Experiment No: 01 Name of The Experiment: Study on chemical function required in various processes.

Introduction: Dyeing process of fabric requires various types of pre treatment, after treatment and many more process to successfully complete dyeing process and get desired coloration on fabric. Total process uses various chemicals and other auxiliaries which helps completing the task. It is very much important for us to know about different steps of dyeing process and the materials used for their individual purposes. At first all the processes are described bellow and materials needed for these processes will be discussed later. Scouring: The term scouring applies to the removal of impurities such as oil, wax, fats etc from textile materials. In other hand, scouring enables the textile material for more water permeability or the absorbency by removing those impurities as water is very much important factor in dyeing process. Scouring process is done by using a strong base like NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide). It reacts with fat/wax/oil and produce soap and glycerine which can be easily washed away later. It can be expressed as following reaction. NaOH + Fat/ Wax / Oil → Soap + Glycerine Note: There is a problem in using NaOH. It is seen that generally 5 gm/l NaOH is applied to the fabric for scouring. But that amount of NaoH creates holes on fabric. That’s why the amount of NaOH should be reduced while keeping the necessary amount of base for reaction. For this reason Na2CO3 ( Sodium Carbonate) is mixed with NaOH in such a manner so that the total amount of basic compound may be 5 gm/l where the amount of NaOH is kept as low as possible. Here, Na2CO3 helps to keep the amount of basic compound for the reaction. However, this is optional element and used only wherever such conditions arrive. Bleaching: Bleaching is the process of imparting whiteness while destroying natural colors. Bleaching is done to produce uniform, stable, basic white for the goods which are to be dyed. This is important for materials as all the instructions or amount of materials needed for dying is tested at a laboratory first for achieving desired shade correctly and without wasting anything. All the tests done over a standard white fabric sample to give it desired shade. For this reason the recipe for that shade is based on a white fabric which makes it important for textile materials to go through bleaching process to achieve that standard whiteness over which the recipe is given.

Note: Enzyme is made of protein based living organisms. A temperature of 75⁰ C would do the task. Note: There are different types of dyes available which are used as per need. Unless it will be faulty as washing of that material may change the shade. yarn or fabric. the cellulosic goods (usually knit fabric) are treated with acetic acid for neutralization. That’s why after predetermined time or after achieving sufficient wash they must be killed which can be easily done by increasing temperature. then necessary treatment has to be done over that fabric to get desired shade which may also result in complete re-dyeing. This process can be applied before or after dyeing. We can only be sure if the color fastness of the fabric is good enough and also if the desired shade is achieved. usually by immersing in a dye bath. Otherwise H2O2 is divided into H+ and HO2. Dyeing: Dyeing is the process of applying color to fiber. then the fabric is treated with a suitable enzyme within a recommended conditions ( temperature. Note: Washing must be done before deciding the achievement of desired shade. Enzyme Wash: After scouring and bleaching. Acid dye on wool.) for polishing the fabric surface by removing the short and immature fibres from the substrate. Most of them are organic compounds. This O2 reacts with fabric and thus it forms –CHO and in further reaction –COOH. pH etc. Generally Basic dyes are applied on jute. When it forms –COOH . This is the reason why there is a weight loss seen after enzyme wash.Note: Bleaching time should be sufficient and the time should be maintained carefully. . If the time for enzyme wash is not controlled then these living organisms might create holes on fabric by eating fibres. It is done to remove all unnecessary materials as well as unfixed colors on fabric. it weakens the fabric. If desired color is achieved before washing and after washing it gets lighter.which tends to form O2 . Washing: Washing is in fact finishing process of a dyeing process. Reactive or Vat dyes on cotton and Disperse dye on manmade fibers. time. But generally it is done before dyeing operation. They eat up the hairy and immature fibres from the fabric surface. Dyes are complex organic compound capable of imparting color to textile materials. This is why the bleaching time as well as bleaching agent should be controlled.

Such as.is in fact completes bleaching by whitening. All these are very much responsible for crease mark on textile materials. pressure variation etc. These are discussed bellow.) Anti Creasing Agent: Textile materials go through many rollers at almost every stage of processing. Sequestering agent helps to reduce such occurrence. This is the main agent responsible for bleaching. Sequestering Agent: Sequestering agent is an auxiliary material which is used each time water is changed or taken during any process of dying. The main purpose of sequestering agent is to reduce hardness of water. Basically it is seen in scouring. These actions can be written as followsH2O2 → H+ + HO2HO2. There are few special types of chemical and auxiliaries too which are used for special purposes. H2O2 divides into H+ and HO2.and the HO2.75 gm/l (appx. Hard water creates scales on walls of boiler. Shrinkage may also occur at any position.) Bleaching Agent: Hydrogen per Oxide (H2O2) is known as the Bleaching agent. Quantity: 0. and blocks the passage for water supply. This is a big problem. As example we can say that single Jersey fabrics gets more crease marks than any rib fabric. It is seen that waters having hard water varies from place to place as well as season to season.5 gm/l (appx. Quantity: 0. Generally rollers create these marks due to various factors. Anti Creasing agent is used to prevent crease marks on fabric.3 – 0. pipes etc.→ O2 + H+ Quantity: 0. It is also seen generally in scouring process.5 – 6 gm/l (appx) . Fabrics with higher GSM are more exposed to creasing than lower GSM fabrics.Different Special Materials Necessary for Different Processes: There are various types of chemicals and auxiliaries used during different processes.25 – 0. That’s why the suffer heat variation. One brand of anti creasing agent is “Biavin”. But it is very much unstable as it tends to form O 2 as soon as possible. because slight change in scale thickness may cause in higher gas supply for heating in boiler which obviously increase cost. waters in gazipur area are less harder and less hard water in summer where more harder water is found in winter. It is seen that crease marks depend on the GSM of fabric.

from forming O2 in order to complete the task of bleaching. Quantity: Few amount of leveling agent is supplied before adding dye solution to the dye bath and the remaining amount is added with the dye solution. it becomes a part of fabric. . Generally applied for about 20 minutes. However. The formation of –COOH weakens the fabric. Salt and Soda: In case of reactive dye. Here Leveling agent helps in uniform dyeing. Because this tends to form –CHO and –COOH at further reactions. The task of the stabilizer is to prevent HO2. but can be used as per need on other processes. Generally used in washing.is in fact completes bleaching by whitening. “Stagen B” is one type of stabilizer. But water should be removed before applying peroxide killer. As we have seen earlier that H2O2 divides into H+ and HO2. Soda helps in doing this.and the HO2. Another purpose of using soda during dyeing is to control the pH. Anti Foaming Agent: Foams create during various stages of processing due to different chemical actions. It has a very important purpose. Foam can be another factor for crease marks as they might block rollers in such a manner that the passing material may get stuck while being pulled on other side. Peroxide Killer: If bleaching time is more then it is hard to control O2 formation. Quantity: 0. This is why peroxide killer is used to control the O 2 formation. But it is very much unstable as it tends to form O2 as soon as possible. Such process helps in better dyeing. anti foaming agent is used.5 gm/l ( depends on the amount of H2O2 ) Leveling Agent: It is hard to get uniform dyeing on fabric which is totally unwanted.Stabilizer: Stabilizer is used during bleaching process.2 – 0. Quantity: The quantity of stabilizer depends on the amount of H2O2 used in bleaching. This O2 formation is harmful for fabric. To prevent this. it is seen that there is an approximate ratio between H2O2 and Stabilizer quantity which is 6 : 1 .

Quantity: 1. This eventually makes the fabric more stiffer that it should be. We can summarize all that in following table. Prevent unstable HO2from forming O2 in order to complete the task of bleaching Eat away hairy fibers from fabric surface. liquids. They fix that color in such manner so that it can’t go off the fabric due to consecutive washing. Quantity: 2 gm/l (appx. It is seen that few colors continuously flow away when washed. Enzyme Wash Remove hairiness of fabric Enzymes . pressure etc. Used optionally as an substitute base to reduce NaOH amount which may create hole on fabric if used too much. Softener is used to reduce this stiffness.which bleaches fabric. Divide into HO2.) Summary: We have discussed about different process and materials used in it. Prevents crease marks. fluids. rollers. Reducing water hardness. Generally applied after washing as an after treatment.) Softener: Fabric goes through different chemicals. To prevent this. Scouring Removal of fat/wax/oil as well as other impurities.Cationic Fixing Agent: Cationic fixing agents are generally used after washing. Mostly Red and Turquish color show such nature. The required pH is 4. Na2CO3 (Optional) Sequestering Agent Anti Creasing Agent H2O2 (Main Bleaching Agent) Stabilizer Bleaching Destroys natural color of fabric and creating standard/extra whiteness.5 with 40⁰ C temperature. Step Step Objective Chemical/Agents NaOH (Main Scouring Agent) Agent Objective Reacts with fat/wax/oil and create soap and glycerine which is easily removed later.5 – 3 gm/l (appx. cationic fixing agent is used. heat.

Fixes color on fabric so that they have better wash fastness. and After treatment. Prevents crease marks Helps in uniform dyeing. Such as bleaching needs a pH around 5 and enzyme wash requires about 4. Different process requires different pH levels. So. pH must be controlled at each step carefully. Reducing water hardness. Softener Colors fabric. Prevents foaming. color etc.5. Softens fabric. Dye Sequestering Agent Anti creasing Agent Leveling Agent Anti Foaming Agent Cationic Agents Washing Removing unwanted or extra chemical.Dyeing Coloration of fabric in order to gain desired shade. In case of bleaching if pH remains at 10 – 11 then decay happens. . Remarks: pH is an important factor throughout the whole process.

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