Science Reviewer
Spanish Exploration

Summarized by: Angelo Gonzalez
Spanish Expeditions Expedition of Magellan -First to Circumnavigate the world Boats: Concepcion, San Antonio, Victoria, Santiago and Trinidad -Documented by Antonio Pigafetta South American Route: Mutiny by the Captains –execution of Quesada Mendoza. Cartagena was left on Pantagonia 1520: Santiago was destroyed by a storm. Passed the Magellan Strait. Trinidad, Victoria and Concepcion left. 1521… March 6, reached Guam. March 16, arrived in the Leyte Gulf March 31, first mass in Limasawa- met Chief Kolambu Villalobos Expedition- led by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos -Establish a settlement in the Philippines -Strengthen Spanish lands and territories in Asia -Failed: Limited resources, mutinies. Legazpi Expedition- led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi -Establish a permanent settlement in the Philippines and new trade routes from Asia from the New World. -Placed the country under Spanish rule and authority -Creation of the city of Manila -Entrance of Western Influences to the Philippines Spanish Political System Problems during colonialization -scattered settlements -insufficient number of priests -formation of a government was problematic

GOD -711 CE: Muslims invade Europe, particularly the Spanish Provinces. -1511 CE: Spaniards take back their territory Spanish Kingdoms: Castilla, León, Asturias, Aragon and Galicia. Granada is last province to be retaken. Reconquista- Retaking of Spanish provinces from other powers. Effects: -Start of Spanish Exploration -Ended the 800 years of Muslim rule. -Belief that the Spaniards should remove all Muslim Influences. PROTECT AND SPREAD CHRISTIANITY GLORY Aims: -Find new ways to Asia -Establish new trade routes -fame, fortune and respect for the Spanish kingdoms -Territorial Expansions -Competition against Portugal Christopher Columbus- Discovered America, believed the earth was round. Started the age of exploration GOLD -Search for the Mollucas or the spice islands -Spices, Minerals, Metals, Precious stones. Spice- Precious commodity. Flavors and preserves food. Legend of El Dorado- a golden man who is the king of the city of gold. Treaties and Agreements May 4,1493 Signing of Inter Caetera -A papal bull written by Alexander VI -Divided the world into East(Portugal) and West (Spain) with an imaginary line.

June 7, 1494 Signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas<City in Spain Pueblos- towns where new converts would live in. Centralized -Moved the imaginary line 370 leagues west of the original all government institutions. lines. -Church -Equal territories to both countries -Municipal Government-executive, legislative and judicial branch Treaty of Zaragosa -Spain sold the Mollucas to the Portugese Reduccion- Settlement Policy.Transfer of inhabitants to the -Territories of Portugal will go to Spain and vice versa. different pueblos to bring them closer to the church.

appointed by the king.e the Audencia investigates the Gov Gov-Gen.Exercised judicial. -Exercised Indulto de Comercio-power to trade with other power provinces. Gov-Gen. Oidores/Judges Prosecutors Aguacil Mayor/Police Notaries/Clerk Provincial Government Headed by a Provincial Governor appointed by the Governor General. Principalia. but the GovGen. legislative and executive powers National Government General: -Governor-General: Highest ranking official.. Alcaldia-Provinces that have achieved peace. -Investigates abuses done by the Governor Investigates Governor-Gen. Later on -Adviser of the Governor General -Court of Appeals Structure: Municipal Government Pueblos -headed by the Gobernadorcillo -Former Datus Barangay headed -headed by the Cabeza who also collected tax. Domingo Salazar in 1584 -Served as the Judicial Branch of the Colonial Gov’t.Cabinet/Council Former -Native Elites -Land Owners -Former Gobernadorcillos -Cabezas Political Issues Conflict of Interests i. -exercised Cumplase. used -larger than Pueblos -used as a parish and for farming and labor Taxation Encomienda Right -Right of Spaniards to collect tax -collected by the Encomendero -Used for the physical(infrastructure) an spiritual condition Used and of the people Tributo -Main source of income -Costs is 8 reals (later 12) Costs -Could as be paid through products Could -paid by anyone age 16-60 Uses: -Uses: Salaries for Gov’t officials. -Governed by a Corregidor .Agricultural estates owned by the Friars given by the king. -Governed by an Alcalde Mayor Corregimiento-Provinces that have not achieved peace or in disarray.approve or deny laws -Vice Royal Patron.Insular Government -Spanish Government in the Philippines -Levels: -Insular -National -Provincial -Municipal -Appointment of councils -The Council of Indies.religious authority -President of the Audencia-Highest judge or legal Highest authority -Captain General-Military Leader -Audencia -Created byFr. Hacienda. Improve create infrastructures. heads the Audencia Abuse of Power Corruption Laws -Foreign to Filipinos -Written in Spanish Role of the Friars -owned haciendas use -use the fear of God among the people -meddled with political agendas Early Spanish Economic System Land Ownership title Recopilacion de las Indias –title of the King of Spain saying he owns all lands.

>Tamblot Uprising(1621) -Called people to leave the pueblos and go back to the mountains -believed the Diwatas and spirits would help them >Revolt of Datu Bangkaw and Babaylan Pagali -Denounced Christianity and built a temple for their Diwatas -Beheaded by the Spaniards as an example. Jose Basco y Vargas -Excess/surplus products were confiscated -Laborers were NOT allowed to use the product Basi(wine) was also monopolized in the Philippines.Cedula -Replaced the Encomienda System -based on a person’s income -People exempted: poor/unemployed. -Profits would be used for parish works and/or more loans. >Revolt of Apolinario Dela Cruz “Hermano Pule” -Rejected by the Spanish religious orders -Est. -Trade in Asia goes to the Philippines to be brought to Mexico -Gave the Philippines a source of income but used by the Spaniards -Boleta – a ticket or receipt that says you have reserved a compartment in the Galleon. Candaba and Polo. >Revolts of the Rajahs (1587-1588) -The Rajahs of Manila: Datu Navotas. Cofradia de San Jose in 1832 • Excluded Spanish membership • Brotherhood of Filipinos who wanted to become priests. Early Revolts Causes -Loss of Political Power -Exclusion of Filipinos in Spanish Society -Abuses towards the Filipino -Land Grabbing -Betrayel -Excessive taxes Loss of the Datus and Rajah’s Political Power >1574-Rajahs Lakandula. Loans Obras Pias -the ONLY party allowed to loan money to others.Soliman and Sulayman opposed the confiscation of their lands and the encomienda tax. Rejection of Filipinos Priesthood. known as polista -Manpower needed by the gov’t -Applies to all non-Spaniards 16-60 -Payment of Falla exempts the person from Polo -1/4 real a day Monopoly (not the card or board game) Tobacco -Began in 1782 by Gov-Gen. -aimed to restore power Return to the Old Religion-Babaylans denounced Christianity and wanted to return their power. Trade Manila-Acapulco Trade -Trade between Philippines and Mexico -Established 1565 -used Galleons (Spanish ships) -One of the most important trade routes in the age of exploration. >Revolt of Canquenga (1607) -Canquenga encouraged the people of Cagayan to return to the old religion -Successfully led his people against the Spaniards and retreated to the mountains.rejected Filipinos as part of the church. Datu Tondo. -based inside the Church -Money came from the rich to be used for charity but instead went into this.Banahaw • Support and popularity threatened the position of the friars. Spaniards(often give little or none) Bandala -Forced sale of goods to the Gov’t -Provinces are given a Quota for a product -Prices were set by the gov’t -The Spaniards would often issued a promissory note instead of paying. people with disabilities. Pandacan. -To remain superior to them. • Headquarters were in Mt. Polo y Servicio -Rendering service or labor to the Gov’t . • Hermano Pule and his followers were Executed .

Diego Fajardo who ordered them to build Galleon ships. >Spaniards hung them and imprisoned or deported the rest. Global Relief Reform Cavite Mutiny 1872 -Gov-Gen. Failure of the Revolts -Divide and Conquer-tactics used by the Spaniards -Negotiation . . Patriotism.Internationally recognized painter who painted the “Spoliarium” and “El Pacto Sangre”(Blood Compact) -Felix Resurrecion Hidalgo-Painted “La Barca de Aqueronte”(the boat of Charon) and “ Laguna Estigia”(the river styx) *Painters and Writers revealed the 1. Raphael Izquierdo who forced Filipinos to polo and excessive tax. Monopolies -Wine and tobacco were seen as a source of income and a precious commodities of the Filipinos and Spaniards -Filipinos were restricted by the Spaniards from using them. -> The Spaniards blamed GomBurZa as the leaders of the Mutiny in order to put the blame on Filipinos. -Revolt of Lagutao 1785 >against the Tobacco monopoly -Antonio Dela Cruz “Guasing” 1788 >Against the abuses of the traders and merchants in the monopoly trade. -Pedro Mateo and Ambaristo’s Revolt 1807 >Opposed the Basi(wine) monopoly > took over provinces under the basi monopoly: Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. -Maniago & Malong Rebellion 1660 >led by Andres Malong & Francisco Maniago against the force labor of 1000 kapampangans >Gov-Gen. Globalism.role of the Friars -Betrayal -unorganized/didn’t work together Nationalism.Abuse and corruption of the Spanish gov’t and friars 2.The interest of the entire world above those of individual nations. Ilustrados -Filipinos who studied and travelled to Europe -middle class -received good education -led the Filipinos to the call of reform Writers -Graciano Lopez Jaena – wrote “Fray Botod” and “La Hija Del Fraile” -Marcelo H.Propaganda Movement Nation-a community of people composed of one or more nationalities and possesses a more or less defined territory and government Nationalism-loyalty/devotion to a nation praising it above other nations. with the desire for national advancement and independence. They were charged with Subversion and executed by garote.ideas of reform in the Philippines. Diego Fajardo ordered the cutting of timber.Del Pilar-wrote “Diariong Tagalog” and “Dasalan at Tocsohan” -Jose Rizal.Noli Me Tangere(Touch me not) and El filibusterismo(the Filibuster) Painters -Juan Luna.Love and/or devotion to a country. Among those who attended the execution was Jose Rizal.Economic Policies Tributo -Rejected by Filipinos -unreasonable sanctions against their non-payment -unreasonable taxation policies -Excessive collection and corruption of the Encomendero -Famous Revolts >Diego and Gabriela Silang >Juan Dela Cruz Palaris Polo Y Servicio -Sumuroy Rebellilon 1649 >uprising against Gov-Gen.

Human Rights Katipon highest ranking position.1896 -Known articles: Catuiran by Pio Valenzuela Known Manifesto by Emilio Jacinto ibig Pag-ibig sa tinubang lupa by A. Teodoro Plata and Valentin Diaz Goals: Political 1.Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan Founded July 7. -used pen names to hide their identities: Rizal:Laong laan Del Pilar: Plaridel Sangguniang Bayan Ponce: Naning.Kalipulo. Teach the people right conduct 2. Philippine representative in the Spanish Cortes Membership of the KKK 4.1895 -Highest governing body -Founded by Rizal.Structure of the KKK La Liga Filipina -org. Ignored by the Friars Bayani church and advocated free thinking 3.Tigbalang Luna:Taga ilog -Provincial Council -Administers the barangay Administers Goals of the Propaganda Movement Sangguniang Barangay 1. Defend the poor/oppressed 2.1892 as an effect of the propaganda and reform movement by Andres Bonifacio. secretary and treasurer. No strong leader after the execution of Rizal members: 5. Ponce. 1892 Sanggunian -peaceful organization -aims : . Deodato Arellano. of Free based Outcome Kawal Masons which Andres Bonifacio is a 1. of Ilustrados Kataasang -est. Ladislao Diwa. Jaena and Del Pilar included -included the President. Independance Civic 1.Bonifacio -Similar to La Solidaridad they used pen names Similar . Became a catalyst or jumping point for the Philippine int Katipon=Anak ng Bayan Kawal=GomBurza Bayani=Rizal revolution The Katipunan galang Kataas taasan.Unite the whole country -Support Education Support Sangguniang -protect and assist all members -Study and implement reform Study Bayan -Fight violence and injustice Sangguniang Barangay La Solidaridad -official publication of the La Liga Filipina Kataasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council) -First printed Nov 15. Equal Status for both Filipinos and Spaniards 3. Help other Filipinos and members Moral 1. Philippines as a province of Spain Represents -Represents the various barangays aand pueblos 2. Secularization of Philippine Parishes Used -Used a Hierarchy with Bayani as the 5. Remove colonial mentality 3. -based on the secret org.July 3. Demands rejected by Spain member of. Failed to implement reform -Each Rank had its own password to protect its h 4. Fatalism Kartilla Teachings -Teachings of the KKK written by Emilio Jacinto -Those who followed it will receive a symbolic name Those -It is like a rule book or guide for Katipuneros k -Provinces that accepted it: Cavite(Magdalo) Provinces Noveleta(Magdiwang) Maragondon(magtagumpay) Kalayaan -Official publication of the KKK -First printed January 18. Free Masons criticized the 2.

b. -Results: 1. Katipunan were able to gather more arms 3. Est.Aguinaldo 2. Aguinaldo won the election.Pres. Started the hostilities against the Katipunan b.1896 factions. c. -The execution of the 13 martyrs of Cavite. -The 8 rays of the sun in the Philippine flag symbolize these provinces. Andres Bonifacio was the mediator in the conflict when he confessed and led Fr. -Spaniards arrested and tortured suspected Katipuneros.Bonifacio as Supremo of the Katipunan start the revolution in his meeting at Kangkong. The fighting spread to neighboring provinces.Many people objected saying that rejected the Spanish authority and started the revolution. Pampanga. Governor Generals during the Revolution 1. Josefa Rizal.Pres. Bulacan. E. peace and amnesty with the KKK i. Reform and build the Philippine nation The Revolt of the 8 Provinces -Revolt of Manila. Artemio Ricarte Captain-General but due to miscommunications and other factors they Emiliano Riego de Dios Director of War didn’t push through with it but attacked Bulacan on Andres Bonifacio Director of the Interior August 30. -aimed to resolve any disputes and fighting between the 2 Teodoro Patino betrayed the Katipunan on Aug 19. Gregorio De Jesus-as vice president Reasons of Revolts 1. Cavite. Magdiwang faction led by A.1897 Cavite -an effect of the Split of the Katipunan(magdalo and magdiwang faction) which crippled the command structure The Start of the Philippine Revolution conceived by Bonifacio. Unite the Filipino 3. Encouraged more people to join the Revolution 4. Crippled the Guardia Civil 2.Mariano Gil to the place -it became the first election.Bonifacio -Effects: 1. Liberated most of the provinces Spanish rule Tejeros Convention March 22. where the KKK published their news paper.Aguinaldo as the president Spanish spies and to plan the revolution. Abolition of the Katipunan Bonifacio encouraged the Katipunan that it was time to 2. Emilio Aguinaldo. . A.Important Figures A. Andres Bonifacio. Nueva Ecija. Sought to est. He later 3. Emilio Aguinaldo President Mariano Trias Vice president Bonifacio ordered the KKK to attack Manila on August 29. End the 333 years of Spanish rule 2. Melchora Aquino – “Tandang Sora” mother of the Katipunan F. known as the Indios bravo and the father of the Katipunan B.It went against their beliefs. Tarlac. Bonfacio was insulted by many Cry of Pugadlawin including Aguinaldo when it was suggested that he should be -The tearing of the Cedula was the time when the Filipinos the Vice President. of the KKK. Bonifacio lacked the education needed to attain that position. Ramon Blanco a.Bonifacio as director of the interior -During the convention. Early Revolts -Early fights were focused mostly in Cavite -The uprising was led by the factions of the KKK 1.Head of the Magdalo Faction C. Emilio Jacinto-brains of the KKK and writer of the Kartilla E. Magdalo faction led by E. Batangas and Laguna. Gregorio Del Pilar-the young general and hero of the Tirad Pass D. of the women’s branch of the Katipunan G. -Considered to be the first skirmish between the Katipuneros and Guardia Civil. a revolutionary government moved the meeting to Pasong Tamo to escape the a. Early Failures -Bonifacio asked the ilustrados to join the revolution but most of them refused. Created the Battalion de Leales Voluntarios de Manila to stop the early uprisings. Start a new and independent gov’t 4. Removal of A. Considered as weak by the Spaniards .

b. 3. Charges OK GOOD LUCK WITH THE EXAMS! HOPE THIS HELPS!!! Tell a. Replaced Polavieja in August 1897 b. Granted freedom of… a. Naic military agreement between him and Bonifacio(more on this after) c. Written by Felix Ferrer & Isabelo Artacho 2. Execution (later changed to exile) i. His reign has been described as cruel and brutal d. c. Exile of Aguinaldo and his men to Hong Kong given an independent government by the Spanish colonial 2. 200 000 upon the surrender of 800 firearms -Aguinaldo saw this as a threat against the already established c. Outcome a. Continuous fighting between the Filipinos and Spain We the Americans arrived.Pact of Biak-na-Bato December 14.1897 -Formal declaration between the new government and the Spanish Colonial gov’t -Accepted Rivera’s amnesty Naic Military Agreement -Provisions -Bonifacio(pissed off after the Tejeros convention) would be 1. Planned to establish his own Government d. were not yet there. Sedition and Treason me if there are an errors. b. Maragondon on May 10. 2. -effects: a. Aguinaldo was afraid because many Filipinos supported Bonifacio. a. crippling the KKK and the Revolutionary government’s base of operations. Aguinaldo thought that if he had Bonifacio executed it will start a revolt. 200 000 upon the surrender of 1000 firearms Revolutionary Gov’t. Verdict a. Education c. Payment of P900 000 to families affected by the war. The press or “free speech” d. Aguinaldo was then persuaded to change the Verdict back to execution. Offered amnesty and independence (pact of Biak na Bato) d. 1987 and executed there. Executed many Filipinos who were suspected to be Katipuneros c. b. Profession . Successfully subdued the province of Cavite. 3. ii. 3. They were brought to Mt. Primo De Rivera a. Payment of P800 000 to the Philippines as indemnity gov’t.1897 3. Signed and ratified Nov 1. Aguinaldo ordered the execution of the Bonifacio brothers c. Succeeded Blanco after he resigned due to the Cavite revolt b. 400 000 upon Aguinaldo’s Departure -Hostilities between Spain and Bonifacio’s men shall cease. Arrest of Bonifacio and his brothers After that… b. Camilo Polavieja a. Conspired to assassinate Aguinaldo 2. Religion b. Apparently Spain “sold” us to them or something like that. Biak-na-Bato Republic -Revolutionary -> Democratic-Revolutionary Gov’t -Establishment of the Armed Forces -Biak-na-Bato Constitution 1. Trial of Andres Bonifacio 1. Removal of the Revolutionary Government through rebellion.

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