Vergil’s Aeneid

in somnis, ecce, ante oculos maestissimus Hector In my sleep, look, before me the eyes of most sorrowful Hector visus adesse mihi largosque effundere fletus seemed to be there before me and to be weeping copious tears raptatus bigis ut quondam aterque cruento pulvere perque pedes As once before, having been dragged along by the two horse chariot and blackened with bloodstained dirt pulvere perque pedes traiectus lora tumentes. And pierced through his swelling feet with thongs. ei mihi, qualis erat, quantum mutatus ab illo Ah me, in what a state he was in, how greatly changed from that Hectore qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli Hector who returned wearing the spoil of Achilles vel Danaum Phrygios iaculatus puppibus ignes ! or having tossed Phrygian fire brands on the decks of Greek ships.

“in somnis…Hector”- heaving assonance, making line drag to show grief/sleep. “raptatus”- emphasises the awful humiliation “ab illo /Hectore” – Emphatic to “Hector” as the o is not lost due to elision. “Hectore…Achilli” – Hector and Achilles at opposite ends of the sentence “vel Danaum… ignes !”- Words tangled up like in the battle “Phyrgios iaculatus puppibus ignes !” – hissing sibilant sounds like spitting fire

shows suffering in aid of fatherland. shows Aeneas’ great sadness for Hector “expromere”. Aeneas searching for new fatherland also ironically here. spontaneously weeping myself. words matted together.links back to Hector’s tears. quae circum plurima muros and bearing those many many wounds which he sustained around the walls accepit patrios.drawn out sounds creates atmospheric tension . “flens”. “patrios” – emphasised. seemed compellare virum et maestas expromere voces : to address the hero first and to express sorrowful words. ultro flens ipse videbar of his gatherland.Vergil’s Aeneid squalentem barbam et concretos sanguine crines Now bearing an unkempt beard and hair matted with blood vulneraque ille gerens. “concretos… crines” – shows that hair is matted with blood. I.

although the house of my father Anchisses Anchisae domus arboribusque obtecta recessit. clarescunt sonitus armorumque ingruit horror. was secluded and overshadowed by trees. “excutior” – violent “summi fastigia tecti”. it is secluded yet he still is able to hear the sounds of war “claresecunt sonitus armorque” – harsh words like clanging of armous and weapons.Vergil’s Aeneid diverso interea miscentur moenia luctu. the city walls are in turmoil with grief on all sides et magis atque magis. Meanwhile. Animals often sense impending doom also. excutior somno et summi fastigia tecti I am jolted out of sleep and by scrambling up. I surmount the gables of the rooftop ascensu supero atque arrectis auribus asto : and stand there with ears pricked: “miscentur”.vivid present adds drama “domus arborisque obctecta recessit” – he is protected by trees. the sounds grow clearer and the horrifying clash of arms advances.shows altitutde “atque arrectis aurribus asto” – alliteration of a adds emphasis to what is a very animalistic response: his ears have been pricked like a dog. . quamquam secreta parentis and more and more.

Uncomprehendingly. “sternit… sternit”.‘headlong’ shows dragging along of the tree limbs in the water “pastor”.Vergil’s Aeneid in segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus Austris It was just like when a tongue of flame falls upon the crop with South Winds raging incidit. “praecipitesque”. stupet inscius alto and drags the woods headlong. like the destructive forces being described. flattens the joyous crops and the toil of the oxen praecipitesque trahit silvas . Juxtaposition with “labores” is also surprising.repetition reduces the description to one level like the crops “laeta”. Flames are also personified.personification of the crops and their falling. strong pull to next sentence. “flamma… flumine”-opposites of each other. . hearing the noise from the highest peak of a rock “in segetem… incidit” – repetition of “in” relates sentences to each other “Austris… incidit”. stternit sata laeta boumque labores flattens the fields. aut rapidus montano flumine torrens or when a whirling torrent from a mountain river sternit agros.delay until end of sentence makes him seem isolates and alone.enajambment leaves reader waiting for verb. the shepherd is dumbfounded accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor.

shows personal calamity . shows this destruction is happening all the time “Volcano”. There arose the din of men and the blast of trumpets. iam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam was laid bare. (the house of) Ucalegon.personification of fire. “patescunt”. “iam”. Danaumque patescunt Then indeed the truth of the situation became clear. the wide straits of Sigium blazed with fire exoritur clamorque virum clangorque tubarum. and the trickery of the Greeks insidiae. Now the spacious house of Deiphobus crashed into ruins Volcano superante domus.vivid present “est” –left out.Vergil’s Aeneid tum vero manifesta fides. foreshadowing of the fact that gods do not like Anchisses “Ucalagon”. iam proximus ardet as Vulcan overwhelmed it: and now next to it Ucalegon.emphasis.only name used. speeds up sentence. Sigea igni freta lata relucent.

furor”. nec sat rationis in armis. adds effect .Vergil’s Aeneid arms amens capio. I seized my weapons. furor iraque mentem with allis to the citadel.ephatic “sed”.. (in hindsight) there was not enough reason sed glomerare manum bello et concurre in arcem but my spirit is on fire to gether together a band of men for war and to run together cum osciis ardent animi.literal words made metaphorical. Vivid present makes events seem like that are occurring now. madness and wrath spurred on my mind praecipitat. pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis. Out of my mind. And it dawned on me that it was a fine thing to die in battle. and adds dramatic effect “arma… armis”.contrast “ardent.

“tum vero”.marks precise moment when Troy is beyond saving “Neptunia Troia” – Neptune encaptures all of Troy’s history with implication that it was doomed from the start due to Laomedon’s trickery “antiquam”. illa usque miniatur And the tree at every movement threatens to topple et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat. hacked with repeated blows of double edges iron axes eruere agricolae certatim.mention of weapons reminds reader of the current sacking of Troy “hacked by iron and by frequent double edged axes”. nods its foliage vulneribus donec paulatim evicta supremum until. it has given a last groan and has crashed congemuit traxitque iugis avulse ruinam down in ruin. little by little. overcome by its wounds.Vergil’s Aeneid tum vero omne mihi visum considere in ignes Then indeed all Ilium seemed to me to sink into the fires Ilium et ex imo verti Neptunia Troia: and Neptume’s Troy seemed to be overturned from the very bottom ac veluti summis antiquam in montibus ornum It was just like when woodmen strive in rivalry to uproot an ancient Roman mountain Ash cum ferro accisam crebrisque bipennibus instant on the tops of the mountains. and shuddering with its top vigorously shaken.hendiadys (using two nouns to express one idea) calls attention to the brutality .old like Troy is old “nutat” tree is compared to a woman “bipennibus”. torn away from the ridge.

whom I desired to take optabam primum montes primumque petebam up first into the high mountain and who I was looking for first. expedior” – vivid present “recedunt”. my father. placed at beginning of sentence. to endure exile. atque ubi iam patriae perventum ad limina sedis And now.vivid word. genitor. “descendo. highlights the surprising nature of the refusal .est left out. quem tollere in altos and his ancient halls. I am deftly guided between fire and the enemy expedior: dant tela locum flammaeque recedunt. “primum… primumque”. when I arrived at the threshold of my father’s abode antiquasque domos.emphasises Aeneas’s desire to take his father to safety first “abnegat”. adds speed. abnegat excise vitam producer Troia refused.Vergil’s Aeneid descendo ad ducente deo flammam inter et hostes and with the goddess leading me. “limina” – impersonal use of the word. The weapons gave way and the flames receded. now that Troy had been destroyed to prolong his death and exsiliumque pati.receeding at end of sentence “perventum”.

must set your flight in motion me si caelicolae voluissent ducere vitam. I have seen one sack of the city vidimus excidia et captae superavimus urbi. he said sanguis. laid like this. . if the celestials had wanted me to continue my life has mihi servassent sedes. Depart from my body. quibus integer aevi “You. that was enough and more than enough and I have survived one capture of the city. sic o sic positum adfati discedite corpus.” ait “solidaeque suo stant robore vires. satis una superque they would have saved these abodes for me. “and stands firm with its own vigour vos agitate fugam you. whose lifeblood is untouched by age.Vergil’s Aeneid “vos o.