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VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS

When two solid bodies in contact move relative to each other, a friction force develops at the contact surface in the direction opposite to motion. To move a table on the floor we apply a force to the table in the horizontal direction large enough to overcome the friction. The situation is similar when a fluid moves with relative to a solid or when two fluids move relative to each other. We move with relative ease in air, but not so in water. Moving in oil would be even more difficult, as can be observed by the slower downward motion of a glass ball dropped in a tube filled with oil. It appears that there is a property that represent the internal resistance of a fluid to motion or the fluidity and that property is the viscosity. Briefly; it is the property of fluid which is responsible for resistance to deformation. We can define the viscosity as dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity. Newtons Shear Stress Law:

is shear stress,

is dynamic viscosity and

is velocity gradient.

If the dynamic viscosity is divided by density, kinematic viscosity is obtained:

Classification Of Fluids: Fluids for which the rate of deformation is proportional to the shear stress are called Newtonian fluids. For these fluids relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation is linear. Most common fluids such as water, air, gasoline and oils are Newtonian fluids. If the fluid do not obey the shear stress law of Newton, it is called Non-Newtonian fluids. For Non-Newtonian fluids, relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation is not linear.

Relationship Between Viscosity Temperature and Pressure: In general, the viscosity of a fluid depends on both temperature and pressure, although the dependence on pressure is rather weak. For liquids, both the dynamic and kinematic viscosities are practically independent of pressure, and any small variation with pressure is usually disregarded, except at extremely high pressure. For gases, this is also the case for dynamic viscosity since the density of gases is proportional to its pressure. The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its stickiness or resistance to shear. It is due to the internal frictional force that develops between different layers of fluids as they are force to move relative to each other. Viscosity is caused by the cohesive forces between the molecules in liquids, and by the molecular collision in gases, and it varies greatly with temperature. The viscosity of fluids decreases with temperature whereas the viscosity of gases increases with temperature. This is because in a liquid the molecular possess more energy at higher temperature and the can oppose the large cohesive internal molecular forces more strongly. As a result the energized liquids molecules can move more freely. In a gas, the intermolecular forces are negligible and the gas molecules at high temperature move randomly at higher velocities. This result in more molecular collisions per unit volume per unit time, and therefore in greater resistance to flow.

Viscosity of some fluids at room temperature is listed in the Table. Liquids, in general, are more viscous than gases.

EXPERIMENT REPORT: Purpose of experiment: The purpose of experiment is to determine the change of viscosity which is important property of fluids, with respect to the temperature and velocity gradient experimentally. Question 1: Which one of the fluids is a gas and which one is liquid? Why? Fluid A is gas and Fluid B is liquid. We know that one of the fluids is gas and the other one is gas. When the viscosities are analyzed, at each temperature viscosity of fluid A is lower than fluid B. As we mention before in general liquids are more viscous than gases. Question 2: Draw a new table and arrange the values of the viscosities with respect to the temperatures values. (In other words, indicate that which viscosity value is according to which temperature value?) Before draw the new table, we must remember that viscosity of gases increase with temperature and viscosity of liquids decrease with temperature. Therefore, Fluid A will have minimum viscosity value at 0 C and maximum viscosity value at 100 C. Fluid B is a liquid so it will have maximum viscosity value at 100 C and minimum viscosity value at 0 C. The new table:
Temperature( C ) 0 10 30 40 60 80 90 100 (Fluid A) (Fluid B) 1,71E-05 1,78E-03 1,76E-05 1,30E-03 1,86E-05 7,90E-04 1,90E-05 6,50E-04 2,00E-05 4,00E-04 2,09E-05 3,50E-04 2,13E-05 3,10E-04 2,18E-05 2,80E-04

is based on kg/m Question 3: Plot the variation between the viscosity (y axis) and temperature (x axis) for fluids distinctly.

Question 4: Discuss about the variations with respect to theory of viscosity for both fluids. Actually we mentioned nearly all property of these fluids (gases and liquids) in introduction part. If we want to summarize and compare the fluids properties, we can say that our experiment results are parallel to theory of viscosity. As we say at introduction part, in general viscosity of fluids are greater than viscosity of gases. We can see it from viscosity our values. In theory, viscosity of gases increase with temperature and viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature. We can see the same result in our viscosity values and from the graphs. The reason of this is that internal molecular forces of liquids are higher than gases. It depends on collision forces in gases and cohesive forces in liquids.