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*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Pardis Street, Vanak Square, P.O. Box 19395-1999, Tehran, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 9 November 2007

Received in revised form 20 May 2008

Accepted 20 May 2008

Available online 6 June 2008

Keywords:

Power plant

Steam turbine

Mathematical model

Genetic algorithm

Semi-empirical relations

Experimental data

a b s t r a c t

In order to characterize the transient dynamics of steam turbines subsections, in this paper,

nonlinear mathematical models are rst developed based on the energy balance, thermo-

dynamic principles and semi-empirical equations. Then, the related parameters of devel-

oped models are either determined by empirical relations or they are adjusted by

applying genetic algorithms (GA) based on experimental data obtained from a complete

set of eld experiments. In the intermediate and low-pressure turbines where, in the

sub-cooled regions, steam variables deviate from prefect gas behavior, the thermodynamic

characteristics are highly dependent on pressure and temperature of each region. Thus,

nonlinear functions are developed to evaluate specic enthalpy and specic entropy at

these stages of turbines. The parameters of proposed functions are individually adjusted

for the operational range of each subsection by using genetic algorithms. Comparison

between the responses of the overall turbine-generator model and the response of real

plant indicates the accuracy and performance of the proposed models over wide range

of operations. The simulation results show the validation of the developed model in term

of more accurate and less deviation between the responses of the models and real system

where errors of the proposed functions are less than 0.1% and the modeling error is less

than 0.3%.

2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Over the past 100 years, the steam turbines have been widely employed to power generating due to their efciencies and

costs. With respect to the capacity, application and desired performance, a different level of complexity is offered for the

structure of steam turbines. For power plant applications, steam turbines generally have a complex feature and consist of

multistage steam expansion to increase the thermal efciency. It is always more difcult to predict the effects of proposed

control system on the plant due to complexity of turbine structure. Therefore, developing nonlinear analytical models is nec-

essary in order to study the turbine transient dynamics. These models can be used for control system design synthesis, per-

forming real-time simulations and monitoring the desired states [1]. Thus, no mathematical model can exactly describe such

complicated processes and always there are inaccuracy in developed models due to un-modeled dynamics and parametric

uncertainties [2,3].

A vast collection of models is developed for long-term dynamics of steam turbines [411]. In many cases, the turbine

models are such simplied that they only map input variables to outputs, where many intermediate variables are omitted

[12]. The lack of accuracy in simplied models emerges many difculties in control strategies and often, a satisfactory degree

of precision is required to improve the overall control performance [13].

Identication techniques are widely used to develop mathematical models based on the measured data obtained from

real system performance in power plant applications where the developed models always comprise reasonable complexities

1569-190X/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.simpat.2008.05.017

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +98 21 886 748 41; fax: +98 21 886 747 48.

E-mail address: ghaffari@kntu.ac.ir (A. Ghaffari).

Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ si mpat

that describe the system well in specic operating conditions [1418]. Moreover, in large systems such as power plants,

breaking major control loops when systems run at normal operating load conditions may put them in dangerous situations.

Consequently, the system model should be developed by performing closed loop identication approaches. System identi-

cation during normal operation without any external excitation or disruption would be an ideal target, but in many cases,

using operating data for identication faces limitations and external excitation is required [1921]. Assuming that paramet-

ric models are available, in this case, using soft computing methods would be helpful in order to adjust model parameters

over full range of inputoutput operational data.

Genetic algorithms (GA) have outstanding advantages over the conventional optimization methods, which allow them to

seek globally for the optimal solution. It causes that a complete system model is not required and it will be possible to nd

Nomenclature

C specic heat (kJ/kg K)

D droop characteristics (N m/rad/s)

h specic enthalpy (kJ/kg)

J momentum of inertia (kg m

2

)

k index of expansion

_ m mass ow (kg/s)

M inertia constant (kg m

2

/s)

p pressure (MPa)

P power (MW)

Q heat transferred (MJ)

q ow (kg/s)

s entropy (kJ/kg K)

t time (s)

T temperature (C)

Tr torque (N m)

U machine excitation voltage (V)

V terminal voltage (V)

v specic volume (m

3

/kg)

W power (MW)

x D-axis synchronous reactance (X)

Greek letters

a steam quality

d rotor angle (rad)

g efciently

q specic density (kg/m

3

)

s time constant (s)

x frequency (rad/s)

Subscripts

e electrical

ex extraction

f liquid phase

fuel fuel

g vapor phase

in input

m mechanical

out output

p constant pressure

s saturation

spray spray

v constant volume

w water

0 standard condition

HP high pressure

IP intermediate pressure

LP low-pressure

1146 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

parameters of the model with nonlinearities and complicated structures [22,23]. In the recent years, genetic algorithms are

investigated as potential solutions to obtain good estimation of the model parameters and are widely used as an optimiza-

tion method for training and adaptation approaches [2430].

In this paper, mathematical models are rst developed for analysis of transient response of steam turbines subsections

based on the energy balance, thermodynamic state conversion and semi-empirical equations. Then, the related parameters

are either determined by empirical relations obtained from experimental data or they are adjusted by applying genetic algo-

rithms. In the intermediate and low-pressure turbines where, in the sub-cooled regions, steam variables deviate from prefect

gas behavior, the thermodynamic characteristics are highly dependent on pressure and temperature of each region. Thus

nonlinear functions are developed to evaluate specic enthalpy and specic entropy at these stages of turbines. The param-

eters of proposed functions are individually adjusted for the operational range of each subsection by using genetic algo-

rithms as an optimization approach. Finally, the responses of the turbine and generator models are compared with the

responses of the real plant in order to validate the accuracy and performance of the models over different operation

conditions.

In the next section, a brief description of the plant turbine is presented. It consists of a general view of the steam turbine

and its subsystems including their inputs and outputs. It follows by the analytical model development and the training pro-

cedure of proposed models based on the experimental data. The next section presents the simulation results of this work by

comparing the responses of the proposed model with the actual plant. The last section is the conclusion and suggestions for

future studies.

2. System description

A steam turbine of a 440 MW power plant with once-through Benson type boiler is considered for the modeling approach.

The steam turbine comprises high, intermediate and low-pressure sections. In addition, the system includes steam extrac-

tions, feedwater heaters, moisture separators, and the related actuators. The turbine conguration and steam conditions at

extractions are shown in Fig. 1.

The high-pressure superheated steam of the turbine is responsible for energy ow and conversion results power gener-

ating in the turbine stages. The superheated steam at 535 C and 18.6 MPa pressure from main steam header is the input to

the high-pressure (HP) turbine. The input steam pressure drops about 0.5 MPa by passing through the turbine chest system.

The entered steam expands in the high-pressure turbine and is discharged into the cold reheater line. At the full load con-

ditions, the output temperature and pressure of the high-pressure turbine is 351 C and 5.37 MPa, respectively. The cold

steam passes through moisture separator to become dry. The extracted moisture goes to HP heater and the cold steam

for reheating is sent to reheat sections. The reheater consists of two sections and a de-superheating section is considered

between them for controlling the outlet steam temperature.

The reheated steam at 535 C and with 4.83 MPa pressure is fed to intermediate pressure (IP) turbine. Exhaust steam from

IP-turbine for the last stage expansion is fed into the low-pressure (LP) turbine. The input temperature and pressure of the

low-pressure turbine is 289.7 C and 0.83 MPa, respectively. Extracted steam from rst and second extractions of IP is sent to

HP heater and de-aerator. Also, extracted steam from last IP and LP extractions are used for feedwater heating in a train of

low-pressure heaters. The very low-pressure steam from the last extraction goes to main condenser to become cool and be

used in generation loop again.

3. Turbine model development

The behavior of the subsystems can be captured in terms of the mass and energy conservation equations, semi-empirical

relations and thermodynamic state conservation. The systemdynamic is represented by a number of lumped models for each

subsections of turbine. There are many dynamic models for individual components, which are simple empirical relations

Fig. 1. Steam turbine conguration and extraction.

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1147

between system variables with a limited number of parameters and can be validated for the steam turbine by using real sys-

tem responses. In addition, an optimization approach based on genetic algorithm is performed to estimate the unknown

parameters of models with more complex structure based on experimental data. With the respect to model complexity, a suit-

able tness function and optimization parameters are chosen for training process, which are presented in Appendix A. The

models training process is performed by joining MATLAB Genetic Algorithm Toolbox and MATLAB Simulink. It makes it possible

model training be performed on-line or based on recorded data in simulation space (Appendix B).

3.1. HP-turbine model

The high-pressure steam enters the turbine through a stage nozzle designed to increase its velocity. The pressure drop

produced at the inlet nozzle of the turbine limits the mass ow through the turbine. A relationship between mass ow

and the pressure drop across the HP turbine was developed by Stodola in 1927 [31]. The relationship was later modied

to include the effect of inlet temperature as follows:

_

m

in

K

T

in

p

p

2

in

p

2

out

_

1

where K is a constant that can be obtained by the data taken from the turbine responses. Let k be dened as follows:

k

p

2

in

p

2

out

T

in

2

By plotting k via inlet mass ow rate based on the experimental data, the slope of linear tting is captured as K = 520 (Fig. 2).

Generally, Eq. (1) has a sufcient accuracy where water steam is the working uid. A comparison between the model re-

sponse and the experimental shown in Fig. 3 indicates the accuracy of the dened constant.

Fig. 2. Mass ow rate versos k.

Fig. 3. Response of pressuremass ow model.

1148 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

The input output pressure relation for HP turbine based on experimental data is shown in Fig. 4. It shows a quite linear

relation with the slope of 0.29475. Noting that the time constant for HP turbines are normally between 0.1 and 0.4 s, here the

time constant is measured to be about 0.4 s and therefore the transfer function of the inputoutput pressure is

p

out

p

in

0:29475

0:4s 1

3

The time response of the proposed transfer function is shown in Fig. 5.

To develop the dynamic model of HP turbine, the pressure, mass ow rate and temperature of steam at input and output

of each section is required. The input and output relations for steam pressure and steam ow rate are dened in previous

section. The steam temperature at turbine output can be captured in the terms of entered steam pressure and temperature.

By assuming that the steam expansion in HP-turbine is an adiabatic and isentropic process, it is simple to estimate the steam

temperature at discharge of HP turbine by using ideal gas pressuretemperature relation.

T

out

T

in

p

out

p

in

_ _ k1

k

4

where k C

p

=C

v

is the polytrophic expansion factor.

The energy equation for adiabatic expansion, which relates the power output to steam energy declining by passing

through the HP turbine, is as follows:

W

HP

g

HP

_

m

in

h

in

h

out

g

HP

C

p

_

m

in

T

in

T

out

5

Fig. 4. Pressure ratio of the HP-turbine cylinder input and output.

Fig. 5. Responses of pressure model.

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1149

It is possible to dene the steam specic heat as a function of pressure and/or temperature. Here, for more simplication,

water steam is considered ideal gas. In addition, the turbine efciency can be expressed as a function of the ratio of blade

tip velocity to theoretical steam velocity. In this paper, turbine efciency is considered as a constant value. Then,

W

HP

g

HP

C

p

_

m

in

T

in

T

in

p

out

p

in

_ _ k1

k

_ _

g

HP

C

p

_

m

in

T

in

273:15 1

p

out

p

in

_ _ k1

k

_ _

6

The nonlinear model proposed for HP turbine is a parametric model with unknown parameters, which are associated with

efciency and specic heat. These parameters can be dened by performing a training approach over a collection of input

output operational data. The model parameters adjustment is executed through a set of 650 points of data and for transient

and steady state conditions in the range of operation between 154 and 440 MW of load. The error E is given by the mean

value of squared difference between the target output y

*

and model output y as follows:

E

1

N

N

j1

y

j

y

j

2

7

where N is the number of entries used for training process.

The optimized value for specic heat, C

p

, in order to reach the best performance at different load conditions, is obtained

2.1581 and consequently, the polytrophic expansion factor, k, be equal to 1.2718. The efciency of a well-designed HP tur-

bine is about 8590%. A fair comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results shows that the obtained

HP turbine efciency equal to 89.31% is good enough to t model responses on the real system responses. The proposed

model for HP turbine is presented in Fig. 6, where K

1

K 520 and K

2

C

p

g

HP

=1000 1:921 10

3

.

The outlet steam fromthe HP turbine passes through the moisture separator to become dry. There are obvious advantages

in inclusion of steam reheating and moisture separation in terms of improving low pressure exhaust wetness and need for

less steam reheating. In this section, a considerable fraction of steam wetness is extracted which supplies the required steam

for feedwater heating purpose at the HP heaters. The outlet ow from moisture separation is captured as follows:

s

dq

dt

1 b

_

m

in

q 8

where b is the fraction of moisture in output ow. In the technical documents, it is declared that the amount of liquid phase

extracted as moisture form steam mixture is approximately 10% of total steam ow entered to HP turbine.

3.2. IP and LP turbines model

The intermediate and low-pressure turbines have more complicated structure in where multiple extractions are em-

ployed in order to increase the thermal efciency of turbine. The steam pressure consecutively drops across the turbine

stages. The condensation effect and steam conditions at extraction stages have considerable inuences on the turbine per-

formance and generated power. In this case, developing mathematical models, which are capable to evaluate the released

energy from steam expansion in turbine stages, is recommended. At turbine extraction stages, where in the sub-cooled re-

gions, steam variables deviate from prefect gas behavior and the thermodynamic characteristics are highly dependent on

pressures and temperature of each region. Therefore, developing nonlinear functions to evaluate specic enthalpy and spe-

cic entropy at these stages of turbines is necessary. The steam thermodynamic properties can be estimated in term of tem-

perature and pressure as two independent variables. A variety of functions to give approximations of steam/water properties

is presented, which are widely used in nuclear power plant applications [3236].

Fig. 6. HP-turbine model (B = 273.15, K

1

= 520, K

2

= 1.927 10

3

, f(u) = [u(1)/u(2)]

0.2137

).

1150 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

In 1988, very simple formulations were presented by Garland and Hand to estimate the light water thermodynamic prop-

erties for thermal-hydraulic systems analysis. In the proposed functions, saturation values of steamare used as the dominant

terms in the approximation expressions. This causes that these functions have considerable accuracy at/or near saturation

conditions. However, these functions are extended to be quite accurate even in the sub-cooled and superheated regions

[37]. The approximation functions for the thermodynamic properties in sub-cooled conditions are presented as follows:

Fp; T F

s

p

s

T RT p p

s

9

where p

s

is the steam pressure at saturation conditions. The proposed equations to estimate steam saturation pressure, p

s

, as

a function of temperature are listed in Appendix C. In addition, the approximation functions for the thermodynamic prop-

erties in superheated conditions are presented as follows:

Fp; T F

g

p Rp; T T T

s

10

where T

s

is the steam saturation temperature. The equations to evaluate steam saturation temperature, T

s

, as a function of

steampressure are presented in Appendix D. It is noted that, these functions are not able to cover the entire range of pressure

changes and therefore the pressure range is divided into many sub-ranges. The proposed functions are quite suitable for esti-

mating the water/steam thermodynamic properties; however, these functions are tuned for a given range from 0.085 MPa to

21.3 MPa and they have not adequate accuracy for very low-pressure steam particularly for the extractions conditions. In

this paper, it is recommended that these functions be tuned individually for each input and output and at desired operational

ranges. It should be mentioned that pressure changes have signicant effects on the steam parameters and therefore, it is

focused on adjusting the rst term of functions, which depend on pressure and the functions RT and RP; T are considered

the same as presented by Garland and Hand.

The working uid at different turbine stages can be single or two phases. In this condition, it should be assumed that both

phases of steam mixtures are in thermodynamic equilibrium and liquid and vapor phases are two separated phases. The

steam conditions at each section are presented in Table 1. The proposed functions for specic enthalpy for liquid phase

and specic entropy in both liquid and vapor phases are dened by three parameters as follows:

F ap

b

c

where three parameters a, b and c are adjusted for four different steam conditions at 35, 50, 75 and 100% of load. In addition,

the proposed function for specic enthalpy in vapor phase is dened by three parameters and one constant as follows:

F ap d

2

bp d c

Here, the constant d can be chosen manually with respect to pressure variation ranges. The error E is given by the mean value

of absolute difference between the target output y

*

and model output y as follows:

E

1

N

N

j1

jy

j

y

j

j 11

where N is the number of entries used for training process.

3.2.1. Specic enthalpy, liquid phase

The following function is presented for estimating specic enthalpy of water in liquid phase.

hp; T h

f

p

s

T 1:4

169

369 T

_ _

p p

s

12

As seen in Table 1, the steam condition for extractions 5, 6 and 7 are in two-phase region where it can assume that p % p

s

. In

this condition, the specic enthalpy of steam for their ranges can be dened as a function of steam pressure. The functions

listed below estimate the specic enthalpy of water in liquid phase, h (kJ/kg).

Table 1

Steam condition at turbine extractions

Extraction No. Pressure (saturation temperature) Temperature (C) Steam condition

IP turbine 1 2.945 (233.91) 456.6 One phase

2 1.466 (197.58) 359 One phase

3 0.830 (171.85) 289.1 One phase

LP turbine 4 0.301 (133.63) 182.7 One phase

5 0.130 (105.80) 111.2 Transient

6 0.0459 77.5 Two phases

7 0.0068 38.2 Two phases

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1151

h

f

44:12782275 1000p

0:60497549

19:30060027 0:0038 MPa < p < 0:0068 MPa

h

f

194:57965086 100p

0:33190979

1:73249442 0:0180 MPa < p < 0:0459 MPa

h

f

258:51219036 100p

0:17513608

11:83393526 0:0683 MPa < p < 0:13 MPa

13

3.2.2. Specic enthalpy, vapor phase

The following function is presented for estimating specic enthalpy of water/steam in vapor phase.

hp; T h

g

p

4:5p

7:4529 10

0:6

T

3

p

2

_ 0:28 e

0:008T162

100

T

2:225

_

_

_

_T T

s

14

It should be noted that in two-phase region, it could assume that T % T

s

. Therefore, specic enthalpy can be dened as a

function of steam pressure. The functions listed below estimate the specic enthalpy of water/steam in vapor phase for

the pressure range in 3.84.83 MPa.

h

g

0:48465587 1000p 5

2

6:47301169 1000p 5 2560:91238452 0:0038 MPa < p < 0:0068 MPa

h

g

1:82709298 100p 2

2

17:40365447 100p 2 2606:680821285 0:0180 MPa < p < 0:0459 MPa

h

g

0:50205745 100p 12

2

6:64525736 100p 12 2679:80609322 0:0683 MPa < p < 0:13 MPa

h

g

2:07829396 10p 3

2

25:01448122 10p 3 2704:84920557 0:195 MPa < p < 0:301 MPa

h

g

0:49047808 10p 8

2

10:48902998 10p 8 2740:0576451 0:432 MPa < p < 0:830 MPa

h

g

0:21681424 10p 14:5

2

6:13049409 10p 14:5 2771:18901288 0:753 MPa < p < 1:466 MPa

h

g

0:08217055 10p 29

2

3:07429644 10p 29 2816:82024234 1:471 MPa < p < 2:945 MPa

h

g

0:11673499 10p 48

2

0:13784178 10p 48 2862:43339472 2:388 MPa < p < 4:83 MPa

15

3.2.3. Specic entropy, liquid phase

The optimized functions for estimating specic entropy of water/steam in liquid phase based on steam pressure where

p % p

s

are as follows:

s

f

0:27490714 1000p

0:60265499

0:22865089 0:0038 MPa < p < 0:0068 MPa

s

f

1:26673390 100p

0:17853959

0:61703122 0:0180 MPa < p < 0:0459 MPa

s

f

0:92671704 100p

0:14323925

0:03660477 0:0683 MPa < p < 0:13 MPa

16

3.2.4. Specic entropy, vapor phase

In addition, the following function is presented for estimating specic entropy of water/steam in vapor phase.

sp; T s

g

p

0:004p

1:2

3:025 10

1:1

T 46

5

p

2

_

0:00006

p

p 4:125 10

6

T 0:0053

_

_

_

_T T

s

17

The optimized functions to evaluate the specic entropy water/steam of phase vapor in the pressure range between 3.8 kPa

and 0.301 MPa.

s

g

8:83064734 0:12141594 1000p

0:77932806

0:0038 MPa < p < 0:0068 MPa

s

g

9:0863247 0:96869236 100p

0:26139247

0:0180 MPa < p < 0:0459 MPa

s

g

8:36610497 0:45436108 100p

0:34246778

0:0683 MPa < p < 0:13 MPa

s

g

7:42364087 0:10328045 10p

1:27827923

0:195 MPa < p < 0:301 MPa

18

The proposed functions are depending on pressure and temperature of the steam and these variables are necessary to be

dened at deferent operational conditions. The steam temperature at each extraction stage is expressed as a function of en-

tered steam temperature. The proposed transfer functions for steam temperature at extraction stages are presented in Table

2. It is possible to calculate the steam pressure at extractions as a function of the mass ow through turbine stages. Here, it is

recommended that the steam pressure be dened as a function of steam pressure entered to turbine. As shown in Fig. 7, the

pressure drops across the turbine stages are approximately linear and can be dened by rst order transfer functions. The

proposed transfer functions for steam pressure at extraction stages are presented in Table 2. In addition, the mass ow rate

through the turbine stages is sequentially decreased as by subtracting extracted steam ow. The extraction ow at each sec-

tion can be dened as a function of entered steam ow to turbine. As shown in Fig. 8, the inputoutput steam ow ratio at

1152 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

Table 2

Transfer function for steam pressure and temperature

Output Temperature Pressure

IP turbine Extraction 1

0:8615

0:3s1

0:6097

0:3s1

Extraction 2

0:67736

0:7s1

0:30352

0:7s1

Extraction 3

0:5455

1:1s1

0:1718

1:1s1

LP turbine line

0:5466

1:4s1

0:1718

1:4s1

LP turbine Extraction 4

0:6307

1:5s1

0:3627

1:5s1

Extraction 5

0:3828

1:7s1

0:1566

1:7s1

Extraction 6

0:2675

1:9s1

0:0553

1:9s1

Extraction 7

0:1219

2:1s1

0:0082

2:1s1

Fig. 7. Steam pressure at extractions.

Fig. 8. The steam ow rate at extractions.

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1153

different load conditions, except 2nd extraction, are linear. However, considering a linear function of steam ow rate is good

enough to t the model response on the real experimental data.

For the two-phase region, the enthalpy of the extracted steam is depending on its quality. By considering expansion

of steam in extraction chamber is an adiabatic process; the steam quality can be captured base on the steam entropy as

follows:

s

0

s

f

x s

fg

)x

s

0

s

f

s

fg

19

Then,

h h

f

x h

fg

20

The steam entropy at two-phase region (at fth, sixth and seventh extractions) is considered to be equal with steam entropy

at fourth extraction (one-phase region). The proposed model for two-phase region is presented in Fig. 9. The thermodynamic

cycle for the steamturbine with seven extraction stages is shown in Fig. 10. By considering steamexpansion at turbine stages

Fig. 9. Enthalpy model for two-phase region.

Fig. 10. Power plant cycle TS diagram.

1154 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

be an ideal process, the energy equations for steam expansion in turbine, which relates the power output to steam energy

declining across turbine stages can be captured. Therefore, the work done in IP turbine can be captured as follows:

W

0

IP

_

m

IP

h

IP

h

ex1

_

m

IP

_

m

ex1

h

ex1

h

ex2

_

m

IP

_

m

ex1

_

m

ex2

h

ex2

h

ex3

21

Now, the performance index can be considered for IP turbine.

W

IP

g

IP

W

0

IP

22

The LP turbine consists of four extraction levels. The work done in the LP turbine can be captured as follows:

W

0

LP

_

m

LP

h

LP

h

ex4

_

m

LP

_

m

ex4

h

ex4

h

ex5

_

m

LP

_

m

ex4

_

m

ex5

h

ex5

h

ex6

_

m

LP

_

m

ex4

_

m

ex5

_

m

ex6

h

ex6

h

ex7

23

where _ m

LP

_ m

IP

_ m

ex1

_ m

ex2

_ m

ex3

then,

W

LP

g

LP

W

0

LP

24

The optimal values for efciencies of IP and LP turbines are obtained 83.12% and 82.84%, respectively, which are tting tur-

bine model responses on the real system responses. The developed models for IP and LP turbines are presented in Fig. 11. The

overall generated mechanical power can be captured by summation of generated power in turbine stages as follows:

P

m

W

HP

W

IP

W

LP

25

3.3. Reheater model

Reheater section is a very large heat exchanger, which has signicant thermal capacity and steam mass storage. The

reheater dynamics increase nonlinearity and time delay of the turbine and should take into account as a part of turbine mod-

el. We have developed accurate Mathematical models for subsystems of a once through Benson type boiler based on the

thermodynamics principles and energy balance, which are presented in [29,30]. The parameters of these models are deter-

mined either from constructional data such as fuel and water steam specication, or by applying genetic algorithm tech-

niques on the experimental data. The proposed equations for the temperature model is as follows:

dT

out

dt

K

2

K

1

_

m

fuel

_

m

in

T

in

T

out

B

1

B

2

26

In this model, the steam quality has signicant effects on output temperature and should be considered in related equations.

The transfer function for fuel ow rate and steam quality is as follows:

a

_

m

fuel

9:45039e 6

20s 1

27

A modied version of the temperature model for the reheater sections is presented in Fig. 12. According to the mass accu-

mulation effects and by considering that the pressure loss due to change in ow velocity is prevailing in the steam volume,

the ow-pressure model is presented as follows:

dp

dt

p

0

s m

v

_

m

in

_

m

out

28

A model for the mass ow responding to steam pressure changes is proposed by Borsi [38]. The swing of main steam ow

strictly relies on the change of steam pressure as follows:

d

_

m

out

dt

_

m

out0

2p

in0

p

out0

dp

dt

29

In Fig. 13, the ow-pressure model is presented. Generally, in power plants, the turbine inlet ow is controlled by a governor

or control valves to response to the grid frequency. Therefore, when this valve is acting, there is an interaction between

steam pressure and ow. When the control valve opening is completed, the pressure uctuation is removed and the swing

of steam ow tends to zero. The adjusted parameters of the developed models are presented in Table 3.

The reheater temperatures must be kept constant at specic temperature. The spray attemperators is implemented be-

tween reheater sections to control outlet temperature. The attemperator has a relatively small volume and then its mass

storage is negligible. In addition, it is considered that there is no pressure drop in this section. Then, the inlet temperature

of the second reheater, T

out

is governed by the following equation [39].

DT

out

1

C

p

Dh

out

h

in

h

out

C

p

_

m

out

D

_

m

out

_

m

in

_

m

out

DT

in

h

in

h

spray

C

p

_

m

out

D

_

m

spray

30

where _ m

in

is inlet steam ow, h

in

is specic enthalpy of inlet steam h

spray

is specic enthalpy of water spray. The congura-

tion of reheater section is presented in Fig. 14.

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1155

3.4. Generator model

The turbine-generator speed is described by the equation of motion of the machine rotor, which relates the system inertia

to deference of the mechanical and electrical torque on the rotor.

Fig. 11. IP and LP-turbine model.

1156 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

Fig. 12. Temperature model for the reheater section.

Fig. 13. Flow-pressure model K3

P

0

s mv

; K4

_ m

out0

2P

in0

P

out0

_ _

.

Table 3

Parameters for reheater model

B

1

B

2

K

1

K

2

K

3

K

4

Reheater a 0.1706 6.2893 2.41e3 1.06e2 0.0128 36.0257

Reheater b 0.1315 15.723 3.77e4 1.06e2 0.0128 36.0257

Fig. 14. Reheater conguration.

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1157

P

m

P

e

M

d

dt

Dx

m

31

where M = J x

m,

which is called inertia constant. In the steam turbines, the mechanical torqueses of the prime movers for

large generators are function of speed. It is noted that the frequency control of a generator is generally investigated in two

main situations. In the rst case, the generator is in the islanded operation and feeding load to the electrical grid. In this case,

actions of the frequency control would be in steady state conditions, where the system is running as a regulated machine. In

the regulated machines, the speed mechanism is responsible for the steam turbine throttle valves controlling. Therefore, in

order to stabilize overall system, the frequency should be controlled with respect to the speed droop characteristics [40]. The

regulation equation is derived as follows,

xx

0

1

D

Tr

m

Tr

m0

0 32

then,

P

m

Tr

m

x

0

P

m0

x

0

=DDx 33

In the second case, the generator is part of a large interconnected system or be connected to an innite bus. In this case,

the turbine controller regulates only the power, not the frequency. While the machine is not under an active governor con-

trol and running at unregulated conditions, the torque-speed characteristics can be considered linear over a limited range as

follows,

Tr

m

P

m

=x 34

For each case, the electrical power (P

e

) can be captured in term of terminal voltage (V), machine excitation voltage (U),

direct axis synchronous reactance (x), and the rotor angle (d) as follows,

P

e

UV=x sind 35

The transient response of the machines are particularly investigated for turbine over-speed and load rejection conditions,

where P

e

= 0. It is noted that no difference is declared for the characteristics of transient and steady state conditions of unreg-

ulated machines in the literature and therefore, Eq. (34) can be also used for the transient conditions [41].

In addition, it is recommended that the term of losses in rotating system be considered in Eq. (31) to complete the gen-

erator model, which is presented in Eq. (36).

P

L

P

L0

x

x

0

_ _

2

36

The proposed model for the turbine and generator is presented in Fig. 15.

4. Simulation results

In this section, responses of proposed functions for estimating the thermodynamic properties of water steam are rst

compared with standard data, in order to show their accuracy. In this regard, the responses of proposed functions for specic

enthalpy (extraction no. 1) and specic entropy (extraction no. 4) are presented as examples at different temperatures and

pressures, which are shown in Figs. 16 and 17, respectively. In addition, we dene the error as the difference between the

response of the proposed functions and standard values to evaluate the error functions. In Table 4 the error functions are

listed as; upper bound error Max(jej), lower bound error Min(jej), mean absolute error MAE, average absolute deviation

AAD (e) and correlation coefcient R

2

(e).

The developed model for turbine is simulated by using Matlab Simulink. In order to validate the accuracy and performance

of the developed model, a comparison between the responses of the proposed model and the responses of the real plant is

performed. The load response in steady state and transient conditions over an operation range between 50% and 100% of

nominal load is shown in Fig. 18 to illustrate the behavior of the turbine-generator system. Simulation results indicate that

Fig. 15. Overall turbine and generator models.

1158 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

the response of the developed model is very close to the response of the real system such that the maximum difference be-

tween the response of the actual system and the proposed model is much less than 0.3%. The predicted values are plotted via

real system response to subscribe the accuracy of developed models (Fig. 19). In addition, by dening the error as the dif-

Fig. 16. Responses of enthalpy function at different temperatures and pressures (extraction 1).

Fig. 17. Responses of entropy function at different temperatures and pressures (extraction 4).

Table 4

Thermodynamic property error function

Max (jej) Min (jej) MAE AAD (e) R

2

(e)

Enthalpy for Ext. 1 0. 8182 2.213e4 0.4014 1.0884e4 0.9982

Entropy for Ext. 4 0.0095 1.101e4 0.0041 5.3533e4 0.9977

Fig. 18. Response of the turbine-generator.

A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162 1159

ference between the response of the actual plant and the responses of the model, the error functions are evaluated in order to

validate the accuracy of developed model, which are presented in Table 5.

5. Conclusion

Developing nonlinear mathematical models based on system identication approaches during normal operation with-

out any external excitation or disruption is always a hard effort. Assuming that parametric models are available, in this

case, using soft computing methods would be helpful in order to adjust model parameters over full range of inputout-

put operational data. In this paper, based on energy balance, thermodynamic state conversion and semi-empirical rela-

tions, different parametric models are developed for the steam turbine subsections. In this case, it is possible the model

parameters are either determined by empirical relations or they are adjusted by applying genetic algorithms as optimi-

zation method.

Comparison between the responses of the turbine-generator model with the responses of real system validates the accu-

racy of the proposed model in steady state and transient conditions. The presented turbine-generator model can be used for

control system design synthesis, performing real-time simulations and monitoring desired states in order to have safe oper-

ation of a turbine-generator particularly during abnormal conditions such as load rejection or turbine over-speed.

The further model improvements will make the turbine-generator model proper to be used in emergency control system

designing.

Appendix A. Optimization Parameters for GA

HP turbine IP and LP turbine Functions

Population size 20 50 100

Crossover rate 0.7 0.7 0.8

Mutation rate 0.1 0.1 0.2

Generations 50 100 2500

Selecting Stochastic uniform

Reproduction Elite count: 2

Appendix B. Linking simulink and GA toolbox

It is mentioned that the MATLAB Simulink is able to read parameters from specied location on disk. Here, an example for

a model with two parameters is presented.

Fig. 19. Predicted values via real system response.

Table 5

Turbine modeling error

Max (jej) Min (jej) MAE AAD (e) R

2

(e)

Power 1.6324 3.3156e5 0.8988 0.0026 0.9988

1160 A. Chaibakhsh, A. Ghaffari / Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 16 (2008) 11451162

Appendix C. Saturation pressure as a function of temperature

The proposed functions for estimating the steam saturation pressure, p

s

, for the range of 89.965 C to 373.253 C are pre-

sented below.

p

s

T57:0

236:2315

_

5:602972

89:965

C 6 T 6 139:781

C

p

s

T28:0

207:9248

_

4:778504

139:781

C 6 T 6 203:622

C

p

s

T5:0

185:0779

_

4:304376

203:622

C 6 T 6 299:40

C

p

s

T16:0

195:1819

_

4:460843

299:407

C 6 T 6 355:636

C

p

s

T50:0

277:2963

_

4:960785

355:636

C 6 T 6 373:253

C

where, the modeling error is less than 0.02% [37]. It should be noted it is not necessary to estimate saturation pressure for

two-phase region.

Appendix D. Saturation temperature as a function of pressure

The proposed functions for estimating the steam saturation temperature, T

s

, in the range of 0.070 to 21.85 MPa are pre-

sented as follows:

T

s

236:2315p

0:1784767

57:0 0:070 MPa 6 p 6 0:359 MPa

T

s

207:9248p

0:2092705

28:0 0:359 MPa 6 p 6 1:676 MPa

T

s

158:0779p

0:2323217

5:0 1:676 MPa 6 p 6 8:511 MPa

T

s

195:1819p

0:2241729

16:00 8:511 MPa 6 p 6 17:690 MPa

T

s

227:2963p

0:201581

50:00 17:690 MPa 6 p 6 21:850 MPa

where, the modeling error is less than 0.02% [37]. It should be noted it is not necessary to estimate saturation temperature

for two-phase region.

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