Science & Global Security, 1991, Volume 2, pp.

351-363 Photocopying permitted by license only Reprints available directly from the publisher @1991 Gonion and Breach Science Publishers S.A Printed in the United Ststes of America

The Radioactive Signature the Hydrogen Bomb
Lars-Erik De Geera


It has long been supposedthat the Teller-illam invention of February 1951,that made the construction of a full-scale fusion devicefeasible could be deducedfrom a careful analysis of the debris that scattersworldwide after an atmospherictest. This was part of the theme of an article in the January/February 1990issue of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists written by Daniel Hirsch and William G. Mathews.1 Their conclusion, arrived at to a large degreethrough interviews with Hans Bethe,was that the H-bomb secretwas given to the Soviets,not through the spy Klaus Fuchs,but rather by carrying out Mike, the first test of a fusion devicebasedon the Teller-illam ideas. The Bulletin article and an extended version of that paper issued by the Los Angeles based Committee to Bridge the Gap2argue that the observationof the very high neutron fluenciesin the explosion,which can be derived from the fallout composition, would lead a competent scientist to the trick. In the present paper it is proposedthat this is not enoughand a suggestion given of what would complete picture and together with is the the high fluencies more easily put the competentanalyst on the right track. This suggestion is also supported by experimental data, not on Mike, but on a Chinese fusion explosioncarried out in 1976. The present paper is based on a paper written, but not published, in 1981, soon after the mass spectroscopy data on the 1976Chineseexplosionwere first published.

INTRODUCTION Until the fall of 1979 the construction principles of the full-scale hydrogen bomb were more or less unknown to people without classified information from the nuclear powers. The United States tested its first H-bomb, codenamed Mike, on November 1, 1952 at the Eniwetak atoll in the Pacific, less than two years after the Teller-Ulam idea was conceived.It has been suggested by many that the Soviets managedto duplicate the successQuite soon


National Defence Research Establishment, Sweden

leader of the theoretical division at Los Alamos between 1947and 1973. For France eight years passedbetweenits first fission bomb test in the Sahara on 13 February 1960 and its first successfulthermonuclear test at Moruroa in the South Pacific on 24 August 1968. It would thus be very interesting to understand what exactly is so informative in the fallout from a thermonuclearexplosion. My own drive to solve the puzzle was born at a seminar given in 1974 by Carson Mark."but that it did benefit from analyzing the relevant reports published abroad. both at their Lop Nor test site in Xinjiang (Sinkiang). Liu Xiyao.5The French probably did not collect and analyze foreign debris carefully enough. Summarizing we can say that it is highly probable that the rapid proliferation of thermonuclear weapon technologyin the fifties and the sixties was based on analyses of the messages carried by the worldwide disseminatedtest debris.was of somefinal help for the French in designing their first working devicetested in August of the following year.6He also said. and UK atmospheric tests and hindering continuing announcementsof the H-bomb secretto the winds. the Soviet Union and Great Britain. the administrative leader of the Chinese hydrogen bomb project. USSR. it could very well be that their first full-scale fusion test. however. that the Chinese at the outset of their thermonuclear program "commandedthe necessaryfundamentals that had been used to make hydrogenbombs in the United States. partly by reading the Mike debris.5 Chinese progress was very rapid between their first fission test on 16 October 1964 and their first fusion test on 17 June 1967.352 De Geer thereafter on 22 November 1955. This enigmatic question attracts evenmore curiosity if one reads citations from different authors who themselves took part in the US thermonuclear program in the 1940s and the 1950s. stopping US. thinking on their own and analyzing foreign literature. If the Chinesecame up with a working schemethrough some help."6 This might imply that they had gotten the basic ideas from the Sovietsbefore the termination of their nuclear assistance program. When Stanislaw illam in his .3According to Hans Bethel the British then in turn read the Soviet debris and tested their first fusion device successfullyat Christmas Island in the Pacific on 15 May 1957. At least they didn't do it before the Partial Test Ban Treaty went into force in 1963. which was conductedin the atmosphere in June 1967. has said that China could not get "any secretscientific or technical data concerning hydrogen bomb development.

. probably novel way of designing hydrogen bombs A careful analysis of the radioactive fallout from the Mike explosion may well have provided them with useful information concerninghow to go aboutit.they had the powerful stimulus of knowing from our November 1952 test that there was some much better. York also refers to Robert Oppenheimerand his view in 1952that there might be a benefit to the United States in an indefinite postponementof the Mike test. somehowleft the audience at the seminar with a feeling that it should be possibleto find out the "H-bomb secret" from fallout analysis. In 1976 an extended version of the article was published as a book. I thought that maybewe have the answer in our archives. It argued that the very demonstration of a US functional thermonuclear device had pushed the Soviets to follow suit and it pointed out the possibility that the Soviets had gotten help from analysis of the Mike debris.1 thought of an iterative scheme."S main thrust was Its to defend Robert Oppenheimer's and the US Atomic Energy Commission's General Advisory Committee's decision not to favor an all-out program to developa superbombin the dawn of the fifties. York wrote: . published an article with the title "The DebateOver the HydrogenBomb.. As 1 was working at a laboratory doing fallout analysis. Oppenheimerreportedly said in 1954about this issue"We thought they would get a lot of information out of it".. After 1 put my thoughts in order and made a semi-concrete sketch. (mainly for the purpose of verifying the Partial TestBan Treaty). who obviouslywas very involved in the Teller-Ulam idea. (In fact this citation had already beenpublished in 1954 in the transcripts from the US Atomic Energy Commission'shearings on Oppenheimer's continuing right to a security clearance.The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb - 353 memoirs7 describeshow he cameup with his cleveridea for the construction of a functioning fusion devicehe writes: .1 went to CarsonMark to discussit The next morning 1 spoketo Teller. Mark. In the October 1975 issue of Scientific American Herbert York. The Advisors. Teller & the Superbomb.9 There. the first director of the Livermore National Laboratory in California..Oppenheime1. It becamereally challenging to try to solvethis mystery. Obviously it was clear even 1°) before the test what useful information would be written into the debris and~ .

How we got it-why we are telling it" in the liberal Wisconsin-basedmagazine The Progressive." which reportedly contained a lot of detailed information on how to designthermonuclearweapons. which several newspaperspublished in the midst of the Progressive case. This and the concepts applied earlier for the classical Super are very thoroughly described by Hirsch and Mathews1.The governmentgave up.2 and do not need to be repeated here. There was Howard Morland who in March 1979 tried to publish an article entitled "The H-bomb secret.354 De Geer - freely broadcastaround the world. UCRL-4725 "Weapons Development During June 1956" and UCRL-5280 "Weapons Development During June 1958. DECLASSIFICATION In the wake of the PentagonPapers affair in 1971 a large declassificationprogram was instituted within the US Government. It was then told that the imaginative Teller-Ulam idea was to use radiation from a fission explosionto transfer energy to compress and ignite a physically separate componentcontaining thermonuclear fuel. The "message"can hardly then be based on someesoteric reactions or somevery complicated function of the radionuclide composition. who wrote a letter with a lot of bomb details. During the last years of the seventies several individuals started their own research into nuclear weaponry. In the processa few mistakes were made and some sensitive nuclear-weapon related reports erroneouslyfound their way to the public domain. Let me only list the three major characteristics of the 1951 breakthrough. This stirred up the US governmentwho tried to bar publication in court.11 This chain of events quite soon (September1980) made the US Government declassify some basic facts on thermonuclear design. including the Teller-Ulam invention. . This was especially so for two Livermore reports.There was for example Dimitri Rotow. There was also Charles Hansen. and Morland's article was finally published in November1979. It must have been something rather obvious that they had in mind. who during visits to the public area of the library at Los Alamos found several of the sensitive but declassifiedreports.

the thermonuclear fuel is compressed before ignition . could one only find some way to accomplish it.14 The mass number of the fermium iso- .The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb 355 .the primary and the secondary stagesare physically separated. A WELL KNOWN FACT For Swedenit has been natural to spendsomelimited theoretical resourceson the fusion bombproblem. York.. however. Realizing the need for high compression not. Thesethree conceptsare describedin a very condensed form in an issue of the journal Los Alamos Sciencecommemorating 40th anniversary of the labothe ratory in 1983: "The first megaton-yield explosions (hydrogen bombs) were based on the application of x-rays produced by a primary nuclear device to compressand ignite a physically distinct secondarynuclear assembly. This conclusionis further supportedby the fact that the high compression has not been kept secret. This is one reasonwhy I don't think that the evidenceof very high compression the in Mike explosionis the most proliferating part of the radioactive signature that Oppenheimer.13 The purposeis to understand enoughof the physics and principles of nuclear weaponsto meetthe national protection needs (it does..Mark. have bearing on the protection against the electromagnetic pulse) and to support our efforts in the international disarmament arena.for example. with atomic numbers 99 and 100 respectively. and others had in mind.the energy is carried from the primary fission stage to the secondary fusion stage by bomb-thermalx-rays .12 HIGH COMPRESSION.was published. Already in 1955the discoveryin the Mike debris of the previously unknown elements einsteinium and fermium. A very high compressionof the thermonuclear fuel was then the obvious theoretical solution.imply that did the imaginative Teller-illam radiation implosion was reinvented here. It soonbecameclear to us that an uncompressed fusion assemblycannot sustain thermonuclear bum due to the escapeof too much bremsstrahlung (inverse Compton) radiation.Due to the high compression and its resulting high neutron fiuencies very high atomic-number elements were formed through multiple neutron capture in the natural uranium blanket enclosingthe thermonuclearfuel.

01 MeV) + H (3.02.1 MeV) At high enough temperatures the first and the second reaction pairs proceed at about the same rate and we can then form the sum reaction:18 3D -+ He-4 + H + n + 21.2 MeV is thus liberated per fused deuterium nucleus. The D-D fusion reactions are:17 D + D -+ He-3 (0.02 MeV) D + T -+ He-4 (3.45 MeV) D + He-3 -+ He-4 (3. derived from fusion reactions. The explosion yield was 10.14 g cm-3 (the density of liquid hydrogen is 0. In 1962 a fit of the Mike data to a theoretical calculation was published which arrived at a bomb-thermal neutron fluence of at least 2 mol cm-2 in Mike.V2/3 cm2). Ifwe assume a spherical fuel volume of V cm3 (with a surface of S = (36n)1/3 .6 MeV One third of a neutron and an energy E of 7. Estimating the capture cross sections one finds that the neutron fluencies must have been of the order of moles per cm2 (1 mole = 6. which has a density of 0.16 and we can assume that about half of that.400 kilotons.07 g cm-3).1025 MeV kt-1.5 MeV) + n (14.82 MeV) + n (2.1023 neutrons). 5.02.1023 atoms mol-1 and N is 2.6 MeV) + H (14.15 The thermonuclear fuel in Mike was liquid deuterium.000 kilotons. tope was 255.6.7 MeV) D + D -+ T (1.356 De Gee. By eliminating the volume we can solve the compressed density to be: . a compressed density ofp g cm-3 and a fusion yield ory kilotons we get that y = E pV No (1) (2) 2 N <I>= 1 pV 1 3 2 S where No = Avogadro's number = 6. which means that 17 neutrons had been successively captured by each uranium-238 target nucleus. a neutron fluence of <I> mol cm-2.

This corresponds a compressionfactor of 13. it is not too difficult to work backwards and realize what there is in the debris to tell you the trick.tEN. Afluence of2 mol cm-2 of bomb-thermalneutrons. we get a compression factor of 13/b. ~y rq. to We have then assumeda completeburnout of the deuterium.6]) be consumed. But the Teller-Ulam invention kept its aura of mystery for 20 years more to come. will burn the plutonium to a very high degree.. If the burnout factor b is less than 1. onto plutonium-239.000kilotons as given above.3 p = 36~-N.And the reasonwas of course that the real element of new and imaginative thinking that Teller and Ulam provided was not the compression but rather the way to accomplishit through physical separation of the primary fission charge from the thermonuclear fuel and the processof radiation implosion.0.8 g cm-3. THEPROLIFERATING SIGNATURE Understanding the heart of the Teller-Ulam idea. That the fuel of a hydrogen bomb gets squeezed an extreme compresto sion could thus be worked out by anyoneinterested as early as 1955 or at least in 1962. Even disregarding the plutonium loss in the fission processof the primary and the loss in other reaction channelslike capture and (n.7he Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb ~ -- 357 {3". will be exposedto about the same neutron flux as the natural uranium blanket. plutonium-239 or possiblyuranium-235 or both. as much as 91-100 percent( = 1 -exp[-<f>. like in Mike. will Virtually all plutonium of a primary in a position equivalent to the uranium mantle would thus disappear.yields a com= pressed density of 1.If one then can show that the debris from a thermonuclear explosiondoes in fact contain significant amounts of trigger plutonium this will be evidence that the primary has not been close to the . A b value of 10-20 percent seemsreasonable and this then implies a compressionof about 100 times.s. which surely is very high.which has a fissioncrosssections of 2 to 10 barns (onebarn = 10-24 cm2)in the energy region of interest. (3) which with <I> 2 mol cm-2 and y = 5.2n). In a classical Super with the fission trigger as closeto the thermonuclear fuel as possiblethe trigger material.

The measurements therefore has to be done within the first few weeks before the neptunium decays away. One has to rely on mass spectroscopy to resolve them. It must instead have been physically separated and/or very well shielded from the secondary fusion stage.~}. plutonium-239 in itself is difficult to measure as its alpha energy is too close to the alpha energy of plutonium-240. which is also present. Second. most of the plutonium in the debris derives from neutron capture in the uranium-238. with a halfiife of 2.358 De Geer thermonuclear burn. which decays with a halflife of 23. just to measure the plutonium-239 activity. however. There are two major problems. Halflivesare given according to the latest available Nuclear Data Sheets. decays to plutonium-239 (figure 1). and for most laboratories that is a technique that is not easily available (at least not for very small samples). First. that are discussed at the end of the paper. in the uranium-238mantle and two subsequentbeta decays (/3).7 "" i $ w Figure 1: The production of plutonium isotopes through single and multiple neutron capture (n. One has to accurately know how much plutonium is formed this way.5 minutes to neptunium-239. which in turn. Uranium-239 is formed.y). Pu-23 Pu-240 Pu-241 Pu-242 .2n)reactions in the plutonium-239trigger and in the uranium-238mantle.wN~~' 87. Thefigure also indicates the (n. .36 days. The gradually decreasing abundances at increasing massescan be used to estimate the bomb-thermal neutron fluence in the uranium. It is not enough.Uranium-238and the radionuclides measured in the debris are marked with a filled circle.

although much work has also beendone on the atmospherictests. in the 1970s mainly the Chinese ones at Lop Nor.) At 2pm local time on 17 November 1976 the People'sRepublic of China carried out its 21st nuclear explosionstest at Lop Nor in Xinjiang.1011 fissions) at an altitude of 14 kilometers.55.Almost no alpha counting is carried out in houseand no mass spectroscopy at all.combined with corresponding mass spectroscopy results gatheredelsewhere.000 kilotons. Instead detailed gamma spectroscopic data collectedby us on debris from a Chinese thermonuclear explosionin the 1970s. (As shown below these data also confirm a high neutron fluence in the Chinese explosion and thus the prerequisites for the argumentation. A total of 35 different gamma-emitting and three alpha-emitting radionuclides were quantified (counting plutonium-239 and plutonium-240 as one).The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb 359 A CHINESETEllER-ULAM TEll-TALE SIGN The Swedishsurveillance program for airborne radionuclides has beenin regular operation since the mid 1950s.19Eight days after the explosion our aircraft sampling systemcollectedthe first debris and one day later we got an unusually strong sample (correspondingto 1. The program comprises eight ground-level filtering stations and equipment on somefighter aircraft to allow high-altitude sampling.are used to test the hypothesis of the present paper. that they closelyresembledthe original nuclide compositionproducedin the explosion. Good enough data on the 1952 Mike explosionare not available in Sweden. It was an atmospheric test of a fusion device with a yield of 4.Its purposehas changedduring the years but for the last three decadesits focus has been on verification of the Partial Test Ban Treaty. This samplewas very carefully analyzed and the results have been reported elsewhere.20 was typical for the It samples from this explosion that they were unfractionated. and this shows that the exposeduranium-238 must have been very closeto the burning fusion fuel. The number of plutonium-239 nuclei from the neutron capture chain in the strongest samplewas . i.e. All samples are measured at a central gamma spectroscopy laboratory employing large and high-resolution germanium detectors. Judging from the fisson product mass distribution the averagefissioning neutron energywas about 10 MeV. Detecting venting underground nuclear explosionsis thus its prime goal.

40:t 0.50/100 atoms ofstrontium-90).06).5.Thesesampleswere analyzedfor somefission products and for individual plutonium isotopes.The trigger remnants thus constitute (16:t 6) percent of the total plutonium in the debris.7 :t 2.25 From this and the plutonium/zirconium ratio given abovewe can deducethat there were 3.224/0.22.07/100 atoms of zirconium-95 (and 1. At the April 1977 mission many samples were collected that were completelydominated by debris from the November 1976explosion.500 :t 200 kilotons fission and subsequently into 7. With (7. which must be consideredto be a significant part.In Mike the corresponding ratio was 0.09:t 1.7).38).2 mol cm-2.363= 62 percent of that in Mike.26They arrive at 260 :t 25 kilocuries of strontium-90.21. at least 1.i.06 :t 0. which can be translated into 2.1023. This is still high enoughto completelyburn a central plutonium trigger. (As this is the result of a small difference between two larger numbers the treatment of errors has beenextremely careful. One kiloton of fission in a large thermonuclear explosionwith a uranium238 blanket produces 1.002 in the debris from the 17 November1976 explosion.360 De Gee.363:t 0.00424 and we can thus concludethat the bomb-thermal neutron fluence in the uranium mass (or part of it) of the Chinese device was 0.22) = (1.224:t 0.46 :t 0.01 grams of trigger plutonium left per kiloton of fission in the Chinese 17 November1976 explosion.e.45. The trigger plutonium to zirconium-95 ratio can now be calculated as the difference (6.e.40 :t 0.) According to the mass spectroscopy results reported by EML22 the plutonium-240 to plutonium-239 atom ratio was 0.31)-(5.6 .109atoms.1023. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in New York for many years did high altitude sampling by means of aircraft along the American west coast (project Airstream). the plutonium fractions were analyzed by mass spectroscopy.22these results for the nine strongestsamplesare corIf rected for the small plutonium backgroundfrom older explosions(about2-percent correction) as taken from a mission in August 197623 (transformed to the spring of 1977via a stratospheric half-residencetime of 10 months)we arrive at a total plutonium-239 to zirconium-95ratio of 6.31.87 :t :t 1. i.46 :t 0. determined from the analysis of neptunium-239 to be (42.109atoms of zirconium-95in the sample this yields a capture plutonium-239 to zirconium-95 ratio of 5.An estimate of the total amounts of fission products formed in this explosionhas beenmade by EML from integrations of the stratospheric inventory.

The cross section curves are furthermore fairly uniform (although it is about four times higher for uranium). 2. Daniel O.the creator of the Soviet H-bomb. where he writes that they did collectsamplesfrom Mike in November 1952. 3.. which is fairly unreasonable. along the lines discussed above. Hirsch and William G.but that it was lost due to a chemistwho "emotionally upset over somepersonal matter absentmindedlypouredthe concentratedownthe drain.23. This means that an analysis of the uranium-237/plutonium-238 ratio in a sample through gamma and alpha counting will yield a measure of the uranium-238/ plutonium-239 mass ratio in the unexploded device-all under the assumption that the plutonium is exposed to the same neutron flux as the uranium.27 A similar way to get an idea of the H-bomb secret. NOTESAND REFERENCES 1.46. I believe that showing a significant amount of surviving plutonium from the primary and/or unexpectedly low amounts of plutonium-238 were/was the route(s) along which the H-bomb secret was really given away.106 atoms of plutonium238). Assuming a plutonium trigger of some kilograms would then imply a tamper mass of many tons. This is denied by Andrei Sakharov. The primary must instead have been quite separated from the fusion stage. Mathews. "The H-Bomb: Who Really Gave Away The Secret.7).8).2n) reaction products in the uranium blanket and in the plutonium primary.000 (our strong sample contained (28. p. is to compare the amounts of (n. It was. that the primary can not have been in close contact with the thermonuclear burn region." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. under the assumption of the old Super concept. which needs no mass spectroscopy but is less quantitative. Daniel Hirsch and William G.5:t: 1. i. We can thus conclude.e. report issued by the Committee to Bridge the Gap. These reactions occur only above a threshold neutron energy of about 6 MeV in both uranium-238 and his memoirs (seenote 4). 1990.California.109 atoms ofuranium-237 and (6. January/February 1990. Los Angeles. For the 1976 Chinese explosion the analysis in this way showed a uranium/plutonium mass ratio exceeding 1.. however.0:t: 1.after . If one now asks how the energy transport between the primary and the secondary has been arranged it seems much more natural that the radiation implosion idea will be borne than if one only knows that the fuel was highly compressed. Mathews."Fuchs and Fallout: New Insights into the history of the H-Bomb.The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb 361 kilograms of trigger plutonium left after the shot.

5. 1955. A. 1954. Seaborg. Fields. Robert Oppenheimer"transcript of hearing before personnel security board of the AEC."New Elements Einsteinium and Fermium. November1979. Swedenhas no intention to developnuclear weapons. 6. S.H. The total sum reaction given for a D-D plasma.P. 1988) p. Ulam. Howard Morland. 1973." Scientific American.Memoirs (NewYork: Alfred A.199. 126.693. . Stockholm Sweden. Diamond. H.1976). G.3D ~ He-4 + H + n + 21.California: W. will thus still hold.1-1 barn) for MeV neutrons and as the triton will be immediately consumedin a D.In 1968Swedensigned the Nonproliferation Treaty.T reaction the effective sum reaction will be the same. 2." Los Alamos Science. US GovernmentPrinting Office.p.L Smith. in 1953-54. 17. 16.106.S.H. Fried.F. S. Ivo Zanderand Rolf Araskog.219-220. Atomic Numbers 99 and 100.Winter/Spring 1983." report NVO-209 Rev 6 issued by US Departmentof Energy Nevada Operations Office.M. USERDAWeekly Announcements." report A 4505-A1 issued by the National Defence ResearchInstitute. pp. Knopf. Andrei Sakharov. p. M. 9. 13. "Nuclear Explosions1945-1972.W. "The Debate over the Hydrogen Bomb. Spence. 18. 4."The Weapons Program. 10.6 MeV.R. The Advisors. Overview. Browne. Stanislaw M. Lovberg. Rev. Dorn.R. "In the Matter of J. 1976).pp.362 De Geer this. C. York. Herbert F. China Builds the Bomb (Stanford. Higgins.G.1975). W. July 1945 through December1985. Thller & the Superbomb(San Francisco. Herbert F. however.quite high (0. A. 15. "Mike Results-Implications for Spontaneous Fission. David W. 12. that Sakharov and his colleaguescame up with what he calls the "third idea" and which he describesas "new and quite original. H. John Wilson Lewis and Xue Litai. 1976.I." Phys.99.46.G.H.Basic Data. G. Manning.7. Oppenheimet.T.M. C. Company.L.The cross sectionfor the He-3 + n ~ T + H reaction is.110. Pyle. J. How we got it-why we're telling it. p. Thompson. October 1975." The Progressive.p.H. will not proceedfast enough."Phys.(NewYork: Robert E. D + He-3 ~ T + H. Glasstoneand R. California: Stanford University Press. Ghiorso. Mech. "Announced United States Nuclear Tests." The "third idea" was the concepttested in their first high-yield thermonuclear explosion on 22 November 1955. From the similarities in the US and Sovietdevelopments is tempting to believe it that the "third idea" was something very closeto the Teller-Ulam invention.182.That means that the secondreaction. Krieger Publ. p. Controlled Thermo-nuclearReactions. 1986.100. Hirsch. 7. 1990). York. 19.158. 11. Freemanand Company. J. 1962. Adventures of a Mathematician (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 14.p. and R. Such high temperatures (aboveseveralhundred million degrees) probably not are reached evenin a thermonuclearexplosion. 8.Rev.1048. "The H-bomb secret. Studier. Paul Robinson. Huizenga.

showsthis. Manning.M.6 kilograms left in the debris might seem too much. Mech. and R. "Project Airstream. and M. S. 1965.7 kilograms.Y. 27. Ong." report C 40089-T2(A1) issued by the National DefenceResearchEstablishmentSweden1978.F.New York.Rev. Fisenne. Schonberg." p. Leifer.C. Engstrom. De Geer. Thonkel.II-7 in report EML-342 issued by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory.1979. C.6 kilograms.2000. 22. Arntsing. Radioactivity in the Lower Stratosphere.I-407 in report EML-390 issued by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Ghiorso. H. 24.New York. Toonkel. Mainly from Nuclear Explosions."Phys. Fried. Sisefsky. 1978.H." p. "FissionYield and Fission Product Decay.L. D.I. Leifer.6 kilograms is the one sigma estimated error.W Spence. and there can only be two explanations: 1) the Chinese do not follow conventional wisdom or 2) 7.S. N. 25. and J. G. According to conventional knowledge that fission devices contain about 3-5 kilograms of plutonium 7.Reprinted in report EML349issued by the Environmental MeasurementsLaboratory. The probability that this is close to zero is. Fields. New York.251 in report HASL-164 issued by the Health and Safety Laboratory.R.New York. H.J. Thonkel. 1979. R. . very low. p. "Plutonium isotopic analysis of stratospheric samples from April 1977."Updating Stratospheric Inventories to July 1978. Hess. does in this case mean something significantly less than 7. New York.7 :t 2.A.-E. S.C. 23. J. 21. Pyle. L.M. Leifer and L. Leifer. R.H. however.T."Project Airstream.L. Ingram.D." p. Smith. G.The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb 363 20. Studier. Harley.W. Diamond.R."p. Seaborg.-A. and R. Vintersved. Harley. I.L. Larsen. Higgins.1960. L. and L. "Particulate Radioactivity."Heavy IsotopeAbundanciesin Mike ThermonuclearDevice. Larsen. M. Stevens.M.G.New York. Air and Precipitation in Sweden mid-year 1975to mid-year 1977.G. and J. 26. 1977. R.S. however."p.119. L.7 :t 2. P. Thonkel.G. where 2.II-7 in report HASL-321 issued by the Health and Safety Laboratory. R. R. Jakobsson. The very careful analysis. I. 1981. Browne.I-109 in report EML-363 issued by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory.

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