Submitted By: 1. Munem Shahriyar 2. Md. Mohasin Sarder 3. Uzzol Sarkar 4. Md. Fahim Hasan Ibn-e Khair 5. A.S.M. Lutful Niaz (ID: 3-11-20-016) (ID: 3-11-20-022) (ID: 3-11-20-063) (ID: 3-11-20-054) (ID: 3-09-15-035)

Submitted To: Prof. Dr. Pradanendu Bikash Chakma Dept. of Management Studies University of Dhaka

Date of Submission: August 7, 2011


Business Report: Definition ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Classification of Business Reports............................................................................................................................... 2 Brief Description of Various Kinds of Reports ..................................................................................................... 3 Steps to prepare Business Report ............................................................................................................................... 4 Features of Good Report ................................................................................................................................................... 6 Three Step Writing Process ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Steps to plan Business Message .................................................................................................................................... 8 Writing ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Composing Message........................................................................................................................................................... 16 Completing the report ...................................................................................................................................................... 19 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................................... 24

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Some reports might propose solutions for business problems or might present relevant information to assist in the problem solving process. Analytical reports Research reports According to formality the reports may be divided into two parts:   Statutory reports Non statutory or voluntary reports Page 2 . CLASSIFICATION OF BUSINESS REPORTS The following are the two bases of classifying the reports  According to function.BUSINESS REPORT: DEFINITION The purpose of a business report is to communicate information to assist in the business decision making process. and According to formality According to functions the reports may be divided into three parts:    Informational reports.

These reports are required to be prepared and submitted: (i) for the administrative and other conveniences. collected data and information. Analytical reports: These reports contain facts along with analytical explanations offered by the reporter himself or may be asked for by the one who is seeking the report. Non statutory reports: These reports are not in the nature of legal requirements or rules wants. Research reports: These reports are based on some research work conducted by either an individual or a group of individuals on a given problem Statutory reports: These reports are to be presented according to the requirements of a particular law or a rule or a custom now has become a rule. (iv) for projecting the future Page 3 . The auditor reports to company registrar has to be submitted as per the requirements of country legal requirement. the reports are to be prepared and submitted.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS KINDS OF REPORTS Informational reports: These reports present facts about certain given activity in detail without any note or suggestions. therefore.(ii) for taking decision in a matter (iii) for policy formulations. classified and tabulated data and also explanatory note followed by the conclusions arrived at or interpretations. Whatever is gathered is reported without giving any thing by way of either explanation or any suggestion. Such reports contain the narration of facts.

This step would also help to determine how detailed the report would be. 3. marital status. etc. Without knowing the target audience. 3. Doing a topic search to speed up the process 3. The author uses available technology to find valid information using the following steps: 1. 5. Bookmark the pages 2. exact phrases Then. As part of preparation. Preparing to write the business report Preparation is the key to write a business report. This process would involve what topics would be covered in the report and what elements are not necessary. Repeating the research frequently to find updated information 3. Questions such as who will use the report. etc. Establish the credibility of all the sources (Are they current? Who published them? Are they biased?) After having found the best sources during this preliminary research. although not the main focus. is the primary group of people that something is aimed at appealing to. 4. doing preparatory research is imperative. Identifying good search tools 2. gender. The best ways to manage sources found online are to: 1. Discovering the appropriate target market(s) to market a product or service to is one of the most important stages involved with market research. 2. Preparing to write the business report Determining the scope of the report Understanding the target audience Research to collect supporting information Formatting and organizing the report 1. the writer must manage the outcome of the research. Understanding the target audience A target audience. a company's advertising and the selling efforts can become difficult and very expensive. A target audience can be people of a certain age group. In this step the potential requirements of the readers have to be considered and the target audience has to be identified. or target group. wild cards. Page 4 . females.STEPS TO PREPARE BUSINESS REPORT In general when writing business reports the following steps have to be followed: 1. Determining the scope of the report In this step the author has to determine the scope of the report. 2. may also be interested. the author can now begin to think about whom to write it. educational level of the audience.) Other groups. single people. (ex: teenagers. Searching using Boolean operators.

A lot of reports would require some form of Data collection. Formatting and organizing the report This is usually the final step before actually writing a business report. Many times Investigative research might be needed.knowledge level of the reader. Page 5 . personal demographics of the audience. Collecting information for the report In this step all previous reports. Recommendations and proposed solutions have to be studied and reviewed in this process. what should be the level of technical complexity? 4. 5. what is the reader expecting from this report. It is important that the process and methods used for research are explained. In this step the format of the report has to be decided. surveys and publications about the topic should be studied. Data which is collected during this process should be presented clearly in the report.

Human errors. a survey report. Be it a progress report. the subject should be presented in an unbiased and objective manner. as the case may be. Impressionistic statements and inaccuracies will have to be avoided. Page 6 . Alternative viewpoints The purpose of a report is to get the facts in proper perspective. maps and tables are relevant to the matter under study and enhance understanding. Good reports are those where the report writer maintains non-partisan attitude. When the data quoted is taken from secondary sources. 3. The data quoted in the report is likely to be made use of by several other individuals and agencies. Authoritative facts and figures The report writer should ensure that the facts and figures quoted in the report are authentic and reliable. should make it a point to meticulously go about collecting all related information for inclusion in the report. graphs. which cover additional information which is pertinent to the matter dealt within the-body of the report. and questionnaires and so on. Although the final recommendations may be based on a consensus or majority view. Maintain a judicial approach The report writer should keep to measurable facts and verifiable details. 6. The reporting authority or the report writer. 5. Appropriate annexure Most reports contain relevant annexure.FEATURES OF GOOD REPORT These are certain essential features good report writing:1. A good report calls for an effective assessment based on authentic facts and figures. In-depth analysis Any report that does not go into the details of the subject studied may turn out to be peripheral requiring additional information. care should be taken to see that the sources are reliable and cross-verified. relevant statistics. There should be an intention to get the inputs or views from different persons who are in a position to throw light on the subject or incident under study. an analytical report or an enquiry report. 4. Both the positive and negative aspects of the issues studied should be covered in the report. Care should be taken to ensure that any such’ charts. Such annexure normally include charts. the fact that some other views were also expressed during the course of deliberations or enquiries should also be mentioned. Issue in perspective The first essential for any good report is to bring out the issue in its proper perspective emphasizing the pros and cons. biases and any kind of selective reporting have no place in report writing. 2.

spelling errors. and correct. concise. and style. With that in mind. we have to select the right medium (oral. Finally. and developing coherent paragraphs. Then we are ready to compose our message by choosing strong words. we can gather information that will meet our audience’s needs. written. we have to adapt to our audience with sensitivity. relationship skills. Writing business messages Once we’ve planned our message. we will have to revise our message to make sure it is clear. and other mechanical problems. creating effective sentences. or electronic) to deliver our message. Page 7 . giving it an attractive. Next produce our message. distribute your message using the best combination of personal and technological tools. Completing business messages After writing our first draft.THREE STEP WRITING PROCESS We can reduce the time and energy it takes to achieve Effective Communication by following a clear and proven three-step process: FIGURE: THE THREE STEP WRITING PROCESS Planning business messages To plan any message. Proofread the final product for typos. we have to first analyze the situation by defining our purpose and developing a profile of our audience. Next. professional appearance.

however.     Consider other viewpoints. Defining Purpose All business messages have a general purpose: to inform. the more effectively we’ll be able to communicate with them. they need to be interested in what we’re saying. their needs. 4. how they should respond. Ask your audience for input. They need to see what’s in it for them—which of their needs will be met or problems will be solved by listening to our advice or doing what you ask. If we launch directly into writing without clarifying both our purpose and our audience. colleagues. to persuade. The more you know about your audience. and when. Page 8 . we’ll waste time and energy.STEPS TO PLAN BUSINESS MESSAGE Analyzing Situation A successful message starts with a clear purpose that connects the sender’s needs with the audience’s needs. Will anything change as a result of our message? Is your purpose realistic? Is the time right? Is your purpose acceptable to your organization? Developing an Audience Profile Before an audience takes the time to read or hear our message. This purpose helps define the overall approach you’ll need to take. from gathering information to organizing our message. Read reports and other company documents. even identifying which audience members should respond. Conduct an audience analysis:      Identify our primary audience Determine audience size and geographic distribution Determine audience composition Gauge audience members’ level of understanding Understand audience expectations and preferences Gathering Information With a clear picture of our audience. or customers. and their expectations. and we’ll probably generate a less effective message. We should ask these four questions: 1. 2. Talk with supervisors. 3. this task can be more demanding in more complex situations. routine messages. our next step is to assemble the information that we will include in our message. We should state our specific purpose as precisely as possible. or to collaborate with our audience. Identifying your purpose and your audience is usually a straightforward task for simple.

They help you express the emotion behind your message. why. They can reduce the communicator’s control over the message. speeches. hear. They often rule out the chance to revise or edit your spoken words. our next step is to satisfy those needs completely. and how. in-person presentations. when. verifiable record of the communication. and electronic media extend the reach of both. where. Oral media can have several disadvantages:     They restrict participation to those physically present. Providing Required Information Once we’ve defined our audience’s information needs. they provide no permanent. Being able to see. giving oral media several advantages:     They provide immediate feedback. Is the information ethical? 3. Use the journalistic approach to make sure our information answers who. if people interrupt or ask unanticipated questions. what. such as whena consumer sends an e-mail asking a specific question. In other cases. Oral Media Primary oral media include face-to-face conversations. They allow a certain ease of interaction. we can think of media as traditionally being either oral or written. from traditional memos to glossy reports that rival magazines in production quality. interviews. and react to each other can benefit communicators. For the sake of discussion. Each type of medium has advantages and disadvantages. Unless recorded. In addition to delivering the right quantity of required information. and meetings. They involve rich nonverbal cues (both physical gestures and vocal inflections). Written Media Written messages take many forms. Page 9 . we are responsible for verifying the quality of that information. your audience’s information needs are readily apparent. We should ask our self these three questions: 1. Is the information accurate? 2. Is the information pertinent? Selecting the Right Medium Selecting the best medium for your message can make the difference between effective and ineffective communication.Uncovering Audience Needs In many situations. your audience might be unable to articulate exactly what is needed.

Disadvantages of written media include the following:     Many are not conducive to speedy feedback. Elaborate printed documents can require special skills in preparation and production. portability. Advantages of Electronic Messages are:      They deliver messages with great speed. They can increase accessibility and openness in an organization. Teleconferencing. They offer the persuasive power of multimedia formats. and convenience. It’s best for brief. Electronic Media Electronic media span a diverse and expanding range of technologies. They minimize the distortion that can accompany oral messages. from e-mail and IM to blogs and podcasts. The growth of electronic communication options is both a blessing and a curse. They lack the rich nonverbal cues provided by oral media. low cost. You have more tools than ever to choose from.           Telephone calls are still the lifeblood of many organizations. They can be used to avoid immediate interactions. including emotional confrontations when communicating controversial messages. Instant messaging (IM) allows real-time. They reach audiences physically separated from you. one-on-one and small-group text conversations via personal computer Websites and blogs have become vital communication platforms for many businesses. but you need to choose the right tools for each message.Written media have a number of advantages over oral media:      They allow you to plan and control your message. noncomplex information that is time sensitive. E-mail offers speed. Faxes have been replaced by e-mail and PDF files in many cases. but they still play an important role in many. Page 10 . and online meetings are best for informational meetings DVDs (and to a declining extent. They reach a dispersed audience personally. They offer a permanent. They often take more time and more resources to create and distribute. for both internal and external communication Voice mail can replace short memos and phone calls when an immediate response isn’t crucial. Podcasts are one of the newest and most exciting media choices for business communicators. They help you reach an audience that is geographically dispersed. verifiable record. videotapes) are effective for sending audiovisual messages to a large number of people Electronic documents include both word processor files and Adobe’s widely popular Portable Document Format (PDF). videoconferencing.

They often lack privacy. lead to poor decision making. it saves you time. and shatter business relationships. good organization helps our audience:    Good organization helps your audience understand your message Good organization helps your audience accept your message Good organization saves your audience time Page 11 . In addition. Successful communicators rely on good organization to make their messages meaningful. They expose companies to data security threats and malicious software. FIGURE: CHOOSING THE MOST APPROPRIATE MEDIUM Organizing Message Misinterpreted messages waste time. making sure we’re on the right track before spending hours working on our draft. They can seriously drain employee productivity. In addition to helping us. we can use our organizational plan to get some advance input from our audience. What does good organization do for us? First and foremost. They are easy to overuse. So we can see how valuable clear writing and good organization can be.Disadvantages of Electronic Messages are:      They can inadvertently create tension and conflict.

a conclusion.  Page 12 . explains. Your entire message supports. Indirect approach (inductive): When our audience will be skeptical about or even resistant to our message. Consider a variety of techniques to generate creative ideas:     Brainstorming Journalistic approach Question-and-answer chain Storyteller’s tour The scope of our message is the range of information we present. and follow that with our supporting evidence.Defining Main Idea The broad subject. start with the evidence first and build our case before presenting the main idea. start with the main idea (such as a recommendation. we’re ready to decide on the sequence you will use to present your points. or a request). and the level of detail—all of which need to correspond to our main idea After you’ve defined our ideas. or topic. We have two basic options:  Direct approach (deductive): When we know our audience will be receptive to our message. of every business message is condensed to one idea. whether it’s soliciting the executive committee for a larger budget or apologizing to a client for an incident of poor customer service. the overall length. or demonstrates your main idea—a specific statement about the topic of your message.

we can adopt the “you” attitude by replacing terms that refer to our self and our company with terms that refer to your audience. and use bias-free language. we can use all the right words and still not be sensitive to our audience and their needs. build a strong relationship with our audience.WRITING Adapting to Audience We must adapt our message to our audience. However. and control our style to maintain a professional tone. To demonstrate true audience sensitivity. Emphasizing the Positive Sensitive communicators understand the difference between delivering negative news and being negative. In other words. adopt the “you” attitude. a less formal approach might be more appropriate. maintain good standards of etiquette. but look for positive points that will foster a good relationship with our audience. us. and ours: Maintaining Standards of Etiquette Good etiquette is not only a way to show respect for your audience. Being Sensitive to Audience’s Needs In any business message. mine. Using the “You” Attitude On the simplest level. us. an added measure of courtesy is usually needed. when we are communicating with people who outrank us or with people outside our organization. try to be sensitive to our audience’s needs. or disability. it also helps foster a more successful environment for communication by minimizing negative emotional reaction: Of course. ethnicity. emphasize the positive. some situations require more diplomacy than others. If we know our audience well. Bias can come in a variety of forms:     Gender bias Racial and ethnic bias Age bias Disability bias Page 13 . race. We must Never try to hide the negative news. age. use you and yours instead of me. Using Bias-Free Language Bias-free language avoids words and phrases that unfairly and even unethically categorize or stigmatize people in ways related to gender.

on even the most routine matter. However. The impression you make can enhance or damage the reputation of the entire company. We can achieve a conversational tone in our messages by following these guidelines:     Avoid obsolete and pompous language Avoid preaching and bragging Be careful with intimacy Be careful with humor Page 14 . and expertise Endorsements Performance Confidence Communication style Sincerity Projecting the Company’s Image When we communicate with outsiders. a measure of your believability based on how reliable we are and how much trust we evoke in others. The right choice depends on the nature of your message and our relationship with the reader. Credentials. to the interests and style of our company. colorful or dry. Whether we’re working to build credibility with a new audience. we serve as the spokesperson for your organization. Controlling Style and Tone Style is the way we use words to achieve a certain tone. personal or formal. Using a Conversational Tone The tone of our business messages can range from informal to conversational to formal.Establishing Credibility Our audience’s response to every message we send depends heavily on their perception of our credibility. knowledge. at least to some extent. We can vary our style our sentence structure and vocabulary—to sound forceful or objective. to maintain credibility with an existing audience—or to restore credibility after a mistake—emphasize the following:          Honesty Objectivity Awareness of audience needs. that formal tone might sound distant and cold if used with close colleagues. If we’re in a large organization and we’re communicating with your superiors or with customers. or overall impression. our own views and personality must be subordinated. Thus. our tone would tend to be more formal and respectful.

the passive voice combines the helping verb to be with a form of the verb that is usually similar to the past tense.Using Plain English Plain English is a way of presenting information in a simple. and the object receives the action: “John rented the office. understand and act upon the first time they read it. We are using active voice when the subject performs the action.” We’re using passive voice when the subject receives the action: “The office was rented by John.” Selecting Active or Passive Voice Our choice of active or passive voice also affects the tone of our message. Using the passive voice can help you demonstrate the “you” attitude in some situations:    When you want to be diplomatic about pointing out a problem or error of some kind When you want to point out what’s being done without taking or attributing either the credit or the blame When you want to avoid personal pronouns (I and we) in order to create an objective tone Page 15 . “As you can see. unadorned style so that our audience can easily grasp our meaning—language “that the intended audience can read.

The most successful messages have three important elements: strong words. clear. Love. horse. First. Chair. material world. kick. and audiences put less faith in an uninformed source. table. Balancing Abstract and Concrete Words Words vary dramatically in the degree of abstraction or concreteness they convey. and they are often intellectual. or visualize. progress. Page 16 . If you have doubts about what is correct. think carefully to find the words that communicate exactly what you want to say     Choose powerful words Choose familiar words Avoid clichés and buzzwords Use jargon carefully Creating Effective Sentences Making every sentence count is a key step in creating effective messages. An abstract word expresses a concept. poor grammar can imply that you don’t respect your audience enough to get things right. a concrete word stands for something you can touch. Finding Words That Communicate When you compose your business messages. and coherent paragraphs. try to let your creativity flow. Poor grammar implies that you’re uninformed. effective sentences. they are direct. quality. technology continues to generate new words and new meanings that describe things that don’t have a physical presence but are nonetheless concrete: software. database. we have to pay close attention to correctness. Start by selecting the optimum type of sentence. As you compose your first draft. In contrast. If we make grammatical or usage errors. Make upwards if you can’t think of the right word. see. profits. and exact. Choosing Strong Words Effective messages depend on carefully chosen words. and motivation. You’ll have time to revise and refine the material later. draw pictures. quality. tradition. kiss. or characteristic. signal. rose. Incidentally. or philosophical. Don’t try to draft and edit at the same time or worry about getting everything perfect. Most concrete terms are anchored in the tangible. and two are concrete words. talk out loud—do whatever it takes to get the ideas out of your head and onto your computer screen or a piece of paper. we lose credibility with our audience—even if your message is otherwise correct. and use the proper form of expression. whether we select them during our first draft or edit them in later. academic. honor. encompassing a category of ideas. as are such important business concepts as productivity. and then arrange words to emphasize the most important point in each sentence. Abstractions are usually broad. and code are all concrete terms as well. and beauty are abstractions. we’re ready to begin com-posing your message. look up the answer. red.COMPOSING MESSAGE With these insights into how you can adapt to our audience. Worse still. green.

A compound sentence has two main clauses that express two or more independent but related thoughts of equal importance. One obvious technique is to give important points the most space. Understanding the Elements of the Paragraph Paragraphs vary widely in length and form. compound. Echo a word or phrase from a previous paragraph or sentence: “A system should be established for monitoring inventory levels. in addition.In effect. and compound-complex.” Use a pronoun that refers to a noun used previously: “Ms. Topic Sentence Every properly constructed paragraph is unified. This system will provide . could not stand alone.. Arthur is the leading candidate for the president’s position. although it may be expanded by nouns and pronouns serving as objects of the action and by modifying phrases. effective paragraphs are coherent. Transitional Elements In addition to being unified and well supported. A simple sentence has one main clause (a single subject and a single predicate). usually joined by and. a compound sentence is a merger of two or more simple sentences (independent clauses) A complex sentence expresses one main thought (the independent clause) and oneor more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses) related to it. the topic sentence is usually explicit and is often the first sentence in the paragraph. they are arranged in a logical order so that the audience can understand the train of thought. The subordinate thought. and so on. You can emphasize these key ideas through your sentence style. but most contain three basic elements: a topic sentence. The sentence that introduces that topic is called the topic sentence. You can establish transitions in a variety of ways:    Use connecting words: and.” Page 17 . but. that is.Choosing from the Four Types of Sentences Sentences come in four basic varieties: simple. but. or. Using Sentence Style to Emphasize Key Thoughts In every message. In business writing. The topic sentence gives readers a summary of the general idea that will be covered in the rest of the paragraph. it deals with a single topic. and transitional words and phrases. at least one of which contains a subordinate clause: Profits have increased in the past year. support sentences that develop the topic. however.. nevertheless. some ideas are more important than others. Transitions are words or phrases that tie ideas together by showing how one thought is related to another. complex. Readers expect each paragraph to focus on a single unit of thought and to be a logical link in an organized sequence of the thoughts that make up a complete message. or . often separated by a comma. You achieve coherence by using transitions that show the relationship between paragraphs and among sentences within paragraphs. and although you may question. Crafting Coherent Paragraphs Paragraphs organize sentences related to the same general topic. which comes first in the following sentence. A compound-complex sentence has two main clauses. She has excellent qualifications.

” Developing Paragraphs A paragraph’s coherence strongly depends on how you develop it. . Using Technology to Compose and Shape Your Messages As with every phase of business communication. and tables of contents Wizards Page 18 . Five of the most common development techniques are illustration. and suited to your purpose. careful use of technology can help you compose and shape better messages in less time. appropriate to the idea you’re trying to portray. cause and effect. . comparison or contrast. footnotes. indexes. Technology provides a wide range of tools to help writers compose documents:       Style sheets and templates Auto completion Auto correction File merge and mail merge Endnotes. . . Its maximum output is . Use words that are frequently paired: “The machine has a minimum output of . classification. and problem and solution. and the best way to do that is to use a structure that is familiar to your readers.

making sure that the document accomplishes your overall goals before moving to finer points such as readability. then producing. Varying Sentence Length Variety is a creative way to make your messages interesting and readable. the third step of the three-step writing process: revising your message to achieve optimum quality. each sentence length also has disadvantages. and recommendations. You’ll benefit from this effort. organization. or blogging.COMPLETING THE REPORT Moving Beyond First Draft The third step of the three-step writing process: completing our messages. they will read it more carefully when time permits. unfocused message and a lively. Long sentences are often the best way to convey complex ideas. try to put your draft aside for a day or two before you begin the revision process so that you can approach the material with a fresh eye. and makes your information appealing to your reader. and move on to the next project. particularly when using instant messaging. the revision process is often as simple as quickly looking over your message to correct any mistakes before sending or posting the message. send the message on its way. clarity. clear. Each sentence length has its advantages. you can create a rhythm that emphasizes important points. or summarize or preview information. enlivens your writing style. we may be tempted to breathe a sigh of relief. If they determine that the document contains valuable information or requires a response. Too many short sentences in a row can make your writing choppy. people will pay more attention to your work. Of course. Then start with the “big picture”. Revising Message The nature of the revision task varies somewhat according to the medium you’re using and the nature of your message. list multiple related points. By choosing words and sentence structure with care. proofreading. text messaging. conclusions. Skimming also helps readers assess the worthiness of the document. and tone of your message. direct message that gets results. Once we’ve completed the first draft of your message. Once you’re satisfied with the content. Most professionals are inundated with more reading material than they can ever hope to consume. Medium sentences lack the punch of short sentences and the Page 19 . make a second pass to look at its readability. Short sentences can be processed quickly and are easier for nonnative speakers and translators to interpret. With more complex messages. e-mail. For informal messages to internal audiences. too: If you earn a reputation for well-crafted documents that respect the audience’s time. and compelling as it needs to be. and they’ll appreciate your efforts to make your documents easier to read. styles. Careful revision can mean the difference between a rambling. and distributing it. Beyond shortening words and sentences. Successful communicators recognize that the first draft is rarely as tight. Medium-length sentences are useful for showing the relationships among ideas. Most business audiences—particularly influential senior managers—skim most documents looking for key ideas. you can improve the readability of a message by making the document interesting and easy to skim. and conciseness.

your next step is to make sure your message is as clear and as concise as possible. Thus. By choosing the best sentence length for each communication need and remembering to mix sentence lengths for variety. Keeping Paragraphs Short Large blocks of text can be visually daunting. sentence structure. longer sentences are also more difficult to skim. the longer your sentence. Page 20 .informative power of longer sentences. Meanwhile. long sentences are usually harder to understand than short sentences because they are packed with information and ideas. and increase the likelihood that a reader will find your key points. the greater the possibility that the reader who skims it will not read enough words to process its full meaning. Unless you break up your thoughts somehow. delete. so the optimum paragraph length is short to medium in most cases. and word choices Using Technology to Revise Your Message When it’s time to revise and polish your message. indicating subsections with a major section. Headings and subheadings serve these important functions:    Organization Attention Connection Headings fall into two categories. look closely at your paragraph organization. Because readers can absorb only a few words per glance. you’ll end up with lengthy paragraphs that are guaranteed to intimidate even the most dedicated reader. Adding Headings and Subheadings A heading is a brief title that tells readers about the content of the section that follows. or other items. Using Lists and Bullets to Clarify and Emphasize An effective alternative to using conventional sentences is to set off important ideas in a list—a series of words. your word processor can help you add. names.   Descriptive headings Informative headings Editing for Clarity and Conciseness Once you’ve reviewed and revised your message for readability. To ensure clarity. and move text with functions such as cut and paste (taking a block of text out of one section of a document and pasting it in somewhere else) and search and replace (tracking down words or phrases and changing them if you need to). heighten their impact visually. Subheadings are subordinate to headings. you’ll get your points across while keeping your messages lively and interesting. Lists can show the sequence of your ideas.

The software for creating business visuals falls into two basic groups: presentation software. influencing their perceptions of the communication before they read a single word. graphical elements. the visual design itself sends a nonverbal message to the audience. Sound. Typeface style influences the tone of your message. Video. pay careful attention to the following design elements:      Consistency Balance Restraint Detail White Space Margins and Justification Margins define the space around your text and between text columns. Typefaces Typeface or font refers to the physical design of letters. depending on both the medium you’ve chosen and the degree of formality you need to achieve. The production quality of your message—the total effect of page or screen design. and Hypertext Today’s word processors and other software tools make it easy to produce impressive documents and online materials that enliven your messages with full-color pictures. businesslike or casual. If done poorly. Moving up to instant messaging and e-mail. A polished. design elements can act as barriers. or (4) centered. and hypertext links. First. such as type size and color Adding Graphics. In the simplest media. you can control a variety of aspects. design elements can improve the effectiveness of your message. which can be set (1) justified (flush on the left and flush on the right). Effective design helps you establish the tone of your document and helps guide your readers through your message. classic or modern. Naturally. if done carefully. sound and video recordings. They’re influenced by the way you place lines of type. and other text characters. numbers. such as text messaging. To achieve an effective design. typography. which helps you create electronic slide shows for in person or online meetings and graphics software. (3) flush right with a ragged left margin. and so on—plays an important role in the effectiveness of your message. making it look authoritative or friendly.PRODUCING MESSAGE Now it’s time to put your hard work on display. (2) flush left with a ragged right margin. you have virtually nothing to do. Be sure to choose fonts that are appropriate for Page 21 . blocking your communication Second. the production task varies widely. and so on. Designing for Readability Design affects readability in two important ways. which ranges from basic tools that help you create simple business diagrams to the comprehensive tools preferred by artists and graphic designers. inviting design not only makes your material easier to read but also conveys a sense of professionalism and importance.

Most computers offer dozens of font choices. Numbered and bulleted lists: Let your word processor or online publishing system do the busywork of formatting numbered and bulleted lists. It can also automatically renumber lists when you add or remove items. Type Styles Type style refers to any modification that lends contrast or emphasis to type. Desktop publishing software such as Quark XPress and Adobe InDesign goes beyond word processing with more advanced layout capabilities that are designed to accommodate photos. but you can benefit by approaching proofreading as an overall quality-assurance review. underlining. video clips. audio commentary. (These programs are used mainly by design professionals. you can offset quotations by increasing margin width around a single paragraph.) Look for two types of problems: (1) undetected mistakes from the writing. You can also boldface isolated words in the middle of a text block to draw more attention to them. Using Technology to Produce Message The production tools you’ll have at your disposal vary widely. too. numerical data. italic.) For online content. technical drawings. and other features into computer-based presentations that once cost thousands of dollars to create.your message. Some IM and e-mail systems offer limited formatting and production capabilities. and other elements. saving you the embarrassment of miss-numbered lists. Using boldface type for subheads breaks up long expanses of text. as your last chance to make sure that your document is ready to carry your message—and your reputation—to the intended audience. most blogging systems now simplify the production of blog content. Paragraph formatting: Take advantage of the various paragraph formatting controls to enhance the look of your documents. proofreading is the process of inspecting a printed piece to make sure that all necessary corrections have been made. design. web publishing systems make it easy to produce great-looking webpages quickly. Similarly. whereas most word processors now offer some capabilities that rival professional publishing software for many day-to-day business needs. and layout stages. including bold face. but most of these are inappropriate for general business usage. or use hanging indents to offset the first line of a paragraph. Multimedia production tools such as Microsoft Producer let you combine slides. making it easy to rapidly post new material. For instance. Tables: Tables are a great way to display any information that lends itself to rows and columns: calendars. comparisons. (Strictly speaking. subtly compress line spacing to fit a document on a single page. PROOFREADING MESSAGE Think of proofreading as the quality inspection stage for your documents. and other highlighting and decorative styles. and (2) mistakes that crept in during production Page 22 . depending on the software and systems you’re using. and so on.

the choice is obvious: just hit the Send button in your e-mail program. don’t proofread immediately after finishing the document. especially when lots of graphics and different fonts are involved. you’re ready to distribute the message. Be vigilant: Avoid reading large amounts of material in one sitting. margins. Use perceptual tricks: You’ve probably experienced the frustration of reading over something a dozen times and still missing an obvious error that was staring you right in the face. spacing. To keep your brain from tricking you. Give yourself some distance: If possible. from the bottom to the top. page numbers. and any number that could cause grief if incorrect (such as telling a potential employer that you’d be happy to work for $5. Try (1) reading each page backward. This happens because your brain has developed a wonderful skill of subconsciously supplying missing pieces and correcting mistakes when it “knows” what is supposed to be on the page. your options for distribution multiply with every advance in technology.000). and (4) reading the document aloud and pronouncing each word carefully. Use these techniques from professional proofreaders to help ensure high-quality output: Make multiple passes: Go through the document several times. the second pass may be to check for typographical. As with every other aspect of business communication. In other cases. you need to trick it by changing the way you process the visual information. DISTRIBUTING MESSAGE With the production finished. such as when you have a 100-page report with full-color graphics or a multimedia presentation that is too big to e-mail. and other design features. (3) making a slit in a sheet of paper that reveals only one line of type at a time. In some cases. addresses. When planning your distribution. alignment. grammatical. (2) placing your finger under each word and reading it silently.Be particularly vigilant with complex documents and complex production processes that involve teams of people and multiple computers. colors. focusing on a different aspect each time. and spelling errors. Try to block out distractions. The first pass may be to look for omissions and errors in content. let your brain wanders off to new topics. then come back fresh later on. and a final pass could be for layout. and try not to proofread when you’re tired. Double-check high-priority items: Double-check the spelling of names and the accuracy of dates. you’ll need to plan the distribution carefully so that your message is received by everyone who needs it and only those who need it. Stay focused: Concentrate on what you’re doing. and your message is on its way. Strange things can happen as files move from computer to computer.000 a year when you meant to say $50. and focus as completely as possible on your proofreading task. consider the following:     Cost Convenience Time Security and privacy Page 23 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY Page 24 . In addition to the need to develop adequate business skills. systematic and well written business reports can help boost up an organization beyond the limits. The importance of effectively communicating the results of a study cannot be overemphasized.CONCLUSION As the business environment grows in its complexity. It is of little use to formulate solutions to business problems without transmitting this information to others involved in the problem-solving process. everybody will find it necessary to effectively communicate to others the results of various studies. the importance of skillful communication becomes essential in the pursuit of institutional goals. So.

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