Intertestamental Messiah: A Maccabee? Which Maccabee? David Ketter I. Text and Intertexts A. 1 Maccabees-exclusive 1.

1 Maccabees is “The Hasmonean Gospel.” 2. 2 Maccabees is an argument for new Jewish holy days. 3. 3 & 4 Maccabees are accessories and derivative works. B. 1 Maccabees collects Old Testament phrases (sample) 1. 2:19-22 alludes to Joshua 24:14-28 2. 2:24-26 refers directly to Numbers 25:7-9 3. 2:27 reflects Exodus 32:26 4. 2:65-68 reflects Numbers 27:18-23 C. 1 Maccabees hijacks Old Testament offices 1. Deliverer 2. Judge 3. Priesthood 4. “Kingship” D. Question: Does 1 Maccabees hijack the position of Messiah? “Original” Draft of 1 Maccabees A. Text critical theory excludes 1 Maccabees 8, 12:1-23, and 14:16-16:24 B. Three Natural Divisions Remaining 1. 1:1-7:50 (Mattathias and Judas) 2. 9:1-11:74 (Judas and Jonathan) 3. 12:1-14:15 (Simon) C. Argument for Priesthood 1. Restored with Mattathias 2. Achieves Fullness with Simon D. Priestly Messiah 1. Various groups in inter-testamental and rabbinic Judaisms have maintained two messianic figures, one priestly and one kingly. a) Familiar analogy: Hebrews

II.

III. Messianic Basis A. Eternal Covenant of Priesthood 1. Phinehas to Mattathias (2:54) 2. Simeon/Simon is designated as heir (2:65) B. Simonʼs Messianic Eulogy Tested (14:4-15) 1. “The land had rest” (Judges) 2. “a way to...the sea” (Isaiah 9) 3. “extended the borders” (Micah 7) 4. “host of captives” (Psalm 68) 5. “removed its uncleanliness” (Zechariah 3, 9, 13) 6. “Old men...” (Zechariah 8)

IV. Conclusion: At the very least, the author of 1 Maccabees considers Mattathias and his sons (especially Simon) to be Messiah-like, if not a potential fulfillment of Messianic prophecy for the priestly Messiah. Sources Alexander, Philip S. "FROM POETRY TO HISTORIOGRAPHY: THE IMAGE OF THE HASMONEANS IN TARGUM CANTICLES AND THE QUESTION OF THE TARGUM'S PROVENANCE AND DATE." Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 19 (1999): 103. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. The Cambridge Annotated Study Apocrypha, New Revised Standard Version. Ed. by Kee, Howard Clark. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: 2008. Schofield, Alison, and James C. Vanderkam. "Were the Hasmoneans Zadokites?." Journal of Biblical Literature 124.1 (2005): 73-87. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. Scott, J. Julius, Jr. Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. 1995. Williams, David S. "RECENT RESEARCH IN 1 MACCABEES." Currents in Research: Biblical Studies 9.(2001): 169. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. Wise, Michael O. "4Q245 (psDan' ar) and the High Priesthood of Judas Maccabaeus." Dead Sea Discoveries 12.3 (2005): 313-362. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Mar. 2010.

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