INSITU DENSITY TESTS

SOIL MECHANICS

SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA

4. gravels and crushed rock materials in earth works and pavement layers by the sand replacement method using a sand pouring cone. 1.DENSITY OF SOIL IN PLACE BY THE SAND CONE METHOD SCOPE APPARATUS This test method sets out the procedure for the determination for the insitu dry density of compacted soils. Any clean. Miscellaneous equipment such as small pick chisels or spoons for digging test hole. Place the empty apparatus up right on a firm level surface close the valve and fill the funnel with . 4. Weigh the apparatus and water and determine the temperature of the water (W2). dry free-flowing uncemented sand. Drying oven. 5. Fill the apparatus with water until it appears over the valve. Close valve and remove excess water. The standard density apparatus consisting of jar and detachable appliance consisting of a cylindrical valve with an orifice 12. capacity readable and accurate to 01g. Weigh the assembled apparatus and record (W1) 2.5 mm in diameter 2. Density base plate with a center flanged 16. 3.5 mm diameter hole PROCEDURE (a). Determine the Volume of the Jar and Attachment up to and Including the Volume of the valve Orifice as Follows :1. Balance of 10 kg. (b). Repeat the procedure described in steps (1) to (5) at lease twice. 5. Place the apparatus upright and open the valve. Determine the Bulk Density of the Sand to be Used in the Field Test as Follows :1. 6. 6. This test is generally limited to materials with a maximum particle size of 5cm. 1. 3.

Replace the sand removed in the funnel determination and close the valve. Weight the apparatus with remaining sand and determine the weight of sand used in the test (W5). 2. Seat the apparatus in the previously marked position. 4. 9. Close valve sharply and empty excess sand. Open the valve and keep open until after the sand stops running. Dry and weigh the moisture sample. 6. Weight the material that was removed from the test hole (W). (d). 4. Determine the Weight of Sand Required to Fill the Funnel as Follows:1.sand. 3. 7. Determine the Density of the Soil in Place as Follows :1. 5. Soils that the essentially granular require extreme care. Prepare the surface of the location to be tested so that it is a level plane. 8. Weigh apparatus with sand (W 3) and determine the net weight of sand by subtracting the weight of the apparatus. Open valve and keeping funnel at least half full of sand. sample for moisture determination. Close the valve sharply. close the valve. This loss represents the weight of sand required to fill the funnel. level. Mix the material thoroughly and secure and with a representative. . 3. Place all loosened soil in a container being careful to avoid losing any material. 5. open the valve and after the sand has stopped flowing. fill the apparatus. plane surface. 2. Seat the inverted apparatus on a clean. (c). weigh the apparatus with remaining sand (W 4)and determine the loss of sand. 2. Repeat step (1) to (8) at least twice. Dig the test hole inside the mark being very careful to avoid disturbing the soil that will bound the hole. Seat the inverted apparatus on the prepared plane surface over the special plate provided and mark the outline of the hole. Put sand in the apparatus and secure weight of apparatus and sand. 3.

90 10.310 1.0 88.70 Determination of bulk density of the soil Mass of soil and Pan (kg) Mass of Pan (kg) Mass of Soil (kg) 3 Volume of the hole (m ) 2.30 22.50 65.930 3975 1951.90 20.510 1.98 21.50 12.5 bb 80.1 Bulk Density of the soil in field (kg/m3) Moisture Content Determination Can Number Mass of wet soil can (g ) + Mass of Dry soil can (g) + Mass of can (g) Mass of moisture (g) Mass of Dry soil (g) Moisture content % Average moisture content % Dry Density Determination Dry Density of the soil in fieldg /m (k 3) 3 Maximum dry density (kg/m ) a 78.80 10.000651 1844.200 0.942 9.200 6.Department of Civil Engineering University of Moratuwa In Situ Density by Sand Cone Method Client: Project : Determination of Density of Sand Mass of bottle (kg) Mass of bottle filled with sand (kg) Mass of bottle and sand after inverting on a flat surface (kg) Mass of bottle and sand after filling the hole (kg) 3 Volume of the bottle (cm ) 3 Bulk Density of the Sand (kg/m ) 1.8 1670.55 1517.70 55.60 .30 20.11.50 65.97 b 77.50 11.60 55.40 10.1 Relative Compaction % .90 57.700 8.30 68.

2. 1. The Water Content of the Soil and then the Dry Density of the Soil :Water content w= Mw Ms γ dry = γ bulk (1 w +) Dry Density DISCUSSION Discuss the following in your report. The Limitations of this Test. .CALCULATION 1. Compare the Core Cutter with other Methods of Field Density Determinations 1. Insitu Density of Soil:in Kg / m3 γ sand = W2 – W1 V1 2.

700 .Specimen Calculation Bulk Density of the sand = = 9.10.1.97 % X 100 Mass of the soil Bulk density of the soil Moisture content of the soil Find the average moisture content Average moisture content = 21.8 kg/m3 .1 1 + 0.27 1951.20 kg = 1.7 kg /m3 Mass of sand required to fill the funnel = 9.50 .1.2150 = 1517.700 .200 kg = 1.80 .200 6.930 kg = 1.310 = 1.50 % Dry density in the field = 1844.270 kg = 1.1 kg = 78.6.50 = 22.507 X 10-4 m3 = 2.510 .500 kg Mass of sand required to fill the hole Volume of the hole = 8.200 .942 3975 X 10-6 1951.8.80 65.65.507 X 10-4 = 1844.7 = 6.

Volume of the density apparatus:- V1 = (W2 . PROCEDURE Determine the Density of the Soil in Place as Follows:- 1. CALCULATION 1. Weigh the core cutter (W1) and calculate the internal volume from its dimensions (V). 4. 2. 2. straight edge. Place core cutter with the collar on top. The standard density apparatus consisting of steel cylinder and detachable collar.DENSITY OF THE SOIL IN PLACE BY THE CORE CUTTER METHOD SCOPE This test method sets out the procedure for the determination for the insitu dry density of compacted soils in earth works and pavement layers. Insitu Density of the Soil (at least for two trails) a) Volume of the test hole V = (Ws – W4) in m3 γsand . chisels for digging surrounding soil. 3. capacity readable and accurate to 01 g. APPARATUS 1. Drying oven. weigh it (W2). 6. 4. Balance of 10 kg. Dig the surrounding soil to take out the core cutter. After leveling off at both ends of core cutter with a straight edge. on the prepared surface and drive into the soil with a help of a hammer. Remove the soil sample from the core cutter and mix material thoroughly and secure and weigh a representative sample for moisture determination. 5.W1)T in millimeters. Prepare the surface of the location to be tested 3. Miscellaneous equipment such as rammer.

60 11.50 bb 80. Compare the Sand Cone Methods of Field Density Determinations 3.50 11.980 1000 1980.40 10.Bulk Density of the Soil : = W in kg/m3 V 4.30 22.90 57. 1.50 65.50 12.97 b 77. The Limitations of this Test.30 20.90 10.90 20.6 a 78.60 55.80 10.0 .975 0.0 94.6 1670. The Water Content of the Soil and then the Dry Density of the Soil Water Content Dry Density w = Mw MS γdry= γbulk (1 + w) DISCUSSION Discuss the following in your report.70 55.995 1. Why is it important to measure the field density? Give examples Departm ent of Civil E ngineering University of M oratuwa In Situ Density by the Core Cutter M ethod Client: Project: D eterm ination of bulk density of the soil M ass of soil and core cutter (kg) M ass of core cutter (kg) M ass of Soil (kg) V olum e of the core cutter 3(cm ) 3 Bulk D ensity of the soil (kg/m ) M oisture C ontent Determ ination C an N um ber W eight of w et soilcan (g ) + W eight of D ry soilcan (g) + g) eight of can (g) W W eight of m oisture (g) W eight of D ry soil (g) M oisture content % A verage m oisture content % D ry D ensity Determ ination D ry D ensity g /m) (k 3 3 M axim um dry density (kg/m ) R elative Com paction % 1629.55 2. 2.50 65.98 21.30 68.

65.975 .2150 .Specimen calculation Mass of soil Volume of the core cutter Bulk density of the soil = 2.80 .980 1000 X 10 -6 = 1980.30 % Dry density in the field = 1980.0 1 + 0.50) = 22.0 kg /m3 = 1629.980 kg = 1000 cm 3 = 1.10.995 = 1.80)X 100 (65.6 kg/m3 Moisture content of the soil = ( 78.50 .97 % Find the average moisture content Average moisture content = 25.0.