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chnical Support


~ l d experience a technical problem you this software please contact our techni~pport staff. Beforeyou call, please read ~EADME.TXT on the Crusader Kings file o see any last minute recommendations nent to your problem. Also check out ;upport page on our web site listed beWhen e-mailing please provide the foli g information: Computer brand and mode

Place your Crusader Kings CD in your CD ROM drive. This should trigger your computer's autorun function, which displays the Crusader Kings installation screen. Follow the prompts to install the game. Iftheautorundoesn'tclickStart>Run[the letter of the CD-ROM drivel>Setup.exe. That should do the trick.

betinitions of terms

Total system RAM. Total hard drive space. Video card make and model

dnce the game is installed, you can play by selecting Programs>Paradox Entertainment>Crusader Kings.


wart Infortnation
.net Email: For prompt technical support :mail, contact us at the following e-mail 'ess: ~ort@paradc

or Counts. Each hasa number of traits. They may be brave or cautious, religiousorworldly, trustworthy or deceitful. These traits govern how they will react and respond to your in Crusader Kings takes not onmoves as well as assist you in the creation of ly d wt. xrategic mind, but also the combiyour glorious lands. nation of diplomatic skills and intrigue. The game is different from many traditional emYou govern a medieval, feudal dynasty. You pirebuilding games, and so is the terminolmay be a Christian Emperor, King, Duke, or ogy Below you will find a list of common Count but there are also non-player Dukes, words used todescribecentralaspectsofthe Counts and Bishops even the Pope. The feugame. dal hierarchy was a stiff and conservative institution. Despite the brutality of the age, fighting unprovoked wars was frowned upFirst and foremost. Crusader Kings is a game on. Therefore you must hold claims to provabout dynasties. Each player is the head of inces to declare war on its owner. Claims a dynasty. Each dynasty head must grow his may be obtained from marriages. Papal or dynasty, gain more territory, garner wealth, Imperial decree, by claiming the title or by and get influence in Europe's politics. The events. You may also usurp the throne of a land that each dynasty head holds is his perdynasty that holds a higher title than yours sonal demesne, or as Webster's dictionary and assume thattitle, but that is rarely a popdefines it: a legal possession of land as one's ular decision. own. Vassals will swear their allegiancetoyou, and you may form friendships with other dynas. t~esthrougli marriage a i d shrewd politics. 1 In fact, mar,riage is a kel facet Of Crusadw Kings. After all, you must lhave heirs to whom L 8 you may bequedu!your ihrone.

sttmRrqluirtmtnt s
lay Crusader Kings, you'll need the folng hardware: Windows 95/98/ME/ZOOO/XP Pentium Ill 600 l28MB RAM 16 MB Graphics Card Direct X 8.1 Direct X CompatibleSoundCard 4XCD-ROM.

prouince area on the map sepA province is a defined

arated by borders. A province contains pro. . v~nc~al buildings; social groups with different amounts of political power, and may generate income and mobilize troops.



racters in Crusader Kings have traits, ana there are plenty of charaicters. From the Pope to the wife of the first cousin of the Count of Gastrikland, there are scads of characters in Crusader Kings. You also have a court from which vou may apnnint . ..v -, al vour marsh, s, advisors, or appoint Bi'shops

Dem,csne is the province or provinces un. . der the direct control of one ruler. The D e mesnes are divided into Royal, Ducal, and Countal depending on the status of the ruler of the particular Demo<'-



ranked one. During the medieval age, wan between different vassals were not uncomEach realm, which consists of all demesne mon. Even revolts against lieges were quite and vassal provinces, has one ruler. The rulcommon-if vassals felt powerful enough to er has full control of his demesne provinces, challenge their lords. but only partial control of vassal provinces. The vassals are supposed to mobilize troops when instructed by the ruler.The rulerguides In addition to growing your kingdom and theadvances and set the laws. gaining Piety and Prestige, you'll also participate in the Crusades to retake the Holy Lands from the Muslims. Doing so, and doThe Coat-of-Arms is the symbol for a dying so successfully, can garner your characnastylruler in the game. A Christian Coat-ofter large bonuses in Piety and Prestige. There Arms in Crusader Kings isalways in the form arealso certain Pietq penaltiesfor thosewho of a shield, while the Muslim Coat-of-Arms refuse to go on Crusades. is a circle.


The Muslims and their lords are non-player characters and armies. Players are given both Piety and Prestige points for conquering Muslim provinces. Muslims are powerful and start all scenarios with more advances than most Christian realms.

You may receive and develop advances, negotiate deals, and pass laws, but no matter what you do, sooner or later you'll have to fi~ht. When enter in^ into battle in Crusader Kings you may seek helpfromvassalsorlieg. es that are loval tovou. or choose to finht the , . . batt e on your own. Ifwar,has Deen declared. combat occurs between enemr armies tnar occupy the same province. The two armies battle, taking into account their morale, power, technological prowess, and battles tactics until one triumphs. The losing army retreats and the winning army stays in the province. If the invader wins the battle, he must siege boththe provincialfortifications and the capital's city walls to capture the province. Wars can bedeclared for a number of reasons, but the orimal causes are religion or title claims. 'you may recruit a r&iment from each province in your demesne. You may also mobilize the regiments of your vassal dukes or all your vassals simultaneously with a Grand Mobilization. The people, however, don't like mobilization, so you must balance the need for a large army against the unrest it will came. In fact, disloyal Vassals might not mobilize when ordered. Of course this gives you reason to revoke the Vassals title and give it to a loyal subject, like your daughter or first cousin.


The mongolHorbe
The Mongol Hordes will come from the East in the middle of the 13'Ventury and attack everything in sight. There are two hordes; The Golden Horde attacks into Europe, and The llkhanate attacks into the Middle East. Note that the Mongols are technologically quite superior, making them formidable foes.

The Hierarchical System

Kings: Kingsarethemost powerful ruler and govern entire realms. Dukes: Dukes are thesecond most powerful ruler in Crusader Kings, and pledge allegiance only to the king of the land. Counts: Although powerful, counts are the least powerful of the Crusader King rulers.


Counts and duke can also be independent. which means they are not vassals but may legislate and rule without interference from Events are an important part of the game. a King. These are in-game happenings that are either triggered by circumstances or occur randomly. Sometimes the events require no A vassal is a lord of a Ducal or Countal deplayer action (such as a plague), other times mesne that has sworn allegiance to a lord of the player's response to an event (such as higher rank than himself/herself. The higher granting subjects rights), will have global ranked lord is called the Liege of the lower consequences.

The Pope in Crusader Kings is a non-player character (NPC) able to significantly influence the game. The Pope may instigate a Crusade, sanction a dynasty lord, or bestow his favor. The Pope and some of his selected few may also place the ultimate penalty on those who are not deemed to be faithful Christiansexcommunication. The player cannot become the Pope. However, he may get an ecclesiastical courtier of his elected as Pope, and thus control the Pope.

flietll anb tlre~tifie



biety anfirestige are two critical factors in Crusader Kings. Simply stated, performing actsfor thechurch gains Piety, while the typical power-wealth-fame triumvirate bestows Prestige on the player. For example, conquering the Holy Land gives your character hugeamountsofboth Pietyand Prestige, Almost all of your actions will influence your Piety or Prestige. These values will also influence how othersview your dynasty


How to plag Crusaber Kinas "

Understanding the key elements in Crusader Kings is the first step to playing the game well. Let's start at the beginning and go through the interface, button-by-button, screen-by-screen.

from the Christian invaders the yearthissce narios starts.

Hunbrrbgcan War 1337

Markingthe beginning of The Hundred Years War, laslingfrom 1337 until 1453. The period was a defining time for the history of both England and France. The war started when King Philip VI of France attempted to confiscate the English territories in the Duchy of Aquitaine. The conflict ended in lulv1453 when the French finally expelled the inglish from the continent by force. Changes the game difficulty. There are five After the scenario loads, you'll be taken to different settings ranging from Very Easy to the map and playing interface. The Game Verv Hard. M~r~ dominates this screen: but the screen D -~ also includes the Province Window on the AiAggrersiuencss left of the screen, and Text window at the Modifies how aggressivethe AI's will be, and bottom of the screen, and a strategic map in how quickly it reacts. the lower left corner of thescreen. Game Spccb The Game Map shows your province Don't bother about this in single-player - it and some of the provinces of your enemies. can be changed anytirne you want while in- You may scroll the map with eitherthearrow side the game using "ctrl" and "+" / "-" on keys or by moving your mouse to the edge of the numerical keypad. In a multiplayer game the screen. At the topof the map are the curset the game speed to Normal or Below Nor- rent date and three icons. From left to right mal. While playing, this can only be changed they are: by the host of the game. Colri.The coin icon indicates how much gold your character has. Fog OflUar Crown: The crown icon indicates how This turns the Fog of War on or off. Playing much Prestige your character has. Preswith Fog of War off is recommended for betige is your standing among your equals ginning players as it allows you to see all of in glory, fame,and power. your opponents' moves. Cross: The cross icon indicates how AutoSauc much Piety your character has. Piety is how well you incarnate the perfected this setting turn the auto save function on or off and can be set to different intervals. Every Christian ruler, in justice, in honesty, and in meekness. time the game is automatically saved it creates a backup of the most recent auto save (AutoSave in the Saved Games window for Holding the mouseover any of the icons will the most recent saved file and old AutoSave display the rate of change and the factors affecting it. This will also indicate what actions for thesecond most recent savedfile). you need to take if you are losing gold. Piety NOTE: Only the host may change options in or Prestige. a multiplayer game.

Startha the Game single plagtr

To start a slngle player game you must enter the Single Player menu by clickingthe appro. You can play King, Duke or Count by clickpriate button in the main menu. ing the shields to the middle of the opening screen. Clicking the shield to the left will uresent vou with a list of all the olav, , able'~ingdoms, whereas the middle shield Choosing Single Player from the Main Menu will show all playable Duchies and rightmost brings you to the scenario selection screen, shield gives an overview of all Counties playThis screen lists the available scenarios, able in Crusader Kings. saved games, and three buttons across the bottom of thescreen. The scenarios are: Left-click on the country/duchy/county that you that wish to play, and the character you Hastings 1066 will be playing, and his or her titles are disRemembered throughout history for the fa- played. Clickstart to begin the scenario. Click mous battle of Hastings where William I, Back to return to the main menu. Clicking known as The Conqueror, occupied the Brit- Options displays thefollowing list of options. ish Isles laying the framework for a future dynasty. The scenarios start as William is Gamt options deemed King of Britain. Several game options become available when you choose to play a single player IhtThirb Crusabt 1187 game or host a multiplayer game (covered Saladin, king of Babylon, with an immense later in the user manual). They are found unmultitude of his Turks, re-took Jerusalem deroptionsin thescenarioselectionscreen.

Scenario Selection Screen

with other rulers

The following table lists the character traits and what affects them. Type ofTrai4 Educational Gained through Affected by Edurat~on Chosen/ randomly distributed Events Birth or Events Events or special circumstances character Character health Persona~ty and inheritance Events or Actions by character Effeds Character attributes + Chararler health All game values All game values Symbol Paper scroI of dfferentcolor Red Hearl Green c$rcle Bluesh~eld

trait. Left-cllck the Character screen. In tersof medieval con-

Diseases Personality Special

determine the like-

Characters. Across the top of Stewardship: This the Character Win' indicates the characdow are your chariel, \I.I 1 1 1 !II,V~'IIII~I~:lands, and eflechis acter's Prestige. Piety, drrd gold ievri5 I m ~ tlvcly L I ~ I ~ I I I ~ ~ rriources. The numbers of 111s mediately underthese icons are special icons demesne8 he can hold without penalty derepresenting traits that your character has. pend on it, and all incomes are modified by For example, if your character has a tendenthis skill. cy to knock off folks in his family he will be deemed a Kinslayer, and a green icon with a Below the character's attributes is his or her bloody sword appears in this section of the name, date of birth, and age. Below this is his Character Window. or her title. The bottom half of the Character See Appendix A-Character Traits Window provides a graphic depiction of the lieges and vassals loyal to the character, his Below the icons are the characters four atparents, spouse, children, siblings, and suctributes: Martial, Diplomacy, Intrigue, and cessors. Stewardship.We define these below: Martial: The character's military skill. It is Normally, characters are born with 2-3 trails. used as a bonus when the character leads his An extra trait is added when the character reglment in rombat. starts Lower Education at age 5 (Court. EcDiplomacy: The character's dipiomatic skill. clesiastical, Martial), and surfaces when the It 18 used when the character is interacting


Terrain Map: Th~sis the default view. click^ ing on this button displays the terrain map. Relational Map: Shows your Vassals, Liege and enemies. Economic Map: Clicking here displays the resources of each province. The provlnces' wealth is color coded from red (poor) to green (wealthy). At the bottom left of the main screen is the Religion Map: Clicking here displays the re^ Mini-Map window. Left clicking anywhere in lig~onof the population of each province. Muslim islight green, Orthodoxis brown, Pa~ gan isgray, and Catholicis white. Realm Map: Presents all provinces from the i same realm in the same color. j Below these shields are three smaller icons, whlch provide thefollowingoptions: character turns 15. Other traits are added through events or by actions conducted by a character. The Character also has two hidden attributes, Health and Fertility,which d e [ermine rirk of death/sickness and the childbirth rate.

the miniknap [enters the Came Map on that point. You may also zoom in and out in the mini-map using the "+" and " ~icons. " To the left of the mini-map are five large shields. From left to right they are:

Toggle Coat-of-Arms: The blue shield icon toggles thecoat of armson the GameMap. Toggle Units: The sword iron toggles units. Toggle Forts: The fort icon toggles forts.

The menu button allows you to view game settings. Clicking on it displays the following menu: Save: Clicking here opens the save menu. Once opened, type in the name for your saved game, and click OK to save your game. Export: This menu allows you to export your Crusader Kings saved game to Europa Universalis II. Open the menu, choose your game, and click OK. Options: This menu gives you access to the following options: Came Speed: This defines how fast the gamewill run. Autosave: Sets how often the computer will save your game. SFX Volume: Sets the volume for sound effects. Use the slider to adjust the vol. ume. MusicVolume: Setsthevolume for music. Use thesliderto adjustthevolume.

Clicking Cancel cancels any changes, and clicking OK confirms them. Hints: Clicking here allows you to cycle through the game hints, and choose whether to show tips at startup or not. Surrender: Click surrender to exit the game. You will be asked to confirm your decis~on. Return: Returns you to the game. Came Speed: This defines how fast the game will run.

Lanb mouement
You may notlce that you already own a regiment on the map. If not, you may click on a province within your demesne, and click on the soldier. This will mob~lize regiment the and place him in the province on the game map. petey g h t green the regiment vi'l have a r ~ rived and a message will pop on the screen Regiments cannot only march across land, to inform you of thearrival. but may be ferried across the water as well. For example, you may ferry your regiment You may set any points for the regiment. To from Kent to Calais. In order to go through do so hold down the shift key as you click w ~ t h order, select what regiments you this in several provinces. The speed that the wish to move and then right-click on Calregiment travels depends on the provincais. You'll get travel box that asks you if you es througli which it is traveling. Regiments want to move it by sea and tells you thecost move faster through open country than they In gold for it. Answer yes and you will see a do through woods, and move even faster in long arrow from the regiment to the target provinces with developed road nets. province. When the regiment has moved for To attack an enemy province, send your rega while it transforms into a sh~p travels and iment into the province. We'll cover this in automatically to the target province. greater detail in thesection on combat. There are no sea battles in Crusader Kings. Battles at sea were rare, and not important strategically duringthe medieval era. Ninety percent of them were fought within a couple of hundred meters from land.

Sea mouement

Left click on any of your regiments on the Came Map to select them. A base will appear under the soldier to indicate that he is selected. To move the soldier, right click in the province to which you wish him to move Message Settings: These message settings to. A line will be drawn between the regidictate the pop-ups you see during play You ment's starting location and its destination. may be notified of as much or little as you As it travels to the destination the line will desire. lust clickthe appropriate block. change to light green. When the line is com. .

prouince Winbow
The Province Window is located along the left side of the Main Screen, and is displayed whenever you left-click on a province with-


in your dynasty At the top of the window is m a representative picture of the province. If "IUYIIILT. there isa castleor other buildings in the province, they'll show up here, as will any armies Clergy: that are present. Below the pictures are banThey belonged to the next highest societal ners representing the four social groups that group and were often called "Those who we discussed in the Definition of Terms secprayed". The men of God were the shepherds tion. From left to right they are: of the peasants and helped those lesser men serve Cod, The clergy rarely paid taxes and peasants: were often the keystone in any serious adThey belonged to the lowest societal group ministration. If you increase the power and and were often called "those who worked loyalty of the Clergy the following happens: (a lot)." They might be everything from free The power and loyalty of the Burghers men to serfs, and work the lands the dwell will decrease. on. If you increase the power and loyalty of Your regiment will hold more Light Cavthe Peasant the following happens: alry and Heavy Infantry. The power and loyalty of Nobles will deYou will get an instant Piety bonus. crease. You will get less tax income from the Your regiment will hold more Light inprovince. fantry. You will get an instant Prestige penalty. nobles: You will get more tax income from the These belong to the highest societal group, province. and were often called "those who fight." The nobles where barons, bannerettes and Burghers: knights who upheld the law and defendThey belonged to the next lowest societal ed the country Defined by bloodline alone, group and were often called they held special status and rarely paid taxes. "Those who worked! They were free If you increase the power and loyalty of the men and city-dwellers that specialized in Nobles the following happens: manufacturing and trade. If you increase the The power and loyalty of the Peasants power and loyalty 01 the Burghersthefollowwill decrease. ing happens: Your regiment will hold more Knights.

The power and loyalty of the Clergy will decrease. your regiment will hold more Archers and Pike Men. YOU will get an instant Piety penalty You will get more tax income from the

i r,.


You willgetan instant Prell~jie boriu5 take. The provnca buldngs can be found You will get less tax Income from the n the append~x.Bu~ld~ngs generally increase province. the income generated by your province, and the size of the provincial regiment depend on theincome. may also improve buildings in your province. To erect buildings click somewhere in the landscape of the province screen. This displays theavailable improvements asshadow buildings. Passing your mouse over the shadow building displays the available building, how much it will cost and how long it will

. .

P~ou~Ic~ Details
In the lower half of the province window you will see small icons representingspecific province features and conditions like Plague infested or Prosperous. More about provinces can be found in the Appendix.

managing gour Dgnastg

Clicking your Coat-of-Arms on the Game Map d~splaysthe Dynasty Window on the left s~de the screen. From this window you of can access most ol the functions that your character will need to manage his dynasty.

Clicking on the weapons in the right side of the dynasty management window brings up the Action Screen.The windowoffersthefollowing opttons: Mobilize Host: This will mobilize all of the prov~nc~al regiments of the chosen ruler. Grand Mobilization: This will mobilize all of regiments in the realm in one the provinc~al stroke. It can takesome ttme for every one to answer the call and disloyal provincial lords mayrefuse to mob~lizeatall. Offer Marriage: Offers a ruler a chance to create a marrlage between two characters in their dynasties. If that ruler accepts, the marriage is carried at the listed cost, giving Prestige to both rulers and increasing their mutual relations. If the ruler refuses, the player's character loses Prestige. Create Bishopric: turns a County into a Bishopric. Note that your Piety will influence the loyalty of theBishop. GrantTitle: Grant a title toa character. Revoke Title: Removes a title from a targetedvassal and take it for yourself. If thevassal refuses then you merely get a claim on his title instead.

Create Title: If you own a lot of land (like maybe half of Sweden) and no one has the title "King of Sweden" you tan create that titie for yourself. Usurp Title: When you control more than half of the land of a prov~nce/ can claim being the lawful owner of a title. even il it is held by another Character. This is called "usurping" the title and gives you a legal claim on the title, but not the title itself You will have to earn the title by conquering the province by warfare. Grab Title: A megalomaniac (or even you) may say that a title is theirs without having a legal claim to do so. This costs quite a bit of Prestige, but allows the character to declare war. Offer Vassalization: You may ask a ruler to become your vassal. This is a way to increase your realm withoutwarfare. Pledge Allegiance: You may become the vassal of another ruler This is a wise move when you are faced with powerful enernles who threaten your Realm.

Send Assassin: You may send an assassin to k~ll another character. Note that it is harder to kill a titleholder than a regular courtier. Your intrigue value and that of the target is very important. A failed mission may result in a huge loss of Presttgeand Piety. Declare War: You may declare war 11you havea claim.You mayalwaysdeclarewar on Pagans or Muslims. Sue for Peace: If at war you may sue for peace. Howwell you can press your claims in the peace negotiation is dependent upon the outcome of the battles. Excommunicate: May only be done by the controller of the Pope. Throws the character out of the church. The target will become a cheap target for title grabbing and usurpaton, The target may not inherit. Revoke Excommunication: May only be done by the controller of the Pope. The target ts no longer excommuncated

gour Court
Clicking on the five advisors in the Dynasty Window displaysthe Court Screen. From the court screen you appoint the most valuable members of your administration to the titles they deserve and where they can serve you best. In the Court Screen you will be provided with a listof available people to serve you. These can be your successors, vassals, and other random people in your demesne. To appoint a character, click on their portrait in the Court Screen. Doing so displays personal information, such as age, attributes and other information. Below the attributes you will find a drop down menu that displays the positions the character/candidate is eligible for. Scroll down to the position you wish to fill, click on it, and then click on Appoint. You'll see the position appear under the character's name. It's always a good idea to fill positions with people who have a knack for the job. For example, if the person has a high Martial rating make them a Marshal, not a diplomat. Please note that you cannot appoint Courtiers without a full education. This means that they need to be at least l5 years of age to be appointed to aposition at the Court.

The positions are:

Courtier: A courtier ic d member of your court eligiblefor appointment to various positions. Marshal: A Marshal runs his lords' army. His martial attribute is added to the martial attribute of the ruler. The Marshal's martial value will decide the speed of development of the military advances. The Marshal will also command the second of the regimentsfrom your demesnes (The first being commanded by YOU). Steward: A Steward helps his ruler with the tasks of running his lord's treasury. His stewardship attribute is added to the rulei'sstewardship attribute. The Steward's stewardship value will decide the speed of development of economic advancement as well as the tax income from your demesnes and vassal provinces.

Chancellor: A Chancellor thepi hs ruler wth negotiations with foreign courts. His diplomacy attribute is added to the rulers diplomacy attribute. This affects how well you do in negotiationsol all kinds. SpyMaster:ASpymaster helps his rulerwith thetasksof running hislord'spersonalaffairs and supplying him with information. His intrigueattribute 18 added to the rulers intrigue attribute. Your personal protection, certain events and chance of succeeding in assassinations are all partly dependent upon the Spy Master. Diocese Bishop: A Diocese Bishop serves as the main clerical figure in the rulers' d e ~ mesne. He may be elected to Pope or Bishop, and his Piety influences the Piety of the ruler.


our Treasury
Of course nothing is free, and there is only so much money to go around. To ensure you have the money you need, when you need it, it is imperative that you manageyourtreasury. Let's take a look at how to do this. Clickingon the Chest in the Dynasty Window. From the Treasury Screen you will allocate the resources of your kingdom. Using simple sliders you will dictate how much of your hard-earnedgold is spent where. To access the Treasury Screen, call up the Dynasty Window by clicking on the coat of arms below your character's portrait or at the top left of thegame map. Once you are in the Dynasty Window, click the treasure chest to access the Treasury Screen. As you can see, the screen has several sliders. Scutage: Rulers could take this tax instead of military service from vassals. The vassals will provide smaller regiments, but you gain more gold to hire mercenaries. Higher scutage lowers the loyalty of your vassals. Crown Duty: This is the duty paid bythe nob l e ~ is a contractual fee for running the and land. A high Crown duty decreases the loyaltyofthe Nobles. Under these two sliders is your own coat of arms. The following information and sliders are located under it, and pertain to either income or money spent on your own demesne.

Demesne Income: The income from your demesne. Vassal Income: If you are a Liege this will show how much money your vassals send you. If you have no vassals this will show an income of zero. Census Tax: Tax based on the census. The more people the greater the tax. The peasants pay this. Higher CensusTax reduces the loyalty of the Peasants. Tolls: Income based on your road net. The burghers pay this. Higher Tolls reduces the loyalty of the Burghers. Army Upkeep: How much it costs to keep your current army under arms.

Duty to Liege: If you are a vassal this WII show how much money you send to your liege. If you have no liege this will show an expenditure of zero. Church Donations: Ths is the periodic amount of gold you want to donate to the church. This provides Piety and increases Clergy loyalty. Finally at the bottom of the screen is a summary that displays your income and expenses. Obviously you want more coming in than going out. You may always try to balance the flow by decreasing the number of men that you have under arms, increasing taxes, or

The master of a vassal is a liege. A vassal can haveothervassals(Ex.The Dukeof Normandy is vassal of the King of England, but the Counts of Calais and Brabant are vassals of the Duke of Normandy.). No one can vassalize a King Howevu a King can vassalize a Duke, and Kings and Dukes may vassalize C0unts.A liege hasvassals, but also demesne provinces. The demesne provinces are provinces he fully controls. Because of the political situation during the medieval time there is a limit to how many such provincesa liege can control without economic penalties. The limit dependson thefollowing:

The Pope
The Pope 18the head of the Catholic Church. the secular ruler of the Papal State, and a character much like the others in the game. The Papal State is not playable, but all playableCatholicdynasties havea chance to gain control of the Pope and thus his diplomatic actions and otherspecialabilities.

Altliougli not as powerful as Kings, Dukes rule several provincesand are powerful men. They are second only to the King in power. A Duke often holds one or more provinces and can all extra titles are added to his title as Duke.


Counts are rulers of a single province, called a County They can be independent or answer to a Duke, or answer directly to the monarch. ACount may also be the same person as a Dukeor King; in this case theCounty is considered a Ducal or Royal demesne (more on those below.) Counts lead their At 80% Loyalty: The liege may mobilize the regiments ofthe vassal directly. provincial regiment in combat. At 50% Loyalty: The vassal may be offered vassalization from another ruler, not presentAVassal is a ruler who has sworn allegiance ly his liege, and may accept such offers. to another ruler (his liege lord) of a higher At 30% Loyalty: The vassal may inttiate feudal tier. The three tiers are King -Duke- pledge allegiance to another ruler who not Count (Archbishops are equal to Dukes and presently his liege. Bishops to Counts). A vassal has some con- At 10% Loyalty: Thevassal may declare himtrol of his reg~ment(s)and has a loyalty rat- self independent

n p F; :IFS? 13'4 MS paiiidl con:rol of tis : vassal, but it is within the vassal's power to mobilize his regiment and fight his neighbor and to refuse to mobilize when his Lord orders it. All vassal characters have a loyalty score based on their loyalty to their liege. The loyalty score affects whether the character will mobilize their host when told so, and if they take independent actions, such like declaring wars or refusing their liege's orders. The highest loyalty scoreis 100?!o,and thelowest is 0%. The loyalty level affectsvassals in the following ways:



When a Pope dies a new Pope is elected. The candidates are catholic Archbishops, Bishops, and Diocese Bishops, plus all courtiers with ecclesiastical education in the courts of the Pope and the Pope controller. Winning the election depends on the candidate's PiThe Stewardship value of the ruler and ety, intrigue, diplomacy, and power. Diocese hisappointed Steward. Bishops are less efficient in gathering supThe liege's highest title. port than other candidates. With a new Pope comes a new controller of the Pope, and he Note: The Court of Justice building diminish- is the ruler closest related through blood to es the penalty for owning multiple demesne the new Pope. provinces.




Countsand Dukes' Prestigeand Bishops and The controller of the Pope gets two unique Archbishops' Piety influence the loyalty of actions: excommunication and revoke exyourvassals. communication. Putting an excommunication on a ruler means obstructing him from inheritance and it is much easierlcheaper to grab his titles or to usurp him. Revoking exNext to the Feudal System, Religion is the communication removes these effects from most important aspect of the game. There anexcommunicated target. are four religions in Crusader Kings: Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, and Pagan. The playable dynasties all have Catholic or Orthodox as state religion.


Papal Euents

for the Monarch to control, since the Bishop has such blatantly divided loyalties. There The Papal State receives events like normal are even Bishops that rule their Bishopric like countries. These events, however, appear to independent realms, thus they have no secuthe Pope's controller. For example, if France lar liege lord. controls the Po~e, is the French Kina who , . it " decides whether the Catholic Church should condemn serldom or not - a decision with global consequences. Men of the Church cannot marry. If they were married before receiving their title, he will keep his children. Note that they are still Archbishops are the Catholic equivalent of able to get bastard children. Prerequisitesfor secular Dukes. Some provinces in the game becoming a Bishop or Archbishop are that are Archbishoprics instead of Duchies, which the character is male, has one of the four ecmeans that an Archbishop rules these eccleclesiastical education8 and is not presently siastical realms in much the same way as if married. thev were Dukes. Such orovinces are esuecially tricky for the monarch to control, since the Archbishop has such blatantly divided loyalties. Archbishops can hold counts/reWhen a Rshop or Archbi$hop in your realm publics/bishops as vassals but noth~ng else. dies, a new one must be invested. If your There are even Archbishops that rule their character is an orthodox Christian then a Archbishopric ltke independent realms: thus character in your court that has an ecclesiasthey have no secular liege lord. tical education and is not a ruler will become the new Bishop. If your character is Catholic then the new Bishop/Archbishop is takBishops are the Catholic equivalent of secuen either from your court or from the courts lar Counts. Some provinces in the game are of the Pope and controller of the Pope. The Bishoprics instead of Counties, which means chance for this depends on the religious law that a Bishop rules these ecclesiastical set in your realm. realms in much thesame way as if they were Counts. Such provinces are especially tricky

RubeS for ~ Archbishops

i anb ~



The Crusabes
The Pope will Cdll for tlli. Crusade and thus start a long period of Crusading. This can happen anytime during the game. When the Crusade is in effect each Catholic ruler is expected to fight against Musliins and Pagans. How high this expectation is depends on the power of the ruler and the need of the Pope, If a ruler doesn't crusade he receives a Piety penalty that continues to accrue the longer he avoids the crusade. Crusaders receive a lot of Prestige and Piety from conquering Muslim and pagan provinces and for defeating pagan and Muslim units. If the ruler has the Trait Crusader, all bonuses or penalties are multiplied by five.

War ar:d combat is a critical portion of C r u ~ sader Kings. Sure there is diplomacy, sure there is subterfuge, and yes, there is marriage, but frequently the only way to assume control of a province is to go in and take it with force. Declaring war, and conquering a province is a simple five-step process.


lnuesti ure ofBishops anb Arc b~shops


Step I Place a claim on : the ruler

To go to war against a ruler you need a claim on one or more of the enemy's titles. Claims are received either through inheritance, events or by usurping the title. If you have no legitimate claim you may "grab" a title at a considerable cost in Prestige. As a Christian


ByfantinrW~rriors CrltirWnrriors


EastrrnSlavir Warriors

Frankish Warriors

muslim Warriors

I b d a n Warriors HospitalrrKnights

you may freely declare war upon rulers of cial groups, legislate in a way that favours the unaccepted religious faiths, such as pagans Nobles, construct Castles that can host large armies and focus on advances that can help and Muslims. you in battle.

step,^: mobilije your armtes

In Crurader Kings you do not build armies. Armies are constructed in the provinces of your demesne. Numerous factors affect the configuration of the armies, such as the power balance between social groups, wealth, and buildings in a province, laws and advances. The most important issue for a new player is to know how to mobilize his armies. There are basically three ways - individual mobilization, host mobilization and grand mobilization. TO mobilize a provincial army chck the ~rovince the mao and click the soldier in on front of the landscape (if one is present and ready to mobilize). To mobilize all armies in your demesne select Mobilize Host from your Action Menu and clickon theseal. To mobilize all your armies and call for the assistance of all your vassals - select Grand mobilization from your Action Menu, Note that vassals reserve the right to deny you control of their armies. To gain strong armies you should favour the Nobles in the balancing of the so-

Step 3: Declare war on the ruler

When you have a claim on a ruler declaring war is easy. Simply navigate to the action screen of the ruler andselect Declare War. All claimsat stake in this war, both yoursand the opponent rulers, will be shown as icons with the portraitof the ruler and thecoat of thetitle in question. Clicktheseal toconfirm your decision. You are now at war.

scribed below attack. I ) Maneuver: a short delay while the forces jockey for position 2 ) Advance: Archers, Horse Archers 3) Skirmish: Archers. Horse Archers, Light Infantry, Lightcavalry 4) Front: All (Archer fire halved) 5) Flank: All (Archer fire halved) 6) Retreat: One side retreats or is extinguished The combat will loop through phase 2 to 5. until one side has too low morale or is eliminated and combat ends with phase 6.

Horse Archers
A Mongol specialty, this type of unit can only be built by the Hordes and the Arabs. The unit fires duringevery phaseof combat. They are deadly against all heavy armored units.

They are lhghtly armored footmen. They can use either Bows or Crossbows and are very good against heavy armored units.

Heavy lnfantrg
This is Heavy infantry that can go toe-to-toe with any othertypeof infantry. It isespecially effective against Archers, Pike Men, and Light Infantry.

Unit Types

Step 4: Winthe battle anv~bnq~er prOUthe mCeS

When armies owned by rulers at war meet in a province they fight. Many factors decide who wins the battle, including advances; the military skills of the leaders, terrain and other factors play an important part. The Combat Screen resides on the left side of the screen. The combat resolves in six distinct phases. The phases are displayed at the top of the Combat Screen. You may not control your unils once combat is joined. Duringeachphasespecificunittypes, signified by the abbreviations and units de-

Your armies are not generic masses of men. They are composed of several types of units. pikemen andeach with strengthsand weaknesses. This is an anti-cavalry type of unit that is especially effective against Knights, but can Knights This unit type is sometimes called Heavy perform well against other unit types as well. Cavalry, but is actually something more. Recruited from the highest social group, those warriors are superior in training and morale. Very good against none mounted units, though Pike Men can be deadly opponents to thistroop type.

Th~sunit type consists of lightly armoured footmen. They are not very good against anything but Archers, but they are cost efficient if used ingreat numbers.




The battle ends when one side is eliminatThis unit type is cavalry that has traded ar- ed or routes. Simply winning a battle, howmorforspeed. It is a standard trooptypeand ever, is not enough to control a province. You will need to besiege the province for some is good against most other types. time in order to break down its defences.

Light Cavalry




UOrirBaltir Warriors

Wc5ttrnSlauir Warriors



The siege begins as soon as the enemy army routes from the province or is elimtnated No action is required, thes~egeisautomatic,and you'll be notified when it is complete. The time it takes to siege a province is dependent upon the number of men you have, your troop types and advances made.

Winning the Game

In Crusader Kings, as in history, there is no singular winner, although there are many apparent losers. To a large extent winning is achieved by accomplishing your personal goals: conquering land, wealth, Prestige, Piety or whatever else you strive for. The win5 ner, if there is one, will be anyone who surSooner or later someone will to sue for vives the course of history and is ready to let peace. To do so bring up the opponent's Ac- his country confront the challenges of the tion Menu and select Sue for Peace. One box coming era in Europa Universalis II. will appear for each claim contested in the war. You can propose Draw (grey box), Victory (green box) or Defeat (red box). Toggle . . between the options by clicking on the box. In order to play a multiplayer game you will You may also pay or demand tribute by ad- require either a fast lnternet connection ol justing the slider on the Sue for Peace menu. at least 512 kbit/s with TCP/lP protocol inWheil you click the seal your peace offer is stalled, or connection to a Local Area Netsent to your opponent. The chance of him work.The host of a new game will decide the accepting the proposal depends on your war scenario, victory conditions and game speed. score.which isshown in the upper left corner He will also save the game. Note that events of the menu. In the final peace offering you that temporarily halt a single player game will not do so in multiplayer Only the Host may gain or lose titles, gold, Prestige and Piety.

Step: - Sue for peace

I Connection Types:

multiplager - -

change game speed in Game Options, or once the game has started. When pausing in a multiplayer game If you are having problems running the game only the player who paused may restart the please follow the guidelines below. game within the first 30 seconds. After that Does your PC meet the minimum specittrne period any player can restart the game, fications for the game? Make sure you are using the latest version of DirectX. Install the latest drivers Local Area Network: Will automatically for your display adapter and sound card search your local network for any hosted (Compatible with your DirectXversion). game. You may join the game, or host Shut down any other programsyou have one vourself. running beforestartinn Crusader K i n s " " Valkyrienet: Here you will meet other players. Chat; join their games or host a game for others to join. Updates. if needed, will be made available at Internet: You must know the IP address thefollowingwww address: http://www.paiof the host in order to join a game. To (under the find out your IP address, follow the in- Crusader Kings heading) structioos below. Note that unless you have a permanent connection your IP address will most probably change ev- The user communit~orCrusader Kings, as ery time you conned to the Internet, well as other games by Paradox Entertainment can be found at http://forum.paraFinding your IP address Here you will find the



came upbates

Communitg forums

AppenbirA Character Traits

Q L i k ~Energetic people, lnr ~ l c Artitrary people. s creases Diplomacy attribute. 71slkesJustpeople, Dislikes Lazy people. L;, ireasedstewardship attribute. These are the traits (hat affect Qiust. Lazy. the character you choose to play Traits will not only dec~dehow Characters interact with each ,,te other, but also how likdy cerB Plestige increaseovertime, tain events are to hit the player. Q I'i.ty increaseover time, Most tralts have both advantag- 1.r Cllaste people. L e Generous people. es and penalttes, and these may 0Decreases fenility score, Decreases Stwrardship amiaffea your attriblrtes and hidden DslkeLustful persons. bure. Dislikes Selfish people. xores like feflility or what other Q Selfish. Q Lustful. people thinkof you. In-game you can read more aboutthe traits by holding your cursor wer the specihc trait in the Character screen. c a d Some events can only be trig- Q l wiiValorous people. Q Lies Honest people, Isreasgered by Characters with s p ~ i f i c e i 3pomacyattr1bute. 03iikes Coward people, Traits. Dislkes Deceitful people, L~tcieasesMartial attribute. Dr:creaseslnlrigue attribute. QDeceitful.

Q . ~ ~ i i people, InTrusting Q 1 hesLary people, Increases Q L ~ b Recklen people i Ir~tri@ue anr~bute 0D~sl~kes people, De- cic,iies Diplomacy attribute, W~se Iked by others. o i i s l i k e s Energet~cpeople, iii,aies Marllal attribute. qDislikes Suspiclour people. Drcreases Diplomacy attribute, QWise. Decreases Intrigue attribute. Martlal and siewardship anriQSuspicious. butes. QEnergetic. 0 L ies Scept~cal Herand etr people, Faster technology spread. Q :th~sValorous people,InQ Llkes Lustful people. Increas- e) DirlikesZealouspeaple. Pi- crcnies Mafia1 attribute. ety decreased overtime. e i Intrigue attribute and lertil0 Dislikes Coward people. ~~vrcore. QZealous. Q Coward. qDislikes Chaste people. Chaste


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Description of Traits:

Q L:<ri Merc~lul p?ople. Piety

0 D\slikesCruel people.
Q Cruel.

n~reares overtime.

Q L L r i Forgivng peopie. people. ~rearesStewardshipattribute. qD~sl~kesVengelul ODslikesSeliish people. Pres- Diorgiving. t ;P decreased over time. QCenerous.
Q .:riiWirepeopie, Increased hlartlal, Diplomacy, Intrigueand Stewardship attributes. qDislikedby others, Dislikes Reckless people. Qlecklea.

LLediD~sliked others -Other by characters in the game lend to Q 'It I Cruel people I t e or didikeyou because ol your 7151kerMerciful people, PItrait. This affects your relations w~thother countries, as well as PI; d~creaseovertime Q Merciful. the loyalty lromyour Vassals.

Q i e s Indulgent people
~slkesTemperate people, Cxreases Health score, Piety decrease over time. QTemperale.

..-. 1 Lcs Modest people, Piety

~ ~ ~

Q ~ker~rustinipeopie. In-

qPenalw - Descrlbeshow the

tmt affects the Character in a Q L kes Honest People, ncreasnegative way. QAdvantage- Describes how es n:r~gueattribute. Dislikes Deceitful people, the trait affectsthe Character in Q I r:siust people, Increases Decreases Diplomacy attribute. Sli,\ardshipattribute. a positive way Q Honest. QOpposite Trait- All traits DlslikesArbitrary people. have an oppo~itetrait.People QArbitrary. with opposite traits tendtodirbke each other. ACharacCr may fi,gsn, never havetwo opposttetraitsat Q :,l,e, Forgiving people thesame time. 0iikesvengeful people.

.creased over time. 8 D\slikesProud people, Prer tge decreased overtime. Q Proud

0 Dslikes Suspicious pwple,

Decreases Diplomacy attribute, dsiked by others. QTrustin~.

creases Intrigue attribute.

Q Lies Proud people, Prestige

in, reared overtime.

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Q 1 iei Temperate people, In. 0Dslikes Modest people, Piety criarcs Health score, Piewinc,eaieover dcrreased over lime. ODislikes Indulgent people. Q Modest. Q Indulgent.


Q I Irs Zealous people, Piety intr~n5cd time. over 0 L11,likes Heretic and Sceptic,! people. Qsceptical and Heretic.

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Appenbirb Laws

To read more about the different Laws that can be chosen, go to the Court Screen and click on each law Adescription ofthe law w l l appear on the bottom of the page. All ~ndependent rulers may decide new laws. Vassals have to adapt to the law of the ruler. This will clearlyaffectyour lineol heritage, which in turn is crucial for the gameplay Note that your Vassals will react strongly on the laws if changed regularly and to their disadvantage.

prestige and ownership ol prov- this allows a female to trace in^ ~nces. heritani-e, though a female may never inherit but only pass it on SalirIjauclkinb toa male. All titles are dlvlded equally be^ twecn all male heirs in order of Rcalmlaws age (ch~ldrenand then grand- The Realm l a m decide what ch~ldren so on), but ignoring laxes can be imposed on Vasand males that traces through their sals and how you can rules your mothers, lor examplethesonsof realm. It will also define whether certain events will occur. your daughters.

The ruler will not get tournir events, and the loyalty of hlsvassals will not be modified over time. Your regiments will tend to be light and with emphasis on Pike Men and archers. The law will limit the emnomr slid-

All titles go to the oldest male child or il dead his oldest male child and so on. If oldest male childcannot providean heir then next oldest male ch~ld traces the inheritance.

The loyalty of a leader's vassals will decreaseover timeYourregiments bvill tend to be heaw but mixed. The lawwill limit the e c o ~ nomc sliders as follows: Scutaae (Min.0 Max.100). Crown DU;~ (Min.50 Max.100). Census Tax (Min.25 Max.100). TOIIS (Min25 MaxlOO).

i ~ i n . 5 0Max.lOO). Census Tax (MinO Max.50). Tolls (Min.0 Max.50)

Religious laws
Re~alousl a m define the conn,r r :r t ~ t ' c o Cnur:? a-o tnr . : a'letttnereal :r to the Pope and if certain events will occur.

Inheritance laws
Inher~tance laws decide who will ~nherita ruler when he or she dies. It is very important lor a ruler to have an unbroken line 01 heritage, if the player does not have a proper heir when he dies, the game ends. Choosing the right inheritance law is crucial to building a prosperous dynasty

Scmisalic Consanguinity
AI titles go to the strongest child or if dead his oldest brother and on. ifno child can orovide an heir, then the rtron~est grand. child inherifs and so on. ~~t~ that this allows a lemale to trace inheritance,thoughalemalemay never inherit, but only pass it on to a male. Strength depends on military attribute, prestige and ownership of provinces.


Fe~baI COntraCt
The ruler w~ll ~ tournir events, g t and the loyalty o l his vassals will i ~ r e a s eover time. Your regiments will tend to be heavyw~th emphasis on knights. The law will m i t the economic sliders as f0ll0w~:S~Utage(Min.OMax.SO). Crowfluty (M1n.O Max.501, Census Tax (Min.50 Max.100). Tolls(M1n.50MaxIOO)

The strongest male vassal takes Scmisalic~auclkinb it all. Strength depends on mili- All titles are divlded equally be- TcPbitimalcustom tween male in order of age The ruler wll not get tournir heirs tary attribute, prestige and own([hidren and then grandchildren events, and theloyaltyof hisvas~ ership of provinces. sals will not be modified over and so on). time. Your regiments will tend to Salir Consanguinity be A I titles go to the itrongest child S c m i s a l i r p ~ o ~ m i - mixed but with few knights. The law w ~ limit the economic l or 11dead his oldest brother and turc so on If no child can provide an All titles go to the oldest child, slidersaslollows: Scutage (MinO heir then the strongest grand- or ifdead his oldest child and so Max.70). Crown Duty (Min.0 child inherts and soon. Strength on. ll oldest child cannot provide Max.70), Census Tax (Mina depends on military attribute, an heir then next oldest child Max70),TolIs (Min.0 Max70) traces the inheritance. Note that


Each clergy power in your prow ncerg~veryooadditional troops. Church Donalions slider limit. ed by (Min.0 Max.80). Catholic Tllr: Ccl,nolog~cal advances Bishops appointment chances as dur~ngthe Medeval Age were spread between regions rath. follows (Ruler BO/Pope20). er than researched. You can inm0na~ticSu~~cmaaJ the speed of advances by crease Religious authority will fluctuate building schools and universities with events and rulerswill get no and somwhat affect what a d usury events. Each clergy Power vancer are made through click in your ~rovinces~ivesyou extra ina the chosen Advance in the gold insteadoltroops. Monaster- Reilm screen and confirm it by ies and Templar houses will be clickinnthe atthe bottom. cheaper. Church Donations slid^ " er limited by (Minsa Max.100). Catholic Bishops appointment There are three main fields in chances as follows (Ruler 30/ which Advances can be made. Military Pope 70). Culture ErrlcsialBalancr Economy Religiousauthor~tyWII be undermined over llme\vrh events and Every advance can bedeveloped the ruler will get no usury events. in five steps, getting betler for

Appenbir E Abuances

Each clergy power in your prov each step. These different adlnces gives you some gold and vancesaredescribed in more desome troops. Church Dona- tail below: tions slider limited by (Min.30 Max.70). Catholic Bishops a p ~ pointment chancer as i o ~ ~ o w s (Ruler 501~ope 50). Advances in MIlaiy glves attack ChurrhSuprrma~ and defense bonuses lor d~ffer Events will strengthen rellglous ent troop types depend~ngon authority over tlme, and the rul advancer made er w ~ l ban usurv events Clerav l ". power in your provinces gives You neither gold nor troops. Accurate long distance weapons Churches and Cathedrals will be will provide your archers and cheaper. Church Donations slid- horsearcherswithslgnificant bo. er limited by (Min.70 Max.100). in battles. Catholic Bishops appointment chances as follows (Ruler 01 I -5hottBow This weapon is made out of Pope 100). wood, easy to use, and quick to Ire. It hadashort rangeand poor arm" pwrcingcapab~l~ties

military abuances


2 -LongBonr

Made out of wood and moder ately easy to use. It was qulck to fire, had medium range, good armorpenetration capabilities.

hi^ ,veapon made out of wood, horn,and sinew mod. and
easy to use. it was quick to fire, had a long range, and was

S , ; .

.,. ,,,,


Rm~t --This weapon was made out of wood, horn, sinew and reinforced with sCel and was rather cumbersome to use. Its rate of lire was rather slow, but it had very long ranRe and a very good punch againstarmor.

5 - marksmanLong Bow
Constructed like the reinforced Long Bow, its rate of lire is very slow, but it can hit targets at extreme ranges with excellent a c curacy and armor penetration.

5 -Huge castle
The huge castle was often built around the foundations of a large castle. They were often huge com~lexeswith a small domain wiihin its wall and had a very large garrison all through the year. It had enormous dura. bility and was nigh on impossible to take for anything but Kings and Emperors.

Powerful at a long distance with a deadly accuracy, Crossbows will provide a s~gnificantbonus lorvourarchers.
I Slinglavelin Th~s15 ba~~cally thrown short a spear empowered w ~ t h a log sl~ngto mcrease thrust power and range It was normally used In one vollev aealnst the ene, " m y After slinging the javelin, the throwersfought ,n melee.

crush Weapons

Defensiue Tactics LeatherArmour

Easy and flex~ble, Leather Arthe mour provided a good protection for all typesof units.

Castles are not only excellent for

also provide a bonus for prestige and loyalty from the Nobles.

I -HillTort The h11 fort was often built around the ruins of elder fortifications. They were often very small but made maximum use of the terran.

2 -Small Castle
Thesmall castle was built around theloundat~ons hillfort.They ofa wereoften rather small but had a garrlson all through the year. Any ruler who was anyone had to have at least a small castle.

Apart from providing defense for your foot soldiers and knights in 2-Li0ht Crossbows A wooden weapon that was easy battle. Chain. to use and quick to fire. It had a medium range and limited a r I Chaincbteather This s a leather suit with strings mor piercing caoabilities. . , of chains attached to make it 3-mebium~rossbow withstand slashes. This is the This weapon is made of wood


Advances in this f~eldof dead- Somet~mes defending is the best ly weapons will give a bonus to way to attack. Taking advantage light cavalry and heavy infantry of terraln and organizing your prov~de not armies correctly w~ll I HanbAW only strengthen morale, but also This is the smallest of crush increasethehockscore. weapons. It is easy to use and also has slash~ngqualities that I-DtfensiveTcrrain makeiit an excellent weapon for This tactlc ~nvolved training units lighter units. to take advantage of defensive terrain. It also included scout2-WarHammer ing and usmg specially prepared This is a light crush weapon. It is equipment. easy to use and doesn't require soecial training it is esoeciallv ef- 2 -llositional Combat " , , ihctive against heavily armored ~htr'tactlc made it easy to deopponents and often used by in- fend a smaller area by defending a chain of positions with earthfantry. works and poles.

I Soft Leather Thls s a leather sut softened by oil to let the warrior keep his mobility. It only stopped the weak^ est strikes i r pundures.

This Is a leather softened with so as not to hinder thewar.
rior in battle. It is reinforcedwith paddineto give better protection against blowsand punctures


3 -BoilebLeather

3 -mare

wood, irbn, and sinew. Easy to The medlum castie was often This is a hauberk madeof chains, use, but slow to fire. the cross^ built around the foundationsofa a long range small castle. They were often of The torso and arms are protect bow possessespunch againstand ed by leather, thechest by chain packs a average size with a small hamlet mor. wlthin its walls and had a garri~ mail. son all through theyear. 4-TullChainmail 5 -Arbalen This a the full su~t made of small This weapon 1 madeout of steel s 4-Large Castle chainscovennatheentlre bodv. and cumbersome to use, It is The large castle was often built very slow to fire, but it can hit of around the foundat~ons a r n e ~ 5-platebchainmail targets at extreme ranges with s dium castle, The castles were This 1 a full suit made of small excellent accuracy and armour large wlth a small town with~n chains covering all parts of the ~ Its wall, and had a large, profes- b o d TO this armor plates have sional garrison. It was durable been added to protect parts of and could withstand prolonged the torso.

3 -Nlebium Castle

the leatherand s~new. Althou~h easy to use it was slow to fire: It had a long range and a good punch against 2 -Light Chainmail armor. This is a lhaht hauberk madeof small chans that protected the 4 - ~ e a V crOSSbOU) y torso. This weaoon is a comoosition of

This is a medium crush weapon. It 1 easy to use and doesn't res quire special training. It is especially good against heavily armored opponents and was often used by infantry.

3 - Chainmail

q - morning Star
This was a heavy crush weapon. It was cumbersometo swing and required special training to master. It was, however, especially good against heavily armored opponents and often used by inI."....

This is a leather su~t softened by 011to let the warrlor and then 3 -missilcBarrage boiled to make it stiff. It stops Archers dr~lled and d~ic~plined more strikes and punctures than in releasng barrages of arrows 11ssofter cousins at the expense or bolts onto the onrushing en- of agillly, but is still ~nferlorto emes. The effect could be dev- chain mall. astating and was much more ef4-Rigib Leather lect~ve the 'fire-at-wII tactic'. that Thls wai a leather suct softened 4-Drillebpikemen by oil to letthewarr~orlitthemaThis tactlc involved tra~nng and terial, and then boiled for a short and dr~llingthe Pike Men n units. time to make it st~ffer, then reinforced with padding. It was These units could march into position, stop, and become island as effective as boiled leather but fortresses in the sea of battle. did not hamperag~lityas m u 6 . Thev worked in souares and had ; StalebLeather great stopping poker against in- ?his is a leather suit made by fantrymen and cavalrvalike. taking small scales of first class leather and boiling them for a 5 -Unit Organiiation very long time and then adding This was the changing of the them together on padding. This masses of nfantryintoorganized IS the premier leather armor and military units. Instead of being a more effective than even some mob they worked in unison with chainmail. much lncreaseselftciency


5 -BattleArc
This is a heavy crush weapon. It iscumbersome to use and need special tralnlng. It is especially good against heavily armored opponents and often used by infantry. Th~sis the best crush weapon.


OfftnsiueTartics pierring Weapons I -Scalemail

Learning how to command and attack is a basis for succeeding in banle. It will strengthen mo. rale along your lines and also increase theshock attack score. Bplng a weapon mainly for Pike Thisisa leather suite witharmor Men and Knlghts, the deadly plates added to it to give extra piercing weapons will prov~de protection for the torso, b~ceps. bonuseslorthese units in battle. andthighs. ,-long 2 -Banbebmail I offensiueTerrain This was a ~tandardmedium- An armored leather suite that has ~ h tactic evolved by training piercing weapon. It was easy to armor plates crafted in orcles , ~ the units to take advanfageof of. useand didn't need special tra~n- around the body. The protecfensiveterrain. 1, included scout. iy.It was also a good weapon tion isvery good, but it leaves exing using spedally prepared against a mounted opponent and posed areas and decreases awl-

wall or if possible the castle e n ~ I -Short Sworb trance. Thisisthesmallestslashweapon.

-Siege Labbers
These are tall ladders that are raised against the castle wall to enable the attacker to owrrun the castle defenders on top of the wall.

Cultural Abuances This one-handed blade is readily


3 -Siege Towers
There wheretall structuresin the form of an armored siege ladder that protected soldiers from arrhsr< .,,.,>.



ity extensively.

Th~swas anadvanced medium 3-HaIf3llatt ~h,s tact,[ used the shock power pierceweapon. Itwas easyto use This is a chain mail suite with arbut required special training. It plates added to give extra of massed cavalry. was a very good weapon against protection for the torso, biceps. 3 -Rcserues mounted opponents. and thighs This tactlc ~nvolved keeping a 4-platemail small reserve at hand that could 3-Lance beused to [hange the balanceat A lance is an advanced medium This isa plate mail suite whereall key points in the battle. pierce weapon. It is rather easy plates are put to work in unison to use but the wielder needed with normal bodily movement. 4 -Dismounteb special training. It is a very goad it covers head, torso, biceps. and Knights weapon against dismounted op- thighs, while the rest of the body Includcd training knights as in- ponents and is therefore primar is covered by chain mail. fantryrnen. This made their em- ily used by heavy cavalry 5 -fullplate ployment more flexible. The 4-polcAnn This s a plate mail suite whereall kn~ghts' superior morale and skill This was a heavy pierce weap- plates are put to work in unison made them excellent multipuron. It was an excellent weapon with normal badly movement. It pose units. against mounted opponents. covers the whole body.


A Mangonel is a medium sized rrtrnll~t l17pn to thrnw o- . c rlp i. .rocks against a castle wall and break it. It can also be used for throwina buminamaterial ordiseasestr;kenanhalsicorpses inside the castle to weaken the defenders.

S -Treburhet
This is a large catapult used to throw large rocks against the castle wall in order to break in. It could also be used for tossing burning material or disease stricken animals/corpses o w r the wall to weaken the defenders.

5 -Hierarchic tommanb

5 -Heavy Lance

This 1 a heavy pierce weapon. s Thls evolved from the need for It proved excellent against dis- In order to efficiently forcing walls and towers, Siege equipclear battlefield leadership. Now mounted opponents. mentwas built. a hierarchic command system Siege Equipment gives a bonus was implemented where each man knew is place and daobey- Heavlest of the Armour Tv~es. to Siege. ingorders meantaquickandd~s- the Platewill give a defense bo- I -gatthngRam gracelul death. nus to Knights and Heavy Caval- hi^ the most basic ~ i e c e of ry in battle. slege equpment. It consists of a

Siege Equipment

Slash Weapons
Swords being one of the main characteristics of a true Knight, Slash Weapons has come to symbolize medieval warfare more than other types of arms. They give a bonus to Knights, Light Cavalry and Heavy Infantry
;" k,,., C , >, .. ,,m " O \

plate Armour

largewooden pole which 18used to batter down a secton of the

Cultl~raladvances are made in various fields such as customs, religion and art. Advances within the field of Culture normally af. fed the loyalty of the stands, but 2 -Broab Sworb will also trigger numer'mmc m,-mtc This is the standard medium- of importao~e. damageslash weapon. Thisonehanded blade is easily used togetherwithashieldforextrapro- Learning to act and rh~nk a like tection. The broader and slinht- Nobleman is not onlv " " ~ Y 1 l " " L , , ly longer blade gives its wielder but will also increase the loyalty better reach than the wielder of ofyour nobles. theshortsword. I -DiuintRiaht= S Member5 ofthe nob~lhty enjoyed j-L~ngSworb legal status and had imThis is the supreme medium S W C I ~ ~ . . slash weaoon. This one-handed m u W from almost .. -. . bladeisea'silyusedtogethwwlth authorities. They were also the a shield for extra protection. he PrOteclor~and arbiter o l those longer blade gave itswielder bet- whoworked. ter reach and balance than the 2 Chronicle Writing wielder ofthe broad sword. This was often off~cial history 4-Bastarb Sworb wriling, but to call it history in a This 18 the most flex~ble medium- modern sense would be quite heavy slash weapon.This bladeis wrong, as there was no, or very easily usedtogether with a shield little, critlque of sources. Most for extra protedion if used o n e often this was the ideological handed and will then have bet- propaganda of the medieval era. ter punch than the long sword. If used two-handed, a shield is no 3 -Romanticpoetry longer an option, but the power Romantic poetry had its origin in 01 itsstrikes will rival those ofthe the tough consequences of formal marriages. Thus this form areat sword. of poetry became an acceptable 5 -Great Swmb outlet of emot~onaland someThis is the supreme slash weap- times erotic pressure. on. This blade is easily used twohanded; a shield is no longer an 4 -Hcraltq o~tion.None but the areat axe Heraldrv was a feudal ,,,>,,L",,",, '-*':+,,':"" and the heavy lance Tival the developed by noblemen ildno .... -.., .. power of itsstriker. personal insignia on seals and used wRh a shield for extra profedion. It was the classical infantry melee weapon developed from the Roman Spaeta.
"U. L..,,..

noble C U S ~ O ~ S
'-,-* -a'-

- --

MusicpIayedalarge~artinmedi~ ~ ~ , eval people's l~ves. Medieval artwork, whether of nobler or peasants, often depicts people with musical instrumenfi -partimIarly stringed instruments (usually harps or lute -the forbears of tob'emen, day's guitar), and pipes (generhlany modern pract~ceshave its 4-miraclCpIavs ally bagpipes). Medieval Europe foundations from lhe Miracle plays or mystery plays wasalivewithdanceand sonE. customs. This will give a bonus were a form of medieval drama to loyalty mainly from the Peas- that came from dramatization of 3 -Ballabs These were formal~zed, musi. ants. theliturgy of thechurch. Evenlu- cal stories, sung in a situationally the performance was moved al rather than a narrative style. r -DivineDuties Most people dur~ngthe medieval to the churchyard and the mar^ Ballads were part of many tradiL werepeasantsand they rarely left ketplace and soon became ver- lions. They were part literature. , . the manor on which they were "acu'arin nature. and part music, b;t also part edborn. People knew that their s - C ~ ~ ~ U ~ I S aation It was knowledge about the world spread through tone life's work would be the same as ,1 E~~~~~ the tradition of their parents. They had a sense fertility persisted and word to people who could of place, and pride in that place well into christian times, >"here not read. was refiecled in adornment of carnivals reached lhelr peak dur- 4-~aShion clothcs the village church Religion and ~ n g 14th and 15th century. L~~~~~ consump~ion always the has thevillagegave the peopeasure Carnivals where deeply rooted in been part 01 show,ng one,s sense 01 identity and with It PsV- pagan superstitons and the folk- tus. ~~~i~~ the medieval time chological peace. lore of Europe and the church material lhke silk were used to eagerly revitalized them by c o n make elaborate clothes worn by z Jonglcurs nectinglhem to Saints. theultra rich IonRleurs evolved from the t r i b ~
~~~~~ ~

shields that came to be transm~t- men and crusader knights. The led to the~rfamilies. favor~tesubjects of therr poems were courtly love, war, and na5-Obligenobksse H ~ over ~ trou. ~ The basic ldeolo~yof the noble badour5 becamelprr .pntlp- md ~~~~--- ". . - class. whch meant that certain finally became artists that pro. rules of hospital~ty,honor, and duced societal craique, compassion, must be implled to songs about impious bea good knight. lecherous monks, and cruel no.


Religious f lefibility

people to read the bible and thinktheologically.

4 -f0mali$ebLitnray
The refinement of canonira law


Popular Customs

to interpret the Christian mes- been present but the intro. sage, mostlytoavoid duction of the bible translations within the Church. Ad- crlt~calthinking took new paths within Religious F1exibli- whlch would eventually lead up ity will increase ioyalty Irom the reformation of thechurch. Ihe to Clerics, and at the same time increase your Piety.




by some but as conservatism.

S -Jubilee
These were large feasts or fati. vals celebrating something l m ~ portant in the lifeola Saint or an apostle.

This was the current opposing In order to educate nobles and Thismeant followingone's moral Reli~ious Flexib!litv. Suooort~ clergymen as well as research ,, inclination with strict discipline. ers i f these thoughts wanted to the foundations of the world, This was important to monks, preserve the Church and central^ schools and unuersities were but an-etism was viewed by the izethe spiritual power. Advanas formed. masses as a virtue in a clergy. within Relfgious Stringency will man. increase loyalty from the Clerics, I - The SevenLiberal and at the same time increme Arts 2 -Apostolicpovcrty Allows Library improvement It meant that the Church and your Plety. The bask Increaser education the clergy, as well as the monks I - Clerical Ctlibary In your realm has been dvided should live without temporal Clerical cel~bacv introduced into seven branches of learnng vias possessions, like Christ and the to check the growing hab~tof to achieve maximum elfciency: Apostles, and live from the tithes bishops and clergymen to be^ grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithand the voluntary olfertngs of queath church land to fheirchil- metic, geometry, astronomy, and thepeopleThscalI~ngwaspuredren. music. Iv soiritual All the thtnes nf this

- Asrrtism

Reliaious Stringency


. ..

a1 eiu!valence of bards and kept their traditions as news spread^ ers to the simple folk. The~rrep^ ertoire included dancing, mniuring, acrobatics, the feats of the modern juggler, snging,andstorytelling. Many were skilled in playing musical instruments.

Maklng advances in this form of Litemturt This was a new form of popular secular arts w ~ lincrease the l o y l literature written in the national ally ofthe Burghers. languages.Writers such as Dante Al~ghieri. Ceoffrey Chaucer, I -Sculptures Fne sculpturing in done was e s ~ Francos Villon, and Christine de sent~alfor the men and houses Pisan, opened a new front in 111~ of reliaion, and such artifacts in- erature and intellecrual life. originally cdme lrom the arir. creased the gloly and beauty of tocratic poetVmus~cians Prov- buildings both public and priof ince, many of wllom were noble- vate.

Profane Art

5 -UemarulPr

3 - CrititalBiblc lntcrprctaticm

earih belonged to the laity and 2 -Letters of thecivil government. tnbulacnrc

Allows hlonasterv and School

z -monasticSchools

ibis was an the bible that focused on other [umbersome and time-consuming waiting in lines in the church (hingsthan the official lor absolution, often highly critical in tone and church inter- ~ voice of the off~cial pretations. This ~nst~t~ition created to was 4-~iblt~rans[ations keep the flockin line, to stop her^

Letters oi ~ndulgencesimplified imProVements. getting forgiveness for one's sins When the Roman Empire colof -a process that kvas previously lapsed, formal education in WeSter"urooe collapsed with $1. Monasteries upheld the few schools that survived.

3 - CathebralSchools h
Cathedral schools d~dn'texist at

euery cathedral, but rnanycathedrals d ~ becornecenters ofwhat d These were tmn<lations of the eSy, and to get people who had wewouldcall elementaryeduca. bible into local language, This misunderstood the Holv Scrip tlon Education was often based on old Roman texts, and over made it possible for ordinary tUretowalka bener path.

time tended to divide into a conI -Relics 4 Taptmirs centration on music (which Dre~ The monotheistic belief in the Tapestries became an important pared boys for service in the capower of relics, the physical re- way to keep the warmth within thedral liturav) and arammarand mains of a holy site or holy per- stone buildings. Mainly Nobles rhetor~c (wkch boys to son, or obiects with which they and clergymen used these, as serve as parish priests or in the had contact. 18 as old as the faith simple people couldn't allord church bureaucracy). itself and developed alongside it, them. However,simple folkoften Relics were more than memen- had better heat in their wooden 4 -University Allows University improvement tos. For example, the New Testa- cottages. The medieval university was a men1refers to the heal~ngpower S -Ertrauagant community of scholars with the of objects that were touched by Decoration Christor his apostles. authority to confer degrees. The The extravagant decoration of origins of the eariiest universities 2-~usicIlotation many churches was impressive are obscure, but the University and used as a means to justify of Bologna seems to have risen s\lstm from an eleventh-century center In the tenth,eleventhandtwelfth the power of the Clergy centuries, Composers and perfor the study of Roman law. formers expanded the liturgy in a number of ways. New feasts Logical thinking was known al5 -Ambentic were created (with their atten- ready among the ancient Greek, Dirciplincs The academ~cdisciplines devel- dant music for mass and office), and was rediscovered during the oped from the existence of uni- and newmusicwrinenforchants Medieval Are. versity faculties. The first was of the church service. Moreover, I - ~ r i ~ ~ ~ the faculty of arts, which includ- the liturgical practice of the past ~ h , scholarsof your realm have .. ed subjects as grammar, logics. was "pied . and 'pread lhrough found and digested Aristotelian math, philosophy, and astron- statt notaflon. logics. Debating and discussing omy, and the Increases faculty 3 ChoirSongs its application is helping them divided into the subjects of law, ~~~k~ and wrote to structure and understand the theology and medicine. Thespe- Choir songs. The songs where world. ciai~zationof knowledge meant elaborate and a way of commufocus and status that improved nicating with God. Both Islam 2 Scholastics prestige and knowledge output and ChristianRy used choirs, but Based on the rediscovered Arisconsiderably Christianity took the choir song totelian Logics the Scholastics of to new heights, as literally the your realm use their reason and wholesewicewas a Combination applied dialectic to study of naArt was not only created to look of choirsongs mixed with solos. ture, human nature and supernatural truth. It is oo~osedto .. good but fulfilled the ideologimysticism, which distrusted reacal task of impresstng the massson and placed emphasis on ines with Cod's might. A negative tuition and contemplation. This aspectwas what such decoration is a very important step toward was a waste of money during a laterscientificmethods. time when the majority of the population lived in poverty.

Gothic construction, particular^ ly in its later phase, was characAS intuition meet your scholars Advances In Fconomy generally terized by lightness and soaring might pursue different research affects the your income. but may spaces. strategies within the bounds of also be of arch~tecturalor craftsmen art thesamediscipline.

3 -Astrologg anb Astronomy

Economg the traditions of reason and abuanctS

5 - GothicButtrtsses

4 -nPturalphilosophy



Until this day your scholars viewed knowledge as a complex combination of theology and ohiloso~hv, now the bounds but bf knowledge haveexploded and natural philosophy has evolved from the philosophical discipline Eh'UCtwC and is no longer severely con. AllowsChurchimprovement. Wooden roofs topped large bastrained bytheology. silica Structures, in a continualion of the tradition started by 5 Sdtnct he scholars of vour realm have theearly Christian barillca. , now accepted the diversification z-gricbork l ol iknowledge. One branch,i sci-~ Structures ~ ~ b ~ ~ ence, implies using reason and experience to uncover the laws Vaults and ryl~ndrtcalstructures used in itsstructures without anof. ..... .natore . .. gularity


Herd~ngCpttle was one of the primary sources for income durLearnlng how toconstruct bulld. ing the Medieval Age. Advances ingswas crucial when impressive made within Cattle Herding will cathedralswere to be built. provide extra aold for vour treasurr I -gasilican


Chickens are now common as household animals among all Deasants.This means better and more flexible food, but also that peasants sold chickens for extra cash.

- Chickens

Coats d ~ d only provide the not farmers with meat, but also with milk and cheese. makin~ them popular duringthe m e d i h l . Although Jews and Muslims do 3-Pi0s not eat Pig soon be. came common lood to Christians,

3 -Romanesque Uaulting
Allows large Church improvement. Romanesque churches included massive barrel vaults. makingmandatory thereinforciment of load-bearing walls in order to parry thelateral outward thrust.


4- S ~ ~ C P
Pfovldingwoolforclothes,shee~ soon became an important Part
olthe medieval household.

4- Cyltnbrirnl Structures
Castles and churches expanded in grace and efficiency through the introduction o l cylindrical structures such as towers and cupolas.

5 -Cows
Allows Cheese Dairy improvement. Breedingcows means better and more flexible food, but also gave the opportunity to sell meat to theBurghers.

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pup ~ U ~ U U U Anqapjnol1slaqlinq pup slue .sead ai q. 4~eu hleloduai

Isp3 lo hue woll lsaM ~ ~ U P Uosle plno, 9 e pau!eluoi ea~e IJ ; aq11eq1 uolqSQ1 "MO sulpal~ 'sa!~!lu~nb ~ J P I PUP .uJel J~ U! S I U ~ ~ l ~SROlnluah q,ns U! padolanap peqalnlinjls ~au ladeaql 5PooS 'Il0xa ~ ~ U J ~ ~ J ~elnddo ~ J sjel pue snep M S ssauisnq aql i e q ~ ~ u e a u s ~ aJou laS 'a'!1d auallxa Sulilnja~ ,a111 Aephn PUP Su!pell s ~ u a u r a ~ o ~sla ! du n a jo )led P aueiaq Su!pell sy pualhauow PUP AlaMal8 SMOllV le o o 8 s ~ A1nxnl laAou 01 Ali11!qnod aql Woad anex S sasno~ osle 11 lnq alqel!jold Alawail a u a q ~ ~ a u l a ~z 1 o x a sehl Aluo iou slaqleu ]!l0 .Jarnodpue saq,jlsll loladolnj a l e ~ ~ ~ e l u s l a qpue s!s s ie~ -xa uo ape11 10 dn Su!uado a q l 10 lje U! pauaoual osle alaMsa11 P U I Q ~ ~ ~ J-t J! w e j~ ~ seale jaanaslo auo P 4 IP'OI eU"sas!~d'aluaIQ''l~~ I O asaql Pau!eualua 4I1qM'sasn04 u! ape11 Su~~eu!wop ras!idjalua PanloAu!SiuPqJ pueu a!aa lll qllqM 1UPqIlallI IOU!~ 10 laqwnu p pau!ewm Pale aql 1eq1 uo:qsej -iau aql i o i salno1 apai luel .samoqlueq,law Jo laqunu uolqseI q! UI padolahap peq a ~ ~ i m i s , n s!p SP pale1 a m a2ualolt-ail!n paujeluo, eale aql -as 10 'Slzuea-s!~~dp ~ l o s n o ~ ' padolahap alnlnls ssau!snq aql ieqi lueaw rasno~ -7Iaqol 'alluaA-uOPuol se Vns,,,, n q , aql Ie41 iueaw s y l salno, Bulpell 'spooS Mau 01 s a s n o ~ & u a q ~ +UBqJJaUIlPn!N-' ssalle aldoad aheS osle I lnq ! . r l i o l ~ o A ~ u a !jo ~ j ~ aql ~ ssn a -3auQaUmOUa~S alqel!jo>dhp0 IOU seM slqlPw anoldwl IIIM SUO!I~II(UI auaw luelslp uo apeil 10 Buluado a q l rla~!slnoase~nol -UlO) l a 8 ~ 0 l l s M218 SamOq 6u'~a11~ua~s!Q-t pue IIPO IPI~IIIJP~ P 10 h10 IUeq,,alli -,!p llaM isalalu pueaz!s UI -douow P alouold 01 S P M S P I ~ ~ anseal ,,leasuPH aql uaqM,a8p ~QIS snqi pue paz!lepads allnb aqi 10 asodind a q l 'PIP IQnlnw epw l, a aql su!lnp paz!leuollnl a u a a q '8lnqwaxnllo asp] aq1 PUP uo113a1old laqlasol pueq llsul alaM alauwo, 104 ll PUP ape11 u! se b ~ easaqi saujiauos llas alellosse plnav 3la 's~aluadie3 j 'suoseu auoir 'sla~qqol 'slayeq J3.lJUlUlOJ ' 8 a 'uo!l~dnl>oaWPS aql ul


-uo lou auemq leap aqi aSenS -UP[an!lep!Sal e U! U~U!IM lad






.ed uo leapssau!mq e Su!ind i g 'ape11 pueuo!lo SU! I n 0 palpll pue anSeld malanoy ssm!sng- I -!unwuo> Su!reallu! ot iue~lod 'UelSUOl sal1101apeqaql -wnsuo~am!] ban SPMSB)OI~ >!uounaud aql lsu!eSe sasuaj -U! A sem lau peol ~ S u ~ p l l naql inq a l q e ~ d a ~ ~ e [PO] a41 m g Suole spooS MOIJ aqi apeu pup sem -aP padolamp uo!lelndod aql jo 'a'JJO)u! In01 .pa~npoliu!al sem 1941 s a u ~ lssa~ojd sajniuan>!wouo>altaqiol~l!~!q! Su!u~nq uaShxo MO\ e UI UalSAS hi!unuu! aq! hllemuanj aseallu! II!M sa)umpe a s o u U ~ u ~ u ~ !l ~ ! ~~ seM ~1 ~ q P x 5 poom WOI~paiea11sem leo11eq3 u aSlPI s!ql'peo~qe '~IIJ 1\1!~nmml qieap - sa 'sraulsnq pnpuo) 01 m q uo sluawanoldu! laN peog -Jo luauewlad dn ind 01 pallets luauanoldu! au!w s ~ o l l q m6uldnwmnmd P I a m s UI - PUP 'lana~'uled uoos s a ~ e IUP~S!P P PUP spoos PlePUpls UOwu03 Jo aseluen ansuaix3 PUP l a peoa w o l l v ~ . . ~d laouuqy z leu!uopqe 'ssauyea~ luauas jo sawnlon aS~elU! r u o ~ t ~ e s u a ~ -pe aq1ws siueqrau alou pue ~PaoEl-~ alow'~o~Solpanu?uo~apensy ' s ~ u n ~ a q l p a i l a ~ ~ e .eaq11e~pU! pallma~il pue i1a)uashp jotol e Su!~eu samoq luequaly 'saqrnq~ 'an8eld1!u0qnq a'4110 qleulalle pealds laleM 10 p o o ~ paleu!uq S J ~ V J ~ Q U ~ ~ J pla!laql ~ I ~ I I sSu! M JO -pl!nq l ~ n l ~ s u01lsa!i!un]loddo pup sllem 'sasr~q Su!pl!nq aqi o U! paqu!q 11 ' ~ u a ~ l e a l i ! ~~~~~a~~ a!o , .ud lnl alp U! pasn aq ol symlq paz!s iua -S .slla!qo m an!S se l l a re auo)u! lnoA 4 ~ peq l asnelaq an8Pld qSnolq1 Su!pea~dsr! hlaluasha -aajpuuyn@alo~ ! uq !O l - l a ~ ! poiu! pawloj pue s a ~ l d -nq a q ~ sasealluI SPMale1 ueq1 p q l e ~ dU slelau asaql lpl aseal)u! II!M sa)uenpv IaMod O! I Iluan~flp 'alqelljold 88%pnelj ylal,apew qu! in] SPM w o l r aleld s!qi W q~eap pue 'UPUI 01 UPU UOIJ 91 puea~q~reaj ssaulsnq alex-a8lel 01 anno] jo PUP pals apnn pue 'UO!lp~!unuuo~ sheM Pue sa luamanoldu! bo)lej-al~l ~ o l l y $0 s i n o p a ~ ppueanseld apeu s!q1 SOUII ~! pea~dssem an8eld l!uounaud .US~ II! ) SUIOS uol! jo uo!tmpoid aqlloj Ie!luas "'nOsJaMOd S~!PU!JIO s h r ~ m u 3!dmw-1 a q l anlnold aql qsno~qlau! l!UoqY 4441 lsu!eSe sarualap -]no PUP SUU UOI II I qioq ~IONI - s SPM JPOJ .sa~qltasU! saxu 01411!4 anes u o ! l w l d V ~ l n p -pea~dss!anSeldIuounauda~ P&OlaAaP uo!lp~ndod 2'41 l0 pue az!ueSlo oi slqurq up!jell 'sSu!pl!nq p a l ~ a u u o ~P jo I -In1 aslel U! pasn pue pun018 Pue Su!lafiPll l0 s A e ~ MaN ualSAs Ai!unuu! aqi h ~ ~ p n ~ u a n j -oqiald P !)nlisuol OI~~II!U~IIO~ aqi Aq palnpollu! i r l ~ Su~daa? j a41 10 ina snp IPM lea) 1 3 ~ l g fia!unm -7OOq 10 W10J MDU P SPM S!q1 -do noh a@ SP !law se auo?u! lao~l~~l8S spoqiau ~a Indasea~lu! IIIMP~~!~S!~IU!~IIM 8u1daaqqoog .10qe1 lenuew S~O!IXIOI -p10ql!M palnpold uol! 31 uol(l sa)uenpv 'ssau!snq Su!pleM (Clall3JlQnOa. .b ..., , -....v .. -" . ... ,. paau aql l n o q l ! ~n o l olu! paas al9'alleu PUP JlqeJnP a l o u -a1 i s o u P aq 01 panold leiau l -j!a .qieap pue 'ssauyeam 'aq]; MaJ PaMollOl Uleaa 'slods .rrau,snqpaz~uo~nloml aql pun018 lliu a41 il!w e p a n q l n u PUQ IPlaW UallO'JJ snopud SUIUI~I pue Su!pu!j .mod pue IaaqM aql paulnl l a l u o l l pa>npold uol! IsP3 -peaq ,,am1 paz!jal>pleq IIelq a)u~leaddpavi puo !!pan 10 rlallal a q l laqio q e a sew @UP!lll pue ssaull! mo!las e S! r!lPleW 'is04 JaS -)M aqilo auo, a q l .,an!' P olu! ~~auafioldu!bou~vmo~~v 10 41MOlS aql ~,Jpels!p ale lallas 'Ilal e uo pallol P SO ol~nbzowe Bulsn allsejed IeM i0 I n ! l all1 q l ! q m u l s u o ! u ~ s u ~ ~ l ~ e ~ a ~ m o l SsaUll! alll ase~s PWP papplq p iwqfl* uolltsa~-S plou Pjo ax!d s o ~dlnd a q lpue sea~pmaj e Aluo olu! l!j e ~ 'pa e ~q pealds SI erlelPW -a1u!nold 'pa'pd5 I J > Y ~ J - PW ~ ~ ' S l l ~ M l ~ l ~ M01l O q ~ Allensn'laM l0 -ie~Se wlemldq SPM p q r n pue alp q8n01q1$ulpPadr pllpleW PPe e!sv u o l j ado~ng01 pealds ssull! u, .a 01 " -Pa1) l 0 Yallal ' T a p uS!alol se 'isn a&e~I olu! pauaksuen uaqi ata am 31lsauop 'lqap hue hed 01 p x n s e dlnd a q l Y a q ! j Suoljo dlnd ~ -nq aql sn~~!sq P ~ ~ J l ol 'au!iauoslOl palmeqxa Qeg .alu!no~d aql q S n o ~ q ~ J ~ I ol auel ! lnq Ilaluolsn, su! O! U I SP 8u!uo~ aql pawloj SI ag IllMaluffio~daq)iosallnoslu -ppa,ds ansold ,!uoqnq aql llpa11 an1201 pas!nap hleu!8!10 -sue11 1eq1 II!W Su!due~se U! ~ ! w o u o M q l 'alu!Aold aql pa a paleld a ~ Aaql uaql 'SAT a ~ m6ald~?noqna f WJJO u m - h s -1001 Seq lUau!Sal Su~ssedsa~l v 10 lnoj IOJ $0101 ual pup paua '1qap jo aluappa ss pasn QJaOq 'a)uanlju! leulalxa -dwep alaM rSel a q l 'uaull Alle f o -nsn '58~1 O J j apBUI SPM jaded u 'ql~nq31110q1ej hq pad21 qanolq8 lo suo!l,e inoh q8n01q1 ill'lauasala~ rajou i o ~ ~ e l d aql lap10 s!q uo uoslad pa!jp&s -]P aqlanau 1 1 , ~I ~ ~ ~ A P M XluoPuP1 la41B 'sluana u!el U! g 'klles ue!iauaA -Ql?nqtlo!smud-d. 6n?qa~l udad - S .]a, ~ ~ S S hew sa)u!nold Inoh ollol'Jeaqolau!j Pq!llsaldle II~ aq] 01 So, qsna aql re ]ualajj!p .I~I!I PUP sSu!q)eai aq! p a u ~ o j a Aauou jo runs e Aed 01 a s ~ w o ~ d 'quawnl~su! pue so sd!qs pl!nq 01 pasn aq plno, 'loqo~~e r p u ! ~ 10 lsau!jpue PUP PaSUeql aneq b q i peairul 11 'sd!qs aSlel palnpold anb!u 'suodeaM'lwle l o j s(e!ialeu re w8uolls aq! ampold 4 pasn .uo!81lalp10i!aqllo uo!slan ~ P U ; q ; ; - ; ; ; ; ~ ; l au -41a1 Su~pl!nqd!qs e SPM q q l asn lalel 101sau!d oiu! p a ~ ~ o osle s q 'p04 uaiaams 01 pasn m -lal aql u o l j heme paulni soy luau PUP paueal) SPM UOI! luaH bnxnl e allnb sem leans 'qaaq alumold aul jo uo!lelndod a q l -ano~du! o q l p ~ ~ u@/~!AD SMOIIV IU~W~AO~~W! ~ h q i ! u (MOIH u o l j leans Su!u!ja~lueau s1q1


sa]nds!p apalaluas fiPUaddlZ01a ~ilno,! sU!~ape.! oreinq w u q s l

S V ~ amnoad U

s x e a l x a rnqipue pal!lew~ojAl

W lndW Q a? ?


qlomnoq- E

( I n ~ p l u 6 - P~ n


bloodstream and intestinal tract. Typhoid fever persists for three The province is experiencing De- weeks to a month and can lead creases agricultural production to death, and abandoning of land. People are generally pessimistic about Rtuolt their future and wages are fall- The peasants are revolting. Revolters and factioneers have taking. en control of parts of society and ~ ~ O S ~ L ~ O U S fight the current lord and his adThe province is experiencing '- ministration. This chaos is bad cwased agricultural production for the economy and the ruler and clearing of land. are is rapidly loose prestige from his generally optimistic about their inability to put down these lains, future and wages are rising.

Appenbir 6 prouince Improue-


By build~ng improvements in the Realm provinces, you can increase your gold, piety and prestige,

There is increased agricultural production, clearing of land, and major investments in goods production. People are very optimistic about their future and wages are rising rapidly.

bescqiption of prournre Improuements: a Required advances - Defines

ithat advances you need in order to build the improvement. Advances are found under your Realm Screen. Required improvement - Def ~ r ~ ewhat other improvement s j needs to be built before the one described. Effect - Describes what the effect of the improvement will be. You can also point your cursor on the improvement and wait for a short while. The improvements from the building will be shown in a pop-up mouse-over window.

The smallpox is spreading in the province. Smallpox is a very contagious and deadly disease caused by a virus. Of those few that survive many are left blind and scared by the small pox.

There IS Decreases agricultural production, abandoning of land, and the degeneration of cities. People are very pessimistic about their future and wages are falling rapidly.

The armory was instrumental in both producing armory and technical complex instruments as siege equipment and crossbows. It increased all sectors of economy. Q Cast Iron, Black Coal Smithy. Increases income.

Typhoid Fever is spreading through the province. Typhold Fever is an illness caused by a bacterium named Salmonella typhi. It is very common and can only be carried in the human

Tile Factory. bye works This was the large-scale use of Increases Peasant 1yalt~, This technique made it possible dictillerv and brewing techniques to color large amounts of cloth. to produce large quantities of This was the first step in bringbeer, ale, wine, cider and liquor. CivilianHarbor ing clothes production out of the The civllian harbor was a prereqNone. home and onto the factory floor. uisite for large-scale export of dJ Local Merchant Houses Q Cloth Making finished goods, which improved lncreases income. None. the provincial economy. It also Increases income. Cathtbral opened up the possibility to ship A Cathedral is a Catholic place military units over the sea. Har- EfltnsiucRoab of worship in size and bors can only be bu~lt coastal This was an extension of the largin prestige. It was a monumental er net of roads with junctions work of architecture, engineering L~~~~ship ~ ~ i l d , ~ ~ side roads connecting even and and art, and was built only in the q the smallest village in one end of most imp0rtant cities time. the province to yet another one - Shortens trans~ort out Europe. at the other end. Court of Justice Q Gothic Buttresses. Road Building. E T i l e Factory, Domed Church. Thls was a permanent court, Road Net. lncreases Clergy and Peasant which runs judicial business. It Increased Toll income, shortwas an effective promoter of jusloyalty, decreases income. en transport time, decreases attice and established the tradit~on trition of troops. Cheese Dairy of rule of law among the adminThis process harkened back to iktratnrc. .- .. .- . TishinaW harf the early days of farming. HowNone, ~ i s h l wharfs enable large-scale n~ ever, in medieval the process of qNone, fishing, packing, and distribulncreases Burgher loyalty, de- tion. The income from fishing transform milk into cheese beCame ~roto-industrial made (leases income, increase chance and its satellite industries had a and snowballing effect on provincial it possible to gain a large turn- of rooting out criminals over from such venture. Cheese economy. Can only be built in a was not only nutritious it was aI- bomea church coastal area. A domed church 1 the Chriss so more durable than milk. N ~ ~ ~ , tian place of worship prestiCows. gious enough to have a decoratNone. ed dome as a roof. It was a sign Increases Income. of high prestige and wealth not T o f t s f ~ only in the city, but among other Forestrywas the institutionalized Church A Church is the place of worship dioceses as well. Province must practice of woodcutting, huntand reunion in villages and small have a minimum income of 10 in ing, and the replanting of trees. It towns. It is the first building to order to build a Domed Church. was an economic boon forthose be built in a town, with houses DCylindrical Structures. both high and low in society. and shops around it. It was also E T i l e Factory, Large Church. ONone. lncreases Clergy and Peasant @! None. where all people gathered for socializing. loyalty, one-time Plety bonus, Increases income. Brickwork Structures, Basili- decreases income. can Structures.


a m


a m

~ I ~ USttrk5 I s
h: the glarrworks glassblowers produced glass based on a template. Thls cornrnetccahred pmdualon of all tarsw ware OGlass B ~ O W I ~ R None lncrpasfi rmnme.

a m

C,rPnb palace
1-e large and r~chlyelaborate bulldtng houseithe ruler and ha court It 15 the realm's most Irnportant bulld~ng because tr g i w blr[h to wev ma]or pol,tlral dp. clslon. The Grand Palace 15 also a splendid showoff In luxury and ele~ance i v l n ~ g glory to the ruler and h15dynasty 01 None

Robber Band 1s not bulb 'by the Q large Castle player, but wrll appear ~n prov~ncMedlum Castle g Increases he total number er rvlth great unrcst Monr. L, soldiers that can defend the SmuRg,err provlnre D e c r e a s ~ ~ncorne, loyalt . among all social groups and Prestige Increases attnt~on A Large Church was the place of worsh~p for Chr~sttantowns. It among troops was a slgn that the town wa5 er. HillFmt pandlng and galnlng Imporlance Formed b'ockhOuseandsur- It a150 served as f h hub for b r ~ h ~

yield more and rlcanrr nrr iI,r\ farvunitsobersea\ It tannr~lb hp

p clean ore was w e d 4 10 UFI:placrd ~na coa~tat r o v ~ n r . ~ rn~lruments prodlrcrrnn and Q None of meant r~ches 1%owner for Coal Pt Yone I~CIP~SPS mcorne.

i 1 . i ~nst~tut~on t1d1nr.d yorlrlp rtprr rn s~rnple task5 llhc rt.,jri~n\:, c o u n t ~ n ~ recltln! thr t>~t>lr and Th15 was the frrst ~ n r t l i ~ ~ in o q t~ p a ~ s atta~nh~pClerlearn~nq I! lo

Naval Harbon t k c r ~ a ~ e d for cost





rprrad the h a w instrum~rv for : h a ~p;.rse ser~esof v. roads unrlrr<lanrl~nqanr! k r n ~ l e d v e s - ; I,, w,l\ or, o r d ~ r monk5 or bfl""nc,l ni o f b n on the ancient throuph @11t n ~ r ~ t v non5 who worked and paved Roman mad5 lhal lay across Euhllln~<tic Scbnolq


Raab ntt

rounded a paltsade, , , In less rrnponant or prertlp this bu~ldrng often ra~sed Illour d,oceser, was ~n

Q 'H111 Fort

gOOd defensive a larFr area

to protect


The sourcc of knowledge In the Increase Noble loyalty, De- Hngt ,-.ased penalty for holding too Thls s.ructure conr~sted a huge mdleval sOclety. Here of many dernerne prwincer keepsurrounded strongforl~f~ca~ l a 5 5 ~ and~sorted, ~l d and wailable for !hose wllh au!Ion5 and a broad ditch Gmnbshipgarb Huge Castle. thorrty The grand sbpvard WE. an exQTheSwen L~beral Arts ae lg f pansm of fls smaller cousin It Increases the total number M0h~ was not only a gateway for new soldlers that ran defend the Research bonus, increar~r 171 advances, but abo ~ncreased province ine, one time Prestrge bonus the possrbrl~tv sending armles of overseas Impraucb mine rbium Castle T">c mproved m,ne war a large Tills struclure consisted of a None venture that used a water drluen l a r g stone burEdlng (a keep) surNaval Harbor Decreases cost of trampor- whet to l ~ l the ore and ro re- rounded by a smgle stonewakl t ~t move excess water from the pits. and a d~lch.S o r n e t l m ~ also r,?tlon. had towers but not alwap ~ i ~ h ,~, ,~ ~ b t , ~ Percuss~onddll~n~ g d Mrne Med~um Castle Thrpvps o'tel orqan~zed themI n c ~ a ~ income. es Small Cadle selves i n ganp with a h~erarIncreases the total number chy that enabled them to steal LaqcCastIt 1'1 sold~ersrhat can d e f ~ n d the more efficiently Thrr was a ma- 'i:i~s~!ruflure coml$ted of a very a dou- Provl"C' p problem for the ruler because large keep surrounded n cost lots of money to or~anlre bled stonewall and a ditch Four mht t c~ryguards or hunt down and large stone towers stood at ~ t s h'ln~sarear old as human~ly, but I?pre m l n s have been refinedto el~m~nate robbers. H~ghway corners the


Increases Clergy and Peasant None I alty, one-time Piety bonus Increaser the total number , , ,c n soldrerr that can defend the prov~nce ~lklltg

IJTile Factory, Church


a m m

togpthpr Thrv $ ~ p d f ? l ~b 7 1-OPe 11 rnr ~ P A F P ~ only thp ( 6e no1 ".an? O ~ p - t l mP r r r t ~ ~ e r bonus. In from r+=culrr i ~ f o lived speed of tmvrl, h r ~also tr?+ dnd f d 5 ~ 5pread of Advances. 8 ~ \ 51mplif.pravrne a ~ r fl n c u l ~ n ~ on Road Bulldln~ what!hw f ~ Iiva5 ~mportant t None ceased lnrome Increased To11 rnromv qhorrQ Monas'ic School$ Small Ca5tk i ~ lF~c~ory e transpnrt flme. fDcr~a5?5atra,lPd and R 4 1 Irl'ion Q troops ! Increaser qold Ipy. ~tCQTIFIT'P~] I V F P rnotlr~d of ;E RogelPost frlpped bv a stone trlwpr A pall moneylrnbtrs --v?l Post was an Insrltl~ rnde ale? a drtcb then rr~rround I'r~glr~ally rhos? I* des?erae. t~on post r~ders, of who travclrri re tmer nr"d and never for fn'Fs'nlpnr' thrnvyh !he dorna~nwllh orr'rrc m i m l l C a r ~ l e ln Q ~ lent ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ior and ~rl'orrnat~on I f i ~ ~ ~ l p r ; r n d H 11 F ~ r t ' for Oqfe h15 adnrnrrtrat~on Thrs !7s:1*!1- 63 Incrpd\p~ total numbpr allb'rerr " " 1.0" v d ~ l y 1mprme0 *he ruler'r rolrl~er+ I I ~ I defp~l!*hp I can " C'r1rt1anban On abll~tv !o rrta8n toorrol of h15 provlncr usury Thrs paftprn changed over laldsand h l ~ ~ r l b l r r l s Smithy tlme H q b r prodr~ct~on e!l~c~enVow T~P v m'. ?~<truvenral In cy ~ncre?redthr ~ e oi~ wvnq d bo'h p r o d ~ ~ r ~ r g larm~nglnstrucurrency ~nstead bartrr wCeq of Decreared for "ld- r n ~ n t s ~ WCdpDlX It ~ncrea~ed nd exchanp~np, l a r ~ e arnomts of too rnzny deme\nr provlnrall sccfors o'eronomy goods Thls made Iradp :hp PPW decreased Income Ironworks reason for m o w lend~nq Q local F.4erchant Houres Saumilf Vane mYnne Ih~ \a111m11' clit and made a~tncreaser lnrorne rrrcreared ioyalfy form the pld"~ h @ m1 0 ~ 5 1: WrtlV !m. $muggIrrsUing rphers decreared loyalty from ~ r o b p h e economy In d Prm. ,+, r,ller 1' P C t e r ~ y Increased Inromp, m ~ a n V e d UP ~ b b l l c d bulldln~ +dxp5 ard lcrlls less law Kont f ~ r m ~ rhanlr orpan~zedsmup l t d~crpxpd piety Forprtry p l p ~r 1 c~r~ilrnvrnth ~ ~ e 0 f nnualHarbar 7hc r~ava'I ) ~ r b izas an erpan ~r Iqclea'P' Income* decreases Frt,f.:ldl roas that ,he ruler had Inprotel a d nn thrm Th15was ~ r r ~ t a t ~ n q s~on II< r~i~lsdn of varrant ~twas m ~Id'''t s 'lme for n for thp KIIIP~ 10<1needed mwho not only a ~ r t f w a v new adlclr come 5 r n u ~ g IA r fn~ s not bull! ~ ~ 1 vances. bu? ?l?n ~nrrcaredthe w s ~ h ~ l t !o4 s p n d ~ n n r ~ c r l ~ anlllby the play(sr, b l ~wll' a c t ~ ~ ~n ! er


. ,,




provinces wfth great unrest



Q None.

This societa instituton provldes B T h e v e s Guld. t e s and Burghers, decreased i n higher education, ~~~h~~ educa~ 0 Decreased income, de- come. tion was a prerequisite for higher I oased Prestige, decreased l o y ~ clerical appointments. Thicucs Guilb ally from Peasants. In t m s of grrai need and after QU"ver5lty. Spinningmill major conllicts desperate men E S c h o o l . Ths was the place where cot- and women went to the forests Research bonus. Increases trade \~lreadof Advances, decreased ton and wool were turned i n to live by the land and to clothes and IaPeSmes. It was caravans and merrhants. This "come. more effective and profitable created unrest and made people than production at home. fear the highways, thus the ruler War Acabrmy Ths was not really an academy, QCloth Making. often had to use his own regl~ but a loose network of compeBNone. ments to hunt down these vill tent officers and warrtors. who 0Increases income. lains. Thiwes Guilds is not built trained worthy candidates. A by the player, but will appear in TemplmHousc province needs at least l 5 inprovinces with great unrest. come to be able to build this imThs was a local chapter ol one None. provement. of the religious m~lilaryorders. 1 None. 3 Its members were supranational 0 Decreased income, de- QTra~ning Grounds. monks of war, but they also sup^ BNone. r:,!ased Prestige. enhanced r~sk plied services other than martial. lncreased troop speed. 01 be~ngassassinated. Their med~calservice was quite Watmnills good and they also functioned TilcFartoq Tlls was a baded wheel dipped aia bank, lend~ngmoneyaganst Heremanvworkers made tiles by Into a steamiiig river to let the securities. putting the materal into moulds. force of the stream power a mill. Q None. Th~swas very effect~vemodeol The mill grinds the seed into a BMonastery. production and vastly ncreased flour w~thoutthe need for seriIncreased loyalty from No- the production of tiles, wh~ch ous manual labor. ; zs, one-time bonus in Piety, quickly became a dominant Q Water Wheel. decreased income. building material BNone. Q stone Pit. lncreased income Thcatcr gNone. Its roots could be found in anlncreased income. decreases Winbmills cient Greek but the comedies I ulding time for other improve^ This was a wheel equipped wrth and dramas of the anoents were sail to let the wind turn miIlThe nolcommon in medievaltime. In mill ground the seed into flour later times professionals began ~ ~ (irounbs~ i ~ i withoul the need for serious performing plays with more pro- The .,hlarch ~ , ~ l dof , , In~ manual labor. lane content. Th~sf~rmlyestab- spired large Q None. Iished a lradltlon would be fields. Here the regiments could BNone. lhat perfected in the days of Shake- muster and for war. 0lncreased income, decreased speare. Demands a minimum of Q i ~ l d i n g for other improvetime 15 ~ncomefromtheprovince. None. 11ents. Q None. Increased troop speed

0 Increasedloyalty Irom No-

Crarbes Chrualicrs population recover the Appenbir H The Arabic~Fienchcomb~nat~onworst plaguetoever to hitfromconthe meaning "Castle of the Knights: Crusaber tinent In the backwater of the one of the mightiest and most Black came spiritual unimpressive Medeval Castla. Kings music The Knights of S1 John, who oc- rest inDeathbelief thai the Wrath the

several hundred years for the

of God had hit Christianity. cuped it 1142-1271. is also said Main Thellie. to ilave built the C a s k At the Warwithout cnb peak of 11spower, the garrison of ltle Great Struggle between El Cib and Rodrigo Dial de Vivar is often Crac des chevaliers housed over the Engl~sh the French King 2000 men and t s extensive un- over the French Crown; a war as a Castilian military derground storerooms held sup^ that continued for a little more leader and national hero, init~allybeing a Mamluk slave sol- plies to withstand lengthy seges than a Century with periods of and blockades. In 1271 following peace in between. The fortunes dier. He fought for a Castilia not a mighty battle. the Castle fell to of war and control over land ruled from Leon, but power-hun~ gry as he was, he saw no prob~ the great Mamluk leader Sultan changed hands many times durIng the war. Eventually France lem in fight~ngfor, as well as Baybars. managed to throw the English against the Moors to further his The brotherhood of Cluny aims. Heended up recognizedas The mightiest Monastery in out of France. Hirtor~callydue Prince. His popular name, El Cid. Chrislian~tygave birth to &me to the length of the conflict, it of the most brilliant intellectuals has been named "The Hundred comes from Spanish-Arabic 'ass& bearing the meaning"LorC. of the Era. It was a virtual ideo~ Years War". The leaend ol El Cid war maan- logical think-tank and it grew to Cross or crown lied b;theinfluenceofthe l i t h - become a dominant power in Witha Eurooellamed bvcn~lwar pol~ticsowningvastlandswithits centurv epic poem ol Cart~le.El andepcCrlsader, a brtiwrlvalry own vassals. c a n t a r d e k o ' ~ d T h e Songol " between the Chr~stian power, led the C d La Srrcnissima by Pope Gregorius, and a man Venice - Once know as the MerAscorpioninthc sanb chant capital of the world. lead^ of noble descent, in the shape of the German Emperor Henry Saladin, a former slave-soldier ing the West in trade w ~ t h the arose. The Emperor, unwilling of Egypt, often symbolizes the Eastern market, Venice soon Musl~m response to the Cru- hosted wealth and power, and to follow the rules inst~tutedby sades. According to the legend, some of the most renowned the Pope, war initially hum~liated and forced to travel through EuSaladin turned the tide of the merchant families bu~lt magniliCrusade and fought two of the cent palaces and cathedrals, still rope dressed like a monk to the great: Richard the Lionheart of ~mpressingitsvisitors.Venice be^ Vatlcan in order to beg for forEngland and Philip Aogustus of came one of the most important giveness lrom the Pope. How~ ever, the light did not end there. France. Saladin s one of very centresfor art and music. but continued unt~l Emperthe few personages of the time of Dance with the reaper or grew stronger and linally got the Crusades who has managed The bubonic olaaue. also known . .. to enjoy posil~vedescr~ptionin as the Black Death, moved the upper hand in this dispute of both Western and Eastern soun- through Europe and with~n 5 power. es of history. yearsll347-1352) decimated the population by 25 million. It took