Data communication

The efficiency of a data communication system is dependent of four key characteristics. The data communication system must deliver the data to the intended destination. The delivered data must be accurate and delivered in a timely manner if not it is unstable and useless. It is imperative that when delivering of audio or video packets that they are not delivered in an uneven delay known as jitter, if this occurs, an uneven quality in the video or audio results.

The five main components of data communication system are: Transmitter Receiver Medium Message Protocol The transmitter sends the message and the receiver receives the message. The medium is the channel over which the message is sent and the protocol is the set of rules that guides how the data is transmitted from encoding to decoding. The message of course is central to all the other components. The message is the data that is being communicated.

System Transmitter Receiver Medium Message Protocol

Roles of the Components The device that sends the Message The device that receives the message The channel over which the message is sent The information or data being communicated The set of rules that guides how data is transmitted and encoded and decoded.

Example Computer, Radio Station Telephone handset, Workstation Radio waves, coaxial cable Video, Text TCP/IP, http

Presentation (Layer 6) This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e. This layer provides application services for file transfers. encryption and decryption. . Transport End-to-end connections. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. Communication partners are identified. quality of service is identified. For example. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Control is passed from one layer to the next. Data link Physical addressing 1.. An instance of a layer provides services to its upper layer instances while receiving services from the layer below. Everything at this layer is application-specific. e-mail. over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. signal and binary transmission The OSI. and vice versa. starting at the application layer in one station. or Open System Interconnection. Network Path determination and logical addressing Media Frame layers Bit 2. It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications system in terms of abstraction layers. encryption) by translating from application to network format. Physical Media. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept.g. providing freedom from compatibility problems. and other network software services. proceeding to the bottom layer. Session Segments Interhost communication. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Application (Layer 7) This layer supports application and end-user processes. OSI Model Data unit Layer Function 7. Two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal connection on that layer.The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. convert Presentation machine dependent data to machine independent data 5. model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. reliability and flow control Packet/Datagram 3. managing sessions between applications Host layers 4. user authentication and privacy are considered. Network process to application Application Data 6. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of that path. Data representation.

It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer. error handling. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. It ensures complete data transfer. flow control and error checking. flow control and frame synchronization. Physical (Layer 1) This layer conveys the bit stream . for transmitting data from node to node. It deals with session and connection coordination. The session layer sets up. and terminates conversations. including defining cables. The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:    Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. and dialogues between the applications at each end. or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. Transport (Layer 4) This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems. Network (Layer 3) This layer provides switching and routing technologies. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization. data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over a radio link. or hosts.Session (Layer 5) This layer establishes. exchanges. known as virtual circuits. internetworking. Modulation. cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet. light or radio signal -. manages and terminates connections between applications. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. as well as addressing. contention resolution and flow control. and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users.electrical impulse. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. creating logical paths. Data Link (Layer 2) At this layer.through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. and is responsible for end-toend error recovery and flow control. coordinates. . RS232. For example. congestion control and packet sequencing. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer.

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