Astrology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Astrology consists of a number of belief systems which hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world. In the West, astrology most often consists of a system of horoscopes that claim to predict aspects of an individual's personality or life history based on the positions of the sun, moon, and planetary objects at the time of their birth. Many other cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indian, Chinese, and Mayan cultures developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Astrology’s origins in Indo-European cultures date to the third millennium BCE, with roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Through most of its history astrology was considered a scholarly tradition. It was accepted in political and academic contexts, and its concepts were built into other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine. At the end of the 17th century, new scientific concepts in astronomy (such as heliocentrism) began to damage the credibility of astrology, which subsequently lost its academic and theoretical standing. Astrology saw a popular revival in the 19th and 20th centuries as part of a general revival of spiritualism and later New Age philosophy, and through the influence of mass media such as newspaper horoscopes. While astrology may bear a superficial resemblance to science, it is a pseudoscience because it makes little attempt to develop solutions to its problems, shows no concern for the evaluation of competing theories, and is selective in considering confirmations and dis-confirmations.
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1 Etymology 2 Core principles 3 World traditions 3.1 Western astrology 3.2 Indian and South/West Asian astrology 3.3 Chinese and East-Asian astrology 4 History
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Chinese • Decumbiture • Electional • Esoteric • Financial • Hellenistic • Horary • Locational • Mundane • Psychological • Meteorological • Uranian • Vedic
Astrologers • Astrological organizations Astrological traditions, types, and systems
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the free encyclopedia
http://en.2 United Kingdom 8. Marcantonio Raimondi engraving: 15th cent. astrology retains historical convention in its description of those astronomical bodies. by which it can refer to planets or any luminous celestial object. The notion of it signifying all heavenly bodies is evident in early Babylonian astrology where cuneiform depictions for the determinative MUL (star) present a symbol of stars alongside planetary and other stellar references to indicate deified objects which reside in the heavens. Historically.3 20th and 21st century 5 Effect on European culture 6 Modern scientific appraisal 6. Jupiter.3 India 9 Notes 10 References 11 Works cited 12 External links
The word astrology comes from the early Latin word astrologia.1 United States 8.Astrology . 'the star of Jupiter'. with the distinction noted by the terms στέρες πλανε ς asteres aplaneis ‘fixed stars’. Venus. Initially. deriving from the Greek noun στρολογία. Mars. etc.2 Medieval Islamic world 4.[b]
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. and also generally maintains reference to Pluto as being an astrological planet. texts such as Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos referred to the planets as 'the star of Saturn'. Astrologia later passed into meaning 'star-divination' with astronomia used for the scientific term. Although the modern IAU definition of planet does not include the Sun and the Moon.org/wiki/Astrology
4.[a] The word planet (based on the Greek verb πλανάω planaō 'to wander/stray'). rather than simply 'Saturn'  or 'Jupiter'. This remained the standard definition of the word 'planet' until the discovery of Uranus in 1781 created a need for revision.1 Ancient world 4. ‘wandering stars’. and στέρες πλαν ται asteres planetai. but the names became simplified as the word planet assumed astronomical formality over  time. the word star has had a loose definition. and Saturn.wikipedia. 'account of the stars'.1 Carlson's experiment 6..2 Gauquelin's research 7 Theological criticism 8 Education 8. The seven Classical planets therefore comprise the Sun and Moon along with the solar-system planets that are visible to the naked eye: Mercury.Wikipedia. was introduced by the Greeks as a reference to how seven notable 'stars' were seen to 'wander' through others which remained static in their relationship to each other.
 Subsequently. which are uniquely relevant to that individual alone. music for the ears. His premise was that. optics. Pythagoras first identified that the pitch of a musical note is in proportion to the length of the string that produces it. as an integral part of Universal Law.
Robert Fludd's 16th century illustration of man the microcosm within the universal macrocosm
William Blake's characterisation of Isaac Newton working with the principle of Divine Proportion
Another core principle is exemplified in an astrological maxim used by Francis Bacon in the 17th century: "The last rule (which has always been held by the wiser astrologers) is that there is no fatal necessity in the stars. and that intervals between harmonious sound frequencies form simple numerical ratios. and celestial bodies considered to be that individual’s personal planets or stars. as below. and both requiring knowledge of numerical proportions. Alkindi. so below. a more recent expression of which can be found in the writings of Carl Jung and the development of modern psychological astrology. geometrical shapes. music and astrology. the free encyclopedia
http://en. compiled his Harmonices Mundi ('Harmony of the World').
At the heart of astrology is the metaphysical principle that mathematical relationships express qualities or ‘tones' of energy which manifest in numbers. another introduced Kepler’s third law of planetary motion into astronomy.Astrology . with the Sun. the crown of it. The individual. Kepler regarded this text as the most important work of his career. His arguments reflect how astrology has always involved consideration of the psyche. Moon. In the 17th century. This relationship is expressed in the Hermetic maxim "as above.wikipedia. Pythagoras proposed that the Sun. musical consonances and planetary harmonies. developed Ptolemy's ideas in De Aspectibus which explores many points of relevance to astrology and the use of planetary aspects. and the fifth part. so above". In a theory known as the Harmony of the Spheres. Bacon advocated an emphasis on what he called "sane astrology" based on the study of subtle influences that "lie concealed in the depths of Physic". Cycles of change that are observed in the heavens are therefore said to be reflective (not causative) of similar cycles of change observed on earth and within the individual. concerning the role of planetary harmony in Creation. the natal horoscope depicts a stylized map of the universe at the time of birth. and that the quality of life on Earth reflects the tenor of celestial sounds which are physically imperceptible to the human ear. mathematical harmony is the key that binds all parts together: one theoretical proposition from his work introduced the minor planetary aspects into astrology. visual angles. Later philosophers retained the close association between astronomy. shapes and sounds – all connected within a pattern of proportion.
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A central principle of astrology is integration within the cosmos. who wrote influential texts on all these topics. Plato described astronomy and music as "twinned" studies of sensual recognition: astronomy for the eyes. and its environment are viewed as a single organism. all parts of which are correlated with each other. Accordingly. but that they rather incline than compel". in the 9th century. Moon and planets all emit their own unique hum based on their orbital revolution. Kepler. specifically focussed on the individual at its centre. which presented his own analysis of optical perceptions. which postulates symmetry between the individual as a microcosm and the celestial environment as a macrocosm. also influenced by arguments in Ptolemy’s Optics and Harmonica. Earth. including Ptolemy.Wikipedia.
Although most cultural systems of astrology share common roots in ancient philosophies that influenced each other. Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac. see Western astrology. Hindu astrology also includes several sub-systems of zodiac division. in considering the connection between the macrocosm and microcosm. Hindu astrology relies on the sidereal zodiac which is aligned to the constellations. The most significant are Hindu astrology (also known as "Indian astrology" and in modern times referred to as "Vedic astrology") and Chinese astrology. Moon. to take into account the gradual precession of the vernal equinox (the gradual shift in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation). Western astrology is largely horoscopic. This principle is similar to that found in Western and Chinese astrology. it is a form of divination based on the construction of a horoscope for an exact moment.Astrology . planets. as performed by an astrological practitioner.Wikipedia. and makes extensive use of electional. ca. 1750
In India. The two methods differ mainly in their focus on sidereal and tropical astrology. Astrology's modern representation in western popular media is often reduced to sun sign astrology. horary and karmic astrology. which considers only basic relationships of planets to the zodiac sign of the Sun at an individual's date of birth. Indian scientists and politicians debated and critiqued a proposal to use state money to fund research into astrology resulting in vedic astrology being introduced into the curriculum of Indian universities. according to the Vedas link the outer and the inner worlds. In February 2011. see Hindu astrology. that is. The astrology commonly used in Sri Lanka is largely based on Hindu astrology with some modifications to bring
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. and their movement through signs of the zodiac (spatial divisions of the ecliptic). and employs the notion of bandhu: connections that. It is commonly used for daily life. It remains considered a branch of Vedic science. there is a long-established and widespread belief in astrology.
For more details on this topic. It is founded on the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies such as the Sun. involves much more detailed consideration than this. such as a person's birth.
Page from an Astrological Treatise. the free encyclopedia
http://en. which is aligned to the points where the Sun's position on the ecliptic creates the change of seasons. The full analysis of the birth chart. Indian astrology uses a different commencement point to its 12-fold division of the zodiac than Western astrology but retains the same names and meanings for the signs and shares many of the same traditional principles.
Indian and South/West Asian astrology
For more details on this topic. Both have yielded great influence upon the world's cultural history. In 2001. the Bombay High Court reaffirmed astrology's standing in India when it dismissed a case which had challenged it status as a science. called ayanamsa. which are analyzed by their aspects (angles) relative to one another. many have unique methodologies which differ from those developed in the west.wikipedia. These are usually considered by their placement in houses (spatial divisions of the sky). This uses an adjustment. particularly in matters concerning marriage and career.
being based on cycles of years. The Thai zodiac includes a Naga in place of the Dragon and begins.wikipedia. The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat. the observation of unusual phenomena. the 12 Earthly Branches. The Korean zodiac is identical to the Chinese one. theory of the 5 elements. The Three Enclosures occupy the area close to the North Celestial Pole. Dog and Pig. This is not derived from divisions of the ecliptic as in Western astrology. The Zhou Bi Suan Jing is an important astronomical text. Rabbit. earth and water) and uses the principles of yin and yang and concepts that are not found in Western astrology. birth season. but at either on the first day of fifth month in Thai lunar calendar. It presents a complex lunisolar calendar whose focus reflects a long-standing division between mathematical astronomy "li fa" and portent astrology "tian wen". Tibetan astrology also shares many of these components but has also been strongly influenced by Chinese culture and acknowledges a circle of animal signs similar to that of the Chinese zodiac (see below). Snake. Heaven and Earth. The early use of Chinese astrology was mainly confined to political astrology. the free encyclopedia
http://en. A complex system of predicting fate and destiny based on one's birthday. heaven. the 10 Celestial stems. identification of portents and the selection of auspicious days for events and decisions. during which all the familiar elements of traditional Chinese culture . where the stars are visible to northern hemisphere observers all year around. depending on the purpose of the use. Rooster. Chinese astrology has a close relation with Chinese philosophy (theory of the three harmony. see Chinese astrology and Chinese zodiac. and two-hour periods of the day (the shichen). dating from the Zhou dynasty but completed in the Han dynasty. Confucian morality were brought together to formalise the philosophical principles of Chinese medicine and divination. known as Zi Wei Dou Shu (simplified Chinese: . and birth hours. astrology and alchemy. and the fourth animal is the Cat instead of the Rabbit. Dragon. Though marked along the zodiac they are defined by the movement of the Moon in a lunar month rather than the Sun in a solar year. such as the wu xing teachings. The system of Chinese astrology was elaborated during the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) and flourished during the Han Dynasty (2nd century BC to 2nd century AD). Monkey.the Yin-Yang philosophy. and the cycle proceeds through 11 other animals signs: the Ox. lunar months.
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.Wikipedia. The zodiac of twelve animal signs is said to represent twelve different types of personality. Horse. The Japanese zodiac includes the Wild Boar instead of the Pig. but represents annual rather than monthly themes. and Twenty-eight Mansions ( èrshíbā xiù) in twelve Ci ( ). instead the sky is divided into Three Enclosures ( sān yuán). Goat. The constellations of the Zodiac of western Asia and Europe were not used. The Twenty-eight Mansions occupy the zodiacal band and find their equivalent in the 28 Lunar mansions of western astrology and the Nakshatra of Indian astrology.
Chinese and East-Asian astrology
For more details on this topic. The Vietnamese zodiac is almost identical to Chinese zodiac except that the second animal is the Water Buffalo instead of the Ox. pinyin: z wēid ushù) is also still used regularly in modern day Chinese astrology. Tiger.org/wiki/Astrology
it in line with Buddhist teachings. or during the Songkran festival (now celebrated every 13–15 April). traditional Chinese: .Astrology . not at Chinese New Year. and shichen ( a form of timekeeping used for religious purposes).
Two. Astrology was taken up enthusiastically by Islamic scholars following the collapse of Alexandria to the Arabs in the 7th century. and Sahl ibn Bishr. which continued to receive development from his heirs and was to provide a major impetus for Arabic-Persian translations of Hellenistic astrological texts. the free encyclopedia
http://en. Altair. and William Lilly in the 17th century. whose appearances change with the seasons. However. from the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa (compiled in Babylon round 1700 BCE) are reported to have been made during the reign of king Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE). who helped to elect the time for the  Magnis Coniunctionibus (‘Of the foundation of Baghdad.Astrology . record. astronomer and astrologer. whose texts great conjunctions’). and included in its design a library-translation centre known as Bayt al-Hikma ‘Storehouse of Wisdom’.k. Rigel and Vega retain the legacy of their language. Al Mansur (754-775) founded the city of Baghdad to act as a centre of learning. began when humans started to measure. the Persian mathematician. 1515. There is scattered evidence to suggest that the oldest known astrological references are copies of texts made during this period. and predict seasonal changes by reference to astronomical cycles.wikipedia. there is controversy about whether they were genuinely recorded at the time or merely ascribed to ancient rulers by posterity. see Astrology in medieval Islam. Agricultural needs were also met by increasing knowledge of constellations. and are believed to have consciously oriented their temples to create alignment with the heliacal risings of the stars. Venice. the effect of which was to help initiate the European Renaissance. widespread civilizations had developed sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles. and many of the star names that remain in common use today. before its differentiation from astronomy.000 years ago. and the founding of the Abbasid empire in the 8th. is ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gudea of Lagash (ca. These were the first steps towards recording the Moon’s influence upon tides and rivers. see Babylonian astrology and Hellenistic astrology. Another. such as Aldebaran. Early evidence of this appears as markings on bones and cave walls. The Arabs greatly increased the knowledge of astronomical cycles. The second Abbasid caliph.Wikipedia. allowing the rising of particular star-groups to herald annual floods or seasonal activities. were directly influential upon later European astrologers such as Guido Bonatti in the 13th century. The oldest undisputed evidence of the use of astrology as an integrated system of knowledge is therefore attributed to the records of the first dynasty of Mesopotamia (1950-1651 BCE). Knowledge of Arabic texts started to become imported into Europe during the Latin translations of the 12th century. who is considered the father of algebra and the algorithm. The early Latin translation of Abū Ma shar's De translators included Mashallah. (a. Betelgeuse.
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Medieval Islamic world
For more details on this topic. By the third millennium BCE. and towards organizing a communal calendar. Astrology. Other important Arabic astrologers include Albumasur and Al Khwarizmi. 2144-2124 BCE). showing an early use of electional astrology. which show lunar cycles were being noted as early as 25.org/wiki/Astrology
Main article: History of astrology
For more details on ancient astrology. This describes how the gods revealed to him in a dream the constellations that would be most favorable for the planned construction of a temple.
Astrology has had an influence on both language and literature. synchronicity. These included concepts such as archetypes. Astrologers like Dane Rudhyar pursued a similar path to Jung and others such as Liz Greene and Stephen Arroyo were influenced by the Jungian model leading to the development of psychological astrology. Belief in astrology holds firm today in many parts of the world: in one poll. called midpoint astrology in horoscopic analysis. Wolfgang Pauli. dis. Moon. around 25% of adults in the UK and US accept that astrology or the position of the stars and planets affect people’s lives.wikipedia. The adjectives lunatic (Luna/Moon). By comparing these lines with the horoscope. influenza." and refers to a table of correspondences in Starhawk's The Spiral Dance.
Effect on European culture
For more details on this topic. Setting. aster 'star'. such as Chaucer and Shakespeare. In the middle of the 20th century. venereal (Venus). MC and IC) at a given moment in time. derived from the negative prefix δυσ-. France. Reinhold Ebertin pioneered the use of midpoints. meaning not-starred or badly-starred. Along with tarot divination. disastria. as an example of the astrological lore studied by magicians. A new kind of locational astrology began in 1957–58. but also belief systems such as Wicca that have borrowed from or been influenced by the Western esoteric tradition. Carl Jung. In literature many writers. used astrological symbolism to add subtlety and
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.and αστήρ. According to Gallup opinion polls. mercurial (Mercury). jovial (Jupiter/Jove). planets and other celestial points appear to be on any of the Four Angles (Rising. was so named because doctors once believed epidemics to be caused by unfavourable celestial influences. For example.org/wiki/Astrology
20th and 21st century
Early in the 20th century. In the 1970s. whilst other sources report the figure to be much higher. the founder of analytical psychology. organized by planet. The word disaster comes from the Greek δυσαστρία. Tanya Luhrmann has observed that "all magicians know something about astrology. Auvergne. American astrologer Jim Lewis developed this technique under the name of Astro*Carto*Graphy. when Donald Bradley published a hand-plotted geographic astrology map. following him. developed sophisticated theories concerning astrology.Astrology . the collective unconscious and with the collaboration of pioneer theoretical physicist (and Nobel laureate). an astrologer attempts to identify the potential in any location. Alfred Witte and. and as such has influenced systems of magical belief not only among Western esotericists and Hermeticists. 31% of Americans expressed belief in astrology and according to another study 39% considered it scientific. and saturnine (Saturn) are all used to describe personal qualities thought to be influenced by the astrological characteristics of predominating personal planets. The world map displays lines where the Sun.
Aquarius: one of the twelve zodiac signs on the church of SaintAustremonius. from medieval Latin influentia 'influence'. astrology is one of the core studies of Western esotericism. see Cultural influence of astrology.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia
The Humanist magazine presented a rebuttal of astrology in a statement put together by Bart J. Quigley's role ended in 1988 when it became public through the memoirs of former chief of staff. entitled ‘Objections to Astrology’. In a letter published in a follow-up edition of The Humanist. would have been more persuasive and would have produced less
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. However. proves difficult to falsify. notes from Margaret Mitchell’s library revealed that she had based each character from her classic prize-winning novel. a detailed personal horoscope analyzed and illustrated by J. came up for sale. he argued. Scarlett (Aries) and Rhett (Leo). and that dismissing astrology because there was no mechanism (while "certainly a relevant point") was not in itself convincing. Bok. It has also been suggested that much of the continued faith in astrology could be psychologically explained as a matter of cognitive bias. in 1981. In music the best known example of astrology's influence is in the orchestral suite The Planets by British composer Gustav Holst. Astrology has been criticized for failing to provide a physical mechanism that links the movements of celestial bodies to their purported effects on human behavior.
Modern scientific appraisal
Contemporary science considers astrology a pseudoscience. including the central star-crossed lovers. Skeptics say that the practice of western astrologers allows them to avoid making verifiable predictions. Sagan confirmed that he would have been willing to sign such a statement had it described and refuted the principal tenets of astrological belief. In politics. It is simply a mistake to imagine that the forces exerted by stars and planets at the moment of birth can in any way shape our futures. but because he thought that the tone of the statement was authoritarian. Astronomer Carl Sagan declined to sign the statement. around an archetype of the zodiac. amid increasing popular interest in astrology. the free encyclopedia
http://en. This. In 2010. Gone with the Wind (1936). in a way that suits their purpose. and describes natural events in terms of scientifically untestable supernatural causes. For this reason.org/wiki/Astrology
nuance to the description of their characters' motivations. after John Hinckley's attempted assassination of President Reagan. Rowling at the time she was writing her first Harry Potter novel. was signed by 186 astronomers. the framework of which is based on the astrological tones and signatures of the planets. Michael Ward has proposed that C. The auctioneer commented that Rowling “displays a detailed knowledge of Western astrology which was later to play an important part in her books". Sagan said he took this stance not because he thought astrology had any validity at all.S. as demonstrated by Gauquelin's research and Carlson's experiment. although science also provides methodologies to separate verifiable significance from arbitrary predictions in research experiments.Wikipedia. More recently. In 1978. Criticisms include that astrology is conjectural and supplies no hypotheses. They said that there is no scientific foundation for the tenets of astrology and warned the public against accepting astrological advice without question. In 1975. Their criticism focused on the fact that there was no mechanism whereby astrological effects might occur: We can see how infinitesimally small are the gravitational and other effects produced by the distant planets and the far more distant stars. Lewis imbued his Chronicles of Narnia with the characteristics and symbols of the seven planets that govern the heavens in medieval astrology. and Paul Kurtz. Lawrence E. his words have been quoted by those who argue that astrology retains some sort of scientific validity. Jerome. and gives them the ability to attach significance to arbitrary and unrelated events. first lady Nancy Reagan commissioned astrologer Joan Quigley to act as the secret White House astrologer.K.wikipedia. The statement. Donald Regan. physicists and leading scientists of the day.Astrology .
you can easily become a victim of people who seek to take advantage of you' ". Scientists dismiss magnetism as an implausible explanation. 'And part of knowing how to think is knowing how the laws of nature shape the world around us. and that the testing "clearly refutes the astrological hypothesis". Education should be about knowing how to think. Adorno conducted a study of the astrology column of a Los Angeles newspaper as part of a project examining mass culture in capitalist society. The most renowned of these is Shawn Carlson's double-blind chart matching tests in which he challenged 28 astrologers to match over 100 natal charts to psychological profiles generated by the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) test. painters. Michel Gauquelin stated that although he had failed to find evidence to support such indicators as the zodiacal signs and planetary aspects in astrology. The founder of the Astrological Institute to which Tyson's criticism was directed responded "It's quite obvious that he hasn't studied the subject.Wikipedia. philosopher Theodor W. In a lecture in 2001.) which astrology traditionally associates with those planets. Adorno concluded that astrology was a large-scale manifestation of systematic irrationalism." Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson asserted that "astrology was discredited 600 years ago with the birth of modern science. where individuals were subtly being led to believe that the author of the column was addressing them directly through the use of flattery and vague generalizations.
A different approach to testing astrology quantitatively uses blind experiment. he had found positive correlations between the diurnal positions of some of the planets and success in professions (such as doctors." Astrologers for their part prefer not to attempt to explain astrology. Without that knowledge. Others have proposed conventional causal agents such as electro-magnetism within an intricate web of planetary fields and resonances in the solar system.Astrology . accusing him of attempting to persuade them to add or delete names from their study.
The initial Mars effect finding. athletes. The best-known of Gauquelin's findings is based on the positions of Mars in the natal charts of successful athletes and became known as the "Mars effect".org/wiki/Astrology
controversy. Stephen Hawking stated "The reason most scientists don't believe in astrology is because it is not consistent with our theories that have been tested by experiment. showing the relative frequency of the
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. 'To teach it as though you are contributing to the fundamental knowledge of an informed electorate is astonishing in this. scientists.
Main article: Mars effect In 1955. since the magnetic field of a large but distant planet such as Jupiter is far smaller than that produced by ordinary household appliances. the free encyclopedia
http://en. actors. without that capacity to think. his conclusion was that predictions based on natal astrology were no better than chance. In 1953. A study conducted by seven French scientists attempted to replicate the claim. but found no statistical evidence.wikipedia. etc. and attributed the effect to selective bias on Gauquelin's part. When Carlson's study was published in Nature in 1985. the 21st century'. and instead give it supernatural explanations such as divination or synchronicity. writers.
Astrology . unless they are completing a course of study.org/wiki/Astrology
Some of the practices of astrology were contested on theological grounds by medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi (Alpharabius). Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab.Wikipedia. some offering a diploma upon completion of the course and an examination. in his Miftah Dar al-SaCadah. Avicenna did not refute the essential dogma of astrology. Ibn Gauquelin 1955] al-Haytham (Alhazen) and Avicenna. Avicenna considered that the movement of the planets influenced life on earth in a deterministic way. Such arguments mainly concerned "judicial branches" (such as Horary astrology). rather than the more "natural branches" such as Medical and Meteorological astrology. which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]?
diurnal position of Mars in the birth charts (N = 570) of "eminent athletes" (red solid line) compared to the expected results [after Michel
Education in astrology is offered in a number of countries of the world:
In the United States.wikipedia. Other astrological organizations offer study programs and correspondence courses to certify astrologers. argues against the practice of astrology while supporting the principle of planets acting as the agents of divine causation which express God's absolute power over creation. They said that the methods of astrologers conflicted with orthodox religious views of Islamic scholars through the suggestion that the Will of God can be known and predicted in advance. The degrees granted by Kepler are not recognized by national or regional accrediting agencies. For example. also used physical arguments in astronomy to question the practice of judicial astrology. He recognized that the stars are much larger than the planets. a liberal arts college with an emphasis on astrology in Lynnwood. Washington. the University of Wales Trinity Saint David at Lampeter offers an MA in Cultural Astronomy and Astrology.
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. and argued: And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible. are not awarded degrees but certificates of completion of a course of study. then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body. Avicenna’s 'Refutation against astrology' Risāla fī ib āl a kām al-nojūm. In addition. Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350). astrological education is offered at a number of institutions.
In the United Kingdom. but denied our ability to understand it to the extent that precise and fatalistic predictions could be made from it. these being seen as part of the natural sciences of the time. astrological education is offered at institutions such as Kepler College. students attending Kepler College after March 9. which opened in 2001 and awarded its first 8 Bachelor of Arts degrees in Astrological Studies in 2004. the free encyclopedia
http://en. 2010. In essence. However. but argued against the capability of determining the exact influence of the stars. near Seattle.
Public Attitudes and Understanding: Belief in Pseudoscience (http://www. ^ "astrology. National Science Foundation (2006).259-263.V. to the reputed influences of the stars." Those 10 items were extrasensory perception (ESP). R. for whom it expressed representation as the ‘the star of Nergal’. architects.Astrology .). professionals from modern streams like doctors.uwi. introduced for the ‘art’ or practical application of astronomy to mundane affairs. Douglas..W. Oxford University Press. pp. "Differentiation between astrology and astronomy began late 1400s and by 17c. S. that people can communicate mentally with someone who has died. 5. and channeling/allowing a "spiritbeing" to temporarily assume control of a body.php?term=astrology.C. and C. but most modern astrologers include reference to Uranus (discovered in 1781). Loptson. astrology/that the position of the stars and planets can affect people's lives.Wikipedia.. Mallik.wordsources. ^ Some 'traditional astrologers' prefer to work only with the seven Classical planets. spirits. i.info/words11 of 19
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. teachers. Undergraduate (called "graduate" in India) post-graduate and research courses of study were established. Cambridge University Press. Culver and P.67-69. "astrology" (http://www. economic and political analysts.cavehill.
1.html) ' by Paul R. Thagard. for example. See also National Science Board (2006) Science and Engineering Indicators. 4. Online Etymology Dictionary. 249 pp.nsf.com/index. witches. 2. financial.V. "In Old French and Middle English astronomie seems to be the earlier and general word. Vishveshwara. ^ Campion (2009) pp. Online at wordsources. clairvoyance/the power of the mind to know the past and predict the future. 1989: Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence. These. a decision affirmed by the Supreme Court in 2004 which declined as a matter of law to interfere with educational policy. ^ Soanes (2006) 'Star' (http://oxforddictionaries. and thus gradually limited by 17th cent. the free encyclopedia
http://en."" 7. online version September 2011. this word was limited to "reading influences of the stars and their effects on human destiny.
Babylonian planet names took a multitude of deity forms. Not in Shakespeare. Jyotish Vigyan.oed.K. ^ Kassell and Ralley (2010) ‘Stars.e. Biswas..369. D. etc. 3.11. most drawn from one basic deity association. ^ Koch-Westenholz (1995) Foreword and p. Retrieved 2011-12-06. eds.K.etymonline. ^ Harper. Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.gov /statistics/seind06/c7/c7s2.J. The court noted that astrology studies were optional and that courses in astrology were offered by institutions of higher education in other countries.oed. telepathy/communication between minds without using traditional senses.com/index. It is therefore conventional for astrology texts to refer to ten planets. the basic association of Mars was with the war-god Nergal. marketing.com/viewdictionaryentry/Entry/12267) .V. 9. that houses can be haunted. signs: towards a history of astrology 1100–1800'. http://www." In April 2001 the Andhra Pradesh High Court declined to consider a petition to overturn the curriculum guideline on the ground that astrology was a pseudoscience. are as follows: Sun | Moon | Mercury | Venus | Mars | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptune | Pluto a.com/definition/star) sense 1. ^ Kelly. 2001." (http://www. astrologie having been subseq. which does not include the Earth. http://www." 6. 1989.htm#c7s2l3) '. ch 7: 'Science and Technology. n. b. "Beneficiaries of these courses would be students. Bappu. was introduced into the curriculum of Indian universities. vedic astrology.. ghosts/that spirits of dead people can come back in certain places/situations. with their astrological symbols. ^ Merriam-Webster (1989) p.info (http://www. Neptune (1846) and Pluto (1930).com/viewdictionaryentry/Entry /12267.." 8. Retrieved 16 July 2011.php?term=astrology) . they believed in at least 1 of the 10 survey items" .wikipedia. reincarnation/the rebirth of the soul in a new body after death. I. pp. ^ Asquith and Hacking (1978) 'Why Astrology is a Pseudoscience (http://www. for the popularizing influence of newspaper astrology.org/wiki/Astrology
In February. In Cosmic perspectives: essays dedicated to the memory of M.edu/bnccde/PH29A /thagard. unknown to science. 239-249: for association with New Age philosophies. retrieved 19 April 2010:"About three-fourths of Americans hold at least one pseudoscientific belief.etymonline.
co. and motion to the Creation. 17. p. and has a sensitive dependence on its initial configuration within the world of experience that is known and shared in common among other individuals.xviii..7: "Each individual. Pliny the Elder (77) II.. in his Greek Musical Writings vol.com/dictionary/planet.87-89 (II. speeding through all things.uk/books?id=q1eobgND8H4C&lpg=PA4& vq=Pythagoras&dq=Weiss%2C%20Piero%2C%20and%20Richard%20Taruskin %2C%20eds.. ^ Smith (1996) p. ^ Pliny the Elder (77) pp.277-8. such as Kepler (1619) Harmony of the World.1 (http://www. ^ An English translation of the Harmonica was recently published by Andrew Barker.35. as it were. 14. therefore it [the heart] is called Sol Corporis ['bodily sun']. p. seem formed for studying astronomy.When therefore.skyscript. Each individual has its own planets.56 (http://books. light.” This clarifies the philosophical principle found in many traditional works. ^ McRitchie (2006) p.. the psyche is not merely a whole unto itself but is also a part of the greater whole that reflects it". but according to the exquisite truth it does not act but only the celestial harmony acts”.e. 1940) I. nourishes it like a living creature”. II (Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2007-07-23.uk/astrologo. Plato’s Republic VII. whether it is a person. ^ Alkindi (9th cent. the result is that the whole sensible shape of the zodiac flows into it . ^ Hackett (1997) p. http://www. 10. which describes the astrological influence at birth as a 'spiritual idea' in which the zodiac exsists 'within' as well as 'without': “the vital faculty.4. since a single spirit dwells in all its parts and.co.252.com/dictionary/planet) .iv.4: “.com/books?id=mhLVHR5QAQkC&lpg=PA14& dq=smith%20Ptolemy%20Optics&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q&f=false) . said I. ^ Pliny (77 AD) illustrated the irony of the use of the term 'planet' since the planetary cycles were known to be regular and predictable: ".. ^ Culpeper (1653) An Astrologo-Physical Discourse of the Human Virtues in the Body of Man.org/wiki/Astrology
mod-planets. then most of all the sensible radiant harmony of the planets flows into it”. ^ Weiss and Taruskin (2008) p.html) . pp. and designates the distance between the Earth and the Moon as a whole tone.Wikipedia.58: "The Hermetic doctrine of the macrocosm and the microcosm provides the philosophical foundation of astrology and is a counterpart to the modern philosophy of holism. In this view.pdf) : “As the heart is in the Microcosm. 24. a universal harmony". as also the Pythagoreans say”. thing. as the Sun is called Cor Coeli ['heavenly heart'] because their operations are similar”. that between the Moon and Mercury as a semitone. is a microcosm born at the center of its own macrocosmic universe. ^ Davis (1901) p.uk/books?id=Gy3Vp7TurVUC&lpg=PA245& dq=Alkindi%20de%20aspectibus%20astrology&pg=PA245#v=onepage&q&f=false) and Smith (1996) p.245 (http://books. which permeates and animates the whole cosmos and filters through to individual creatures… By partaking of the core essence of the Universe.. 20. 16.28: “The doctrine of the Pythagoreans was a combination of science and mysticism… Like Anaximenes they viewed the Universe as one integrated. ^ Manilius (77) p..274-5. 12.google.the seven stars. we say that one thing acts with its elemental rays on another.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts /Ptolemy/Tetrabiblos/1B*. 13. is in a certain sense a zodiac since its essence consists in activity and in a flow of flame. 18.uchicago.%20Music%20in%20the%20Western%20World%3A%20A%20History%20in%20Documents& pg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false) . 2004). so is the Sun in the Macrocosm: for as the Sun gives life. (II.2 (http://books. lit in the heart and burning as long as life exists. though no stars wander less than they do".co. is identified with its native circumstances. the individual is said to act as a microcosm in which all the laws in the macrocosm of the Universe are at work”. ch.XII reads: “As the eyes. ^ "Definition of planet" (http://www. so doth the heart to the body.Astrology . 21. p. it begins to be what it is at the time when it constructs the harmonies.m-w. 23.html#4) . the seven tones thus producing the so-called diapason. living organism. retrieved 5th August 2011.3 (http://books.wikipedia.) is clarifying this point where he says in his text On the Stellar Rays. ^ a b Lewis (1994) p. 19. Merriam-Webster OnLine. footnote 3 (http://penelope.177. ^ Houlding (2000) p.google. The work was also discussed by James Frederick Mountford
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27. p.cms) .com/mind/predictive-sciences/astrology. Retrieved 16 July 2011. Michael T. See translated excerpts by Dr.22. (1998-12-23). http://www.uk. Retrieved 2009-05-12.7: "When a human being's life is first ignited.html?id=XQF-bwn5hXIC) .66. p. In his Tertius Interveniens. It captures the relationship between the distance of planets from the Sun. 29.
25. Richard Stephenson." David Pingree and Robert Gilbert. and retains them unto his grave". ^ Soanes (2006) 'Astrology' (http://oxforddictionaries. Retrieved 2009-05-12. p.org/~yzhao/history/xiu28.Wikipedia.id=dv1-20) by David Pingree. the free encyclopedia
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36.nytimes. Astrology in modern times".htm.google.wikipedia. 1977)." ^ 'Astrology is a science: Bombay HC'. "BV Raman Dies" (http://www. Bbc.html) ^ "Indian Astrology vs Indian Science" (http://www. 33. Retrieved 2nd December 2009.htm) See also Gerald James Holton. A soul was also ascribed to the Earth itself. The Times of India (http://timesofindia. Kenneth G.
34.virginia. 1998.lamost. Also Weiner (1973) 'Astrology' (http://xtf. Kepler defined the horoscope as the celestial imprint imparted at birth: Ch.the study of the impact of the celestial bodies". The maxim that the stars impel but do not compel was used by Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century. ^ Bacon (1623) De Augmentis.com /?id=czaGZzR0XOUC&pg=PA45&dq=Kepler+%22harmonic+law%22) . "following the same line of argument as St Augustine and others before him" (A history of magic by Richard Cavendish. New York Times. 26 June 1980. ^ James R. http://www.nasa.edu/xtf/view?docId=DicHist/uvaBook /tei/DicHist1.com/definition/astrology) "The study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world". "Astrology. Vol. and their orbital periods. 45. 2011. 1926.
28. to allow this scientific knowledge to reach to the society at large and to provide opportunities to get this important science even exported to the world.in/circulars/astrologycurriculum. ^ Kepler (1619) 'Introduction'.shtml) . “Kepler did not ascribe any direct physical influence to the celestial bodies but supposed the astrological effects to be the result of instinctive responses of individual souls to the harmonies of certain configurations or aspects. 14’ (Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.co. ".
37.gsfc.com/mind/predictive-sciences /astrology.html?id=XQF-bwn5hXIC) . ^ a b "Guidelines for Setting up Departments of Vedic Astrology in Universities Under the Purview of University Grants Commission" (http://www. May 1996. the Human Adventure (http://books. pp. ISBN 0813529085.fr/docum/15kep-en.Astrology . (http://www-istp.html) .google. Physics. 40. Visible Ink Press..education.co. Department of Education.html) . "Fame and Fortune" (http://www.lifepositive. Female foeticide: where do we go? Indian Journal of Medical Ethics Oct-Dec2001-9(4) (http://www. Stephen G.then he receives a character and an imprint of all the celestial configurations (or the images of the rays intersecting on earth). p.org/094co123. 3 February 2011 ^ Sun and Kistemaker (1997) pp. Negus on Cura (http://cura.
1992). "Prophecy.wikipedia.g. Falkenstein.(Princeton University Press: Bollingen. 6: 'Historical sources and traditional approaches'. when the season of wearisome heat is come to an end. 8th cent. Suzanne. ^ Two texts which refer to the 'omens of Sargon' are reported in E. 148-53. ISBN 9780691098951 “I made horoscopic calculations in order to find a clue to the core of psychological truth. 118-24. (Aquarian/Harper Collins. the king of the deathless gods” (II.Jung. 45.G. 53. 42. Ken.248 p. The Psychology of Astro*Carto*Graphy. 47. Bruno Meissner. ed. A History of Horoscopic Astrology: From the Babylonian Period to the Modern Age. BCE).co. (Penguin Arkana 1997) ISBN 1357918642 64. et al.Wikipedia."( Bath Spa University College. Astronomy and mathematics in ancient China: the Zhou bi suan jing".202 ISBN 0-86690-463-8 58.21 ISBN 3-540-20856-9 56. 2005 " 43.myhora. La divination en Mésopotamie ancienne et dans les régions voisines. Carl G. (Wessex Astrologer. From Here to There. 338-44. in Switzerland. Robert. (Continuum Books. 1996. The Innermost Kernel. (Penguin Arkana 1990) (3rd edition pp. History.349 ISBN 0-914918-16-8 60. Letter from Jung to Freud. ^ Campion (2009) p. C. pp.harrisinteractive. Wolfgang Pauli’s Dialogue with C. 238-44. http://www. ^ Campion (2008) pp. Working with Astrology.2-3. Paris. Jung and Astrology. (Springer. 231 and 236. the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961) was developing sophisticated theories concerning astrology. Cambridge University Press. ^ Holden. 663-677). Kaiser. Nicholas. ^ Marshack (1972) p.uk/synchronicity. I 17 – VI 13.aspx. 178-84. Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. pp. ^ Campion (2009) p. 1-3. "The Religious and Other Beliefs of Americans 2003" (http://www. Also quoted in A. 1966. 306-12.256 ISBN 9781847252241 57. 51.251–256: “At the same time. ^ " (http://www.) Ch. ‘On the days of the Greek calendar’. 50. Hesiod’s poem Works and Days shows how the heliacal rising of constellations were used as a calendar for agricultural events. pages 2-6. Christopher. The Psychology of Midpoints. 88-94. 23 Tammûz.myhora. 30-5. O. James. London & New York. p. v. ^ Lewis. Martin. ^ Harding. Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. The Extent and Nature of Contemporary Belief in Astrology. ^ Jung. 270-78. 1992) p.VIII. Chronology (11th c. Cosmology and the New Age Movement. M & Harvey. unless Poseidon the Earth-Shaker be set upon it.. re.aspx) . 2003) via Campion.com/%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%99 %E0%B9%82%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%AA%E0 %B8%95%E0%B8%A3%E0%B9%8C/%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%99%E0%B8 %B1%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%97%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%87%E0%B9 %82%E0%B8%AB%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A8%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%95 %E0%B8%A3%E0%B9%8C-004. New York. Sachau." 59. Jim & Irving.html 61. Berlin. (AFA 1996) p.org/wiki/Astrology
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