What is Spelling Instruction?

Spelling instruction teaches students how to approximate and eventually use conventional spellings for known vocabulary, generate plausible spellings for unknown vocabulary, and to recognize and correct misspellings. Students must be taught to access and use different types of linguistic knowledge to develop good spelling skills, including phonological, graphological, orthographic, morphemic, syntactic, and semantic information. Linguistic knowledge develops gradually throughout the preschool and school-age years and at different rates for different children, which means that spelling instruction must be sensitive to the developmental patterns exhibited by each student. For instance, a student who is completely unaware of roots and affixes probably will not benefit greatly from instruction in applying morphological structures to derive spelling patterns. << Top

How Can My Students Benefit From Spelling Instruction?
Just as accurate and fluent word recognition frees up cognitive resources for the more important task of comprehending text, so does accurate and fluent spelling permit a student to allocate more attention and effort to the composition of a text. If students see the relevance of learning how to spell to their written communication and are engaged in authentic, purposeful, connected, and motivating spelling activities that extend beyond the weekly spelling list and test, they are more likely to become comfortable with spelling old and new words and proofreading papers in varied contexts. << Top

How Do I Teach Spelling?
The spelling curriculum requires careful consideration if students are to fully benefit from instruction. Teachers should ensure the following curriculum elements are in place:   spelling vocabulary includes words drawn from children’s reading materials, their writing, self-selected words, high-frequency word lists (e.g., Graham, Harris, & Loynachan, 1993, 1994) and pattern words students are taught phonemic awareness and phoneme-grapheme associations (reserving the least consistent mappings, such as consonants /k/ and /z/ and long vowels, for last) in kindergarten and first grade; common spelling patterns (e.g., phonograms or rime families) in first and second grades; and morphological structures (i.e., roots and affixes) and helpful spelling rules (e.g., add es to make words ending in s, z, x, ch, or sh plural) in second grade and beyond (e.g., Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2000; Cunningham, 2000) students are taught systematic and effective strategies for studying new spelling words (e.g., mnemonic spelling links, multi-sensory strategies) previously taught spelling words are periodically reviewed to promote retention correct use of spelling vocabulary in students’ written work is monitored and reinforced students are taught and encouraged to use dictionaries, spell checkers, and other resources to determine the spelling of unknown words spelling “demons” and other difficult words are posted on wall charts

    

Weekly routines for spelling instruction should be established; once in place, instruction typically requires no more than 15 minutes per day. Generally speaking, the teacher should introduce the target words at the beginning of the week, model how to spell the words correctly, highlight patterns and point out distinctive attributes (or have students “discover” these), and give students ample opportunity to practice with immediate corrective feedback. The next few days, students spend time practicing and self-evaluating their spelling performance, and the teacher frequently

plight. as student self-study or partner activities are insufficient for many students. mightily) or graphomorphemic (e. at the end of the week. designate. Troia & Graham. Guided Spelling (Making Words) . Students sort words. grouped together under an easily recognized anchor word for the pattern (e. through computer-assisted instruction) while studying. These Teacher-Directed Spelling Activities are used to provide more explicit spelling instruction. they can use a Spelling Study Strategies handout to remind them of (a) the steps for multisensory rehearsal and (b) mnemonics for remembering how to spell long words. 2003). and. 2001. Remember. At the end of the week. 3. Basic lesson formats are provided.. Graham. to identify how effective their study plan was and what tactics might be employed to do better next time..g. printed on index cards.g. assignment. << Top Teacher-Directed Spelling Activities Word Sorts 1. it is important to help students develop strategic competence and independence. 2000. 1999. sign) Students search reading materials and their own writing samples for other examples of the new pattern and add these to the word wall 2.. especially those who struggle with spelling. students take a Friday posttest to determine which words were mastered immediately after taking a spelling test. Of course. frightening. containing a novel orthographic (e. When students study their spelling words during the remainder of the week. Students might also work with each other to study/practice and evaluate each others’ work. resignation) pattern in order to discover the pattern The novel pattern is discussed and the representative words are added to a word wall. to learn spelling patterns and rules. students monitor their on-task behavior or the number of times they correctly spell a target word to promote active learning << Top How Can I Help My Students Learn. all of these materials will require an introduction and initial guidance from the teacher. One way to do this is to have students complete a Spelling Study Plan to summarize how well they performed on their pretest and how they plan to study their missed words. signify. and Correctly Use Spelling Words? Word sorts and guided spelling activities are basic tools for teaching spelling to students of all ages. 1999. Nevertheless. light. the content for an actual lesson is derived from the spelling patterns (either orthographic or morphemic) targeted for instruction. students correct their misspellings the teacher conducts word sorts and guided spelling activities to explicitly teach spelling patterns and rules at the beginning of the week daily opportunities for cumulative study and testing of new spelling words are provided (e. Templeton & Morris.. Some additional recommendations include:       students take a Monday pretest to determine which words they need to study during subsequent activities and to set spelling performance goals after studying new spelling words.checks their work (error correction is critical) and may teach additional lessons. the teacher should assess how well the students have learned the spelling words (see Bourassa & Treiman.g.g.

I will use the following to help me study my spelling words: _____ 3-step rehearsal _____ word sort _____ making words _____ partner study _____ memory links _____ finger spelling _____ computer games 4.1. these tiles represent the orthographic or graphomorphemic units in a “mystery” word that can be derived when all of the tiles are combined The words are recorded and verified with a dictionary or other spelling guide If a word is acceptable. To improve my spelling. I correctly spelled _____ words on my Friday test. My goal is to learn to correctly spell _____ words. 2. 6. Students are given single-letter or multi-letter tiles to combine into as many different real words as 2. 4. << Top Spelling Study Strategies 3-Step Rehearsal Step 1: Look & Say Look at the word you want to learn Say the word out loud Spell the word out loud Step 2: Cover & See Cover the word See the word in your mind Trace the letters in the air Spell the word out loud and trace again Step 3: Write & Check . possible. I _____ did _____ did not meet my goal.. I _____ did _____ did not use my study plan. I missed _____ words on my Monday test. 3. 7. 5. next time I will.. 5. it is written in a sentence to demonstrate understanding of its meaning Students are encouraged to spell other “transfer” words that contain some of the targeted letters or units Students read texts that contain the relevant spelling patterns and monitor their ability to recognize and define the words << Top Spelling Study Plan Name: _______________________________________ Date: ___________________________ 1. 3.

but he has lots of rules or principles for us to follow Pronunciation Link Example: Wed-nes-day Example: tom-or-row << Top . I go e-e-e! Example: My principal is my pal.Cover the word Write the word Check the spelling Write the word 2 more times if correct. if not. go back to step 1 Memory Links for Spelling Long Words Built in Word Link Example: business is a sin Example: clothes are made from cloth Story Sentence Link Example: When I go past a cemetery.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful