This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We will be passing AC signals from a signal generator through the circuit to monitor how the respective components affect the signals' behaviour. In particular we will be monitoring phase relationships and component reactances.

Equipment: • • • • • Circuit Board Digital Multimeter x2 Shorting Links and Connecting Leads Signal Generator (EI810322) Oscilloscope (EI211384)

Method: As the method of all three experiments are generally the same, I will describe the process of only one of the experiments. The circuit was connected up as shown in figure 1, with the ammeter connected in series and the voltmeter in parallel. The highlighted connecting link was removed as the ammeter completes the circuit. The following settings were set for the oscilloscope: • • • • • Timebase – 0.2ms/div AC trigger Dual trace operation Ch1 vertical gain – 2V/div, AC input Ch2 vertical gain – 50mV/div, AC input

The signal generator was then connected and set to a sinusoidal wave of frequency 500Hz and amplitude 12V pk-pk. The frequency was doubled up to 4 kHz, taking down the voltage and current for each frequency value, as shown in table 1. The capacitive reactance was then worked out using the relation Xc = V/I.

Xc is roughly halved when frequency is doubled.1.5 Reactance Xc/Ω 2 1.5 3 2.5 1 1.5 Frequency/kHz Table 2.1 – Voltage-current relationship. capacitor Frequency/kHz Voltage/V Current/mA Capacitive Reactance . Table 2.5 3 3.2 we can see that reactance has a relationship of inverse proportion.5 4 4.5 2 2.5 1 0. From graph 2. Reactance against Frequency 3.RMS value for a square wave: 2.1 also shows this.5 0 0 0.

Graph 'b' best represents the phase relationship between the voltage across a capacitor and the current through it.62 0.92 4. so it can be said reactance Xc is proportional to 1/C. 4. Capacitance is about 320nF.93 3.82 0.42 4.22 2.96 3. Reactance against Capacitance 8 7 6 Reactance/kΩ 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Capacitance/nF Again.25 1.43 3.5 1 2 4 3.35 3. It can be concluded from the values obtained that the phase relationship between the voltage and current are not dependant the signal frequency. We can work out from the graph that at Xc=1kΩ .06 1. If we examine the graph we can see that the peak of channel 1 is leading by about 90o over channel 2.78 9. that . Frequency/kHz 2 4 8 Phase Difference -90° -90° -90° on 5.Xc/kΩ 0. the graph shows inverse proportion.

75 7. Graphs 3.94 Current/mA 0.7 0.88 3.96 3.5 0.Table 2.93 4.46 0.5 2 1.69 2. Inductive Reactance against Frequency Inductive Reactance against Inductance 4 3 2.2 show similarities in their plots.22 2.4 0. Graph 'a' best represents the phase relationship between 8.8 0.V-Current relationship: Inductor Frequency/kHz 0. Both resemble straight lines.3 – Variation of Capacitive Reactance with Capacitance Capacitance/nf 47 100 220 470 Voltage/V 3.5 4 4.74 3. Channel 2.34 0.5 3 3.1 .1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Inductive Reactance/Ω Frequency/kHz Inductance/mH Table 3. therefore showing signs of direct proportionality. This is supported by the values obtained in table 3.7 5.5 2 2.41 3.11 Inductive Reactance XL/Ω 0.25 1.96 3.16 Current/mA 10.5 0. the Current is leading the voltage by 90o .5 1 1.5 1 0.7 Capacitive Reactance/kΩ 7.69 6.9 5.5 1 2 4 Voltage/V 3.07 3.1.1 and 3.78 1.6 0.68 1.2 0.5 0 0 0.56 1.95 3.5 Inductive Reactance/Ω 3.3 0.

10.2 0 43.2 differ quite drastically. The resonant frequency is located at 46kHz.26 0.5 45 45.4 0.25 0.5 Frequency/kHz 11.1 and 4.5 46 46.26 12.5 48 48.2 Current/mA 1 0.8 0. This value is pretty close to the theoretical value of the resonant frequency of 50 Hz.25 0. Current Frequency Relationship Using a 10 kΩ Resistor 0.6 1.24 0.9. 13. Current Frequency Relationship Using a 330Ω Resistor 1.24 0. The current peak seems to spread out over a wider frequency range when the 330Ω was used.6 0.5 44 44. The resonant frequency is located at 20 Hz. The current rises at a Current/mA 0.27 0.5 47 47.4 1.23 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Frequency/kHz .27 0. The shapes of graphs 4.

In the final experiment using the resonant circuit.26 0.25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Conclusion: The effects that an AC signal has on inductors.26 0. The model used was “TG120 20MHz Function Generator” which could only increment the frequency by a minimum of about 1kHZ.steadier rate too. the resonant frequency could have been found more accurately if we had a more sensitive signal generator. 0. It can also be noted that in an RC circuit.26 0.26 0. . Especially around the current peak. When the 1kΩ resistor was used.3 have similar properties. Q= f we can see that we would have obtained a more accurate result had we used a lower 'quality factor'. Using the formula. Q.2 and 2.25 0. varying the capacitance has a similar effect to varying the frequency of the signal. The calculated value of fr in question 11 is more than double the value we fr measured from the multimeter.26 0. the peak of the curve is a lot sharper.27 0. This can be concluded from the fact that graphs 2. capacitors and resistors has been investigated. it would have been useful to plot more points. and we found that the relationship between frequency and capacitive reactance has an opposite relationship to frequency against inductance. and the gradient much higher.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Lab Report - AC Circuits
- Power in AC Circuit Lab Report
- Lab Report 8
- TRANSIENT RESPONSE of AN RC CIRCUIT LAB REPORT
- Lab Report Experiment 3 (c) to Verify Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
- Lab Report 4
- Sinusoidal AC Circuit Measurements
- Lab 4a Transient Analysis
- PEAKvsRMS
- AC Circuits Lab Manual
- 307543 Electrical Systems 100
- ECE 1101 Lab Manual
- Electrical Systems 100 Lab 2
- Lab 3 Band Reject Filter
- Eletronics Lab Report - Diodes - Transfer Function
- Transient Response of RC Circuit
- Lab Report; Diode
- Hammer Full Report
- Exp 3
- Circuits Lab Report Exp1
- Lab Report 6
- Edc Lab Manuals[1]
- Transient Response
- Physics 222 Ohm's Law Lab Report
- Lab 7 RC Time Constant
- REPORT ON “BASIC OHM’S LAW & SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS”
- Eletronics Lab Report - Zener Diodes
- Heat Treatment Report
- Vibrating Strings Sample Lab Report
- EEM328 Electronics Laboratory - Report2 - Diode Characteristics
- Lab Report - AC Circuits in Prog