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INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL SCHOOL

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

SMS 2044 PRACTICAL LAB
REPORT 2

NAME: JANNATUL ADNIN BT JINAN TAIB. PROGRAM: BACHELOR IN MEDICAL SCIENCES. INTAKE : SEM 5 (GROUP ) ID NUMBER: 01 2009 05 0973. LECTURER: Dr Mohanad DATE: 8/ 07 / 2011.

and it remains difficult to cure in Western countries. They also get to identify the structure of abnormalities on each slides. thanks to improved sanitation and use of antibiotics. A patient suffering from muscle atrophy or cancer might have a biopsy removed and the affected tissues can be visualized histologically. gastric cancer is still the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. MATERIALS/ CHEMICALS: Microscope Slide of Intestinal metaplasia goblet cell. If the pathologist wants to visualize the cells and tissue. Even patients who present in the most favorable condition and who undergo curative surgical resection often die of recurrent disease.INTRODUCTION: Pathohistology of gastrointestinal given us the larger view of the disease. Oral papillacarcinoma & Esophagus Squamocellular cancer . OBJECTIVES: Students able to distinguish the normal cell and abnormal ones. decreased intake of salt. Decreases in gastric cancer have been attributed in part to widespread use of refrigeration. and decreased contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds arising from the decay of unrefrigerated meat products. leading to inflammation and an associated increase in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. which had been used as a food preservative. Salt and salted foods may damage the gastric mucosa. which has had several beneficial effects: increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Nevertheless. the biopsy will be stained to help visualize the nuclei and proteins. Chronic atrophic gastritis. primarily because most patients present with advanced disease. Other factors likely contributing to the decline in stomach cancer rates include lower rates of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. For this staining. and increased screening in some countries. most biopsies are labeled with hematoxylin (stains proteins red) and eosin (stains nuclei dark blue/purple) which makes the tissue easier to see.

• Atrophy of the gastric mucosa is the endpoint of chronic processes. Then. We describe two cases of PSCC arising in the oral mucosa. and invasion into the superficial region of the underlying fibrous tissue was seen in the form of islands and cords of malignant cells. Used the emulsion oils to see the 100 X magnification. and may be confused with verrucous carcinoma of the head and neck. The epithelium consists of a mixture of intestinal-type goblet cells and columnar mucus-secreting cells. Under low magnification. • Adenocarcinoma. • In complete small bowel Intestinal Metaplasia. morphologically resembling those of the normal gastric epithelium. 2. . 3. the contour of the mucosa changes with the development of villi and crypts. goblet cell • In Intestinal metaplasia. and autoimmunity directed against gastric glandular cells. sclerodermia. and fibrous tissue.METHODOLOGY: 1. medium and upper esophagus. pyloric-type glands. In advanced cases. starts from the lowest magnification to the highest. • In incomplete metaplasia. the gastric mucosa changes to resemble normal small bowel epithelium. located in the third lower. After draw all the specimen with details on the cells. Paneth's cells may be present in the base of the crypts. there is a change in the cells of the surface and pit epithelium so that morphologically and histochemically they come to resemble the cells of either the small or large bowel. such as chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. discuss further about the slide to lecturer. Intestinal Metaplasia may be complete (type I) or incomplete (type II) . watch the overall of the specimen and choose the right magnification that can be see clearly. (especially when associated with the presence of Barrett’s esophagus). obesity. The most important risk factors for the development of this carcinoma are gastroesophageal reflux disease. oral papillacarcinoma • Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a poorly described variant of squamous cell carcinoma. originating from epithelial pavement cells. • The lesions were composed of exophytic proliferation of atypical to overtly malignant cells similar to those of conventional squamous cell carcinoma. for the association with esophagitis. While observe take the pencils and draw what can be see in A4 paper. observe the slide be given first. chronic atrophic gastritis • Atrophic gastritis is a histopathologic entity characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa with loss of gastric glandular cells and replacement by intestinal-type epithelium. other unidentified environmental factors. 4. characterized by fully developed goblet cells and enterocytes with a brush border. The most important risk factor is the association smoking and alcohol. DISCUSSION: Intestinal metaplasia. recognizable absorptive cells are not seen. Esophagus Squamocellular cancer • Squamocellular carcinoma. mostly present in the terminal esophagus and derives from the cylindrical epithelium.