Potential hazards of drugs for general public

What effect has drugs and alcohol on society, on the economy, on young people and on others.

 Drugs and alcohol is one way of not meeting and solving the problems of life. When people do not solve their problems, society will work less well. Read more about causes of substance abuse. Drugs and alcohol can cause effects like illnesses, which can be expensive for society to cure, for example lung cancer caused by cigarette smoking, mental illness like psychoses or neurological illnesses. o o o o o      Read more about damage effects caused by cocaine. Read more about damage caused by cannabis (marijuana, hasch). Read more about liver damage effect caused by alcohol abuse. Read more about risk effects with Extacy (XTC). Read more about risk effects with Heroin.

Use of alochol or narcotics during pregnancy will increase the likelihood of children with bad school results and, when grown up, unemployed. The high costs of narcotics abuse can cause economic catastrophe for the addict. The high costs often cause other criminality, which causes extensive damage. Alcohol and drugs can make people behave in unsafe, irresponsible and aggressive way, and are therefore forbidden in combination with driving motorcars, ships, etc. Medicines prescribed by medical doctors can make life easer to live and prevent crime. This is true, also for narcotics like Methadon to people who already are heroin addicts. These medicines are similar to Heroin, but does not prevent the user from work. They do however have side effects, for example sexual problems.

There are other medicines similar to Methadone, such as Subutex, Subuxone, LAMM (levoalpha acetylmethadol), Buprenex, Naloxone. Because of the bad effects of narcotics on people and society, most countries make selling and using narcotics illegal.

Pakistan Special Problems: Smoking, Drugs, and AIDS
http://www.photius.com/countries/pakistan/society/pakistan_society_special_problems_sm~10391.html Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook

<< Back to Pakistan Society Smoking is primarily a health threat for men. Nearly half of all men smoked in the 1970s and 1980s, whereas only 5 percent of women smoked. Twenty-five percent of all adults were estimated to be smokers

most notably the United States Agency for International Development. and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's crackdown on drug smuggling made shipment through Iran difficult. dropped to between forty and forty-five tons by 1985. the succeeding government of Benazir Bhutto has perpetuated his policies and declared its intent to augment them. became major problems after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Both neswar and pan may engender mild dependency and may contribute to oral cancers or other serious problems.280 the following year. a tobacco-based ground mixture including lime that is placed under the tongue.850 hectares in 1989 to 8. The caretaker government of Moeen Qureshi (July to mid-October 1993) was responsible for the reductions in production and area under cultivation. already established in remote highland areas of the North-West Frontier Province by the late nineteenth century. betel nut plus herbs and sometimes tobacco wrapped in betel leaf. The area under opium poppy cultivation followed the same pattern. as well as heroin production. Opium poppy yields. Opium poppy cultivation. Opium smuggling and cultivation. claiming public pressure--despite no evident public outcry in newspapers or other media (see Transportation . Pakistan became a major center for heroin production and a transshipment point for the international drug market. increased after World War II and expanded again to become the basis of some local economies in the mid1980s . The annual yield from an entire village can be transported from an isolated area on a few donkeys. estimated at 800 tons in 1979. from 5. but dramatically rose to 130 tons in 1989 and then 180 tons in 1990. but profits are great and storage and marketing are easy. . Pakistan was an attractive route because corrupt officials could easily be bribed. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). in their opium poppy substitution programs.147 hectares in 1992 but dropped to 6. The war interrupted the opium pipeline from Afghanistan to the West. ch. with a marked increase among women (who still generally smoke only at home). 3).in 1985.215 hectares in 1990. Yields then declined slowly to 175 tons in 1992 and 140 tons in 1993. the dark red juice damages teeth and gums. Although the government cooperated with international agencies. In an unusual departure from global trends. Men also take neswar. The national airline. Harvesting requires intensive labor. instituted a no-smoking policy on all its domestic flights in the late 1980s. PIA reversed this policy in mid1992 . Both men and women chew pan. It reached 9.

Use of heroin within Pakistan has expanded significantly. A center for AIDS testing has also been established at the Port Health Office in Keamari harbor in Karachi." The Ministry of Health. and the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center. There were only thirty drug treatment centers in Pakistan in 1991. The effect of poor quality control on blood supplies and needle sharing among addicts is undetermined. but it was widely believed that AIDS/HIV was essentially a sub-Saharan African problem that had little bearing . The government has been slow to respond to the threat posed by AIDS. all foreigners and sailors arriving in Pakistan will be required to have certificates stating that they are AIDS-free. During 1993 twenty-five AIDS screening centers were established at various hospitals. blood products. Data as of April 1994 Pandemic Diseases During the mid years of the 1980s. Another is expected to open during 1994 at Karachi Airport. Beginning in 1994. has established the National AIDS Control Programme to monitor the disease and to try to prevent its spread. the figure had reached 1. including the Agha Khan University Hospital in Karachi. By early 1994. In fact. the government has minimized the problem of AIDS in the same way that it has dealt with potentially widespread alcoholism by labeling it as a "foreigners' disease. All imported blood. AIDS screening kits and materials are provided free at these facilities.2 million by 1989. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has not yet been much of a problem in Pakistan. This dramatic increase is attributed the ready availability of drugs. the National Institute of Health in Islamabad. State-run radio and television stations have made no attempt to educate the public about AIDS.000 people in Pakistan had been tested. there were more than 2 million drug addicts of all types in the country in 1991. extramarital. approximately 300. Certificates of inspection are already required of Pakistani sailors. probably as a result of cultural mores constricting premarital. and vaccines must also be certified. however. The Pakistan Narcotics Control Board estimates that although there were no known heroin addicts in Pakistan in 1980. Cultural and religious restrictions prevent official policies encouraging "safe-sex" or other programs that would prevent the spread of the disease. with a reported cure rate of about 20 percent. Edinburgh was dubbed the AIDS capital of Europe. and openly homosexual relations.

staff and the wider community once prisoners are released.on the UK. the dangers of the rapid spread of infections are obvious. the diseases are likely to spread very quickly into the heterosexual community. the sharing of drug taking equipment (particularly dirty needles). Many other countries have yet to implement comprehensive HIV prevention programmes in prisons or to achieve a standard of prison health care equivalent to the standard outside of prison. Central Asia and the Indian Sub-Continent will outpace the problem which is out of control in Africa. Unsafe Practices Much has been written about drugs in prisons and the ways in which infections are spread through unsafe sexual practices. there does not appear to have been much progress in addressing and reducing the problem. around sharing drugs and the paraphernalia associated with abuse. prison staff and the wider community. There is too a major problem arising in China and the Far East (6). Estonia and Lithuania are doing little to control the spread of blood borne and sexually transmitted diseases. with women being particularly vulnerable. The Annual Report of the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) for 2006 has drawn attention to the fact that countries such as Latvia. the most recent of which was published in 2006 (7). However. thereby jeopardizing the health of prisoners. These all pose risks for prisoners. and once infected prisoners are released. With freedom and frequency of travel at relatively low prices throughout Europe and internationally. particularly in prisons. razors and the practice of amateur tattooing that is common amongst prisoners. There is also a strong culture amongst some drug dependent people. These countries have problems in their prisons. That thinking is still prevalent despite indications that within three years the problem in Russia and many of the former Soviet Republics (now within greater Europe). despite guidelines of good practice having been issued by UNODC. . certainly not in the UK.

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