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Ki Hajar Dewantara (2 May 1889 - 28 April 1959), born Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat into a noble Javanese family of Yogyakarta, was a pioneer in the field of education in Indonesia. He was the founder of Taman Siswa education system. Ki Hadjar Dewantara studied at ELS (Europeesche Lagere School), then he continued his studies at Kweekschool (Teacher School) and Stovia (Javanese Doctor's School). Active in the nationalist cause, he belonged to a faction favouring direct action and the use of Western methods to diminish the power of the Dutch. He was a member of the Bandung chapter of Sarekat Islām (“Islamic Association”), but later became a founder of the influential Indische Party together with Ernest Douwes Dekker and Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo. The famous ironic article “If I Were a Netherlander,” he wrote contributed to his exile to the Netherlands between 1913 and 1918. In the Netherlands he became converted to the idea of using Indonesian cultural traditions to cope with the challenges posed by Dutch colonial rule. He felt that education was the best means to strengthen Indonesians, and he was deeply influenced by the progressive theories of the Italian educational reformer Maria Montessori and by the Indian poet and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore. His first Taman Siswa schools were established in Java in July 1922. Instruction, carried on informally, emphasized traditional skills and values of Javanese life, particularly music and dance. Western subjects were taught, too, in order to help students cope with the demands of modern life.
Teachers at the Taman Siswa school in Jogjakarta. Overcoming initial official hostility, the Taman Siswa schools had spread throughout the archipelago and were by the late 1930s subsidized by the Dutch colonial government. Based on traditional Javanese concepts, the Taman Siswa schools appealed primarily to those segments of Indonesian society termed abangan, in which the Islamic faith is less deeply entrenched. In 1949, he was chosen for Minister of Education and Culture. The 2nd of May is Indonesia's National Education Day, named in his honor. The obverse of the 20,000-rupiah banknote contains the likeness of Ki Hadjar Dewantara.
Pangeran Ario Tjondronegoro IV. Kartini read everything with a great deal of attention and . (21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904). A. became Regency Chief of Jepara. Sosrokartono was an accomplished linguist.A. replacing his second wife's own father. Kartini was the fifth child and second eldest daughter in a family of eleven.A.A. Ngasirah. including half siblings. as well as leestrommel.A. Jepara. Kartini's father was more lenient than some during his daughter's seclusion.Kartini Raden Ayu Kartini. A. at which point authority over them was transferred to their husbands. was a prominent Javanese and an Indonesian national heroine. Her mother was M. Kartini's father was elevated to Regency Chief of Jepara.A. After this second marriage. became a Regency Chief at the age of 25 while R. to which she began to send contributions which were published. Raden Mas Sosroningrat.A. the daughter of Kyai Haji Madirono. Because R. Kartini could speak Dutch. She also read cultural and scientific magazines as well as the Dutch women's magazine De Hollandsche Lelie. Sosroningrat. Kartini's family allowed her to attend school until she was 12 years old. became her very close friend. After she turned 12 she was 'secluded' at home. Kartini's older brother R. Books. colonial regulations specified that a Regency Chief must marry a member of the nobility and because M. From her letters. a girl by the name of Rosa Abendanon. R. a common practice among Javanese nobility. polygamy was a common practice among the nobility. Raden Adjeng Kartini's omnivorous reading included the Semarang newspaper De locomotief. Kartini continued to educate herself on her own. Kartini's father. During her seclusion. a direct descendant of the Raja of Madura. Tjitrowikromo.A.A. it was clear that R. and fostered the desire to improve the conditions of indigenous women. R. Ngasirah was not of sufficiently high nobility. R. who at that time had a very low social status. At that time.M. R. a teacher of religion in Teluwakur.A.A.M.A. a set of magazines circulated by bookshops to subscribers. During seclusion girls were not allowed to leave their parents' house until they were married. edited by Pieter Brooshooft. Kartini's interest in European feminist thinking. At this time. newspapers and European magazines fed R. she learnt to speak fluent Dutch. giving her such privileges as embroidery lessons and occasional appearances in public for special events. and her mother was Raden Mas' first wife. was originally the district chief of Mayong. an unusual accomplishment for Javanese women at the time. Biography Raden Ayu Kartini was born into an aristocratic Javanese family in a time when Java was still part of the Dutch colony. She also wrote the Letters of a Javanese Princess.A. and Nyai Haji Siti Aminah. Kartini is known as a pioneer in the area of women's rights for native Indonesians. Here. she acquired several Dutch pen friends. R. among other subjects.A. Her grandfather. the Dutch East Indies. or sometimes known as Raden Ajeng Kartini. her father married a second time to Raden Ajeng Woerjan (Moerjam). She was born into a family with a strong intellectual tradition. R. but not the most important one. One of them. R. Kartini's father.A. R. to prepare young girls for their marriage.
She was married on the 12 November 1903. she was also a nationalist figure. 1904. Die Waffen Nieder! (Lay Down Your Arms!). on 22 December so that the choice of R. the Regency Chief of Rembang. R. followed by other women's schools in Surabaya. Kartini's concerns were not only in the area of the emancipation of women. Kartini argue that not only was she a feminist who elevated the status of women in Indonesia. A few days later on September 17. unlike R. as 'Kartini Day' . President Sukarno declared R. Inspired by R. the Romantic-Feminist author Mrs. the Van Deventer family established the R. R. Kartini's aims and allowed her to establish a school for women in the east porch of the Rembang Regency Office complex. Kartini died at the age of 25. In contrast. Yogyakarta.A. Malang.A. Kartini saw that the struggle for women to obtain their freedom.A. R. This decision has been criticised.A. 1904. Kartini's parents arranged her marriage to Raden Adipati Joyodiningrat. Kartini's example. 21 April. The books she had read before she was 20 included Max Havelaar and Love Letters by Multatuli. but also other problems of her society. It has been proposed that Kartini's Day should be celebrated in conjunction with Indonesian Mothers Day. Kartini. She was buried in Bulu Village.A. Madiun. those who recognise the significance of R.A. Rembang. but she acquiesced to appease her ailing father. who already had three wives.an Indonesian national holiday. took up arms to oppose the colonisers. She also read De Stille Kracht (The Hidden Force) by Louis Couperus. Kartini's wishes. All were in Dutch.A. with new ideas who struggled on behalf of her people. Kartini's only son was born on September 13. Kartini's birth date.A. Cirebon and other areas. R. . autonomy and legal equality was just part of a wider movement. Her husband understood R.A. Kartini as a national heroine would not overshadow other women who. 'Kartini's Schools' in Semarang in 1912. In 1964. the works of Frederik van Eeden. Augusta de Witt. Kartini Foundation which built schools for women.A.A.thoughtfulness.A. This was against R. Goekoop de-Jong Van Beek and an anti-war novel by Berta von Suttner. including her in the national struggle for independence.
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