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Written by : Fairuz Binti Mahamad Rodzi 03008271 The Faculty of Medicine Trisakti Jakarta, 2011
INDEX 1. Abstract ……………………………………………………………………..2 2. Introduction …………………………………………………………………3 3. Disscussion ………………………………………………………………….5 3.1 Auditory discrimination 3.2 Phonological awareness 3.3 Propagation of sound 3.4 Perception of sound 3.5 Physics of sound 3.6 Sound wave properties and characteristics 3.7 Speed of sound 3.8 Acoustics 3.9 Auditory Object 3.10 3.11 Auditory event Spatial hearing
4. Varieties of Auditory Perception…………………………………………19 4.1 Musical Listening 4.2 Speech Perception 4.3 Crossmodal Illusions 5. References…………………………………………………………………21
and mentions outstanding questions and promising future areas for inquiry in this developing literature. The philosophical puzzle of perception and proposed solutions have been shaped by concern for visual experience and illusions. which bear upon theorizing about perception more generally. and detailed accounts of what we perceive frequently address just the visual case. and varieties of perception. This entry characterizes critical issues in the philosophy of auditory perception. contents. Philosophical thinking about perception has focused on vision. objects. 3 .1. It is not a great exaggeration to say that much of the philosophy of perception translates roughly as philosophy of visual perception. it is worthwhile to discuss the motivation and rationale for this kind of work. Before beginning the substantive discussion of audition itself. Vision informs our understanding of perception's epistemological role and its role in guiding action. Abstract The philosophy of sounds and auditory perception is one emerging area of the philosophy of perception that reaches beyond vision for insights about the nature. Questions about the nature of perceptual content have been framed and evaluated in visual terms.
Sound exists in the form of vibrations that travel through the air or through other substances. deaf individuals are not capable of perceiving or interpreting sounds. usually with specific organs. Auditory sequencing is a process closely related to both memory and auditory perception. this is extremely important to language as spoken words are understood based on different sounds. dogs. Auditory discrimination is the process by which one is able to note the differences between sounds. Auditory synthesis is another process very important to the comprehension of language. for example.2. such as a human's ears. The brain is largely responsible for many processes that can turn a mass of incoming noise into something useful and understandable. Deafness describes a condition in which individuals have no auditory perception. are capable of perceiving very high-pitched sounds that humans cannot perceive. similar to the way letters are combined into words and words into sentences. It describes the process by which the brain combines different sounds into understandable units. Different animals can perceive different sounds. Ears detect such vibrations and convert them into nerve impulses. 4 . It describes the ability to understand and remember the order in which certain sounds happened. which are then sent to the brain where they can be interpreted. Discrimination between foreground and background is also an important part of auditory discrimination. There are many factors that affect auditory perception beyond simply hearing sounds. It is important to be able to focus on important noises and to ignore irrelevant and unimportant noises so that one is not overwhelmed by a vast amount of noise. Introduction Auditory perception is the ability to perceive and understand sounds.
In many cases. have problems with the above processes that are essential to making sense of sounds. They are generally easy to detect.Individuals who have hearing problems may simply have difficulty hearing quiet sounds or extreme pitches. They ask for directions to be repeated. 5 . they watch what others are doing before taking any action of their own. however. they do not understand or respond to auditory signals or commands. one with hearing problems either cannot hear well or cannot make sense of the sounds that he hears. Problems with auditory perception can exist from birth. There are many ways to detect hearing problems in children. Some children suffer from a loss of auditory perception from birth. or they can be caused by injuries to the brain or ears. often several times. Often. They may also.
Children with auditory discrimination disabilities often fall behind in school. Discussion 3. particularly in reading and spelling. Children with auditory discrimination difficulties might have trouble understanding and developing language skills because their brains either misinterpret language sounds. this is extremely important to language as spoken words are understood based on different sounds.1 Auditory discrimination A doctor can diagnose an auditory discrimination disorder after tests have shown there are no physical hearing problems. 6 . or process them too slowly. these children cannot differentiate between similar sounds. Auditory discrimination is the process by which one is able to note the differences between sounds. Auditory discrimination refers to the brain's ability to organize and make sense of language sounds. Often. because they lack the phonological awareness needed to make relationships between sounds and the symbols that represent them. The brain is largely responsible for many processes that can turn a mass of incoming noise into something useful and understandable.3. or they are unable to recognize language in certain situations.
the "eye" sound.3. A phoneme is the smallest possible sound in a word. They might not respond to spoken language if there is background noise. but he or she hears things "wrong. the word "night" has three phonemes: the "n" sound.2 Phonological awareness Language is made up of phonemes. When we listen to language. For example. This is called phonological awareness. or they might understand sounds incorrectly. Sometimes they appear to 7 . our brains organize the different sounds into meaningful chunks that we can interpret as words. and the "t" sound. Children with auditory discrimination disabilities often fall behind in school." A doctor can diagnose an auditory discrimination disorder after tests have shown there are no physical hearing problems. because they lack the phonological awareness needed to make relationships between sounds and the symbols that represent them. Problems with auditory discrimination are usually related to the brain rather than to the ear itself. It means the person can hear. particularly in reading and spelling. and is not necessarily related to spelling. People with auditory discrimination disorders may appear to be deaf or hard of hearing.
Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and mentally manipulate the sounds (phonemes). sound sequences. In this test.have speech impediments or a stammer because they cannot accurately produce the language sounds they can't hear properly. These children may also be unable to understand a teacher who is not facing them or addressing them directly. a child is seated so that she can't see the examiner. The term is often used interchangeably with 8 . The examiner reads a series of minimal pairs. or say a word back with a sound missing. The Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT) is an assessment tool that is commonly used to diagnose auditory processing disorders in young children. and sound structures in a syllable or word. or words that differ by only one phoneme such as "bit/pit" or "ship/sheep. Other tests might involve asking a child to repeat words back to an examiner. and the child is given a score based on how many pairs she correctly identifies as the same or different. or they will have difficulty picking out language sounds if there is any background noise." Some of the pairs of words have no differences.
Most conversation does not take place in a soundproof booth with just one person talking at a time. pre-phonemic listening is generally the first of these skills to develop. a child with poor phonological skills will often have to work much harder to learn to read and write at grade level.. But phonological awareness is not just important for literacy. for example. in typical order of development. however. there is a difference. In general. segmentation. isolation. strictly speaking. and spell a lot easier. good phonemic awareness helps us process speech in noisy places and over bad telephone connections. Weak skills at any one of these levels will probably limit development of later-developing skills. and so on.phonological awareness. followed by rhyming.g. By enabling us to "fill in the gaps" in what we hear. even though they cannot hear the sounds of the language. In other words. a beanbag falling on a wooden floor versus a plastic ball falling on a 9 . It is possible to develop literacy without strong phonological awareness. Children and adults who are strong readers and good spellers also tend to be strong in phonological awareness. Good phonological awareness skills make learning to read. I have listed below ten stages of phonemic awareness. but the two terms overlap enough that the only people who truly care about the differences between them are nerds like me. Pre-phonemic discriminatory listening skills: the ability to distinguish among non-speech environmental sounds (e. are often able to read and write quite effectively in English. write. deaf people.
and to identify objects by the sound they make (e. Phonetic reading: the ability to "sound out" and pronounce unfamiliar or nonsense words based on spelling. Phoneme Isolation: the ability to identify the first.wooden floor). or sentence. a helicopter. etc.. a bell.) Alliteration and rhyme: the ability to identify and produce words that rhyme or that begin with the same phoneme. Phoneme Deletion: the ability to identify how a word would sound if a part of it were omitted. Phoneme Segmentation: the ability to analyze the syllables and individual phonemes of a word. Phoneme Substitution: the ability to replace a phoneme in a word with another phoneme to form a new word. 10 . a horn.g. Phoneme Blending: the ability to identify a word when hearing parts of the word presented in isolation. or last phonemes in a monosyllabic word. Letter-sound correspondence: the ability to identify the phonemes represented by individual letters and combinations of letters. phrase. middle.
but a lack of awareness about the sound structures of words. It's designed for teachers of preschool to early elementary grades. A child with PAD may say mat clearly. A child with a phonemic awareness disorder may be misdiagnosed as having an articulation disorder. Phonemic Awareness: Playing With Sounds to Strengthen Beginning Reading Skills is a nicelydone workbook with a wealth of phonemic awareness activities. more phonologically complex words. A child with a phonological awareness deficit may be able to pronounce all sounds correctly. Deafness or hearing loss can 11 . Their difficulties are not a result of difficulty hearing speech. but has trouble analyzing what sounds are part of a word. It is also important to remember that children that are not deaf or hard of hearing can have a phonemic awareness deficit. but be unable to tell you what the beginning sound is. Like children with articulation disorders.Phonetic spelling: the ability to use prior knowledge of spelling rules to write familiar words the student has not learned to spell. and in what order they occur. but all the activities are user-friendly and can easily be adapted for use at home. a deficit in phonological awareness is not an articulation disorder. especially in the early stages of speech development and have no particular trouble with longer. or where the /t/ sound comes in the word. A child with an articulation disorder mispronounces certain sounds due to lack of oral motor coordination or bad habits formed when learning to speak. However. children with poor phonological awareness mispronounce many words.
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid. or attenuated by the medium. waves can be reflected. For example. (Sound can propagate through solids as well. The propagation is also affected by the motion of the medium itself. It determines the rate at which sound is attenuated. liquid. but many children with this disorder have hearing in the average normal range. The behavior of sound propagation is generally affected by three things: A relationship between density and pressure. The viscosity of the medium also affects the motion of sound waves. refracted. During propagation. or gas.3 Propagation of sound Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through compressible media such as air or water. but there are additional modes of propagation).certainly contribute to difficulties with phonological awareness. affected by temperature. Independent of the motion of sound through the medium. the sound is further transported. 12 . sound moving through wind. if the medium is moving. or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations. such as air or water. This relationship. determines the speed of sound within the medium. and make treatment more difficult. For many media. attenuation due to viscosity is negligible. 3. composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard.
humans have developed culture and technology (such as music. such as fire. As a signal perceived by one of the major senses. Many species.When sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties. hearing is normally limited to frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20. birds. The upper limit generally decreases with age.000 Hz (20 kHz). but are deaf to anything below 40 Hz. 3. marine and terrestrial mammals. telephone and radio) that allows them to 13 . rain. In some species. Other species have a different range of hearing. it may be refracted (either dispersed or focused). For humans. or earthquake. surf. sound is used by many species for detecting danger. such as frogs. For example. water. navigation. and communication. Furthermore. and virtually any physical phenomenon. Earth's atmosphere. predation. dogs can perceive vibrations higher than 20 kHz. although these limits are not definite.4 Perception of sound Human ear The perception of sound in any organism is limited to a certain range of frequencies. produces (and is characterized by) its unique sounds. wind. have also developed special organs to produce sound. these produce song and speech.
Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure. while transverse waves (in solids) are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation. The horizontal axis represents time. Sound is transmitted through gases. The matter that supports the sound is called the medium.5 Physics of sound The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound are able to travel through all forms of matter: gases.generate. and liquids as longitudinal waves. the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. The scientific study of human sound perception is known as psychoacoustics. also called compression waves. and broadcast sound. and plasmas. 14 . solids. causing local regions of compression and rarefaction. plasma. liquids. 3. it can be transmitted as both longitudinal waves and transverse waves. record. Through solids. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. however. transmit. Longitudinal and transverse waves Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies.
or its inverse. also known as shear waves. 3. which are characterized by these generic properties: Frequency. polarization. Transverse waves. and are not a characteristic of sound waves. 3.Matter in the medium is periodically displaced by a sound wave. the period Wavelength Wavenumber Amplitude Sound pressure Sound intensity Speed of sound Direction Sometimes speed and direction are combined as a velocity vector. and thus oscillates. The energy carried by the sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression (in case of longitudinal waves) or lateral displacement strain (in case of transverse waves) of the matter and the kinetic energy of the oscillations of the medium. wavenumber and direction are combined as a wave vector.6 Sound wave properties and characteristics Sound waves are often simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves. have the additional property.7 Speed of sound 15 .
In 20 °C (68 °F) air at the sea level. The application of acoustics can be seen in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. the speed of sound in gases depends on temperature. Those physical properties and the speed of sound change with ambient conditions. Identifying an 16 .330 mph). while event refers to the action. and is a fundamental property of the material.The speed of sound depends on the medium the waves pass through. The speed of sound is also slightly sensitive (a second-order anharmonic effect) to the sound amplitude. In general.482 m/s (5. and solids including vibration. sound. liquids. 767 mph) using the formula "v = (331 + 0. which means that there are nonlinear propagation effects. For example.230 km/h.9 Auditory Object The term ‘auditory object identification’ has eluded researchers in the recent years. thus object being the source of the sound. 3.8 Acoustics Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases. the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the medium to its density. such as the production of harmonics and mixed tones not present in the original sound (see parametric array). In fresh water. while others prefer to use the term ‘auditory event’ instead. 3. also at 20 °C. the speed of sound is approximately 343 m/s (1. ultrasound and infrasound.315 mph).6 T) m/s". 3. In steel. 13. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical or audio engineer. many fail to define precisely the term. the speed of sound is approximately 1.460 km/h.960 m/s (21.335 km/h. the speed of sound is about 5.
of each must considered. This term was introduced by Jens Blauert (Ruhr-University Bochum) in the year 1966. auditory masking thresholds etc.  Auditory events are the central objects of psychoacoustical investgations. harshness etc. Aspects of auditory event investigations can be: is there an auditory event? Is a certain sound noticeable? => Determination of perception thresholds like hearing threshold. From this relationship conclusions can be drawn about the processing methods of the human auditory system. Which characteristics has the auditory event? => Determination of loudness.10 Auditory event Auditory events describe the subjective perception.auditory object requires many psychological factors. and the role of language in naming auditory objects 3. lateralization. 17 . when listening to a certain sound situation. auditory experience. in order to distinguish clearly between the physical sound field and the auditory perception of the sound. Focus of these investigations is the relationship between the characteristics of a physical sound field and the corresponding perception of listeners. sound. acoustic cues that listeners use to identify such sounds. How is the spatial impression of the auditory event? => Determination of sound localization. perceived direction etc. such as attention. pitch.
When can differences in auditory events be noticed? How big are the discrimination possibilities of the auditory system? => Determination of just noticeable differences Relationships between sound field and auditory events The sound field is described by physical quantities. Mostly there is no simple or proportional relationship between sound field characteristics and auditory events. Below you can find a list with physical sound field quantities and the related psychoacoustical quantities of corresponding auditory events. For example the auditory event property loudness depends not only on the physical quantity sound pressure but also on the spectral characteristics of the sound and on the sound history. sound field characteristics sound pressure level frequency spectrum position of a sound source auditory event loudness pitch timbre sound localization 18 . while auditory events are described by quantities of psychoacoustical perception.
19 . tools for the evaluation of architectural acoustics and sound systems (such as spaciousness meters. 4. echo detectors.11 Spatial hearing Auditory-like algorithms may decode information from the input signals to the ear that allows assessment of the spatial position of sound sources. While the philosophy of music has its own vast literature (see the entry on the philosophy of music). Following a usage in the field of productsound design. Typical applications are: source-position finders. They may further be used for predictions of how humans form the positions and spatial extents of their auditory events. This section discusses links that should advance philosophical work on auditory perception.3. and precedence indicators.) tools for the evaluation of auditory virtual environments and for psychoacoustic research. and how they suppress echoes and reverberance.1 Musical Listening Musical listening is a topic that bears on questions about the relationship between hearing sounds and hearing sources. how they establish an auditory perspective. as discussed in the next section. musical experience has not been explored extensively in connection with general philosophical questions about auditory perception. which are based on binaural rather than monaural information. besides position and spatial extent. There are further perceptual features of auditory events. Varieties of Auditory Perception 4. they may be called binaural psychoacoustic descriptors.
the interest is in sounds as such. In music. But. While grasping the meanings of speech sounds depends upon perceiving complex sound structures. the interest is in meanings. according to the commonplace understanding. Ultimately. Something striking and qualitatively distinctive—perhaps uniquely human—seems to set the perception of speech apart from ordinary hearing.2 Speech Perception Speech perception presents uniquely difficult twists. Is speech special? It is natural to think that listening to speech and listening to music are similar. Listening to speech in a language you know may involve grasping meanings. Environmental sounds do not usually have conventional linguistic meanings. But hearing speech differs from hearing music. Matthen 2005. 20 . but grasping meanings requires first hearing the sounds of speech. and Remez and Trout 2009 are noteworthy recent exceptions). Trout 2001a. In speech. perceiving speech involves hearing sounds of a common ontological kind with the ones you hear when you are not hearing speech. In each case. this also makes perceiving speech different from hearing ordinary non-linguistic sounds. In one sense. Notably.4. speech is a vehicle for meaning. according to the most common philosophical understanding. and few philosophers have confronted it directly (Appelbaum 1999. ch 9. there is another sense in which perceiving speech is a lot like hearing non-linguistic sounds. the information conveyed is what matters. The main philosophical issues about speech perception concern versions of the question. What you perceive in perceiving speech is individuated in part in terms of morphological characteristics evident in audition. one's interest in sounds seems divorced from the specific environmental happenings involved in their production.
2002).. Audition even impacts experience in other modalities. One way to see how the challenges differ is to consider the ways in which they suggests that speech perception differs from hearing nonlinguistic sounds. 2008). The recently discovered sound-induced flash illusion involves a visual illusion as of seeing two consecutive flashes that is produced when a single visible flash is accompanied by two consecutive audible beeps (Shams et al. Such crossmodal illusions demonstrate that auditory experience is impacted by other modalities and that audition influences other modalities. The ventriloquist illusion is an illusory auditory experience of location that is produced by an apparent visible sound source (see. In general. The McGurk effect in speech perception is an illusory auditory experience produced by a visual stimulus (McGurk and Macdonald 1976).3 Crossmodal Illusions Auditory perception of speech is influenced by cues from vision and touch (see Gick et al. experiences associated with one perceptual modality are influenced by stimulation associated with other modalities. 4. Bertelson 1999). e. 21 . 2000.The commonplace view—that perceiving speech is a variety of ordinary auditory perception— has been challenged in a number of ways. Do such multimodal effects occur in ordinary audition? Visual and tactile cues commonly do shape auditory experience. is perceiving speech distinctive? The question admits at least three readings. then.g. In what sense.
'95) from: 16:00:17 Available http://www. Wikipedia.ai. Available from: http://en.speech-languagedevelopment.nl/~lambert/projects/miami/taxonomy/node114. Auditory event. 17:46. Speech-lenguage-development. Available from: http://www.com. Phonemic awareness affects speech and literacy. May 18 Esprit Project 8579/MIAMI MET DST (Schomaker 1995. Sound.org/w/index.: Spatial hearing .php?title=Auditory_event&oldid=373662731" 6.the psychophysics of human sound localization. MIT Press.5.wikipedia.com. Copyright © 2008 – 2011. 15 July 2010 Available at: "http://en.htm 2.html 22 .2011Conjecture Corporation Written By: Daniel Liden.2011 Speech-Language-Development. Spatial Thu hearing. Available from: http://www. What is auditory perception.wikipedia. J. Wikipedia.rug. chapter 1 5. Cambridge. Blauert.org/wiki/Sound 4. et al. Wise geek Copyright © 2003 . Massachusetts (1983).wisegeek..html 3.com/what-is-auditoryperception.com/phonemic-awareness. References 1. Copyright © 2008 .
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