The purpose of this section is to provide data quality requirements for SG eddy current examinations. Implementing the following requirements is expected to improve accuracy in detecting and sizing tube degradation. In addition, when automated processes are utilized, implementation of these requirements is expected to identify retests during the acquisition process rather than the analysis process. Data quality parameters are divided into four tables and are separated as generic (Table 6-2), bobbin (Table 6-3), rotating (Table 6-4), and array probes (Table 6-5). The tables provide a frequency, location, acceptance criteria, and corrective action for each of the listed quality parameters. The data quality parameters provided in this section shall be verified. While some of these data quality monitoring parameters may prove to be too restrictive, the basis for reduction of frequency or less stringent criteria shall be documented.

6-13

System Performance Table 6-2 Generic Data Quality Parameters Quality Parameter Summary verification Frequency Once per calibration Location Summary file Acceptance Criteria Correct site, unit, SG, owner, identification, model, calibration standard(s), probe(s) type, manufacturer, length and serial number, motor unit length and serial number, cable length and type, procedure with revision level, instrument serial number, ETSS number with revision number, software version with revision level, operator with certification level, frequencies, mode of operation, date, scan direction (may be performed using tube header information), data collected from inlet/outlet or other parameters essential to the documentation associated with this calibration set. Corrective Actions Correct information, retest tubes with correct summary, or document errors through a corrective action program.

Tube identification number Extent tested

Each tube

Tube

The data file present reflects the correct Retest tube with tube identification with independent correct tube verification by an additional method. identification. Planned beginning to planned end for each portion of tube or entire tube. Data file present at beginning of calibration group. Calibration standard encoded properly. Retest all or portion of tube to complete test. Reject data, retest calibration standard, correct data file, or document error in a message.

Each tube

Tube

Presence of Once per an initial calibration calibration group standard data file Saturation Continuous

Data file

Area of interest Area of interest Data file Data file

The eddy current signal(s) of channel(s) Reject data or required by the site ETSS are within the document dynamic range of the instrument. evaluation. Frequencies required by the site ETSS to be monitored are functional. Setting equal to site ETSS. Setting equal to site ETSS. Reject data.

Presence of eddy current signals Drive voltage Gain setting

Continuous

Once per data file Once per data file

Reject data. Reject data.

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Reject data or document evaluation of alternate acceptance criteria. ≤1 spike per 10 consecutive revolutions on <2 frequencies required by the site ETSS for detection and/or detection and sizing. Reject data if < site ETSS.System Performance Table 6-3 Bobbin Probe Data Quality Parameters Quality Parameter Frequency Location Acceptance Criteria Phase changes on normalized reference signal (Section 6. Reject data if < site ETSS. Measurement Once at end Calibration on reference of standard defects calibration group Sampling rate Continuous Presence of Continuous parasitic noise Area of interest Area of interest Table 6-4 Rotating Probe Data Quality Parameters Quality Parameter Trigger pulse Measurement on reference defects Frequency Location Acceptance Criteria Data terrain plots correctly. no check is required) ≥ to site ETSS.8 mm) and on <2 frequencies required by the site ETSS for detection and/or detection and sizing.3.4) ±20%. Amplitude changes on normalized reference signal (Section 6. Corrective Actions Reject data Reject data or document evaluation of alternate acceptance criteria. A spike is defined as signal less than 5 data points in duration with an included angle less than 5° and an amplitude >1 volt. ≥ to site ETSS.4) ±5°. Continuous Area of interest Once at end of calibration group Calibration standard Axial sampling rate Presence of parasitic noise Continuous Area of interest Continuous Area of interest Circumferential Continuous Area of sample rate interest 6-15 .4) ±5°.3.2. Phase changes on normalized reference signal (Section 6. (If there is no end calibration due to equipment failure. Amplitude changes on normalized reference signal (Section 6. ≤1 spike per 12 in. Reject data if < site ETSS. Corrective Actions Reject data or document evaluation of alternate acceptance criteria.3.2.2. A spike is defined as signal less than 5 data points in duration with an included angle less than 5° and an amplitude >1 volt.2. no check is required) ≥ to site ETSS. Reject data or document evaluation of alternate acceptance criteria.4) ±20%. (If there is no end calibration due to equipment failure.3. (304.

Reject data. Presence of Continuous parasitic noise 6.5. Continuous monitoring of probe manufacturing tolerances during data acquisition would not be practical. Phase changes on normalized reference signal (Section 6. (If there is no end calibration due to equipment failures. Channel ordering Sampling rate Once per calibration Continuous Calibration standard Structure-tostructure Area of interest Reject data if < site ETSS.1 Probe Quality Parameters Probe manufacturing tolerances can have a profound effect on data quality. alternate acceptance criteria. utilities shall request probe manufacturers to verify the applicable critical probe manufacturing parameters that can affect data quality and require the manufacturer to provide a certificate of conformance to the applicable portion of Table 6-6. Coil response and centering Once per calibration Calibration standard Reject data or Amplitude ≤35% difference between maximum and minimum response to an document evaluation of OD groove. Reject data or document evaluation of alternate acceptance criteria. Array channel representation in the correct circumferential and axial positions.2. Therefore. Corrective Actions Reject data Presence of Continuous all channels in the array Measurement on reference defects Once at end Calibration of standard calibration group Reject data or document evaluation of alternate acceptance criteria.System Performance Table 6-5 Array Probe Data Quality Parameters Quality Parameter Frequency Location Area of interest Acceptance Criteria The presence of all channels in the array.3. ≤1 spike per 12 in. ≥ to site ETSS.3. 6-16 . Amplitude changes on normalized reference signal (Section 6.2.4) ±20%. no check is required).4) ±5°. (304. A spike is defined as a signal less than 5 data points in duration with an included angle less than 5° and an amplitude >1 volt.8 mm) and on <2 frequencies required by the site ETSS for detection and/or detection and sizing.

and communication. The process is governed by procedural controls but the user is faced with numerous critical decisions involving plan implementation. The user has numerous tools to facilitate the acquisition task but is still heavily reliant upon training and experience. Human performance can be improved through the use of training. data quality. c. ≤10% secondary lobe on a 100% TW axial notch. This review is typically performed based on memory through a repetitive process (though the analyst may and often does refer to the analysis guideline and ETSS). Acceptance being a measure of the amplitude crossover at > or = 70%.1 in. 6-17 .080" (2mm) long EDM notch artifact oriented in the preferred direction to achieve the highest amplitude response from the sensor. ≤0. program closeout. 6. etc. barriers. procedures. Within ±10% amplitude difference between the average of the two lobes of the 100% TW hole. (2. thousands of signals are reviewed each outage). observation.54 mm) between nominal and measured axial position. self-checking. These skills are developed through training and experience. ≤10° between nominal and measured circumferential position. Main lobe ≥90% of total amplitude. b. solid body probes Bobbin (nonexternal reference) Multiple coil. A polar plot with measurements taken at < or = 1° increments around the tube of a 60% thru-wall . solid body probes Array probes Acceptance Criteria The center frequency is within 10% of design. platform activities.6 Human Performance Requirements a. Human performance is one of the most unpredictable elements in the inspection process.System Performance Table 6-6 Probe Manufacturing Quality Parameters Quality Parameter Center frequency Dissymmetry Coil winding alignment Coil winding perpendicularity Probe coil circumferential position Probe flux Probe coil axial position 360° Sensing area Coil Type(s) All coils Differential coils Rotating and array Plus point coils Multiple coil.. Data acquisition is considered a skill-based activity. repair processes. Data analysis is also considered a skill-based activity. tester configuration. 160°–200° between 100% TW axial and 100% TW circumferential notches. probe selection.e. The activity is highly practiced (i.

Personnel.System Performance d. or so intent on the task that pertinent information is not detected. Working conditions that have contributed to human errors include the working environment. It is recommended that the licensee provide adequate time and an environment conducive for performance of the SG inspection. background noise. probe. h. The work environment plays an important role in the workers’ ability to operate at peak performance. each of the factors cited above contributes cumulatively to performance degradation. and modifies schedules and assignments to overcome potential negative effects. during or after the activity. Proper performance of repair or plugging methods 6. While providing a proper working environment is no guarantee that error-free performance will be achieved. b. music. EPRI Guidelines and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. table heights. The specific observations shall be documented in a procedure(s) and/or checklist(s). f. SG inspection and repair processes are major program elements that encompass requirements from several sources including the Code of Federal Regulations. Management is aware of the potential for negative fitness-for-duty factors and encourages individuals to determine if they are in the proper state of mind to perform their job satisfactorily. SSPD results 3. The errors associated with skill-based performance are referred to as execution errors. and equipment certification compliance with purchase order requirements and this document 2. Fitness for duty onsite and at remote locations is an important consideration. personnel scheduling. It is recommended that aspects include: 1. and lighting can all affect performance to some degree. A behavior observation program continually monitors worker’s behavior that may affect their human performance capabilities. Acquisition/analysis system (software/hardware) setup in accordance with site ETSS 4. Repair or plugging installation process parameters 6-18 . e. g. Effective human performance requires working conditions that maximize the potential contribution of human capabilities and minimize the potential negative impact of human limitations. and non-work related distractions. NEI 97-06. ventilation. system responses or conditions associated with the task due to some preoccupation. not recognizing changes in task requirements.7 Verification Responsibilities a. These errors can be characterized as involving inadvertent slips and unintentional omissions. Plant Technical Specifications. Repair or plugging of tubes identified as exceeding the applicable acceptance criteria 5. conversation. extensive travel. 6. The licensee shall verify critical aspects of the SG inspection and tube repair or plugging processes before. mental and physical fatigue. Room temperature. chairs.

development of training material. The in-service visual examination of the previously installed plugs shall be performed by an individual with specific training in this area.8 Contractor Oversight Additional guidance beyond that found in NEI 97-06 is not needed. Therefore. secondary-side conditions.9.1 Mechanical Plugs The in-service visual examination of the previously installed plugs shall be performed by an individual with specific training in this area. SG temperature. 6. This inspection should verify the location and presence of existing inservice plugs.System Performance 6.9 Requirements for Visual Inspection The requirements for performing visual inspections and verification activities need to meet minimum standards as specified below. time elapsed since primary-side drain down. ventilation. an evaluation shall be conducted to determine the reason and possible impact to other plugs installed. and look for excessive boron buildup or wetness around the tube plug (see Figure D-2. and look for evidence of plug leakage that may include excessive boron buildup or wetness around the tube plug. PWR Steam Generator Tube Plug Assessment Document ). 6. If a leaking plug is discovered.2 Welded Plugs The pre-service visual examination of the final weld after installation shall be performed by an individual certified as a visual examination (VT-1) examiner in accordance with ASME Section XI. 6. It is recommended all visual examinations be permanently recorded on an appropriate media to allow follow up review by licensee engineering personnel. consideration should be given to when the visual inspection is performed.9. 6-19 . Items that can affect the results include tubesheet moisture. boron crystal growth. sharing of information and historical comparisons. and pressurization. This inspection should verify the location and presence of existing in-service plugs.

6-20 .10 Standardized Analysis Report Format A proposed industry standardized analysis report format is available at EPRIQ. 6.com.com.11 Standardized Raw Data Format A proposed industry standardized raw data format is available at EPRIQ.System Performance 6.

A full-length examination on 100% of the tubing in each SG shall be performed using techniques that are expected to be employed during future inservice inspections.3 Sampling Requirements for Prescriptive-Based Examinations Requirement Eddy current inspections shall be performed using techniques selected in accordance with Section 6 for degradation mechanism(s) identified as existing or potential in the degradation assessment (DA). Section 3. unusual signals.e. manufacturing burnish marks.1 7-1 .SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS 7 7. different techniques may be appropriate based on the DA).. prior to initial power operation to provide a definitive baseline record against which future in-service inspections can be compared. This requirement should not be construed to inhibit the use of new technology or to imply that the techniques used during the PSI will always remain acceptable for future use (i. dings) observed during the PSI to provide a basis for signal characterization and historical comparisons. when only the bobbin coil is employed during the PSI.1 Introduction and Background Requirement None Section N/A 7. In addition.2. but in both cases.2 Compliance Responsibilities Requirement None Section N/A 7. The PSI shall be performed after tube installation for replacement SGs or after field hydrostatic tests for new plants. tubesheet expansion anomalies.1 3. techniques capable of signal characterization are recommended on a representative sample of abnormal conditions (for example.

expander travel distance for mechanical plugs) for each plug shall be performed prior to service. a licensee review (in addition to any required vendor reviews) of pre-established acceptance criteria (for example. The number and portions of the tubes inspected and methods of inspection shall be performed with the objective of detecting flaws of any type (e. d.2. weld process parameters. select the appropriate Item 2.2. shall be performed prior to the SG being returned to service. The tube-to-tubesheet weld is not part of the tube. to determine which inspection methods need to be employed and at what locations Reviewer’s Note Plants are to include the appropriate Frequency (e. The PSI shall verify each plug was installed in the proper location and in accordance with pre-established acceptance criteria.9. over the full length of all sleeves.2 for the PSI of welded plugs for additional requirements. inspection methods. For all other types of tube repairs.) for their SG design. torque trace. Refer to Section 6.3 3. The 3. “Provisions for SG tube inspections.3 below. As a minimum.. based on this assessment. volumetric flaws.2 3. hydraulic time pressure curve) for each repair shall be performed prior to service. A licensee review (in addition to any required vendor reviews) of the pre-established acceptance criteria (for example.4 3. in addition to vendor reviews..g.2.Summary of Requirements A PSI. and d. Methods for location verification include (but are not limited to) visual and/or the use of an independent tube identification system. and that may satisfy the applicable tube repair criteria. from the tube-to-tubesheet weld at the tube inlet to the tube-to-tubesheet weld at the tube outlet. Periodic SG tube inspections shall be performed. The PSI shall also include a licensee review. the inspection scope.3 7-2 . In addition to meeting the requirements of d.1. axial and circumferential cracks) that may be present along the length of the tube. of the installation process parameters for each installed sleeve to ensure that the sleeve installation process was performed as intended.2.g. The first Item 2 is applicable to SGs with Alloy 600 mill annealed tubing. and inspection intervals shall be such as to ensure that SG tube integrity is maintained until the next SG inspection. torque traces for rolled plugs. An assessment of degradation shall be performed to determine the type and location of flaws to which the tubes may be susceptible and. the PSI shall be performed after installation. The PSI of tube plugs shall be performed after installation.

No SG shall operate for more than 24 effective full power months or one refueling outage (whichever is less) without being inspected. 108. The third Item 2 is applicable to SGs with Alloy 690 thermally treated tubing.Summary of Requirements second Item 2 is applicable to SGs with Alloy 600 thermally treated tubing. inspect 50% of the tubes by the refueling outage nearest the midpoint of the period and the remaining 50% by the refueling outage nearest the end of the period. whether there are differences in SG behavior. As a minimum.2. or engineering evaluation indicates that a crack-like indication is not associated with a crack(s). Inspect 100% of the tubes in each SG during the first refueling outage following SG replacement. a full-length bobbin coil (or a technique(s) that is expected to be employed during future inservice inspections) examination on 100% of the tubing in each SG shall be performed. then the next inspection for each SG for the degradation mechanism that caused the crack indication shall not exceed 24 effective full power months or one refueling outage (whichever is less). In addition. [d. Inspect 100% of the tubes at sequential periods of 60 effective full power months. Inspect 100% of the tubes at sequential periods of 144.2.2. then the indication need not be treated as a crack.1. The first sequential period shall be considered to begin after the first inservice inspection of the SGs. In addition. 72. Inspect 100% of the tubes at sequential periods of 120. The first sequential period shall be considered to begin after the first inservice inspection of the SGs. No SG shall operate for more than 72 effective full power months or three refueling outages (whichever is less) without being inspected. 90. No SG shall operate for more than 48 effective full power months or two refueling outages (whichever is less) without being inspected. diagnostic non-destructive testing. 60 effective full power months. If definitive information. thereafter. and for future historical comparisons. 60 effective full power months.] [d.4.3. In addition. such as from examination of a pulled tube. when only the bobbin coil is employed during the 3. If crack indications are found in any SG tube. inspect 50% of the tubes by the refueling outage nearest the midpoint of the period and the remaining 50% by the refueling outage nearest the end of the period. d.1 7-3 . The first sequential period shall be considered to begin after the first inservice inspection of the SGs.” The first ISI establishes the operational baseline to determine if degradation has initiated. and. and.] d.] [d. thereafter.

Therefore. 3. examination techniques to be used and the regions of the tube to be inspected.9 when the SG is opened for scheduled primary side examinations.5.2 3.Summary of Requirements first ISI.4. all other repairs in all SGs shall be examined at the end of each fuel cycle. therefore all sleeves shall be examined after their first cycle of operation.3 3. Planning the SG examination scope begins with establishing sampling plans for each existing or potential degradation mechanism in accordance with the requirements in Section 3.4. apply the applicable tubing requirement provided in Sections 3.4 3.6 .3 (material specific). Alloy 600 TT and 690 TT Plug Material . • Alloy 600 Mill Annealed Material . • Alloy 600 Mill Annealed Plug Material . techniques capable of signal characterization are recommended on a representative sample of abnormal conditions (for example.6. The first ISI establishes the operational baseline to determine if degradation has initiated. The examination scope may include several discrete pre-defined sample plans based on the degradation mechanisms.7 and 3. all installed plugs shall be examined visually in accordance with Section 6. The first ISI establishes the operational baseline to determine if degradation has initiated.During subsequent examinations. A visual inspection on 100% of the installed plugs shall be performed in accordance with Section 6. all plugs in all SGs shall be examined at the end of each fuel cycle.4.3 • a. manufacturing burnish marks. The parent tube pressure boundary behind the sleeve shall be inspected to the parent tube requirement. dings) observed during the inspection.9 at the next scheduled primary side inspection of the applicable SG. When plug designs preclude a volumetric examination. tubesheet expansion anomalies. all other types of tube repairs shall be inspected after their first cycle of operation. For subsequent inspection guidance. unusual signals.During subsequent examinations. Leaking or defective plugs shall be addressed in the Licensee’s corrective action program.3.4 3.8. to establish potential differences between the PSI and the first ISI and for future historical comparisons.2 3. 3. 3. a full-length bobbin 7-4 3.5. to establish potential differences between baseline and the first ISI and for future historical comparisons (when applicable).5.Visual examination shall be performed on all installed plugs in accordance with Section 6. to provide a basis for signal characterization (when applicable). For example.

b. Sampling serves to monitor the general condition of the SG by detecting the onset of new degradation or the recurrence of previously experienced degradation. Tube selection within a sample plan shall be governed by the following requirements: 1.7 for each discrete sample plan would drive expansion in accordance with Section 3. and evenly distributed across the tube bundle to the extent practical (e. C-1: Less than 5% of total tubes inspected are degraded tubes and none of the inspected tubes are defective. 7-5 3. it is recognized that the bobbin coil technique is not capable of distinguishing between the two mechanisms. (a) hot leg expansion transitions. All inservice tubes that have prior indications of degradation and/or historical possible loose parts (PLP) are examined through the area of interest when the applicable SGs are open for examination. Sample plan result categories listed in this section serve as the basis for expanding the examinations beyond that initially sampled as discussed in the next section. During subsequent examinations.Summary of Requirements coil inspection may be one sample plan. When cracking and volumetric indications occur in the same region. inspect all new indications and sample historical indications with a technique capable of characterization. 3. are included or added to a sample plan or considered a separate sample plan when there is reason to expect that loose parts are present or were introduced into the SG secondary side. The classification of results in accordance with Section 3. (b) low row u-bends and (c) dents and dings. c. The results of each sample plan shall be classified into one of the following categories by detection technique and location/region per SG examined. Peripheral tubes. a minimum sample size of 20% shall be examined. The basis for the minimum sample size is provided in Appendix A. 2.8 independently using the technique that detected the degradation and applied to the region affected. The same tube(s) may be selected for multiple sample plans. Sampling shall be performed such that all tubing is examined within the periods established in Section 3.3. A secondaryside foreign object search and retrieval (FOSAR) examination may be used to meet this requirement. For each sampling plan in the examination scope. a. upon initial detection of cracking the licensee shall inspect 100% of the current bobbin indications in that region to correctly characterize cracking and volumetric indications with a technique capable of characterization. Therefore.7 . Rotating coil examinations may include three discrete sample plans. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations). The tubes are selected on a random or systematic basis.g. including tubes adjacent to no-tube lane regions.

5 SG Assessments Requirement None Section N/A 7-6 .4 Sampling Requirements for Performance-Based Examinations Requirement None Section N/A 7.6. For the other unscheduled examinations identified above leading to plant shutdown. are defective. 39% through-wall (TW).Summary of Requirements b.1 3. C-2: Between 5% and 10% of the total tubes inspected are degraded tubes. Based on the classification results for each sample plan examined. SG Primary-to-secondary leakage leading to plant shutdown b. Sample plan expansions shall be performed in accordance with Table 3-1 and Table 3-2. Growth rates are calculated on a per fuel cycle basis. additional inspections may be required. grows to 49% TW. Loss-of-coolant accident requiring actuation of the engineered safeguards d. C-3: More than 10% of the total tubes inspected are degraded tubes or more than 1% of the inspected tubes are defective. Forced outage examinations shall be performed during plant shutdown subsequent to any of the following conditions: a. Example: When a previously degraded tube. but not more than 1% of the total tubes inspected. 3.8. exceeding the repair limit of 40% TW. previously degraded tubes must exhibit significant (>10%) further wall penetrations or growth greater than 25% of the repair limit to be included in the above percentage calculations. Seismic occurrence greater than the Operating Basis Earthquake c. c. it need not be included in the above calculations as either a degraded or defective tube. or one or more tubes.10 7. Note: In all inspections. Main steam line or feedwater line break For unscheduled examinations following primary-to-secondary leakage leading to plant shutdown. follow the guidance in Section 3. follow the Operational Leakage guidance in the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines.

3.375 in. It is recommended that the DA consider Examination Technique Specification Sheet (ETSS) in effect six months prior to the examination.2. noise) of the tubes in the qualification data set are comparable in voltage. or determines if the potential exists to degrade the probability of detection (POD). (9.2. The qualification of NDE techniques shall comply with the requirements specified in Appendix H or Appendix I.e. is the site dent or ding calibration and sizing criteria [voltage. All essential variables on the qualified ETSS as compared to the sitespecific ETSS to determine equivalency. Incorporating new or revised ETSSs in effect for less than six months prior to examination is optional.051 mm]): o 100% TW axial and circumferential EDM notches o 60% TW inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) axial and circumferential EDM notches 7-7 6. channel and normalization] equivalent to the ETSS?). a. (+0.005 in.002 in.2 6.) (0. Site-specific signals (for existing degradation mechanisms only) compared to ETSS signals to determine if the degradation mechanisms are characterized correctly. 0. The calibration standard design shall meet the following criteria: 1. Rotating and Array Probe calibration standards Electro discharge machining (EDM) notches with a minimum length of 0. The purpose of the site validation of examination techniques is to ensure that the detection and sizing capabilities developed in accordance with Appendix H or Appendix I are applicable to site-specific conditions for each damage mechanism identified in the DA. denting.025 mm -0.001 in. c. This review establishes that the tubing extraneous test variables (for example.2 Section 6. This includes dent or ding analysis and reporting when addressed in the qualified ETSS (i. tube geometry.127 mm [+0. phase and signal characteristics to ingenerator signals.525 mm) and a width of 0. b. deposits.. This shall be accomplished through a documented pre-inspection review of: a.Summary of Requirements 7.1 . A qualified technique’s tubing essential variables to ensure that the application is consistent with site-specific SG conditions.6 System Performance Requirement Inspection of SG tubes shall be conducted using qualified techniques capable of detecting and characterizing the degradation mechanisms identified in the DA.

above cannot be met. [+0.75 volts for the prime/quarter mix channel.3 6. c.Summary of Requirements o 40% TW ID and OD axial and circumferential EDM notches 2. which can be used in a database to perform comparisons. shall be defined in the plant specific procedure or ETSS. When using a repair criterion based on the correlation of a technique parameter to a structural parameter (for example.051 mm] tolerance on depth) o An artifact sufficient to establish channel ordering. the transfer standard method of voltage correction. The following voltage normalization values shall supersede ETSS values provided the normalization does not invalidate voltage based sizing techniques or in situ pressure testing screening criteria. a.025 mm -0. It is recommended that standards include a liftoff reference signal to facilitate evaluation of signals influenced by local profile changes. as defined by the alternate repair criteria. alternative notches may be used.3.3. d. Additional array probe calibration standard artifacts: o 30% TW OD circumferential groove 360° with a minimum width of 0. (12.4 7-8 .) (0.2. or anomalies. set the peak-to-peak voltage to 4 volts for each channel and to 2. phase. or 6. The design of special calibration standards required for other plant specific ETSSs which cover unique degradation mechanisms or repair processes such as plugs and sleeves.051 mm]) radial variation (360°) for an axial distance sufficient to cover the entire array b. Using the four 20% TW flat-bottom holes located on the ASME standard. the voltage normalization shall be accomplished as follows: 1. trending. and span settings in relation to ETSS calibration requirements. For the bobbin coil technique. may be applied for NDE parameter normalization in the field to maintain consistency to that correlation. or help justify results transients.500 in.002 in. such as a 30% TW OD spiral groove o 0. or 2. (+0.2.203 mm [+0. voltage versus burst pressure) normalized to a single reference standard. Where paragraph a.001 in. -0. A standardized method for voltage normalization of data provides the industry with comparable results. Any additional requirements are specified in the plant specific procedure or ETSS.008 in.700 mm) (+0.002 in. Equivalency shall be established for voltage.

4 mm) as established in the ASME code.3. It is recommended that the material provided in Table 6-1 be included within the site-specific data analysis guidelines and/or site specific ETSS’s. the minimum sample rates shall be in accordance with the ETSS or as site validated. For the rotating probe technique. 6.3. Normalizing all standards to a single site-reference standard (the transfer standard method of correction.1 6. the analyst should alert the lead analyst about the possible need for analysis guideline modification. c. For bobbin probe examinations. similar to the alternate repair criteria method) is acceptable. Appendix G specifies personnel training and qualification requirements for a SSPD. site-specific data analysis guidelines shall be prepared in a manner that will encourage an analyst to identify possible flaw signals where new conditions are encountered or in situations where the analyst is uncertain about the correct classification of a signal. The site-specific analysis guidelines shall be based on the ETSS for all techniques planned for use.1 7-9 . the voltage value shall be set to 5 volts peak-to-peak using the 30% TW 360-degree groove.3.2 6. All analysis personnel shall be a QDA in accordance with Appendix G.3.Summary of Requirements 3. Appropriate notch means a circumferential notch for a circumferential sensitive channel and an axial notch for axial sensitive and nondirectional channels. individually for each channel. It is recommended that these examinations be administered immediately prior to analysis activities. For the array probe technique. provided the single site-reference standard is normalized to 4 volts peak-to-peak on the four 20% TW flat-bottom holes to develop the transfer voltage. For rotating and array probe techniques. In these circumstances. Appendix G specifies personnel training and qualification requirements for NDE personnel who analyze eddy current data for PWR SG tubing. However. b.5 6. the voltage values shall be set to 20 volts peak-to-peak on the appropriate 100% TW notch. The purposes of analysis guidelines are to provide structure to the analysis process and to promote consistency and reliability in performing data analysis. All personnel involved in the analysis of degradation shall successfully complete an SSPD for the current outage in accordance with Appendix G.2.3. individually for each channel. at the maximum amplitude response near the center of the flaw. instrument digitization rate and pull speed shall be adjusted to obtain a minimum sample rate of 30 samples/inch (30 samples/25.

by extraneous test variables.3. tube support anomalies. analysis for tube degradation data shall be completed by two independent analysis teams (designated as primary and secondary).) need not be subjected to two-party analysis. analysts. the licensee shall define what constitutes change in terms of voltage and/or phase angle from the Lissajous signal in the current inspection as compared to the same Lissajous signal in the first ISI recorded on optical disk.3. the history review comparison is to the PSI data. When cracking mechanisms are not present. dents. Additional precautionary guidance shall be provided to data analysts on reporting indications that read zero percent TW if the analyst believes the indication is real degradation being influenced. The independent technical review shall be conducted by a QDA and as a minimum. When historical reviews are performed to determine if supplemental testing is warranted. dings. when provided. data management) involved in the inspection be documented and communicated. acquisition. system administration. engineering. When cracking mechanisms are present. and orientation.2 • • • Each of the signals encountered during the SG inspection needs to be recognized and correctly classified. analysis. It is recommended the two teams be from different vendor organizations. include review of the analysis set up. sludge. During the first ISI. The licensee shall implement a process to track changes made in the instructions. A single missed or incorrectly classified defect indication can lead to a plant shutdown or a tube rupture event. maximum depth. guidelines. possible loose parts. and data managers to document that program changes have been acknowledged and understood. maximum voltage. 6. or not. length.Summary of Requirements Additional process controls and analysis guidance are to be established as follows: • It is recommended that the roles and responsibilities of all personnel (for example. with an independent technical review. 7-10 . and etc. review of database report entries is acceptable. the analyses shall be done separately (without knowledge of the other team’s results) and not as a joint effort. review of database report entries is not acceptable. the process of historical review is reviewing the actual raw or processed eddy current data. To reduce the likelihood of these consequences. Detailed crack profiling/sizing for tube integrity analysis may be performed by a single analyst. and/or procedures used by acquisition operators. Reporting of anomalous signals not caused by degradation (such as bulges. resolution. To maintain independence.

3 7-11 . 6. 3. Application of automated analysis systems shall be limited to the mode that was qualified. 6. These systems are typically applied in one of the following ways: 1. instrument types. drive voltages. When non-conservative adjustments are made to the qualified algorithms. Fully automated mode: The software detects and analyzes the signals and the analysis results are accepted with no human intervention. 3. Different algorithms may be required based on variations in AAPDD essential variables (for example. modified. re-qualification of the adjusted algorithms on the SSPD shall be performed. or rejected. 5. Detection only mode: The software detects signals and the analyst applies manual analysis to provide results. Interactive mode: The software detects and analyzes the signals and the analyst reviews the results identified by the software and compares them with his/her own analysis of the signals before the results are accepted. Automated analysis systems used for degradation analysis are to be qualified through performance demonstration as follows: 1. The site-specific performance capability of an automated analysis system shall be demonstrated and documented in accordance with the SSPD practical examination requirements in Appendix G. 2. coil excitation frequencies). When adjustments are made to the qualified algorithms during an outage. 4.Summary of Requirements a. It is recommended to use the initial generic performance algorithms as a source of information for help in establishing the site specific algorithms. and documented.3.3. an assessment of previously analyzed data from that outage shall be conducted to determine the need for reanalysis. The initial generic qualification shall be demonstrated on the applicable EPRI Automated Analysis Performance Demonstration Database (AAPDD) which validates detection and sizing/characterization algorithms for each applicable known damage mechanism found in Table G-1. c. Automated analysis of eddy current data is achieved by systems incorporating software that allows the processing of eddy current data and its presentation in the form of an analyzed output. Where appropriate. the SSPD qualified algorithms may be adjusted without requalification provided the adjustments are conservative or equivalent. 2. tubing sizes. b.

Key points to be observed in the use of dual automated analysis systems for degradation analysis are the following: 1. clear definitions of discrepancy conditions. SSPD qualifications of automated analysis systems shall be demonstrated independent of human intervention. Human intervention is defined as an analyst operating the automated analysis system deleting. they are not considered independent. Both teams may use automated analysis systems for detection provided they are independent systems. as defined in Appendix F. An analyst with experience in the automated system being utilized shall verify the following prior to each inspection: o Appropriate tube or region coverage exists for detection of degradation. are properly screened. However. then at least two resolution analysts (not from the same team) shall concur and consider review of prior history and/or other techniques before the analysis result is overruled.3. An extremely important consideration is the deletion of a reported indication of degradation made by either of the two analysis teams. for which the automated data analysis system is being used. It is important that the site-specific data analysis guidelines contain an appropriate delineation of analyst responsibilities. o Damage mechanisms. and a well-defined process for discrepancy resolution.3.4 review and resolve discrepancies between the results of the two independent analysis teams. or changing a result. A process shall be established to maintain control of the qualified algorithm revision(s). adding. if the detection algorithms are the same. 8. and at least one team shall analyze all data manually to ensure the detection algorithms are not missing degradation. d. However. 7-12 . o Equivalent or conservative algorithm rules exist when compared to the site specific guidelines. at least one of the two analysis teams or the resolution team shall review all the analysis results manually to verify the sizing/characterization algorithm. 2.Summary of Requirements 7. Both teams may use automated analysis systems for sizing/characterization provided they are independent systems. A discrepancy resolution team (representing primary and secondary) shall 6. If the primary or secondary analyst reports degradation including “I” codes. e.

3. In the event that the two resolution analysts cannot agree.7 and feedback from the IQDA. Overcall review requirements d. End of job review requirements e. etc) b. above.3. Administrative discrepancies may be corrected by a single resolution analyst. 7-13 6. Data analysis guidelines and ETSS’s 3. Overall process control requirements (i. 2. Data management requirements b. Each licensee shall ensure that a Data Analysis feedback process that monitors analyst performance is implemented.1 6. 6.5 . It is recommended that the following aspects be identified in the feedback process: a. The licensee shall provide the following site-specific information: 1. mediate concurrence or the most conservative result will prevail.Summary of Requirements In addition. Randomly sample NDD and NDF calls by production analysts.3. Provide any necessary feedback to the resolution team (see Section 6. the resolution team shall consider feedback from the primary and secondary analysts as required in Section 6.4).4. responsibilities.3. Randomly sample data to determine if the resolution analysts are resolving calls in a consistent and conservative manner and that calls are being dispositioned properly. 5. Review all repairable calls rejected by resolution. 4. DA including inspection scope 2. 3. to perform analysis oversight. Monitor data analysis feedback process.3.2. It is recommended that the following primary duties are prioritized by the licensee: 1. The licensee shall designate one or more IQDA(s) who is not part of the resolution team. Missed indication review requirements c.6 6. Data management personnel shall develop tube inspection plans and subsequent sample plan expansions in a database management system in accordance with a.e who is responsible for ensuring the process is performed as intended.3. Auto Analysis review requirements (when applicable) a. Analyst comment resolution process f. a. roles.

4. the data manager shall provide a written closeout procedure or checklist to the licensee. This includes the ability to report on data acquisition progress and analysis progress. It is recommended that the analysis results be subject to quality checks to verify all historical results are addressed as required by site-specific requirements.4. and all site-specific requirements have been met. Completion of all retests and supplemental test plans.2.2. The data management system shall be capable of accounting for the completeness of each scheduled examination validated through queries and/or compiled software. c. The closeout checklist shall include the following queries and tasks as a minimum: 1. The required analysis results shall be uploaded into the data management system after completion of such analysis.2. the data manager should log the starting date and time on the checklist. b. The data management system shall be capable of tracking individual inspection plans and the entire inspection to its completion.2 6. 2. 6. d. The tube inspection plans and subsequent sample plan expansions shall be documented and provided to the licensee prior to implementation. the database results are accurate.3 for retests and supplemental testing.4.4 6. b.4. only the system that interfaces with the data acquisition system is required to report on data acquisition progress. Final closeout is the process data management personnel perform to ensure all required examinations are completed.6 7-14 . The analysis results shall be subject to input quality checks to verify all analysis results fields are valid inputs consistent with site-specific requirements. Final closeout begins when the data manager has uploaded all completed analysis results into the data management system. The data management system shall be capable of rescheduling examinations 6.Summary of Requirements c.5 6. 3.2. In the absence of a licensee closeout procedure or checklist. a. Completion of all initial inspection plans. When dual data management systems are utilized. Completion of sample plan expansions as applicable. a. It is recommended that inspection plans be electronically transferable between one data management system and the data acquisition system to minimize human input errors.4. c. Prior to entering the final closeout process.2.

Comparison of data management records to analysis source records showing no discrepancies. the basis for reduction of frequency or less stringent criteria shall be documented. The data quality parameters provided in this section shall be verified. e. b. Positive identification (PID) requirements have been met. After closeout is complete all the results in the analysis system shall be merged and linked back to the appropriate individual raw data files. When all discrepancies are resolved or approved and the closeout checklist is complete.Summary of Requirements 4. Plant Technical Specifications.1 6. The licensee shall verify critical aspects of the SG inspection and tube repair or plugging processes before. Required addressing of previous history is complete. EPRI Guidelines and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Probe manufacturing tolerances can have a profound effect on data quality.7 6. While some of these data quality monitoring parameters may prove to be too restrictive.7 . 5.2. NEI 97-06. SG inspection and repair processes are major program elements that encompass requirements from several sources including the Code of Federal Regulations. Therefore. 6. d. It is recommended that a procedure be provided for the process of properly archiving the results and the raw data files including quality checks that validate the integrity of the archived results. If two independent data management systems are used.5 6.5. Proper final disposition of all tubes with addressable indication codes. Continuous monitoring of probe manufacturing tolerances during data acquisition would not be practical.4. which require resolution by additional data acquisition and/or analysis processes. Any discrepancies found between the two systems will be either resolved or documented and approved by the licensee if left unresolved. Each addressed discrepancy shall be evaluated against all previously completed steps in the closeout process before the closeout process resumes at the step that discovered the discrepancy. utilities shall request probe manufacturers to verify the applicable critical probe manufacturing parameters that can affect data quality and require the manufacturer to provide a certificate of conformance to the applicable portion of Table 6-6. during or after the activity. it is recommended that the final databases from both systems be compared line-by-line electronically. The 7-15 6. The closeout process may uncover discrepancies. 7. the data manager should log the end date and time on the checklist and make official notification to the licensee that the inspection is complete. a.

This inspection should verify the location and presence of existing inservice plugs.Summary of Requirements specific observations shall be documented in a procedure(s) and/or checklist(s). PWR Steam Generator Tube Plug Assessment Document ). probe. Repair or plugging installation process parameters If a leaking plug is discovered. Repair or plugging of tubes identified as exceeding the applicable acceptance criteria 5. Personnel.1 performed by an individual with specific training in this area. and look for excessive boron buildup or wetness around the tube plug (see Figure D-2.9 The in-service visual examination of the previously installed plugs shall be 6. 6. This inspection should verify the location and presence of existing in-service plugs. and look for evidence of plug leakage that may include excessive boron buildup or wetness around the tube plug. and equipment certification compliance with purchase order requirements and this document 2. an evaluation shall be conducted to determine the reason and possible impact to other plugs installed. It is recommended that aspects include: 1. Proper performance of repair or plugging methods 6. SSPD results 3. 6.9. The in-service visual examination of the previously installed plugs shall be performed by an individual with specific training in this area. Acquisition/analysis system (software/hardware) setup in accordance with site ETSS 4.2 7-16 .9. The pre-service visual examination of the final weld after installation shall be performed by an individual certified as a visual examination (VT-1) examiner in accordance with ASME Section XI.

Appendix B. Sections V and XI. Steam Generator Management Program Administrative Procedures. 2005. and 2002. 12. TR-109495. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 97-06. 10. 1014756. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) CP-189. Revision 2. 2. CA: 1997. Revision 1. CA: 2002. 4. CA: 2006. 9. EPRI. 1997. “Steam Generator Tube Integrity”. 1988. Revision 4. 14. EPRI. CA: 2004. Palo Alto. 1014567. 1996. Palo Alto. 5. EPRI. CA: 2006. CA: 2004. Palo Alto. The Code of Federal Regulations. EPRI. EPRI. Palo Alto. PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines. 1992. EPRI. CA: 2007. PWR Primary-to-Secondary Leakage Guidelines. Palo Alto. 2005. 1012987. Palo Alto. 1011274. Palo Alto. 8 8-1 . TSTF-449. 10CFR50. Tools for Integrity Assessment Project Technical Report. CA: 2006. 1012988. Palo Alto. 7. PWR Steam Generator Tube Plug Assessment Document. User Manual – Crystal Ball® Monte Carlo POD Simulator. Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines. 11.REFERENCES 1. Steam Generator Program Guidelines. Revision 3. 3. EPRI. originally published in 1981 and revised in 1984. Update on the Tools for Integrity Assessment Project. Technical Specification Task Force letter to the NRC (TSTF 05-05). dated April 14. 1008219. American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) SNT-TC-1A. 1003138. 8. 13. EPRI. 6.

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90 or greater. A. The purpose of examining samples of tubes rather than examining all tubes in SGs is to reduce the impact of meeting this objective.90 level of confidence. degradation does not imply a specific severity or percent penetration.1.A A. only that the tube is affected by degradation. that at least one affected tube is sampled if the SG is affected by degradation.1 SAMPLING BASIS Sample Size The objective of conducting inspections of SG tubes is to monitor the condition of SG tubes against acceptable performance criteria in a manner sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that SGs remain capable of fulfilling their intended safety function. The level of confidence is then defined by the probability of sampling at least one affected tube in a SG that contains one or more affected tubes. To meet the safety objectives for SGs in nuclear power plants. A-1 . the sample size needs to be sufficient to provide a relatively high level of confidence. 0. In this context. Consequently. the principal consideration in determining the appropriate sample size for tube examinations is the level of confidence that can be placed in the information obtained about the condition of SG tubes from examining a tube sample of given size. Table A-1 provides a listing of the tube sample sizes and the associated numbers of actual affected tubes that are required to provide a 0. Level of confidence is a function of the size of the tube sample and of the actual number of tubes affected by degradation in the SG.1 Level of Confidence Relative to Sample Size and the Number of Tubes Affected by Degradation SG tubes are examined to determine whether or not the SG contains one or more tubes affected by degradation.

and n is the number of tubes examined (the sample size). Substantial gains can be realized in the probability of sampling an affected tube by increasing the sample size up to about 20%. P = 1 . p is the probability that a single sampled tube is affected (the number of affected tubes divided by the total number of tubes in the SG. n'/N).Sampling Basis Table A-1 Tube Sample Sizes and Associated Numbers of Affected Tubes in SGs Required to Provide a 0.90 level of confidence. This is independent of the number of tubes in the SG. n Equation A-1 A-2 . increasing the sample size beyond 20% would result in relatively little further reduction in the numbers of affected tubes that need to be present for a one to be sampled.p) Where: P is the probability of sampling at least one affected tube (confidence level [CL]). With a 20% sample. only 12 or more affected tubes need to be present in the SG for one to be sampled at the 0. as expressed in Equation A-1.90 Level of Confidence That At Least One Affected Tube Is Sampled from the SG Percentage of tubes sampled: 1% 3% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Number of affected tubes: 229 74 23 12 8 6 5 The data of Table A-1 suggest that a sample of 20% represents a practical point of diminishing returns relative to the level of confidence that can be placed in information obtained from tube examinations. A.1.2 Statistical Basis for Level of Confidence The probability P of sampling at least one affected tube from a population of N tubes containing a fraction of p affected tubes is determined approximately by the binomial distribution. However.(1 .

actual practice is to sample without replacement. the number of affected tubes present in the total tube population. the violation of this assumption has an insignificant effect on the resulting values.p) Where: P is the probability of sampling at least one affected tube p is defined as n'/N Equation A-2 served as the basis for developing Table A-1 which relates the percentage of tubes sampled. and the probability (CL) that at least one affected tube is sampled during the examination. Solving the above expression for n provides the following expression for sample size in terms of the two numbers P and p: n = log (1 . because of the relatively large numbers of tubes in SGs. However.P) / log (1 . while the binomial distribution assumes sampling with replacement. Equation A-2 A-3 .Sampling Basis Note: The values provided by the binomial distribution are approximate because.

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B APPENDIX Intentionally Left Blank B-1 .

.

C APPENDIX Intentionally Left Blank C-1 .

.

D APPENDIX Intentionally Left Blank D-1 .

.

E APPENDIX Intentionally Left Blank E-1 .

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Dent A local reduction (plastic deformation) in the tube diameter due to a buildup of corrosion products (magnetite). Defective Tube A tube that contains an indication that exceeds the repair limit. Ding A local reduction (plastic deformation) in the tube diameter caused by manufacturing. vibration. or 50% of the repair limit for lengthbased or voltage-based criteria. Degraded Tube A tube with a reportable indication 20% TW or greater. or 50% of the repair limit for length-based or voltage-based criteria.1 Definitions The following definitions are provided to ensure a uniform understanding of terms used in this guideline. Active Damage Mechanism Historical term that is now synonymous with the term “existing” degradation that is found in the EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines [8]. or other mechanical means. F-1 .TERMINOLOGY F F. support plate shifting. Degradation A reportable indication 20% TW or greater.

and tubing essential variables that influence the test results.Terminology Essential Variables The physical. The material could have originated from outside of the SG or from within the SG and could be metallic or non-metallic. Extraneous Test Variables Signal sources such as denting. Permeability Condition where the test coil impedance changes due to a change in the tubing material’s inherent willingness to conduct magnetic flux lines. deposits. Specifically. geometry changes. electrical. mechanical. F-2 . Lane and Wedge Region Tubes in a once-through SG associated with the untubed inspection lane. or chemical properties of the entire examination system which may vary or be varied and must be controlled or kept constant to ensure an expected examination response. the ratio of the square of bobbin coil OD to the square of the tube inner diameter. Manufacturing Burnish Mark A tubing condition where localized tubing imperfections were removed in the tubing mill or fabrication shop by buffing and are detectable due to the effects of cold working and localized wall thinning. Intergranular Attack Corrosive attack of grain boundaries in materials with no preferential (stress-related) orientation. Foreign Object (loose part) Piece of material located within the SG where it does not belong. support structures. Fill Factor A measure of the degree to which a bobbin coil fills a tube. Fatigue Material failure resulting from the initiation and/or propagation of cracks due to cyclic loads.

a loose part. and material.2 Acronyms Automated Analysis Performance Demonstration Database Analog-to-Digital As Low As Reasonably Achievable Axial Length Coefficient American National Standards Institute American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Nondestructive Testing Anti-Vibration Bar Code of Federal Regulations Confidence Level Decibel F-3 AAPDD A/D ALARA ALC ANSI ASME ASNT AVB CFR CL dB . F. environment.Terminology Primary Water Stress-Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) SCC on the reactor coolant side (inside) of SG tubes. wear. Sludge An accumulation of particulate matter found on the secondary side of the SG in low-flow areas. Volumetric Wall Loss The loss of tube material caused by general or localized thinning. Stress-Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Intergranular cracking of tubes which is a result of complex interactions between stress. or another tube. Wear The loss of tube material caused by excessive rubbing of the tube against its support structure. or IGA.

Terminology DA DC DCSS DOV ECT EDM ESFW ETFW ETSS EPRI FFC FOSAR Hz ID IGA IGSCC IQDA IRG ISI LOV NDD NDE NEI NSSS F-4 Degradation Assessment Depth Coefficient Direct Current Saturation Strength Diametral Offset Value Eddy Current Testing Electro Discharge Machining Effective Scan Field Width Effective Track Field Width Examination Technique Specification Sheet Electric Power Research Institute Fill Factor Coefficient Foreign Object Search and Retrieval Hertz Inside Diameter Intergranular Attack Intergranular Stress-corrosion Cracking Independent Qualified Data Analyst Issue Resolution Group In-Service Inspection Lift-Off Value No-detectable Degradation Nondestructive Examination Nuclear Energy Institute Nuclear Steam Supply System .

Terminology OD ODSCC ORNL OTSG PDC PDD PID PLP POD PSI PWR PWSCC QDA r RMSE SCC SDP SG SGMP S/N SSPD TAG TSTF TT Outside Diameter Outside Diameter Stress-Corrosion Cracking Oak Ridge National Laboratory Once-Through Steam Generator Phase-to-Depth Curve Performance Demonstration Database Positive Identification Possible Loose Parts Probability of Detection Pre-Service Inspection Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water Stress-Corrosion Cracking Qualified Data Analyst Correlation Coefficient Root Mean Square Error Stress-Corrosion Cracking Standard Depth of Penetration Steam Generator Steam Generator Management Project Signal-to-Noise Site-Specific Performance Demonstration Technical Advisory Group Technical Specification Task Force Thermally Treated F-5 .

Terminology

TW TWC UQDA USNRC UT VT-1

Through-Wall Transverse Width Coefficient Ultrasonic Qualified Data Analyst United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Ultrasonic Testing Visual Examination

F.3

Three-Letter Codes

The purpose of defining three-letter codes is to standardize their use in the industry. The use of Table F-1 codes on an industry-wide basis is recommended. A three-letter designation is used to describe eddy current inspection results. The codes are grouped into seven categories that describe actions required to assist in the correct disposition of the results. If new three letter codes are developed, then it is recommended that the user assign the applicable category. CATEGORY I: No Further Action Required. These codes represent a non-flaw tube condition. CATEGORY II: Retest Required. These codes represent a condition that requires retesting with the same or smaller diameter, magnetically biased or tuned frequency probe. CATEGORY III: Supplemental Test Required. These “I” codes represent (possible) flaw signals where no qualified sizing technique exists and require supplemental testing. CATEGORY IV: Post-Supplemental Test Result. These “S” codes are assigned when an indication previously reported as an “I” code receives a supplemental test that confirms a nonflaw condition or when a historical “S” code has been compared to a current signal and the signal has not changed. CATEGORY V: Repair, ARC, or Engineering Evaluation Required. These codes designate a repairable condition except when an approved alternate repair criteria is used. F-6

Terminology

CATEGORY VI: Repeat Repair May Be Required. These codes designate incomplete repairs and may require rework depending upon the acceptance criteria. CATEGORY VII: Review Indication, Review History, Supplemental Sampling, or Engineering Evaluation Required. These codes require additional reviews (lead analyst or historical), additional diagnostic sampling, or engineering evaluations.
Table F-1 Three-Letter Codes CATEGORY I: No Further Action Required Copper Deposit No Detectable Degradation Plugged Positive Identification Sleeved Sludge CUD DEP NDD PLG PID SLV SLG CATEGORY II: Retest Required Retest Analyst Discretion Retest Bad Data Retest Fixture Retest Identification Retest Incomplete Retest No Data Retest High Frequency Retest Magnetically Biased Retest Restricted Tube RAD RBD RFX RID RIC RND RHF RMB RRT

F-7

Terminology Table F-1 (continued) Three-Letter Codes CATEGORY III: Supplemental Test Required Absolute Drift Indication Differential Freespan Indication Distorted Dent Indication Distorted Expansion Indication Distorted Support Indication Distorted Tubesheet Indication Loose Part With Indication of Tube Wall Degradation Non-Quantifiable Indication Plate Ligament Indication ADI DFI DDI DEI DSI DTI LPI NQI PLI

CATEGORY IV: Post-Supplemental Test Result Absolute Drift Signal Differential Freespan Signal Distorted Dent Signal Distorted Expansion Signal Distorted Support Signal Distorted Tubesheet Signal Loose Part Signal No Degradation Found Non-Quantifiable Signal Plate Ligament Signal ADS DFS DDS DES DSS DTS LPS NDF NQS PLS

CATEGORY V: Repair, ARC, or Engineering Evaluation Required Ligament Crack Indication Mixed Mode Indication Multiple Axial Indication Multiple Circumferential Indication Multiple Volumetric Indication Obstructed LCI MMI MAI MCI MVI OBS

F-8

or Engineering Evaluation Required (continued) Single Axial Indication Single Circumferential Indication Single Volumetric Indication To Be Plugged SAI SCI SVI TBP CATEGORY VI: Repeat Repair May Be Required No Heat Treatment No Hydraulic Expansion No Roll Expansion No Support Expansion No Weld Signal NHT NHE NRE NSE NWS CATEGORY VII: Review Indication. Supplemental Sampling. ARC. Review History.Terminology Table F-1 (continued) Three-Letter Codes CATEGORY V: Repair. or Engineering Evaluation Required Bulge Ding Dent Indication Not Found Indication Not Reportable ID Chatter Lead Analyst Review Lift-Off Signal Manufacturing Burnish Mark No Tubesheet Expansion Noisy Tube Over Expansion Partial Tubesheet Expansion Permeability Variation Possible Loose Part without Indication of Tube Wall Degradation Skip Rolled Volumetric BLG DNG DNT INF INR IDC LAR LOS MBM NTE NSY OXP PTE PVN PLP SKR VOL F-9 .

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Formal certification of personnel and compliance with the requirements of this document is the exclusive responsibility of the employer. An individual seeking qualification as a QDA shall be certified Level II or III in accordance with the employer’s written practice in eddy current examination. The individual’s certification record. for example.1 Scope This appendix specifies personnel training and qualification requirements for eddy current examination personnel who analyze eddy current examination data for PWR SG tubing.G QUALIFICATION OF EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION PERSONNEL FOR ANALYSIS OF EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION DATA G. G-1 . b. Analysts are qualified by successful completion of written and practical examinations defined in this appendix. Other NDE parameters. as compiled and maintained by the employer. Its purpose is to ensure a continuing uniform knowledge base and skill level for data analysts. The licensee is responsible for SSPD training and testing of QDA analysts in accordance with the requirements of this document. The appropriate knowledge base is imparted using a comprehensive classroom and laboratory training program. should clearly indicate compliance with this document.2. amplitude can be substituted as grading units to demonstrate performance in accordance with this appendix when the applicable repair limit is expressed in terms of other NDE parameters. An individual who successfully completes the requirements described herein is recognized as a QDA. This appendix uses depth as a basis to establish flawed grading units based on the premise that repair criteria is expressed in terms of percent TW. c.2 Qualification Level G. It is recommended that grading units be established over the full range of the parameter. G.1 General Requirements a. d.

Course outline including the number of instruction hours.3 Written Practice G.1. G.4 Transfer of QDA Qualifications It is recommended that the employer’s written practice address accepting QDA qualification documentation that may be transferred from other employers.3. G-2 .1 Training It is recommended that the written practice specify the following: a. duties.1.3.2 Responsibilities It is recommended that the written practice specify the responsibilities. It is recommended that the written practice of the organization that engages the outside agency specify requirements for ensuring that the outside agency meets the applicable requirements of this appendix.3. and qualifications required for personnel who implement the personnel qualification program and including classroom and laboratory training.1 General Requirements Organizations performing QDA qualification activities shall prepare a written program for their control and administration.Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data G.4. Classroom and laboratory training requirements in accordance with Section G. If an outside agency is used the employer remains responsible for the content of the training and qualification materials. G.3.4. G.2.3.3 Use of an Outside Agency An outside agency is an organization or an individual that provides instructor or qualification services and whose qualifications have been accepted by the organization that engages the outside agency.2 Examinations It is recommended that the written practice specify examination requirements in accordance with Section G. G.1. This could be invoked if a QDA seeks employment from an employer other than the one that performed the training and qualification and is within the interrupted service timeframe of G.3.4. G.4. b.

4. G.1 Training G.2 QDA Training Course Content and Duration a. test questions.3.5 Confidentiality Provisions to ensure the confidentiality of the qualification materials (for example. and test data) shall be included in the written practice. and Materials a.4.6 Availability of Training Course Materials It is recommended that training course materials be available for review or audit by user organizations and cognizant authorities. G. G. It is recommended that the training be provided in accordance with a site approved document and include the following subject matter: a.Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data G.1 Program.1. G. Required reading b. It is recommended that the training program include formal classroom and structured practical laboratory exercises. Damage mechanisms (existing and potential as defined in the DA) e. b.4. Responsibilities G-3 . Facilities. Training course material shall be prepared and made available to the individual. It is recommended that training course content be in accordance with Attachment G-1.1.3.1.3 SSPD Training It is recommended that analysis personnel be provided with site specific training prior to evaluation of data for flaw detection or sizing/characterization. It is recommended that the training consist of a minimum of 40 hours to include classroom and laboratory exercises.4. Access to such materials should be limited and the examination material should be maintained in secure files. SG examination and operating history d. b. answer sheets.4 Qualification Requirements G. SG design c. Training course materials should not be subject to any confidentiality requirements other than the normally applicable copyright laws. Planned examination scope f.

2 Practical Examination a.2 QDA Examinations G. The written examination may be conducted in an “open book” format.Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data g. The Appendix H requirement for physical measurement of flaw dimensions is not applicable to this appendix. Applicable industry operating experience/events G. and expert opinion is used to establish “eddy current truth” for grading purposes. including additions/deletions of existing data.2. Table G-1 Damage Mechanisms Included in the Practical Examination Damage Mechanism Categories Thinning Support Structure Wear OD IGA/SCC PWSCC Loose Part Wear G-4 . It is recommended a “question bank” containing at least twice the minimum number of questions be used for generating the test based on a random selection process. are conducted in accordance with Supplement H3.4.1. G. Damage mechanism categories included in the practical examination are identified in Table G-1. It is recommended that the written examination contain a minimum of forty (40) questions covering the lecture material outlined in Attachment G-1. It is recommended that PDD Version 3. Each damage mechanism is represented by a data set.4.2. G. Unique examination process/evaluation challenges h.4. Analysis guidelines and ETSS overview h.1. inclusion of new techniques or deletion of existing techniques.0 (EPRI Product 1014495) becomes available. Expected flaw responses (graphics and/or raw data with evaluated results) i.0 be used until Version 4.4.1 Written Examinations a.1 Qualification Examinations and Data Sets Revisions to the Performance Demonstration Database (PDD). c. It is recommended that the practical examination consist of eddy current data sets that are randomly selected and contain indications indicative of all current damage mechanisms covering SG operating experience.2. b.

Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data

b. It is recommended that grading units for each practical examination data set be established using data acquired with techniques qualified in accordance with Appendix H. c. It is recommended that adequate numbers of flawed and unflawed grading units be used to meet the POD, statistical CL, and false-call requirements of Table G-2.
Table G-2 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection Flaw Detection Criteria for a Given Damage Mechanism Category ≥40% TW 11 17 18 24 25 31 32 Minimum Acceptance Criteria for Detection at 80% POD 90% CL 11 17 17 23 23 29 29 Minimum Number of Unflawed Grading Units 22 34 36 48 50 62 64 Maximum Number of False Calls 2 3 3 4 5 6 6

d. It is recommended that the practical examination contain a minimum of 11 flawed grading units for each damage mechanism category (see Table G-1) where only detection is being applied. Larger numbers of flawed grading units may be included in the practical examination. Table G-2 provides examples of various test matrices and their corresponding acceptance criteria. It is recommended that the number of unflawed grading units selected for the practical examination be equal to at least twice the number of flawed grading units. e. It is recommended that the practical examination contain a minimum of 16 flawed grading units for each damage mechanism category (see Table G-1) where both detection and sizing are being applied. Larger numbers of flawed grading units may be included in the practical examination. Table G-3 provides examples of various test matrices and their corresponding acceptance criteria. It is recommended that the number of unflawed grading units selected for the practical examination be equal to at least twice the number of flawed grading units.

G-5

Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data Table G-3 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection and Sizing Flaw Detection Acceptance Criteria for a Given Damage Mechanism Category Minimum Acceptance Criteria for Detection at 80% POD 90% CL <40% 4 4 5 7 7 10 10 12 12 ≥40% 11 12 12 17 17 23 23 29 29 32 34 36 50 52 72 74 92 94 3 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 False Call Acceptance Criteria

Total Number of Flawed Grading Units

Number of Flawed Grading Units <40% ≥40% 11 12 12 17 18 24 25 31 32

Minimum Number of Unflawed Grading Units

Maximum Number of False Calls

16 17 18 25 26 36 37 46 47

5 5 6 8 8 12 12 15 15

f. It is recommended that extraneous test variables (for example, denting, deposits, tube geometry changes) be included for each damage mechanism category, where applicable, based on SG operating experience. g. It is recommended that the SG type, tube identification, SG leg, and other pertinent information typically available to a data analyst during a field examination be identified for each data set. h. It is recommended that for each practical examination data set, the individual be provided with a description of the examination techniques performed along with a set of analysis guidelines for each technique. The grading criteria to be applied should also be provided.

G-6

Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data

G.4.2.2

Analyst Qualification Criteria

a. To be considered a QDA, an analyst shall successfully pass both written and practical examinations for all damage mechanisms including technique parameters (for example, detection, sizing, and orientation). See Figure G-1 for the flow diagram. b. A grade of at least 80% shall be required to pass the written examination. c. Practical examinations for each data set shall be graded by one or more of the following methods depending on the technique applicability: detection, sizing, and orientation. 1. Personnel shall be considered qualified for detection of a specific damage mechanism if all of the following requirements are met: o A POD of at least 80%, at a 90% CL for flawed grading units ≥40% TW. o Detection of at least 80% of the flawed grading units <40% TW. o The number of reported false calls is no more than 10% of the total number of unflawed grading units. 2. Personnel shall be considered qualified for performing sizing measurements on a specific damage mechanism if a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than or equal to 10% is demonstrated. The sample set, RMSE, is calculated using Equation G-1:
⎛1 n ⎜ ∑ ⎜n RMSE = ⎝ i =1 ⎟ (M i − T i )2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠
Equation G-1

Where: Mi is the eddy current measured flaw parameter assigned by the individual analyst for the ith indication Ti is the eddy current measured flaw parameter for the ith indication determined by expert opinion n is the number of measured grading units in the data set. Only those flaws, which are detected, are considered in the RMSE calculation (a zero is not assigned as the measured flaw parameter for flaws not detected). 3. Personnel shall be considered qualified for determining orientation of a specific damage mechanism if the correct orientation is reported on at least 80% of the flawed grading units. Only those flaws which are detected are considered in the orientation calculation (a zero is not assigned as the determined orientation for flaws not detected).

G-7

Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data Figure G-1 Qualification Flow Chart G-8 .

with 40 hours of additional training. This re-test shall include each practical examination data set(s) in which the individual received less than a passing grade.4. See Figure G-1 for the flow diagram.4. or waiting period as defined herein. If the individual fails to attain a passing score after the second re-test.1 Written Examination Prior to re-examination. training.3. It is recommended that prior to a second re-test.2. Each written reexamination contains a minimum of 40 questions and is assembled by a random selection process which may be augmented by the inclusion of questions specific to the areas of deficiency.4.2. G.4.4.1.5 QDA Requalification QDA requalification shall be performed within one year of EPRI addition of a new technique/damage mechanism to the QDA qualification process. a five-day wait is required before a subsequent re-test may be administered. an individual failing the initial written examination should receive additional training on topics or subjects in which the individual did not demonstrate an acceptable level of understanding.2. Missed indications should be reviewed and no waiting period is required prior to the initial re-test.4 Interrupted Service A QDA who has not analyzed data in a 15-month consecutive period shall be required to successfully complete the practical examination requirements specified in Section G. This new test shall include the entire written and practical examination described in Section G.4. shall be required before a new test can be administered. The individual should be considered requalified if the practical examination requirements of G.Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data G. G.4.3. If the individual fails to attain a passing score on a written retest.2. G. then the individual should have the option of undergoing a re-examination following the required reviews. G.2 Practical Examination A practical re-examination shall be given for each of the practical examination data set(s) in which the individual received less than a passing grade.2. a 30-day waiting period. the individual complete additional training as deemed necessary by the proctor.2.2. No credit shall be given for the previous three practical examinations or for the written examination.4.2.3 Re-examination If an individual fails to pass either the written examination or any applicable technique parameter of the practical examination.2 are met for the new G-9 .

See Figure G-2 for the flow diagram. and training institution c. Name of individual b.1 can be separately maintained at the discretion of the employer. Records of certification to Level II or III.2. Dates and pass/fail results assigned to the written examination and to each practical examination data set G-10 . any documentation requirements identified by the employer’s written practice.6 QDA Qualification Records It is recommended that the required documentation identified herein. The individual’s records are to be updated to reflect requalification on new technique/damage mechanisms. as required in Section G. supplement not replace. including training hours. Statement indicating record of completion of training.Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data technique/damage mechanism.2.4. dates attended. A written testimony of qualification should include: a. Figure G-2 Requalification Flow Chart G.

G.1.4. For examination techniques/damage mechanisms for which the analyst was not evaluated on a QDA or other statistically valid SSPD.3.3.1.) contains raw data for known or expected damage mechanisms to exist based on the DA for the applicable SG. etc.2 Practical Examinations a. Sufficient data should be available during the test to allow grading of examination(s) on a POD/CL basis and the data should be representative of typical expected responses and conditions applicable to the SG. depth sizing.2..Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data It is recommended that the employer maintain examinations with grades assigned and records of material covered.4.4.3.4.3. For examination techniques/damage mechanisms for which the analyst was evaluated on a QDA or other statistically valid SSPD. This examination is only applicable to those personnel performing flaw sizing/characterization activities during a specific outage G. length sizing. The test should be a minimum of twenty questions.1 Examinations and Data Sets The licensee is responsible for preparing.1 Examination Grading Written Examination Each analyst shall score at least 80% on the written test. The test should be conducted in an “open book” format in order to simulate field practices. examination techniques. The practical examination for flaw sizing/characterization (e.3 SSPD Examinations G. the analyst should be evaluated on a technique specific basis that can be used to measure analyst POD/CL. G-11 .2 G. the test may consist of a reduced data set and evaluated on an “all inclusive” basis.g. The practical examination for flaw detection and orientation contains raw data for each examination technique/damage mechanism known or expected to exist based on the DA for the applicable SG.4. or contracting for preparation of. G. expected damage mechanisms.1 Written Examinations A written test evaluates knowledge of the specific plant SG history and conditions. SSPD examinations and data sets. G.3. and unique challenges to the examination process. b.4.

be demonstrated and documented. G-12 . G.Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data G.2. It is recommended that each analyst demonstrate a detection capability of at least that provided in Section G.4. G.g.3.5 Re-Grading QDA and SSPD Examinations Re-grading of examinations by the proctor is acceptable.4. It is recommended that flaw sizing/characterization performance for techniques not evaluated on a QDA test or statistically valid SSPD.).3. thinning.2. Detection and Orientation 1. Alternative sizing errors are acceptable provided they are considered in the applicable integrity assessments. etc. It is recommended that false call performance be at the discretion of the licensee.4. with documentation. b. Anti-Vibration Bar (AVB) wear. 2. c.4 SSPD Performance Feedback The analyst shall be allowed to review missed indications and overcalls on the practical examination.3 Re-Examination It is recommended that retesting be at the discretion of the licensee. G.2. if applied.2 Practical Examination a. Flaw Sizing/Characterization 1. It is recommended that each analyst demonstrate an orientation identification capability that is correct on at least 80% of the flawed grading units (if orientation activities are performed)..4. 2. It is recommended that where applicable each analyst performing flaw sizing demonstrate an RMSE ≤10% TW (e.3.

Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data Attachment G-1 QDA Training And Laboratory Program Contents LECTURE INTRODUCTION • • Purpose of Course Inspection Requirements Overview STEAM GENERATORS • • Design and Operation Operating Experience INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE • • • • • • • • Thinning PWSCC Wear Denting IGA/SCC Fatigue Manufacturing Anomalies Loose Parts/Loose Part Damage INSTRUMENTATION/SOFTWARE OVERVIEW • • Data Acquisition Data Analysis EDDY CURRENT PROBES • • Bobbin Coil Probes Mechanically Rotated Probes – – – – +PointTM Coil Pancake Coil Axial/Circumferential Wound Coils Transmit/Receive Coils G-13 .

Qualification of Eddy Current Examination Personnel for Analysis of Eddy Current Examination Data • Fixed Array Probes – – Transmit/Receive Electronically Rotated Coils Profilometry Probes CALIBRATION STANDARDS • • • • • ASME Wear Scar Notch Array Profile DATA ANALYSIS PRINCIPLES • • Signal Rotation Versus Frequency Factors Affecting Frequency Selection – – – – • • • • • Signal-to-Noise (S/N) Detection Measurement Probe Type Multiparameter Signal Suppression Flaw Specific Detection/Analysis Principles Probe Specific Detection/Analysis Principles Flaw Specific Sizing Principles Data Quality LABORATORY • • • Calibration Procedures Analysis Techniques Practical Examination Data Sets – – – Application of Analysis Techniques Grading Criteria Self-Study G-14 .

H PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION FOR EDDY CURRENT EXAMINATION H. may be performed by competent technical personnel who are not QDAs. The performance demonstration requirements specified in this appendix apply to the acquisition process but do not apply to personnel involved in the data acquisition process.1 Technique Requirements The technique specification contains a statement of scope that specifically defines the qualification applicability in the context of damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combinations.1 Scope a. NDE technique qualification and documentation. including both destructive and NDE. e. shall be performed under 10CFR50 Appendix B Quality Assurance Program. H. d. It is recommended that data acquisition personnel be trained and qualified by their employer in a manner commensurate with the tasks they perform. may be excluded from 10CFR50 Appendix B requirements and may be grandfathered. This appendix provides performance demonstration requirements for eddy current examination techniques and equipment.1 Examination Technique Specification Sheet The ETSS defines the following essential variables as a single value. range of values. and geometry.1. It is recommended that the requirements for training and qualification of such personnel be described in the employer’s written practice.2.2 General Examination System Requirements H. Techniques that have been qualified in accordance with this appendix may be used in procedures without regard to the organization that qualified the technique. All work associated with the NDE technique qualification.2. with the exception of the peer review. 1999. H. Tubes pulled prior to April 15. b. material. or formula: H-1 . c.

Method of calibration (e.g. voltage setting. Fill factor 3.. phase.2. Probe manufacturer and part number b.2 Specific Essential Variables for Bobbin Coil a.1 General Variables – All Types of Probes (Bobbin.2. differential or transmit/receive) 4. Minimum axial samples per inch H-2 . Drive voltage and gain settings 3. length and part number o Extension cable type.g. Probe type. Rotating and Array) a. absolute. Technique Variables 1. Examination frequencies 2. manufacturer. Instrument or system’s name and model 2.).1. Technique Variables 4. Reporting requirements 9. Tubing material and wall thickness 5. Data analysis requirements (e.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H. typical analysis window display. filtering and mixes) 7.1.. Equipment Variables 1. Coil excitation modes (e. coil width size.. manufacturer. span. Equipment Variables 1. Analysis Variables 6. coil spacing and coil swept peak frequency 2. length and part number 3. Software used for acquisition and analysis including manufacturer’s name and specific revision level H.1. C-Scan display if applicable and filtering) 8.1. sizing curves. Analog cable type and length including: o Probe cable type (wiring used within sheath.g.

When variations in the technique allow more than one value or range for an essential variable. coil part number and coil swept peak frequency 2.3 Performance Demonstration H.3 Requalification When a change in an acquisition technique or analysis technique causes an essential variable to exceed a qualified range.3 Specific Variables for Rotating Probes a. coil dimension.4 is considered equivalent.2. H.1.1.4 Specific Variables for Array Probes a. repeat technique qualification at the minimum and maximum value for each essential variable with all other variables remaining at their nominal values.3.1. When the method does not specify a range for essential variables and establishes criteria for selecting values. requalify the acquisition or analysis technique for the revised range. Equipment with essential variables that vary within the tolerances specified in Section H. spacing.3.1. Technique Variables 1. Coil sensing area. Maximum Diametral Offset (applicable to non-surface riding coil) b. the criteria should be demonstrated for essential variables such as sample rates.3.2 Essential Variable Ranges a. H-3 .1 General Successful completion of Supplement H2 constitutes qualification of an acquisition technique and an analysis method. Equipment Variables 1. Technique Variables 1. Minimum axial samples per inch H. H. Maximum Diametral Offset b. coil part number and coil swept peak frequency 2.2. Coil type. Any two techniques with the same essential variables are considered equivalent. Minimum axial samples per inch and circumferential samples per inch H. b.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H. Equipment Variables 1.

1 Instruments and Probes The qualified acquisition technique may be modified to substitute or replace instruments or probes without requalification when the range of essential variables defined in the ETSS (when applicable) are met providing both the original and replacement instruments or probes are characterized utilizing Supplement H1.4. immediate notification to the industry will be provided by the SGMP NDE IRG chairperson or equivalent.10% of the qualified value. An industry peer review group will be convened within 100 days to review this assessment.1. The acceptance is based on the center frequency plot being within +/. will also be removed from Appendix G for qualification purposes. additional pulled tube and laboratory specimen data that becomes available should be added to the qualification data sets on an annual basis.3.10% of the qualified cable amplitude response. determined to be disqualified by not meeting the requirements of this appendix if included in Appendix G. A swept frequency plot of the originally qualified system configuration compared to the swept frequency plot of the proposed system configuration. This peer review will be performed consistent with the requirements of Supplement H4. b. to improve the data set credibility. For any technique believed not to meet the detection requirements as stated in Supplement H2. Two approaches are available to determine the extent of the change: a.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H. H. The acceptance is based on the amplitude response being within +/. Therefore. A technique that initially met the requirements of this appendix may then fail the acceptance criteria after data are appended. H.1 Cable Change of probe or extension cable within the analog portion of the system may change the system resistance and capacitance which may have an undesired effect on the operating characteristics of the system. H-4 . The results of the peer review will be made available to the industry by the SGMP NDE IRG chairperson or equivalent.4 Disqualification of Techniques The qualification of techniques is dependent on the quality of the data sets used in the qualification. A demonstrative approach where data from the same indication is compared using both system configurations.4.4 Essential Variable Tolerances H. Any technique.

Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination

H.4.1.2

Frequency/Material/Wall Thickness

a. The relative current density at a given depth within the tube wall can be calculated for different combinations of frequency and material. The technique is considered equivalent if the relative current density is within +/- 10% of the qualified technique. The tolerance is applied as a calculated value. The relative current density value should be calculated at the OD surface of the tube wall. b. If the same technique has been qualified at two different frequencies, then all frequencies between the qualified frequencies are considered qualified. c. Calculation of Relative Current Density: Relative current density is a measure of eddy currents generated within the tube wall. The value is expressed in terms of the eddy current density percentage remaining in relation to that available at the tube wall ID. First one must solve for the standard depth of penetration (SDP). Equation H-1 provides SDP in units of inches. SDP (δ) = 1.98 Where: ρ is the material resistivity (μΩcm) f is the frequency (hertz) Then relative current density (Jx/Jo) is approximated by: Jx/Jo = e –x/δ Where: Jx/Jo is the approximate ratio of the current density at the relative distance of x versus o and is expressed as a percentage value x is the relative position within the tube wall o is at the surface of the coil For this equation, x is the distance (in inches) between x and o, when SDP (δ) is in inches.
Equation H-2

ρ/f

Equation H-1

H-5

Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination

H.4.1.3

Array Probe Sensing Area Coverage

The dimensions or “footprint” of the sensing area sensitivity for an array probe can be characterized as “Amplitude Crossover”. The amplitude crossover is the point below the peak amplitude response from adjacent individual sensing areas in an array where the response signals cross. This sensing area attribute is essential to flaw resolution, signal repeatability, and the minimum detection capability of the probe. The amplitude crossover should not exceed (-10%) of the originally qualified technique between any two adjacent sensing areas. H.4.2 Computerized System Algorithms Algorithms may be altered provided the modified algorithms are demonstrated to be equivalent or better than those initially qualified. H.4.3 Calibration Methods Alternative calibration methods may be used without requalification if it is demonstrated that the proposed calibration method is equivalent to or more conservative than those described in the qualified acquisition technique or qualified analysis method.

H.5

Record of Qualification

Technique qualification documentation includes identification of acquisition techniques, analysis methods, essential variables, data sets and performance indices.

H-6

Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination

Supplement H1 Equipment Characterization H1.1 Scope
This supplement specifies essential variables associated with eddy current data acquisition instrumentation and establishes a protocol for essential variable measurement.

H1.2 Eddy Current Instrument
It is recommended that all instruments meet the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The essential variables for the eddy current instrument are related to: • • • • Signal generation Amplification, demodulation, and filtering Analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion Channel cross talk Signal Generation Total Harmonic Distortion

H1.2.1 H1.2.1.1

Harmonic distortion is due to nonlinearities in the amplitude transfer characteristics of the instrument. The output contains not only the fundamental frequency but also integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. For eddy current instruments, harmonic distortion is a measure of the quality of the sinusoidal signal injected into the coil(s). The total harmonic distortion is expressed in either percent distortion compared to the fundamental sinusoidal frequency or the ratio in decibel (dB) of the amplitude of the fundamental frequency to the amplitude of the largest sidelobe as displayed on a frequency spectrum plot. Measure it for each frequency specified. When used as an essential variable, specify the maximum harmonic distortion. H1.2.1.2 Output Impedance

The output impedance is measured for each test frequency at the output connector of the instrument. Both the magnitude and phase are measured for each specified frequency. When used as an essential variable, specify the tolerance of the ratio of the output (transmitter) to input (receiver) impedance.

H-7

2. equally spaced between the smallest detectable signal and the largest signal that can be obtained without saturation b.2. c.2.1 Amplification. H-8 . Linearity is expressed in terms of percentage deviation from a best-fit linear relationship between corresponding input and output values when plotted on a graph. The measurement is performed: 1.2. Measure both the magnitude and phase at each specified frequency.2 H1.2 Amplifier Linearity and Stability a. When used as an essential variable. The percentage is determined by dividing the maximum deviation from the line by the full-scale value. For five different signals injected at the instrument input at each gain setting. Amplifier linearity and stability of each channel used for inspection is measured as the ratio of the signal injected at the instrument input to the magnitude of the signal measured at the data analysis screen. express linearity and/or stability as minimum requirements. When used as essential variables. H1. specify the tolerance of the ratio of the output (transmitter) to input (receiver) impedance.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1. It is a measurement of the similarity between the eddy current signal sensed at the coil side and the signal observed on the analysis screen after signal amplification and filtering. Demodulation and Filtering Input Impedance The input impedance is to be measured independently of the output impedance if the transmitter and receiver are not wired to the same coil(s) as is the case for reflection (driver/pickup) arrangements. For five different gain settings equally spaced between the smallest and largest gain values available on the instrument 2.2. The output/input graph shown in Figure H1-1 illustrates the curve fitting method used to determine amplifier linearity.

express the maximum phase linearity deviation that is retained.2. When used as an essential variable. The measurement is performed as follows: a. f. The graphic of the output phase angle on the vertical axis and phase angle of signal input is plotted. e. A signal is injected in the inputs of each channel used for the inspection at the corresponding ECT frequency. b. d. The phase angle of the output is measured.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination Figure H-1 Instrument Linearity H1. The phase angle of the input is varied for at least 16 different values spread from 0 to 360 degrees equally spaced.3 Phase Linearity Phase linearity of each channel used for inspection is measured as the maximum phase angle deviation from a best-fit and real data measured and represented on a graphic plot of the phase measurement. H-9 . The signal amplitude is adjusted to produce an output close to the maximum amplitude without saturation. A linear best-fit with a slope of 1 degree/degree is done.2. A different phase linearity curve and best-fit is done for each channel used for the inspection. The phase linearity is expressed in terms of the maximum degree deviation from the output phase measurement and the best-fit line. c.

a graphic is plotted for each channel. A signal is injected at each input used for the inspection. express the resolution of the A/D conversion as a minimum value. From previous measurements. If applicable. The signal frequency is adjusted to the ECT frequency of the corresponding channel. f.3. When used as an essential variable. The horizontal axis displays the corresponding difference of frequency values.2. The vertical axis displays the signal amplitude ratio of each frequency injected divided by the signal amplitude at the corresponding ECT frequency. e. it is measured for five equally spaced gain settings between the smallest and the largest gain values available on the instrument.3 H1. b. The signal amplitude is adjusted to get close to the maximum output range without saturation. H1. The measurement is performed as follows: a. H-10 .2. c.2. When used as an essential variable.4 Bandwidth and Demodulation Filter Response Bandwidth of each channel used for inspection is measured as the frequency where the demodulation filter amplitude frequency response reaches the maximum accepted deviation.1 A/D Conversion A/D Resolution The resolution of the A/D conversion is the value of the input voltage that corresponds to a change of one bit. The bandwidth is expressed in terms of Hertz of the value on the graphic where the ratio goes out of the acceptable range. the acceptable range might be 100% +/-2%. The output amplitude is measured for each channel corresponding to the frequency injected.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1.2. express the bandwidth as the minimum bandwidth frequency. It is a measurement of the smallest change in the eddy current signal that can be observed after digitization. g. For example. The input frequency is increased by steps less than 5% of the bandwidth and the corresponding output amplitudes are measured. d.

f. The output amplitude is measured at each other channel output. When used as an essential variable.2. When used as an essential variable.3. The signal amplitude is adjusted to get close to the maximum output range without saturation. The signal frequency is adjusted to the ECT frequency of the corresponding channel.3. It is a measure of the maximum eddy current signal that can be recorded without distortion after digitization. H1.3 Digitizing Rate The digitizing rate is the frequency in hertz (Hz) at which the A/D conversions are made. The crosstalk is expressed in terms of percentage of the ratio of the output amplitude of the channel having no signal input divided by the output amplitude of the corresponding channel having the signal injected at the input (multiplied by 100%).2 Dynamic Range The number of bits for full-scale input determines the dynamic range of the A/D conversion. d. It is recommended that the minimum digitizing rate of the A/D conversion be capable of providing the specified sample rate at the probe speeds to be used. b. H1. When used as an essential variable. c. H-11 . The gain is set at the minimum value of the instrument range.4 Channel Crosstalk Channel crosstalk is measured as the signal present at the output of a channel when no signal is present at the corresponding input (coming from a signal present at another input). express the channel crosstalk as the maximum percentage of crosstalk.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1. express the number of bits for full-scale input as a minimum value.2. specify the minimum digitizing rate. It is applied on one channel at a time.2. The measurement is performed as follows: a. A signal is injected at each input used for the inspection. e.

for example.2. specify the allowable range of the center frequency. H1.1 H1.3 Coil Configuration Sensing Area Measurements are performed with the eddy current system hardware. extension cables. When used as an essential variable. (mm) is determined by subtracting the notch length from the measured distance between corresponding signal amplitude points for a given attenuation below the maximum amplitude (typically half amplitude).2 Center Frequency The center frequency is measured with the full cable length between the coil and the instrument input connector. (0. Measurements are performed for each eddy current examination frequency and mode of coil operation.1. tester.3. or transmit/receive. The ESFW can be a negative value for one or all of the four points measured on the curve.3.2 mm) wide by a minimum length equal to the sensing area’s cross sectional dimension in the scanning direction plus 1. e.2.1 Impedance Measure the impedance (magnitude and phase) for each test coil at the test frequencies selected for the examination. H-12 . absolute..3. A curve is plotted from the signal amplitude generated by the scan of the probe past the notch. This is considered to be the input impedance of the instrument (see Section H1.1 Bobbin Probes Effective Scan Field Width The effective scan field width (ESFW) is a measure of the extent of the effective sensing area in the scanning direction. etc. configured as required for actual implementation.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1.3.0 in (25 mm) is scanned perpendicular to the induced current flow.3. probes. H1. differential. It is also a measure of the spatial resolution. The ESFW in. Essential variables are defined for bobbin.g.008 in.3.3. This resolution determines the minimum spacing between three successive notches that is compared to a single flaw of equal depth.1). rotating and array probes. H1.3 Probe Characterization H1. A 100% TW notch of 0.

008 in. for absolute and differential modes.2 mm) width and of a minimum length equal to the sensing area’s cross sectional dimension in the scanning direction plus 1.03 mm) Fill Factor Coefficient The fill factor coefficient (FFC) is a measure of the drop in effective sensitivity due to the increase in distance between the source of the eddy current inducing magnetic field and the inner surface of the tubing. equally spaced.3. (25 mm) will be fabricated from the OD surface and the ID surface of the tube: • • • • • One notch of 100% TW depth One notch of 80% TW depth Two notches of 60% TW depth in the same cross section 180° apart Four notches of 40% TW depth in the same cross section 90° apart Six notches of 20% TW in the same cross section 60° apart H-13 .3. When used as an essential variable.3 FFC 0. The measurements are performed for three or more fill factors (ratio of square of OD probe diameter to ID tube diameter) between the largest and smallest to be encountered in the SG tubes.2 mm) width and a minimum length equal to the coil width plus 1. Example: H1.1.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination When used as an essential variable. (2. The following notches of 0.0 in.08 in.3. (25 mm) is scanned perpendicular to the induced current flow. (0.3. (0.70 = -5 dB Depth Coefficient The depth coefficient (DC) is a measure of the depth-of-penetration and current density within the wall thickness of the tube.0 in. are to be selected so as to define the curve on either side of the minimum and maximum signal amplitudes. Example: H1.008 in. and excitation modes. The measurement is performed for each eddy current examination frequency coil configurations. as the amplitude attenuation from the largest fill factor to the smallest fill factor. A 100% TW notch of 0. and modes of operation at the nominal fill factor being used in the SG tube. specify the ESFW for each mode of excitation as the sensing area measured at a point on the curve used to determine the value minimum of four points.2 ESFW -12 dB = -0. The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude.85 to 0. specify the fill factor. The measurement is performed for each ETSS examination frequency coil configurations.1.

as a maximum amplitude attenuation for each defect width relative to largest one. (0. for each mode. The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination The notches are scanned perpendicular to the sensing area direction.008 in.3. When used as an essential variable. (0. for each mode. (0.004 in. A 100% TW notch of 0.008 in. specify the ALC.098 in. The measurement is performed for each eddy current examination frequency for each mode and nominal fill factor. The measurement is performed for each of the examination frequencies and modes.5 in. Examples: ALC -0. A 100% TW notch of the same length as the sensing area width. The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude (100% TW depth).5 mm) = 0 dB ALC -0. The amplitude of each eddy current signal will be divided by the number of notches in the same cross section.2 mm) to 0.3.1 mm) = -0. for each mode. (5. When used as an essential variable. Examples: DC 80% = -2 dB DC 60% = -5 dB H1. (0.3.004 in.2 mm) width and of varying length from a minimum length equal to the coil width and up to the coil width plus 0. at the nominal fill factor to be used in the SG tube. (2. and the width of 0.5 Transverse Width Coefficient (TWC) The TWC is a measure of the dependency of transverse crack width on the amplitude of the eddy current signal. specify the defect DC. (2.02 in. When used as an essential variable.197 in.0 mm) = -2 dB H1.2 mm) = -1.1 mm). at increments of 0. (13 mm) at increments of 0.6 mm). specify the TWC. Examples: TWC -0.5 mm) is scanned perpendicular to the coil preferred direction.5 dB TWC -0.4 Axial Length Coefficient (ALC) The ALC is a measure of the influence of the axial crack length on the amplitude of the eddy current signal.3.008 in. is scanned parallel to the direction of induced eddy current flow.1. The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude. as a maximum amplitude attenuation for each depth relative to 100%.1 in. as a maximum amplitude attenuation for each length relative to longest one. (0.1. (0.0 dB H-14 .

2 mm) width.3. When used as an essential variable. for each mode and. It is expressed in milliTesla.1.0 in.3.2 H1. and of a minimum length equal to the sensing area width plus 1. When used as an essential variable.1.5 in.7 Direct Current Saturation Strength (DCSS) The DCSS concerns only with probes delivered with a supplemental coil or a magnet designed to suppress the influence of possible magnetic variations.3. (0. consider the phase spread between consecutive defect depths as a minimum requirement.3. it is recommended that the PDCs be given.1. The DCSS is measured in air with a gaussmeter located at the center of the coil at a nominal distance from the tube’s inner surface.3.2 Effective Track Field Width (ETFW) The ETFW takes into account the combined influence of the coil configuration’s sensing area and the scanning pitch for each examination frequency.1 Rotating Probes Effective Scan Field Width See Section H1.3. The measurement is performed for each examination frequency for each mode and nominal fill factor. (0.2 mm) width are scanned perpendicular to the induced eddy currents. (13 mm) and 0.3.1. or site-specific defects. (25 mm). Examples: PDC (20% TW to 40% TW OD) = 30° PDC (40% TW to 60% TW OD) = 20° PDCs may be given for complementary defect types such as holes.3.6 Phase-to-Depth Curve (PDC) The PDC is derived from the phase measurement of the eddy current signal response to varying depth artifacts in a calibration tube. specify the DCSS coefficient and direction as a minimum requirement. the phase spread between each consecutive defect depth.2. H-15 .008 in. Unless specified. H1. H1.3.3. The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1. as a minimum.2. laboratory-induced defects. is scanned perpendicular to the direction of the induced eddy currents for defect detection. H1.3. It measures the drop in signal amplitude when the sensing area scans past the defect at increasing scanning distances. Notches from 20% TW ID to 100% TW and 20% TW OD to 100% TW of the same length as the total coil(s) width plus 0.008 in. A 100% TW notch of 0.3.

Example: H1. Example: H1. as the amplitude attenuation from the smallest to the largest LOV.6 TWC See Section H1.008 in.3.3 ETFW -3 dB = 0. The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude.3.2.5 ALC See Section H1.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination The gain setting is adjusted for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude.3. specify the ETFW coefficient.3. (0.3.3.3.4 LOV 0. for each mode.1.70 = -5 dB Depth Coefficient See Section H1. and are to be selected so as to define the curve on either side of the minimum and maximum signal amplitudes.2. When used as an essential variable. for each mode. The measurement is performed for each eddy current examination frequency. (25 mm) is scanned perpendicular to the direction of induced eddy currents. coil configuration.85 to 0. as the maximum distance from the notch where a given signal attenuation is measured minimum of four points that are equally spaced.3.0 in. The measurements are performed for three or more LOVs between the largest and smallest to be encountered in the SG tubes. A 100% TW notch of 0.12 in.2 mm) width and of a minimum length equal to the sensing area width plus 1.3. specify the LOV.3.4 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “lift-off”) H1.1.2.3.3.2.1. A curve is plotted for the signal amplitude as a function of the distance between the center of the sensing area and the center of the notch.5 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “lift-off”) H-16 .3 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “lift-off”) H1. and mode of operation.3. (3 mm) Lift-Off Value (LOV) The LOV is a measure of the drop in the effective sensitivity due to the increase in distance between the source of the eddy current inducing magnetic field and the inner surface of the tubing. Lift-Off (inches) = Distance between the Sensing Area and the Tube ID Surface (includes coil recess) When used as an essential variable.3.

1.1.3.3.3.3. The measurements are performed for three or more offsets between the largest and smallest to be encountered in the SG tubes. Diametral offset (inches) = Tube ID – Probe OD + Coil Recess Equation H-3 When used as an essential variable.3.3.3.1.1.3 DOV 0. H1.3.5 TWC See Section H1.1. coil configuration.3.3.1 Array Probes Effective Scan Field Width See Section H1.3.2 mm) width and of a minimum length equal to the sensing area width plus 1. and mode of operation.3.3.6 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “lift-off”) H1.3.0 in.3.7 PDC See Section H1.3. Example: H1.3 H1.3.2 Diametral Offset Value (DOV) The DOV is a measure of the drop in the effective sensitivity due to the increase in distance between the source of the eddy current inducing magnetic fields and the inner surface of the tubing.3.2.3.3 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “diametral offset”) H1. (0.4 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “diametral offset”) H1. (25 mm) is scanned perpendicular to the direction of induced eddy currents. The gain setting is normalized for an 80% full-scale peak signal for the signal having the largest amplitude due to the smallest offset value.3.3.3.3.3.3. A 100% TW notch of 0.3.3.4 ALC See Section H1.060" = -6 dB Depth Coefficient See Section H1. as the amplitude attenuation from the smallest to the largest signal amplitude.5 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “diametral offset”) H-17 .3. The measurement is performed for each eddy current examination frequency.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1.1.008 in. specify the DOV for each mode.3.005" to 0.

6 (and replace the term “fill factor” with the term “diametral offset”) H1.3. Example: Amplitude Crossover = 81% H-18 .3.080” (2mm) long EDM notch artifact oriented in the preferred direction to achieve the highest amplitude response from the sensor.3.3.3.7 Tube Circumference Coverage The dimensions or “footprint” of the sensing area sensitivity for an array probe can be characterized as “Amplitude Crossover”. the amplitude crossover is expressed as a percentage of peak amplitude.6 PDC See Section H1. This sensing area attribute is essential to flaw resolution. The amplitude crossover for circumferential coverage can be measured by creating a polar plot with measurements taken at < or = 1° increments around the tube of a 60% thru-wall 0.3.3.1. When used as an essential variable. The amplitude crossover is the point below the peak amplitude response from adjacent individual sensing areas in an array where the response signals cross.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H1. signal repeatability. and the minimum detection capability of the probe.3.

meet these minimum requirements of Table H-1 for the supplemental NDE technique to be considered eligible for use: H-19 . flaw dimensions may be established as follows: e. 2. ultrasonic examination being used to establish flaw dimensions for an eddy current technique. it is recommended that the influence of extraneous test variables associated with each of the damage mechanisms (e. It is recommended that test sample damage mechanism morphology and dimensions used to construct qualification data set grading units be based on SG operating experience as inferred from tube pulls.1 General a. Flaw dimensions for samples. the flaws should produce signals similar to those being observed in the field in terms of signal characteristics. non EPRIQ techniques shall. Where applicable. Test samples fabricated using mechanical or chemical methods may be used. b. It is recommended that the correlation coefficient. However.2. Supplemental NDE techniques may be used to determine the flaw dimensions for samples provided that the following steps are completed: 1. have an IQDA verify and document compliance with Appendix H. 5. dings.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination Supplement H2 Qualification Requirements for Examination of SG Tubing H2. deposits.3.2 Qualification Data Set Requirements H2. H2. The supplemental NDE technique should be an alternative method to the technique being qualified. Establish the uncertainties of the supplemental NDE technique by comparison to destructive analysis of flaw samples. d. and S/N ratio.g. 3. Alternatively. This comparison should include samples from the same type of damage mechanism utilizing a minimum of sixteen samples.3.1 General SG tubing examination techniques and equipment used to detect and size flaws are qualified by performance demonstration. 4. For example. denting. shall be verified by physical measurements. as a minimum. tube geometry changes) be assessed.2. as established in H2. signal amplitude. Establish the measurement error of the supplemental NDE technique in accordance with H2. used to construct grading units included in the qualification data set. Evidence of leakage may be used to verify 100% TW depth.2 for each structural parameter to be used in the technique qualification. c.. In lieu of the Supplement H4 peer review. EPRIQ techniques shall meet the requirements of Supplement H4 for conduct of the peer review process.

7. f.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination Table H-1 Sample Size Correlation Coefficient Sample Size 30 25 20 16 Correlation Coefficient (Minimum) 0. as defined in Supplement H1. If the subsequent sample set destructive analysis results are not within the bounds of the original sample set then the alternative flaw dimension profiles cannot be used and the Chairman of the NDE IRG will be notified for corrective action.36 0. H-20 . The effect of the coil field width and effective coil tracking. The samples being used for validation should represent the range that is being qualified.44 0. This data will be used to average and integrate the metallurgical measurements to establish a common basis to compare to the qualification eddy current measurements. Use the standard error of regression at a 95/50 confidence interval as the measurement error applied to flaw dimensions for samples used in technique qualifications utilizing supplemental NDE techniques for establishment of the flaw dimensions in lieu of physical measurements.50 6.40 0. Future samples of the same type (damage mechanism/location) shall have a 20% sample of the flaws destructively analyzed to validate that the sample set is within the parameters of the original set from which the measurement error was determined. The ETSS should delineate whether average depth or maximum depth flaw measurements were used in the qualification. for crack like indications. The measurement error should be applied to the measurement in the most conservative manner and may be applied for specific variable ranges. are taken into account when comparing eddy current measured parameter with measured metallurgical results.

The minimum sizing data set is 16 flawed grading units. It is acceptable to use a lower percent TW criteria for detection rather than the 60% value.2. The minimum detection data set is 11 flawed grading units. H2. d. Select the sizing data set for each damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combination. d. e.2 Detection Data Set a. locations that provide a 0% TW measurement are reported as 1% TW and are included in the performance indices. c. It is recommended that the sizing data set include the detection data set.3 Sizing Data Set a. however. Specialized data sets are permissible for a targeted sizing range. as is reasonably achievable. Table H-2 Minimum Number of Flawed Grading Units (≥60% TW) That Must Be Detected to Meet the Technique Acceptance Criterion of POD ≥0. H-21 . It is recommended that the data set be uniformly distributed over the depth range of 60% to 100% TW.80 at a 90% Confidence Level Total Number of Flawed Grading Units in the Data Set for Technique Acceptance Testing 11 17 18 24 25 31 32 Minimum Number of Flawed Grading Units that Must be Detected for Technique Acceptance 11 17 17 23 23 29 29 b. It is recommended that the data set be uniformly distributed over the depth range of 20% TW to 59% TW. It is recommended that the remainder of the sizing data set have maximum measured depths less than 60% TW of the nominal tube wall thickness.2. POD calculations include the use of flawed locations reported as no detectable degradation (NDD).Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H2. Select the data set according to the requirements of Table H-2 for each damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combination. c. b. Sizing performance indices do not include NDD locations.

p ) = n! p x (1 − p ) n− x x!(n − x)! Equation H-4 This expression can be used. then.80 or greater at a 90% lower-bound CL. H2.80 or greater at a 90% CL. success or failure. the technique must detect all but one. In data sets numbering from 18 to 24. H2. the probability of that number of detections is calculated and that of each lesser number of detections (n-1. that exceed 90% of all possible outcomes. to calculate the minimum number of detections required from a sample set of given size to be ensured. Starting with the largest number of detections possible (n). So when observed they provide assurance. Table H-2 provides the minimum number of detections required to meet this acceptance criterion for data sets consisting of 11 to 32 flawed grading units. A flawed grading unit is defined.10. that the actual POD is 0.3. These are the outcomes. as a flaw that is either equal to or greater than 60% TW. calculations from the binomial distribution determined the minimum number of successes required in examining a flaw data set to ensure. n-2.80. To meet the criterion of a POD of 0. The binomial distribution provides the probability of each possible outcome over a specified number of trials when only two outcomes are possible on each trial. at a CL of 90%. is calculated in Equation H-4: P(x n. for this qualification. using a data set of 11 or more flawed grading units.1 Detection Acceptance Criteria Techniques shall be considered qualified for detection if they demonstrate a POD of 0. Sizing performance may be supplemented by additional data sets as required to meet higher CLs as dictated by the needs of condition monitoring and operational assessments.) so that when the probabilities are added together they do not exceed a combined probability of 0.80. etc. In constructing Table H-2. and the likelihood of a success or failure is known or assumed. when the probability of success on each trial is p.3 Acceptance Criteria Qualification is exclusively based on detection. that the actual POD is equal to or greater than 0. It is acceptable to use a lower percent TW criteria for detection rather than the 60% value.80 or greater. all but two. H-22 . in data sets numbering from 11 to 17 flawed grading units. that the actual POD is equal to or greater than 0. at a CL of 90%. then. at a 90% CL. The probability of exactly x successes in n trials.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination The sizing data set is used to demonstrate depth sizing. for example. and from 25 to 31. the technique must detect every flawed grading unit.

So detection of 17 or more out of a sample set of 18 represent a POD of 80% at 90.80)16 (0.0180 plus 0.0811 17!1! The probability of detecting exactly 16 flaws out of the 18 in the sample set is: P (1618.9% or greater.9% of all possible outcomes (80% POD at 72. Adding the probability of 16 detections. which also means that if 18 flaws out of 18 in the sample set have been detected.1000.0180 plus 0.8%.80) = 18! (0.80) = 18! (0. results in a combined probability (the probability of 16 or more detections) of 0.80) = 18! (0. which also means that if 16 or more out of 18 have been detected.1723 16!2! The sum of the probabilities for 17 and 18 detections (the probability of 17 or more detections) is equal to 0.1%.0991 equals 9. then this outcome only exceeds 72. which is not acceptable per established criteria.0.2714 equals 27. detection of 18 out of 18 represents a POD of 80% at 98. as a consequence. The binomial distribution produces discrete rather than continuous values. while detection of 16 or better out of 18 leads to a POD 80% at a CL of 72. the process described in this section is completed to determine the minimum number of detections required in a sample set of 18 flawed grading units to have 90% confidence that the actual POD is equal to or greater than 0. however.2% CL. then this outcome has exceeded 98.20)1 = 0.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination In the following example.20) 2 = 0.80)18 (0. This means that the probability of detecting 17 or more is 9.09 CL.0.0.91% and if 17 or more have been detected from a sample set of 18. Therefore. it is at or beyond the 90% CL.0180 18!0! This means that the probability of detecting 18 out of 18 is 1. The probability of detecting exactly 17 flaws out of the 18 in the sample set is: P(17 18. H-23 .91%. This means that the probability of detecting 16 or more out of 18 is 27. the probability of detecting exactly 18 flaws out of the 18 in the sample set is: P (1818.1723 equals 0.0811 equals 0. However. This leads to the conclusion that detection of 17 or more out of 18 represents a POD of 80% at a CL of 90% or greater. the CLs associated with the acceptance criteria in the table are all equal to or greater than 90%. Since this combined probability is less than 0.09% of all possible outcomes. Using Equation H-5.0811 plus 0. then this outcome has exceeded 90.80.80)17 (0.9% CL).2% of all possible outcomes. the actual CLs vary among the minimum number of detections presented in Table H-2.1%.20) 0 = 0.

H-24 . Standard error of regression is defined by Equation H-5: n∑ xy − (∑ x)(∑ y ) 2 ⎡ 1 ⎤⎡ 2 Syx = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢n∑ y − (∑ y ) − n ∑ x 2 − (∑ x ) 2 ⎣ n(n − 2) ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ Correlation coefficient is defined by the Equation H-6: r= [ ]⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎦ Equation H-5 ∑ x y − ∑ x∑ y 2⎤ ⎡ 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢n∑ x − (∑ x ) ⎥ ⎢n∑ y − (∑ y ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ n Equation H-6 Where: ‘x’ is the NDE estimate ‘y’ is the structural variable (metallurgical value) ‘n’ is the number of values in the data set.3.2 Technique Sizing Performance Technique performance for sizing is based on a standard error of regression and correlation coefficient (r) of the eddy current measured parameters.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H2.

The new technique will be comprised of system components (instruments. H3.2 Administrative Responsibilities H3. The originator is also responsible for providing data of sufficient quantity and quality meeting the requirements of Appendix G for the development of training materials and practical tests for the qualification of personnel. take the appropriate action as specified in this supplement.3 Technique Originator Responsibilities The originator/sponsor of the technique is responsible for supplying sufficient information to the peer review team to permit adequate review and evaluation of the technique.2. training. based on recent industry findings.1 New Techniques A documented request from a licensee for adding new eddy current techniques to the PDD. areas that are out of date and require revision. H-25 . and software. inclusion of new techniques or deletion of existing techniques. Required updates should be completed within the timeframe specified by the NDE IRG disposition.1 Scope This supplement establishes the method to revise the Appendix G PDD. H3.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination Supplement H3 Protocol for PDD Revision H3. written test. The NDE IRG will accept or reject the request. will be directed to the chairperson of the NDE IRG of the EPRI SGMP. probes. The new technique will be substantially different in analysis methods as compared to the techniques already included in the PDD.2 Existing Techniques It is recommended that the QDA training. H3. The recommendations of a simple majority will be documented for NDE IRG review and dispositioned within 6 months of the QDA review. etc. Appendix G. and inform the requester in writing. or areas that are not included but merit inclusion. and testing purposes. This review is intended to identify areas that are no longer appropriate. The documentation of the peer review team will include ample justification for the NDE IRG to assess the recommendations. The peer review group will be the judge of the data quantity and quality for review.2.) that are commercially available. The NDE IRG should conduct a review for consideration of inclusion. and practical test content be reviewed by a group of at least 5 QDA’s on a biennial basis or as directed by the NDE IRG. Revisions include additions/deletions of existing data. The new technique will be a technique that is generally accepted and used by a majority of the utilities to warrant industry-wide training and qualification of all data analysts.

It is recommended that the PDD Curator not be a participant of the peer review team. H3. The peer review team will verify that all data and information required to qualify the technique under the procedures of Appendix H are available for the review.2 Conduct of the Review a. Analyzed results (expert opinion) 5. his or her QDA certification will be current and on file at their employer’s facility along with a copy on file at the EPRI NDE Center. and inclusion of peer-reviewed results for the practical examination. Essential variables 3.1 Team Structure The peer review team will have at least five QDAs from vendor and utility organizations.5. Calibration standard drawings for new techniques 7. Analysis instructions 4.5 PDD Peer Review Procedure H3. Appendix H compliance 6. H-26 . b. The sponsoring utility and/or vendor will not be considered part of the peer review team. For each peer review member. Raw eddy current data 2. Training and testing materials c. the following items will be reviewed and accepted: 1. H3. revision of written test questions.5. The team will accept or reject the data for inclusion in the PDD based upon a two-thirds majority acceptance by the peer review team. For inclusion of new techniques.4 PDD Curator Responsibilities The PDD curator (currently the EPRI NDE Center) is responsible for revising the PDD. As a minimum.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H3. This responsibility includes the preparation of training materials. the technique qualification originator or its representative will be invited to participate and answer questions from the review panel.

The peer review process is an independent review intended to provide oversight and verification of the qualification process.2 Administrative Responsibilities A documented request from a utility or vendor for conducting a peer review will be directed to the chairperson of the NDE IRG of the EPRI SGMP or the Manager of Steam Generator-NDE at the EPRI NDE Center. The technique qualification originator (who need not be a QDA) will be invited to participate and answer questions from the review panel.5.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination Supplement H4 Protocol for Technique Peer Review H4. For each peer review member. H4. the formulation of performance numbers.4 Examination Technique Specification Sheet Curator Responsibilities The ETSS curator (currently the EPRI NDE Center) is responsible for incorporating the approved technique into the ETSS program. The ETSS Curator. The peer review group will be the judge of the data quality for review. and/or originator will not be considered part of the peer review team. The originator is also responsible for providing data of sufficient quantity and quality meeting the requirements of Appendix H and J as applicable. H-27 . maintaining documentation of peer reviews. and distributing the approved ETSS to the industry. requesting/assembling the peer review team.3 Technique Originator Responsibilities The originator/sponsor of the technique is responsible for supplying sufficient information to the peer review team to permit adequate review and evaluation of the technique. H4. H4. H4.1 Team Structure An eddy current peer review team will have at least five QDAs from vendor and utility organizations and an ultrasonic peer review team will have at least three ultrasonic analysts. sponsoring utility. This responsibility includes populating the ETSS database.1 Scope This supplement establishes the method and protocol for conducting industry peer reviews of Appendix H or J techniques. their certification will be current and on file at the EPRI NDE Center.5 Peer Review Procedure H4.

and attestation that data was performed under a 10CFR50. As a minimum. Review and acceptance that the ETSS is correct 8. Review and acceptance of analyzed results 10. Review and acceptance that the technique applicability is correct as stated on the ETSS 12.67%) majority acceptance by the peer review team are considered Appendix H. the following items will be reviewed and accepted: 1. The team will ensure that sufficient documentation exists for replication of the examination. Review and acceptance of acquisition data 2. the team will prepare written justification for the rejection. Review and acceptance that the data listing is correct 9. Review and acceptance of essential variables 4.or J-qualified. b. Techniques that receive a minimum of a two-thirds (66. d. The peer review team will verify that all data and information required to qualify the technique under the procedures of Appendix H or J are available for the review. Review and acceptance of NDD tube samples 11. at a minimum have a transmittal cover sheet identifying the company.2 Conduct of the Review a. person transmitting the data. Review and acceptance that the correct standard error of regression value is provided 7. Review and acceptance that detection requirements per Appendix H or J have been met c.5. Review and acceptance that all available data were used or considered and that data considered but not used is documented as to the reason for its non use 5.) 3. The team will accept or reject the technique. H-28 . Peer team members will have the opportunity to document dissenting opinions. Review and acceptance of metallurgical data (metallurgical results and data. In the event that the technique is rejected. the entire process should be repeated unless the original members are satisfied that the changes made do not affect the acceptable portions of the ETSS. Appendix B quality program. Review and acceptance that the POD is correct 6. The technique originator will have an opportunity to provide additional information or withdraw the technique from the qualification process. An EPRI peer review procedure provides the requirements for peer review.Performance Demonstration for Eddy Current Examination H4. Additionally. techniques will be approved by a minimum of five peer team members. In the event modifications are made to the submittal.

Tubes pulled prior to April 15. 1999. Two NDE system performance measures are needed. An examination technique may be qualified in accordance with this appendix in lieu of Appendix H. I. Both performance measures are quantified using functional measures over the expected range of the structural variable. H.3 Technique Requirements The requirements of Appendix H Section H. H. c.4 and H2. including both destructive and NDE.I NDE SYSTEM MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES FOR TUBE INTEGRITY ASSESSMENTS I. b. This appendix provides guidance for determining NDE system measurement uncertainties for tube integrity assessments. I.2 Personnel Requirements a. H.2.2.3. c.f shall be met. An examination technique qualified in accordance with this appendix may be used in procedures without regard to the organization that qualified the technique.3. Data analysts that have participated in a peer review of the technique under evaluation are excluded from participating in the performance demonstration.3.1 Scope a. Data analysts participating in a performance demonstration shall be a qualified data analyst (QDA) in accordance with Appendix G. I. NDE technique qualification and documentation.2.2. I-1 . 1) probability of detection (POD) and 2) sizing accuracy.2. may be excluded from 10CFR50 Appendix B requirements and may be grandfathered. b. b.1 Requirements General a. NDE system performance indices generated in accordance with this appendix supersedes performance indices for techniques qualified in accordance with Appendix H. shall be performed under 10CFR50 Appendix B Quality Assurance Program.2.2 I.1.

– Processing of the eddy current analysis results to obtain probability of detection (POD) distributions and NDE sizing uncertainties. The detection acceptance criteria of Section H2. – ETSS preparation providing the eddy current analysis procedure together with the POD distributions and eddy current sizing uncertainties.3. The overall steps to developing POD and NDE sizing uncertainties to support plant integrity assessments include the following: – Preliminary review of eddy current and destructive examination data to be presented to the peer review team for incorporation into the performance demonstration analyses. I. resulting from the performance testing of data analysts. – Formal testing of eddy current data analysts for detection and sizing using peer review approved datasets and analysis procedures. if applicable. I. – Peer review of the eddy current and destructive examination data and the eddy current analysis procedures to approve the databases and analysis procedures for the performance demonstration analyses. if applicable.3 Process Overview a.4 Acceptance Criteria Qualification is based on generating NDE system performance data in accordance with Supplement I3. – Preparation of eddy current analysis procedures to be used in the performance demonstration analyses.3.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments I.3.2 Protocol Supplement I2 describes performance demonstration protocol. – Publication of the ETSS(s) and associated POD and NDE uncertainty distributions resulting from the performance testing and processing of the test results. Peer reviews are required and shall be conducted in accordance with Supplement I4. I.3.1 Performance Demonstration Data Set Requirements Supplement I1 describes performance demonstration data set assembly.3 I.3. b. I-2 .1 is not applicable.

as described in EPRI Tools for Integrity Assessment Project Technical Report.4 Record of Qualification Technique qualification documentation includes identification of acquisition techniques. The EPRI User Manual – Crystal Ball® Monte Carlo Simulator. require performance demonstration test data generated in accordance with Supplement I2. data sets and performance indices. Although the POD(S) model in Supplement I3 Equation I3-1 uses the structural variable S as the sole explanatory or independent variable.5 Determining Noise-Dependent NDE System Performance a.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments I. Two methods have been developed for providing a noise-dependent structural POD.3. Applications of POD noise adjustment methods. the model is in general. performance demonstration test data are not required. The EPRI Tools for Integrity Assessment Project Technical Report. noise-dependent. I-3 . Both methods require plant noise to be measured. analysis methods. essential variables. I. 1014567. For predictive model-assisted POD approaches. 1012988 describes a predictive method and does not require ETSS noise measurement. 1014567 describes a method for adjusting an empirically derived POD and requires that noise associated with the ETSS data set be measured. b.

1 Data Acceptability Guidelines Data acceptability guidelines are addressed in the EPRI Tools for Integrity Assessment Project Technical Report. e. 40% depth). If the correlation coefficient is less than this. The number of analysis teams for detection and sizing shall be selected in accordance with Table I-1 and Table I-2. The outcomes of these trials are then used to provide an upper bound estimate of the population false call rate.g. technical justification shall be provided to use the data. c. 100% for maximum depth. For the example shown in the figure. data exclusion. I1. 1014567 which provides guidance on using pulled tube and laboratory data to construct ETSS data sets..2 Data Set Requirements a. The column titled “Supporting Tube Repair” in Tables I-1 and I-2 is applicable when the sizing correlation is to be used to size flaws left in service per the licensed repair limits (e. Data analyst false call rate is measured using a sample of NDD grading units (based either on metallography or expert opinion). Analysis team participants for detection and sizing are described in Supplement I2.g. The sizing data set shall be selected according to the requirements of Table I-2 for applicable damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combinations. The maximum value should span the range typically applied in operational assessments (e. The population false call rate is estimated using a one-sided upper bound confidence limit for a binomial distribution.36 for a sizing data set of 30 points. respectively. d. I-4 . combining data sets. b. The detection data set shall be selected in accordance with Table I-1 for applicable degradation mechanism/extraneous test variable combinations. Requirements for licensed Alternate Repair Criteria take precedent over the requirements of this supplement. average depths in range of structural limit applications). destructive examination information requirements. Figure I-1 illustrates the minimum correlation coefficient for a given number of data points to achieve a 95% level of confidence. f.. Figure I-2 illustrates a 90% one-sided confidence limit. the correlation coefficient must be greater than 0. It is recommended that the data set used to establish sizing uncertainty be uniformly distributed between the minimum and maximum values of the structural variable S of interest.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Supplement I1 ETSS Data Set Requirements I1. and data sufficiency requirements.

NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Table I-1 Data Sufficiency Requirements for POD Number of Grading Units Minimum Recommended 20 ≥40 Detection Range Undetected Detected Above Largest of Applicable Structural Variable Undetected Number of Analysis Teams ≤10% of Grading Units ≤15% of Grading Units ≥5 Table I-2 Data Sufficiency Requirements for Sizing Maximum Depth Range. %TW 0%-35% 36%-65% 66%-100% Total Number of Analysis Teams Supporting Tube Repair ≥10 ≥10 ≥10 ≥30 ≥10 Supporting Tube Integrity Assessments Only ≥7 ≥6 ≥7 ≥20 ≥5 I-5 .

I-6 . r. at 95% Confidence Level for a Positive Correlation Note: Applies to linear first-order models only.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Figure I-1 Correlation Coefficient.

all the grading units are reported as NDD) I-7 .NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Figure I-2 Minimum Number of Required NDD Grading Units as a Function of Population False Call Rate (Plot assumes zero misses i.e.

If agreement cannot be reached. As a minimum.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Supplement I2 Performance Demonstration I2. the most conservative result will prevail. c. and orientation. It is recommended that two analysts participate in the sizing activity. All analysis shall be performed blind (without access to ground truth). analysis and reporting.1 General Requirements a. maximum voltage.3 Sizing a. two (primary and secondary) production analysts and two (primary and secondary) resolution analysts. the analysis guidelines include information on calibration. The sizing final report reflects agreement between the two analysts. Analyst team assignments for detection testing may differ from sizing team assignments. Each detection team shall consist of four individuals. the most conservative result will prevail. Primary and secondary results are reviewed using a compare process in which discrepancies are identified. Training shall include pre-analyzed (practice) eddy current data and analysis guidelines using a self-study protocol. written data analysis guidelines shall be developed. Communications between resolution analysts from the same team is permitted. The detection and sizing grading units shall be traceable to metallographic ground truth. b. team-to-team communication is not permitted. length.2 Probability of Detection a. f. I2. b. Sizing analysts will be provided the data point location for the degradation to be sized. c. e. b. when provided. One analyst would be designated as the sizing analyst and the other as an independent technical reviewer. d. maximum depth. The independent technical review includes a review of the analysis set up. c. If agreement cannot be reached. d. Production analysts shall analyze all data independently with no communications between primary and secondary production or resolution analysts and no team-to-team communications. however. Prior to initiating a performance demonstration. These discrepancies are resolved by primary and secondary resolution analysts resulting in a team final report. I-8 . I2.

the GLM weighted average method uses hit/miss data weighted by the number of data points. with intercept a0 and slope a1. The uncertainties in the parameters POD(S) are described by a covariance matrix.1 NDE System Performance Measures Two NDE system performance measures are defined. The POD metric. Alternate POD functional distributions may be applied when documented to show adequate conservatism for the tube integrity analysis model being applied for condition monitoring and operational assessments. In general. these parameters are degradation mechanism and examination technique specific.1 Probability of Detection a.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Supplement I3 NDE System Performance Measures for Tube Integrity Assessments I3. For the case of a two-parameter log-logistic model. The recommended performance measure or model for POD is a non-linear log-logistic function defined as POD( S ) = 1 1+ e − ( a 0 + a1 log S ) Equation I-1 where S is the structural parameter. as defined in this section. NDE system POD(S) performance can be determined using multiple analysis team resolution results. Figure I-3 illustrates an example POD(S) calculation along with its measurement uncertainties as determined using GLM methodology. In a similar manner. a0 + a1Xi + Zpηi. I-9 . provides an estimate of undetected tube degradation left in service after steam generator examination and is used as an input to deterministic or probabilistic tube bundle integrity models to establish tube bundle burst probabilities and leak rates. e. as defined in this section. System POD(S) is determined using resolution data analyst binary hit-miss data which have been regressed using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) log-logistic link function. Accordingly. 1) probability of detection (POD) and 2) sizing. provides an estimate of the state of degraded tubes for plants with repair-on-sizing acceptance criteria and is used as an input to deterministic or probabilistic tube bundle integrity models for quantitative tube bundle burst and leakage assessments. c. This function is referred to as a structural POD. b. multiple team performance shall be described using a GLM weighted average as shown in Figure I-4.1. Although Figure I-4 shows team fractional POD results. the confidence bounds for the predicted probabilities are found using the following expressions. and the Vii are the covariance matrix values. the sizing metric. where p is the probability associated with the one-sided confidence level desired. I3. where ηi = [Vii + (2V12 + V22Xi)Xi]1/2 Equation I-2 d. a0 and a1 are the intercept and slope values. and a0 and a1 are model parameters to be determined.

NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Figure I-3 Calculation of POD and Measurement Uncertainties Using GLM Excel Spreadsheet I-10 .

The recommended performance measure or model for sizing is a linear function defined as where S is the true value of the structural variable used for integrity assessment. S = a + b · NDEmeasured Equation I-3 b. c. As with detection.2 Sizing a. the parameters a and b are degradation mechanism and examination technique specific.2.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Figure I-4 Using GLM Weighted Average to Describe Multiple Analysis Team POD Results I3. NDE system sizing error shall be determined via performance demonstration in accordance with Supplement I2. a and b are model parameters to be determined and NDEmeasured is the value predicted by NDE. d. the standard error of regression or standard deviation. The standard error of regression or standard deviation provides a measure of the random error or sizing uncertainty while the regression equation provides an estimate of the systematic error or bias. The plot in the figure includes values for the regression equation Sy|x. the number of data points. NDE system sizing error is determined by regressing actual values of the structural variable with multiple data analyst sizing team measured values as shown in Figure I-5 which shows results for ten teams. I-11 . and correlation coefficient.

NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Figure I-5 NDE System Sizing Error for Ten Analysis Teams I-12 .

I4. It is recommended that the peer review team include both utility and vendor participants.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments Supplement I4 Protocol for NDE System Peer Review I4.1 Team Structure a. b. It is recommended that at least one of the MTI engineers have statistical analysis experience. I4.3 Technique Originator Responsibilities The originator/sponsor of the technique is responsible for supplying sufficient information to the peer review team to permit adequate review and evaluation of the technique.1 Scope This supplement establishes the method and protocol for conducting industry peer reviews of Appendix I techniques. The intent of the peer review is to ensure that the tube degradation for an ETSS dataset properly represents that found in the field. I-13 . and to provide oversight and verification of the qualification process. This responsibility includes maintaining documentation of peer reviews and distributing the approved ETSS to the industry. The peer review process is an independent review performed by materials and/or tube integrity (MTI) engineers and QDAs. The technique qualification originator (who need not be a QDA) will be invited to participate and answer questions from the peer review teams.5 Peer Review Procedure I4. The peer review group will be the judge of the data quality for review. I4. and the destructive examination results to be applied for the performance demonstration. The originator is also responsible for providing data of sufficient quantity and quality meeting the requirements of Appendix I as applicable. I4. A peer review team will have at least three MTI engineers and at least three QDAs. The peer review process is also an independent review of eddy current data acquisition and analysis techniques.5.4 Curator Responsibilities The ETSS curator is responsible for incorporating the performance demonstration results into the ETSS program.2 Administrative Responsibilities A documented request from a utility or vendor for conducting a peer review will be directed to the chairperson of the NDE IRG of the EPRI SGMP or the Manager of Steam Generator-NDE at the EPRI NDE Center.

2 Conduct of the Review a. 4. The acceptance of the data sets for use in the performance demonstration shall be based on a majority vote of the MTI peer review team. sponsoring utility. row and column. The initial peer review is conducted prior to the actual performance demonstration. I-14 . the following items are to be addressed by the QDA team: 1. or any combination thereof. the following items are to be addressed by the MTI team: 1. c. For each peer review member. 2. Review and acceptance that the ETSS is correct and sufficient information exist for industry implementation. amplitude response. o Calibration standard drawings or sketches of as-built conditions are available for both lab and field collected data. Review and acceptance of metallurgical data (metallurgical results and data. person transmitting the data. I4. 3. o The NDE data is verified by summary and/or data header to have been collected during the outage that the tube removal was performed. at a minimum have a transmittal cover sheet identifying the company.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments c. and/or originator will not be considered part of the peer review team. An EPRI peer review procedure provides the requirements for peer review. Review and acceptance that the number of samples comprising the qualification is sufficient to satisfy the minimum statistical rigor of Appendix I for detection and/or sizing. 5. d.5. d. physical location. Review and acceptance that the data grouping is representative of inservice field results. 2. This grouping may be based upon structural parameters. As a minimum. The ETSS Curator. Germane examples known to present a challenge to the performance of the proposed technique are to be included if possible. Review and acceptance of acquisition data: o Verify that the pulled tube data has a summary or is identified in the tube header as to the unit. noise values. Review and acceptance that all available data were used or considered and that data considered but not used is documented as to the reason for its non use. 3. Review and acceptance of essential variables. o All laboratory data documented and collected in a fashion consistent with the collection and documentation of field data. their certification and/or experience record will be current and on file at the EPRI NDE Center. and attestation that data was performed under a 10CFR50. As a minimum. Appendix B quality program). b.

5. 2.67%) majority acceptance by the combined peer review team are considered Appendix I qualified. Rejection of either a data set or an ETSS will require written justification by the peer review team and suggestions for correction if applicable. The MTI and QDA peer review teams jointly review the data and ETSS for acceptance. 6. e. data sets. 5. The QDA team presents the results of the review of the NDE techniques and supporting information. The final peer review will focus on the validity of the performance demonstration results and clarity and correctness of the proposed final ETSS. Peer team members will have the opportunity to document dissenting opinions. f. The technique originator will have an opportunity to provide additional information or withdraw the technique from the qualification process. Review and acceptance that the data listing is correct. The final peer review is conducted after the completion of the actual performance demonstration. Review and acceptance that the technique applicability is correct as stated on the ETSS. 3. Techniques that receive a minimum of a two-thirds (66. The acceptance of the data acquisition and analysis technique will be based on a majority vote of the QDA peer review team. 1. 2. 3. A combined meeting of the MTI and QDA peer review groups is required for final approval of the database and NDE techniques for performance demonstration testing. Combined MTI and QDA peer review of data and NDE techniques: 1. The acceptance of the data sets and ETSS for use in performance demonstration testing will be based upon a two-thirds (66. 4. The MTI team presents the results of the review of the ETSS.67%) majority acceptance by the combined peer review team.NDE System Measurement Uncertainties for Tube Integrity Assessments 4. In the event that the technique is rejected. and supporting information. the team will prepare written justification for the rejection. the entire process should be repeated unless the original members are satisfied that the changes made do not affect the acceptable portions of the ETSS. I-15 . This review may result in recommendations for changes or acceptance. Initial peer review team members are not required to also serve as final peer review team members. In the event modifications are made to the submittal.

.

The performance demonstration requirements specified in this appendix apply to the acquisition process but do not apply to personnel involved in the data acquisition process. may be excluded from 10CFR50 Appendix B requirements and may be grandfathered. including both destructive and NDE. It is recommended that the requirements for training and qualification of such personnel be described in the employer’s written practice. may be performed by competent technical personnel who are not qualified ultrasonic data analysts.2. search units.1 Scope a. and receivers vary beyond the tolerances of Supplement J1. J. with the exception of the peer review. b. e. 1999. J.PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION FOR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION J J.2 Essential Variable Ranges a. All work associated with the NDE technique qualification. Pulsers. Any two procedures with the same essential variables are considered equivalent.1 General Successful completion of Supplement J2 constitutes qualification of an acquisition technique and an analysis method. and receivers that vary within the tolerances specified in Supplement J1 are considered equivalent. Techniques that have been qualified in accordance with this appendix may be used in procedures without regard to the organization that qualified the technique. or when the examination procedure allows more than one value J-1 . It is recommended that data acquisition personnel be trained and qualified by their employer in a manner commensurate with the tasks they perform. When the pulsers.2. shall be performed under 10CFR50 Appendix B Quality Assurance Program. c. d. This appendix provides performance demonstration requirements for ultrasonic examination techniques and equipment for examination of SG tubing. Tubes pulled prior to April 15. NDE technique qualification and documentation.2 Performance Demonstration J. search units.

to improve the data set credibility.3 Requalification When a change in an acquisition or analysis technique cause an essential variable to exceed a qualified range.3. J. This peer review will be performed consistent with the requirements of Supplement H4. An industry peer review group will be convened within 100 days to review this assessment.3. J-2 .1 Instruments and Search Units The qualified acquisition technique may be modified to substitute or replace instruments or search units without requalification when the range of applicable essential variables documented in the ETSS are met providing both the original and replacement instruments or search units are characterized utilizing Supplement J1.2 Computerized System Algorithms Algorithms may be altered when the modified algorithms are demonstrated to be equivalent or better than those initially qualified. the criteria should be demonstrated for the essential variable(s). Any technique. Therefore.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination or range for an essential variable. additional pulled tube and laboratory specimen data that becomes available should be added to the qualification data sets on an annual basis. J. repeat technique qualification at the minimum and maximum value for each essential variable with all other variables remaining at their nominal values. re-qualify the acquisition or analysis technique for the revised range. J. will also be removed from Appendix K for qualification purposes.2. A technique that initially met the requirements of this appendix may then fail the acceptance criteria after data are appended. The results of the peer review will be made available to the industry by the SGMP NDE IRG chairperson or equivalent. When the method does not specify a range for essential variables and establishes criteria for selecting values. b.4 Disqualification of Techniques The qualification of techniques is dependent on the quality of the data sets used in the qualification. determined to be disqualified by not meeting the requirements of this appendix if included in Appendix K.2.3 Essential Variable Tolerances J. For any technique believed not to meet the detection requirements as stated in Supplement J2. J. immediate notification to the industry will be provided by the SGMP NDE IRG chairperson or equivalent.

and digitizer. J. and geometry. b. brand and model. Maximum number of interconnects d.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J. or formula. The following nominal values for transducers utilized in the search unit: 1. and the performance indices. Software used for acquisition and analysis including manufacturer’s name and revision J-3 . material. remote pulser/receiver. J. range of values. and data sets used during qualification or performance demonstration of equivalency. Size and shape of the active element 4.3 Calibration Methods Alternative calibration methods may be used without requalification if it is demonstrated that the proposed calibration method is equivalent to or more conservative than those described in the qualified acquisition technique or qualified analysis method.4 Record of Qualification Technique qualification documentation includes identification of acquisition techniques and analysis methods.4. It is recommended that other variables not listed but critical to the technique application also be recorded. amplifier. Cable and connector types 2.1. Configuration of mirrors (if used) 6. Maximum length(s) 3. Mode of propagation and examination angle(s) as related to the inside surface 3. Center frequency and either bandwidth or waveform duration as defined in Supplement J1 2. J. Documentation that focused transducers are used (if used) c. Search unit manufacturer. Search Unit Cables (analog signal path) to include: 1.4. Data acquisition instrumentation brand and model for instrumentation used including pulser/receiver. equipment.3. Number of elements 5. It also defines the following essential variables as a single value.1 Examination Technique Specification Sheet The ETSS contains a statement of scope that specifically defines the limits of the technique’s applicability in the context of damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combinations.1 Equipment Variables a.

Pulse repetition rate 2. Distance amplitude curve 7. whether displayed.1. averaging peak extraction. Amplifier mode 5. Scanning limitations d. Scan pattern and beam directions 2. Examination and calibration data to be recorded f. Pulser voltage 3. Real time processing (that is. Frequency 2. Filtering 6. Reject used b.2 Technique Variables a. actions required such that the sensitivity and accuracy of the signal amplitude and time outputs of the examination system. are repeated from examination to examination) e. Pulse width and polarity 4. and compression) 3. Maximum circumferential and axial data acquisition increments 4. Recording Equipment g. Data resolution c. Maximum scan speed 3. Methods of calibration for detection and sizing (for example. geometric versus flaw indications and for length and depth sizing of flaws) h. Extent of scanning and action to be taken for access restrictions 5.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J. Tubing material and wall thickness J-4 . Method and criteria for the discrimination of indications (for example. Applicable digitizer settings: 1. Data acquisition variables 1. or automatically processed. Applicable ultrasonic instrument settings: 1. recorded. interpolation.4.

Receivers.2. search unit.1 Scope This supplement specifies essential variables associated with ultrasonic data acquisition instrumentation and establishes a protocol for essential variable measurement.1 Transducer Wave Propagation Mode The wave propagation mode is the same.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Supplement J1 Equipment Characterization J1.1. J1. and Cable It is recommended that all instruments meet the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section XI. J1. or cable without re-qualification when the following conditions are met.1. The qualified procedure may be modified to substitute or replace pulsers.2.1 Search Unit Substituting a search unit with another manufacture or model requires that the substituted model meet the following criteria as compared to the qualified search unit.2.2 Pulsers. Search Unit. J1. receivers. +3° J-5 .2 Transducer Measured Angle Measure angle. J1.

may be used as a guide in this process. use a signal obtained at 1/2 vee-path on an outside surface connected notch with a minimum depth of 2 wavelengths (as calculated for the material and transducer frequency). Evaluation of the Characteristics of Ultrasonic Search Units. For angle beam examination. The requirements of ASTM E 1065. J-6 . Use the complete qualified examination system. a. The center frequency is determined in Equation J-1: fc = Where: fl is the lower frequency measured at -6 dB below the peak frequency fu is the upper frequency measured at -6 dB below the peak frequency b. It is recommended that the upper and lower frequencies be measured at -6 dB below the peak frequency and meet the requirements of Equations J-2 and J-3: flr ≤ (1.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J1.1.4 Focused Search Units Equation J-2 Equation J-3 fl + fu 2 Equation J-1 It is recommended that for search units utilizing focused transducers. the focal point.3 Search Unit Transducer Evaluation Perform an evaluation comparing the qualified search unit transducer(s) to the replacement transducer(s).2. to measure the center frequency and bandwidth. use a backwall signal. 1987. focal length.05) (flq) fur ≥ (0. Center frequency: It is recommended that the center frequency (fc) of the replacement transducer(s) be within +20% of the qualified transducer.1. depth of field and beam size at the focal point be within 15% of the qualified transducer.95) (fuq) Where: flr is the lower frequency of replacement flq is the lower frequency of qualified fur is the upper frequency of replacement fuq is the upper frequency of qualified J1. set up to the requirements of the applicable ETSS.2. For a zero degree examination.

2. For angle beam examination.2.6 Confirmation Equation J-4 It is recommended that a tube specimen containing the damage mechanism specified in the ETSS be used to confirm that the flaw signals have not been adversely affected. Timing accuracy: The sound path delta between the maximum corner trap and tip signals is within +20% of that calculated for notch depths of 20% TW.2. 60% TW.7 Requirements for Pulse Echo Tip Diffraction Sizing Techniques It is recommended that the following performance requirements be met for pulse echo tip diffraction depth sizing techniques: a.1. use the backwall signal. For a zero degree examination. SPD = Where: SPD is sound path delta (microseconds) D is notch depth A is examination angle V is tube material velocity 2D cos A * V Equation J-5 J-7 .1. use a signal obtained at 1/2 vee-path on an outside surface connected notch with a minimum depth of 2 wavelengths (as calculated for the material and transducer frequency). J1. 40% TW.95) (s/nq) Where: S/Nr is the S/N ratio of replacement S/Nq is the S/N ratio of qualified J1.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J1. See Equation J-5. It is recommended that the S/N ratio meet the Equation J-4: S/Nr ≥ (0. and 80% TW in a calibration tube of the same nominal diameter and thickness as being examined.1.5 S/N Ratio The S/N ratio of the replacement transducer is measured and compared to the qualified transducer.

adding cable length.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination b.5 wavelengths +0. The center frequency and bandwidth of the replacement system is acceptable if the replacement system measurements are within the tolerances of the qualified system as calculated and specified in J1. The complete qualified examination system is set up to the requirements of the applicable ETSS. b.2.5 wavelength as calculated for the material and transducer frequency used. The complete system containing the replacement components is set up to the configuration being evaluated. It is recommended that the following criteria be met: a. Length of echodynamic: The corner echodynamic does not interfere with the -6 dB drop of the tip echodynamic of an outside surface connected notch with a depth of 2.7 for the replacement system. Time resolution: The maximum tip and resultant corner signals does not interfere on an outside surface connected notch with a depth of 1. or adding interconnects requires an evaluation between the complete qualified system and the same system with the modifications installed. use a signal obtained at 1/2 vee-path on an outside surface connected notch with a minimum depth of 2 wavelengths (as calculated for the material and transducer frequency) and for a 0° examination use a backwall signal.2.1.2.3.95) (S/Nq) Where: S/Nr is S/N of replacement S/Nq is S/N of qualified c.1.5 wavelengths +0.2. It is recommended that the requirements of J1.3 Cable Equation J-6 Modifying cable properties such as changing cable type. c.2 be met. J1. For zero degree examination. use the backwall of a signal. J1.6 and J1. use a signal obtained at 1/2 vee-path on an outside surface connected notch with a minimum depth of 2 wavelengths (as calculated for the material and transducer frequency). The S/N ratio of the replacement system is measured and compared to the qualified system.5 wavelength as calculated for the material and transducer frequency used. J-8 . A frequency and bandwidth evaluation is performed on signals obtained by: for angle beam examination.2.2.1. The S/N ratio meets the requirements of Equation J-6: S/Nr ≥ (0. The requirements specified in J1.2 Substituting a Pulser/Receiver or Ultrasonic Instrument Substituting a qualified pulser/receiver or the ultrasonic instrument with another manufacture or model requires an evaluation between the complete qualified system and the complete system containing the replacement components. For angle beam examination.

measurement and calculation results. and equipment used. Documentation should include plots or pictures of ultrasonic signals and frequency spectrums used. an equivalency document shall be prepared.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J1. J-9 .3 Documentation and Review of Changes When changes or modifications are made as specified in this supplement.

denting. Flaw dimensions for samples. J2. Supplemental NDE techniques may be used to determine the flaw dimensions for samples provided that the following steps are completed: 1. Test samples fabricated using mechanical or chemical methods may be used. shall be verified by physical measurement.2. Establish the uncertainties of the supplemental NDE technique by comparison to destructive analysis of flaw samples. It is recommended that new site specific qualified techniques meet the intent of Supplement H4 for conduct of the peer review process by the developing organization.2 Qualification Data Set Requirements J2. Where applicable. 2. the flaws should produce signals similar to those being observed in the field in terms of signal characteristics. It is recommended that test sample damage mechanism morphology and dimensions used to construct qualification data set grading units be based on SG operating experience as inferred from tube pulls where practical. This comparison should include samples from the same type of damage mechanism utilizing a minimum of sixteen samples. However. deposits. tube geometry changes) be assessed. b. The supplemental NDE technique should be an alternative method to the technique being qualified. and S/N ratio. d. For example.. c. used to construct grading units included in the qualification data set. signal amplitude.g. it is recommended that the influence of extraneous test variables associated with each of the damage mechanisms (e.1 General a. Evidence of leakage may be used to verify 100% TW depth.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Supplement J2 Qualification Requirements for Examination of SG Tubing J2. Alternatively. New industry qualified techniques shall meet the requirements of Supplement H4 for conduct of the peer review process. 3.1 General SG tubing examination techniques and equipment used to detect and size flaws are qualified by performance demonstration. computer tomography being used to establish flaw dimensions for an ultrasonic technique. flaw dimensions may be established as follows: e. J-10 .

The samples being used for validation should represent the range that is being qualified.2.44 0.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination 4.36 0. meet these minimum requirements of Table J-1 for the supplemental NDE technique to be considered eligible for use: Table J-1 Sample Size Correlation Coefficient Sample Size 30 25 20 16 Correlation Coefficient (minimum) 0. Future samples of the same type (damage mechanism/location) shall have a 20% sample of the flaws destructively analyzed to validate that the sample set is within the parameters of the original set from which the measurement error was determined.40 0.3. 5. 7. The measurement error should be applied to the measurement in the most conservative manner and may be applied for specific variable ranges. Establish the measurement error of the supplemental NDE technique in accordance with J2. It is recommended that the correlation coefficient. Use the standard error of regression at a 95/50 confidence interval as the measurement error applied to flaw dimensions for samples used in technique qualifications utilizing supplemental NDE techniques for establishment of the flaw dimensions in lieu of physical measurements. If the subsequent sample set destructive analysis results is not within the bounds of the original sample set then the alternative flaw dimension profiles cannot be used and the Chairman of the NDE IRG will be notified for corrective action. J-11 .50 6. as established in J2.2 for each structural parameter to be used in the technique qualification.3.

e. It is recommended that the data set be uniformly distributed over the depth range of 20% TW to 59% TW. c. J2.3 Sizing Data Set a. The minimum detection data set is 11 flawed grading units.80 at a 90% Confidence Level Total Number of Flawed Grading Units in the Data Set for Technique Acceptance Testing 11 17 18 24 25 31 32 Minimum Number of Flawed Grading Units that Must be Detected for Technique Acceptance 11 17 17 23 23 29 29 b. c.2 Detection Data Set a. as is reasonably achievable. It is recommended that the data set be uniformly distributed over the depth range of 60% to 100% TW. Sizing performance indices do not include NDD locations. POD calculations include the use of flawed locations reported as NDD. however. It is recommended that the remainder of the sizing data set have maximum measured depths less than 60% of the nominal tube wall thickness. Select the sizing data set for each damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combination. The minimum sizing data set is 16 flawed grading units.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J2. d. J-12 . It is recommended that the sizing data set include the detection data set. b. rather than the 60% value.2. It is acceptable to use a lower percent TW criteria for detection. Table J-2 Minimum Number of Flawed Grading Units (≥60% TW) That Must Be Detected to Meet the Technique Acceptance Criterion of POD ≥0.2. locations that provide a 0% TW measurement are reported as 1% TW and are included in the performance indices. Select the data set according to the requirements of Table J-2 for each damage mechanism/extraneous test variable combination. Specialized data sets are permissible for a targeted sizing range.

To meet the criterion of a POD of 0.3 Acceptance Criteria Qualification is exclusively based on detection. Sizing performance may be supplemented by additional data sets as required to meet higher CLs as dictated by the needs of condition monitoring and operational assessments. the probability of that number of detections is calculated and that of each lesser number of detections (n-1. the technique must detect every flawed grading unit. and from 25 to 31. When observed. A flawed grading unit is defined. and the likelihood of a success or failure is known or assumed.80 or greater at a 90% lower-bound CL. In constructing Table J-2. The probability of exactly x successes in n trials.1 Detection Acceptance Criteria Techniques shall be considered qualified for detection if they demonstrate a POD of 0. that the actual POD is equal to or greater than 0. for example. n-2. J2. p ) = n! p x (1 − p ) n− x x!(n − x)! Equation J-7 This expression can be used. J2.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination The sizing data set is used to demonstrate depth sizing. The binomial distribution provides the probability of each possible outcome over a specified number of trials when only two outcomes are possible on each trial. Table J-2 provides the minimum number of detections required to meet this acceptance criterion for data sets consisting of 11 to 32 flawed grading units. It is acceptable to use a lower percent TW criteria for detection rather than the 60% value. is calculated in Equation J-7: P(x n. the technique must detect all but one. calculations from the binomial distribution determined the minimum number of successes required in examining a flaw data set to ensure. all but two.80.10. as a flaw that is either equal to or greater than 60% TW. J-13 . success or failure. when the probability of success on each trial is p. to calculate the minimum number of detections required from a sample set of given size to be ensured. These are the outcomes. at a CL of 90%. at a confidence level of 90%. that the actual POD is 0. for this qualification. Starting with the largest number of detections possible (n). In data sets numbering from 18 to 24.) so that when the probabilities are added together they do not exceed a combined probability of 0. using a data set of 11 or more flawed grading units. etc.80. then. then. that exceed 90% of all possible outcomes.80 or greater at a 90% CL.80 or greater. in data sets numbering from 11 to 17 flawed grading units. they provide assurance at a 90% CL that the actual POD is equal to or greater than 0.3.

the actual CLs vary among the minimum number of detections presented in Table J-2.Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination In the example below. the process described above is completed to determine the minimum number of detections required in a sample set of 18 flawed grading units to have 90% confidence that the actual POD is equal to or greater than 0. then this outcome has exceeded 98. The probability of detecting exactly 17 flaws out of the 18 in the sample set is: P(17 18.2% CL. the probability of detecting exactly 18 flaws out of the 18 in the sample set is: P (1818.2714 equals 27.09 CL. This means that the probability of detecting 16 or more out of 18 is 27.9% or greater. Using the equation above.9% CL).09% of all possible outcomes.91%. while detection of 16 or better out of 18 leads to a POD 80% at a CL of 72.0180 plus 0. as a consequence.8%. This leads to the conclusion that detection of 17 or more out of 18 represent a POD of 80% at a CL of 90% or greater.80)16 (0.1723 16!2! The sum of the probabilities for 17 and 18 detections (the probability of 17 or more detections). then this outcome only exceeds 72. the CLs associated with the acceptance criteria in the table are all equal to or greater than 90%.80) = 18! (0. results in a combined probability (the probability of 16 or more detections) of 0. Adding the probability of 16 detections.1%. J-14 . it is at or beyond the 90% CL. Therefore detection of 18 out of 18 represents a POD of 80% at 98.0811 plus 0.1723 equals 0.20) 2 = 0.20)1 = 0.0. which is not acceptable per established criteria.91%. which also means that if 18 flaws out of 18 in the sample set have been detected.0180 18!0! This means that the probability of detecting 18 out of 18 is 1.80)18 (0.2% of all possible outcomes. Since this combined probability is less than 0. is equal to 0. then this outcome has exceeded 90.1000. and if 17 or more have been detected from a sample set of 18. So the detection of 17 or more out of a sample set of 18 represent a POD of 80% at 90.0.1%.0.0991 equals 9.20) 0 = 0. however.0811 equals 0. The binomial distribution produces discrete rather than continuous values.9% of all possible outcomes (80% POD at 72.80) = 18! (0.80. However.80)17 (0.0811 17!1! The probability of detecting exactly 16 flaws out of the 18 in the sample set is: P (16 18. This means that the probability of detecting 17 or more is 9.80) = 18! (0.0180 plus 0. which also means that if 16 or more out of 18 have been detected.

Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination J2. J-15 .2 Technique Sizing Performance Technique performance for sizing is based on a standard error of regression and correlation coefficient (r) of the ultrasonic measured parameters.3. Standard error of regression is defined in Equation J-8: 2 n∑ xy − (∑ x)(∑ y ) ⎤ 2 ⎡ 1 ⎤⎡ 2 ⎥ Syx = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢n∑ y − (∑ y ) − n ∑ x 2 − (∑ x ) 2 ⎥ ⎣ n(n − 2) ⎦ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ [ ] Equation J-8 Correlation coefficient is defined in Equation J-9: r= ∑ x y − ∑ x∑ y 2⎤⎡ 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2 ⎢n∑ x − (∑ x ) ⎥ ⎢ n∑ y − (∑ y ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ n Equation J-9 Where: ‘x’is the NDE Estimate ‘y’is the structural variable (metallurgical value) ‘n’is the number of values in the data set.

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as compiled and maintained by the employer.2 Responsibilities and Records a.K QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL FOR ANALYSIS OF ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION DATA K. documentation requirements identified by the employer’s written practice. b. Statement indicating record of completion of training. c. supplement not replace. should clearly indicate compliance with this document. d. Damage mechanism(s)/ETSS(s) qualified to and detection and/or sizing qualification status K-1 .1 Scope This appendix specifies training and qualification requirements for personnel who analyze SG tubing ultrasonic examination data. dates attended. Formal certification of personnel and compliance with the requirements of this document is the exclusive responsibility of the employer. Note: The UQDA qualification can consist of detection only or detection and sizing in one or a combination of damage mechanism categories. The individual’s certification record. A written testimony of UQDA qualification should include: 1. Analysts are qualified by successful completion of written and practical examinations as defined in this appendix. The documentation identified herein should. and training institution 3. Dates and pass/fail results assigned to the written examination and to each practical examination data set 4. Its purpose is to ensure a uniform knowledge base and skill level for ultrasonic data analysts. including training hours. K. The employer should maintain examinations with grades assigned and records of material covered. An individual who successfully completes the requirements described herein is recognized as an Ultrasonic Qualified Data Analyst (UQDA). Name of individual 2. Level II or III certification records can be maintained separately. The licensee is responsible for SSPD training and testing in accordance with the requirements of this document.

and test data) shall be included in the written practice.3. K-2 . Training course materials should not be subject to any confidentiality requirements other than the normally applicable copyright laws. K. K.3.5 Confidentiality Provisions to ensure the confidentiality of the qualification materials (for example.6 Availability of Training Course Materials Training course materials should be available for review or audit by user organizations and authorities. K.3. K.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data K.3. and qualifications required for personnel who implement the personnel qualification program including classroom and laboratory training.3. test questions.3.4 Transfer Qualifications The employer’s written practice should address accepting qualification documentation that may be transferred from other employers.1 Training and Examination The written practice should specify classroom and laboratory training requirements. The written practice of the organization that engages the outside agency should specify requirements for ensuring that the outside agency meets the applicable requirements of this appendix. the employer remains responsible for the content of the training and qualification materials. answer sheets. This could be invoked if a UQDA seeks employment from an employer other than the one that performed the training and qualification. duties. An outside agency is an organization or an individual that provides instructor or qualification services and whose qualifications have been accepted by the organization that engages the outside agency. the number of instruction hours and examination requirements as specified in this Appendix. course outline.2 Responsibilities The written practice should specify the responsibilities. Access to such materials should be limited and the examination material should be maintained in secure files.3 Use of an Outside Agency If an outside agency is used. K.3 Written Practice Requirements Organizations performing qualification activities shall prepare a written program for their control and administration. K.

a. length sizing. The course material should be made available to the trainee. Training and examination requirements shall be successfully completed. The training should address the “damage category/ETSS specific training” specified in Attachment K-1. Eight hours of overview training in accordance with the “Overview” section of Attachment K-1. K. A UQDA shall be qualified as a Level II or III in ultrasonic examination in accordance with the employer’s written practice.1 Training Training should include formal classroom and structured practical laboratory exercises as follows. b.) are only applicable to personnel performing flaw sizing/characterization analysis. depth sizing.g.4. b. Be conducted in an “open book” format.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data K. etc. The training and examination requirements for flaw sizing/characterization (e. Eight hours training in each applicable damage mechanism category including detailed training in each associated ETSS(s) that will be utilized. d. K.. The UQDA qualification can consist of detection only or detection and sizing in one or a combination of the damage mechanisms specified in Table K-1. Contain a minimum of ten questions in each damage mechanism category addressing all applicable ETSS(s) and information provided in the “Damage Mechanism Category/ETSS Training” specified in Attachment K-1. Have a passing grade of at least 80%. Contain a minimum of ten questions covering material outlined in the “Overview” section of Attachment K-1. K-3 . c. Table K-1 Damage Mechanisms Categories Damage Mechanism Categories Thinning and Wear OD IGA/SCC PWSCC b.2 Written Examination The written examination should: a.4. Training and testing should include all ETSS(s) that will be used in the field associated with the applicable damage mechanism category.4 Qualification Requirements a.

K.4.4. The Appendix J requirement for physical measurement of flaw dimensions is not applicable and expert opinion may be used to establish “ultrasonic truth” for grading purposes. b. Detection Criteria Personnel should be considered qualified for detection of a specific damage mechanism if all of the following requirements are met: An example of acceptance criteria is provided in Table K2. 1. The number of reported false calls is no more than 10% of the total number of unflawed grading units. provided it is representative of field degradation. The candidate should be provided pertinent information typically available in the field when taking the practical.3 Practical Examination K. Detection of at least 80% of the flawed grading units <40% TW. For a sizing data set.3. including laboratory sample data.3 Analysis Qualification Criteria Each damage mechanism category should be evaluated individually and each data set be graded by the following applicable criteria: a. 2.2 Practical Data Set a. K-4 .3. 3. It is acceptable to use ETSS data.4.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data K. K.3.4.1 General The practical examination should be specific to the applicable damage mechanism category(s)/ETSS(s) and use randomly selected ultrasonic data acquired with Appendix J qualified techniques. a minimum of 16 flawed grading units should be used for each applicable damage mechanism category (Table K-1). a minimum of 11 flawed grading units and a minimum of twice as many unflawed grading units should be used for each applicable damage mechanism category (Table K-1). at a 90% CL for flawed grading units ≥40% TW. A POD of at least 80%. For a detection data set.

RMSE. K-5 . The sample set. is calculated using Equation K-1: ⎛1 n RMSE = ⎜ ∑ ⎜n ⎝ i =1 ⎟ (M i − T i )2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ Equation K-1 Where: Mi is the ultrasonic measured flaw parameter assigned by the individual analyst for the ith indication Ti is the ultrasonic measured flaw parameter for the ith indication determined by expert opinion n is the number of measured grading units in the data set. which are detected.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data Table K-2 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection Flaw Detection Criteria for a Given Damage Mechanism Category ≥40% TW 11 17 18 24 25 31 32 Minimum Acceptance Criteria for Detection at 80% POD 90% CL 11 17 17 23 23 29 29 Minimum Number of Unflawed Grading Units 22 34 36 48 50 62 64 Maximum Number of False Calls 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 b. are considered in the RMSE calculation (a zero is not assigned as the measured flaw parameter for flaws not detected). Sizing Criteria Personnel should be considered qualified for performing sizing measurements on a specific damage mechanism if a RMSE of <10% is demonstrated. Only those flaws.

the analyst should review missed indications and overcalls.5 Re-examination A candidate failing to pass a portion of the examination (written or practical) has the option of undergoing a re-examination of the failed portion. Table K-3 Example Performance Demonstration Test Matrices for Flaw Detection and Sizing Flaw Detection Acceptance Criteria for a Given Damage Mechanism Category Total Number of Flawed Grading Units Minimum Acceptance Criteria for Detection at 80% POD 90% CL <40% TW 4 4 5 7 7 10 10 12 12 ≥40% TW 11 12 12 17 17 23 23 29 29 32 34 36 50 52 72 74 92 94 3 3 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 False Call Acceptance Criteria Minimum Number of Unflawed Grading Units Number of Flawed Grading Units <40% TW ≥40% TW 11 12 12 17 18 24 25 31 32 Maximum Number of False Calls 16 17 18 25 26 36 37 46 47 5 5 6 8 8 12 12 15 15 c. K-6 . K. personnel should identify the correct flaw orientation on at least 80% of the flawed grading units.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data An example of acceptance criteria is provided in Table K-3. If flaw orientation identification is applicable. d. Upon successful completion of the practical.

a detailed review of the primary examination results including the damage mechanisms identified or ones that have been identified to be of concern as well as a detailed description of the expected flaw location and characteristics. the individual should complete additional training as deemed necessary by the proctor.4. other applicable analysis guidelines and any unique examination challenges.1 prior to retesting.2 Practical Examination A practical re-examination may be given in the damage mechanism category(s) that are not passed.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data K.7. These examinations should be administered immediately prior to data analysis. Expected flaw responses (graphics and/or raw data with evaluated results). K. K. d.5. Responsibilities and planned examination scope. The examination and data sets should be specific to the damage mechanism and ETSS(s) that will be used for this field application.1 Written Examination The examination should contain the same number of questions required in the original test and be assembled by a random selection process.4. It may be augmented with inclusion of questions specific to the areas of deficiency. Missed indications should be reviewed and no waiting period is required prior to the initial re-test. Prior to a second re-test.6 Interrupted Service A UQDA who has not analyzed data in a 15-month consecutive period shall be required to successfully complete the practical examination requirements specified in Section K. b.1 SSPD Training The training should be provided in accordance with a site approved document and include: a.7 SSPD UQDA personnel should receive training and pass examinations as specified below. K. Additional training on topics or subjects in which the individual did not demonstrate an acceptable level of understanding is required prior to the re-examination.3. Applicable industry operating experience/events K-7 . A comprehensive review of the applicable ETSS(s). c.5. A candidate failing the second re-test should wait 30-days and obtain additional training meeting the requirements of Section K. K. A second re-examination requires a waiting period of 5 days.

A passing grade of at least 80%.4. If flaw orientation identification is applicable.7. thinning. AVB wear. Alternative sizing errors are acceptable provided they are considered in the applicable integrity assessments.1 Detection and Orientation a.3. Contain a minimum of 15 questions covering the applicable damage mechanisms/ETSS(s) and any unique examination challenges.3.7.7. False call performance is at the discretion of the licensee.4 Retesting Retesting is at the discretion of the licensee.g.2 Sizing Where applicable. c. K. The requirements specified in Section K. K..7.1 are incorporated into this section.3. K-8 . etc.). A minimum of twice as many non-flawed grading units should be added for the detection practical. A minimum of 80% of the flawed grading units should be detected. b. Be conducted in an “open book” format. personnel should identify the correct flaw orientation in at least 80% of the flawed grading units K.2 Written Examinations The written examination should conform to the following: a. The same flawed grading units may be used for detection and sizing. b. A minimum of 5 grading units should be used in the practical examination.3 Practical Examination a. The analyst should be allowed to review missed indications and overcalls on the practical examination. K.Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data K.7. b. each analyst performing flaw sizing should demonstrate an RMSE <10% TW (e. c.

Qualification of Personnel for Analysis of Ultrasonic Examination Data Attachment K-1 UQDA Training Program OVERVIEW INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS SG DESIGN AND OPERATION / OPERATING EXPERIENCE INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE AND DAMAGE MECHANISMS • • • • • • OD IGA/SCC PWSCC Thinning/Wear (Wall Loss) – Loose Parts/Loose Part Damage Manufacturing Anomalies Denting Flaw Orientations DATA ACQUISITION • Search Unit and Instrument – Principals – Selection • • • • Software Overview Circumferential/Axial/Volumetric Examination Applications Calibration Standards Calibration DATA ANALYSIS • • • • • Software Overview Flaw Specific Detection/Analysis Flaw Specific Sizing Principles Screen Display Generation and Evaluation Data Quality K-9 .

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