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All Arakan Students’ & Youths’ Congress
OD;wnfcsuf (7) &yf
1? &ckdifausmif;om;ESifhvli,frsm; Av (5)wef zGH‹_zdK;wkd;wuf
wkd;wufa&;?
2? &ckdifha*[pepfESifh ,Ofaus;r+tarGtepfrsm; xdef;odrf;
apmifha&Smufa&;?
3? &ckdifwpfrsKd;om;vkH;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;?
4? e,fcsJ‹vlrsKd;}uD;0g'ESifh ppftm%m&Sifpepfwkdufzsufa&;?
5? tzdESdyfcHwkdif;&if;om; jynfolwpf&yfvkH; vGwfajrmufa&;
6? 'Drkdua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; &&Sda&;?
7? &ckdifwpfrsKd;om;vkH; ukd,fhuH-urRm ukd,fzefwD;cGifhESifh
ukd,fykdifjy@mef;cGifh &&Sda&;?

13
-o*wf(pf)
rarhtyf
(41) ESpaf jrmuf
ppfawGqefjy\emae‹ 0rf;enf;atmufarhz,
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f xdr;f trSwf
&ckid jf ynfv;Hk qkid &f mausmif;om;ESiv
hf il ,frsm;tpnf;t&k;H rS xkwaf 0onf?

ykHESdyfrSwfwrf;
yxrt}ud r f
2008 = ckESpf/ -o*wf(pf)
tkyfa&
1000
xkwfa0ol
rSwfwrf;ESifh okawoeXme
&ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH; (&/ u/ v/ p)
All Arakan Students' & Youths' Congress (AASYC)

pDpOfol
rif;okdufxGef;
rSwfwrf;pkaqmif;ay;ol
Ekid Ef idk (f ppfawG)
pmpDpm&kduf
&ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH;
(&/ u/ v/ p)
&Jabmf/ &Jr,frsm;
qufoG,f&efvdyfpm
PO Box - 178
Mae Sot
Tak - 63110
Thailand

Email
aasyc.ghq.rdd@gmail.com

aus;Zl ; wif v $ m
“(13) -o*wf(pf) rarhtyf ”pmtkyftm; xkwfa0Ekdif&eftwGuf rdrdwkd‹ &ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&mausmif;
om;ESifhvli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH;(&/u/v/p) taejzifh }udK;yrf;vmcJhonfrSm (3) ESpfcef‹ -umcJhyg_yD? okd‹aomf
qENom&Sdaomfvnf; vufawG‹ taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Gufonfhtykdif;wGif a&S‹rwkd;EkdifbJ aemufjyef
qkwfcJh&ygonf? ppfawGqefjy\emta&;awmfykHonf vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif; (41) ESpfu jzpfysufcJhaom
tjzpftysuftm; jyefvnfajc&maumuf&jcif;/ rSwfwrf; rSwf&mtm;enf;jcif;ESifh tjcm;aomta-umif;
t&mrsm;a-umifh vufawG‹aqmif&Guf&mwGif tcuftcJrsm;&SdcJhygonf? okd‹aomf ukdEkdifEkdif(ppfawG).
tm;ay;ulnDr+a-umifh ppfawGqefjy\emwGif ukd,fwkdifyg0ifcJholrsm;. wefzkd;rjzwfEkdifaom jyefvnfajym
-um;csufrsm;ukd &&SdcJhygonf? xkdtwGufa-umifh ukdEkdifEkdifESifhwuG tcsuftvufr#a0ay;-uolrsm;/ tm;}udK;
rmefwuf 0kdif;0ef; taumiftxnfazmfay;-uaom&Jabmf/ &Jr,frsm;tm;vkH;ukd aus;Zl;txl;wif&Sdygonf?
Tpmtkyfi,fonf ppfawGqefjy\em.rdwfqufpmtkyfi,fwpftkyfom jzpfao;ygonf? tao;pdyf
ta-umif;t&mrsm;onf jynfhpkHvkHavmufr+&Sdvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? pmzwfolrsm;taejzifh Tpmtkyfi,ftm;
tm;rvkdtm;r&/ pdwfwkdif;rusr+rsm; trSefwu,f &Sd-uygvdrfhrnf? ppfawGqefjy\emESifhywfowfI
jynfhpkHckdifvkHaompmtkyf wpftkyftm; aemufxyfxkwfa0&ef }udK;yrf;vsuf&Sdygonf?
xkwaf 0&jcif;&nf&,
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jynfolrsm;/ wkdif;&if;om;jynfolrsm; ykdrkdod&Sdem;vnfap&ef/ xkduJhokd‹aomtjzpftysuf aemufxyfwpfzef rjzpf
yGm;ap&efESifh jynfolrsm;owd&Sdae-uap&ef &nf&G,fygonf? &ckdiforkdif;rSeftm; wdrfaumaysmufuG,f
atmifaqmif&u
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aomtjzpftysufwpfcktm; rSwfwrf;wifjcif;jzpfygonf? aemufvm aemifom;rsm;taejzifh orkdif;xJrS trSef
w&m;/ orkdif;xJrS tem*wfukd &SmazGapvkdaom qENjzpfygonf? Tpmtkyfi,fonf &ckdiftrsKd;om;
vGwaf jrmufa&; awmfveS af &;c&D;wGif twkid ;f twmwpfcx
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ausmif;om;ESifhvli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH; (&/ u/ v/ p) taejzifh }udK;yrf;&usKd;eyfyg_yD?
Tpmtkyif ,fjzifh ppfawGqefjy\emwGif usqk;H cJ&h olrsm;ESihf touf&iS u
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tyfygonf?

rif;okdufxGef;
rSwfwrf;ESifh okawoeXme
&ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;ESifh vli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH;
(&/ u/ v/ p)

rsufpdwqkH; tpdrf;a&mifzkH;v$rf;aeaom b*Fvm;yifv,fatmf a&jyifus,f}uD;ukdjzwfausmfvsuf
avajyavn‡if;uav;rsm;onf vjcrf;ajrokd‹ OD;wnfwkdufcwfvsuf&Sdonf? xkdvjcrf;ajronf uGsef;}uD;/
uGsef;i,f/ jrpf}uD;/ jrpfi,ftoG,foG,fESifh awmawmifpdrfhprf;wkd‹jzifh vlwkdif; ESpfvkdzG,f om,mvSyaom
a'owpfckjzpfonf? Ta'ookd‹ (1630) jynfhESpfu -o*wfpwif c&pf,mef*kd%f;0if ay:wl*Dbkef;awmf}uD;
qDbufpwD,ef rife&dwfonf tdENd,jynfrSwqifh vma&mufaexkdifcJhonf? bkef;awmf}uD;rife&dwf rSwfwrf;
wifcJhaom EkdifiHum; “tm&uef” “Arracan” “&ckdifjynf” yifjzpfonf?
rife&dwfa&muf&Sdvmcsdefum; &ckdifjynfonf ukd,fhrif;ukd,fhcsif;ESifh tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif vGwfvyf
aomwkdif;jynfwpfjynf jzpfcJhonf? bkef;awmf}uD;rife&dwfonf &ckdifjynf/ &ckdifbk&ifESifh &ckdifhxD;eef; crf;em;
}uD;us,fr+/ &ckdifjynf.om,mvSykHtm; pmzGJ‹rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf? vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif;ESpf&mausmfu EkdifiHjcm;
om;wpfOD; &ckdifjynf.crf;em;}uD;us,fr+tm; rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf?
rife&dwf. rSwfwrf;t&qkdv#if &ckdifjynfonfum; Owk&moDr#waumif;rGefI ajray:ajratmuf
oD;ESHxGufukefrsm;jzifh uHkvkHjynfhpkH_yD; rif;ESifh jynfol cspf-unf&if;ESD;pGm aexkdif-uum ppfa&;tiftm;
awmifhwif;ckdifrmaom EkdifiHwpfEkdifiHjzpfayonf? wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf “avmuedAŠmefuav;”ozG,f csrf;
om-uG,f0vSaom &ckdifjynfyifjzpfayonf?
okd‹aomf ,ae‹ &ckdifjynfonfum; csrf;om-uG,f0olrsm;aexkdif&m “avmuedAŠmefbkH” r[kwfbJ
“qif;&JrJGaw zGwfbkd;atrsm;aexkdif&m 'kuQbkHav;” wpfckom jzpfvsuf&Sdonf?
‘'kuQbkHav;’ okd‹ tb,fa-umifh &ckdifol/ &ckdifom;rsm; usqif;cJh&ygoenf;?

tkd uGsefb0
vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif;(5000)ausmfu &ckdifjynfonf ukd,fhxD;ukd,fheef;/ ukd,fhpmay/ ukd,fh,Ofaus;r+
jzifh aexkdifcJhaomEkdifiHjzpfonf? "n0wDacwf/ a0omvDacwf/ av;_rdK‹acwf/ ajrmufOD;acwf[lI acwf}uD;
av;acwfukd jzwfoef;vmcJhonf? acwf}uD;av;acwfukd jzwfoef;&if; &ckdifvl‹tzGJ‹tpnf;onf wpfjznf;jznf;
wkd;wuf}uD;yGm;vmcJhonf?
(1784)wGif &ckdifjynfY eef;wGif;t±+yftaxG;a-umifh trsKd;om;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfr+_ydKuGJaeonfukd
tcGifhaumif;,lum Armbk&ifarmif0kdif;onf &ckdifjynfokd‹0ifa&mufodrf;ykdufcJhonf? tcsKd‹aom &ckdifrif;
nDrif;om;ESifh jynfolrsm;u Armbk&iftaejzifh &ckdifjynfEkdifiHa&;_idrfoufcsdefwGif jynfolwkd‹. vkdvm;ESpf
oufaom rif;nD/ rif;om;wpfyg;yg;ukd eef;wifay;vdrfhrnf[k,lqum Armbk&ifarmif0kdif;.usL;ausmfr+ukd
axmufc}H udKqkcd -hJ uonf? tcsKd‹aom &ckid af cgif;aqmifrsm;u Arme,fcsJ‹w‹dk &ckid jf ynftm; 0ifa&mufvmjcif;onf
usL;ausmf 0ifa&mufvmjcif;jzpfonfukd &dyfpm;rdcJhonf? xkda-umifh awmifrif;}uD; ausmfxGD;onf yxrqkH;ckcH
wku
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dk cf o
hJ nf? Armwyfrsm;tvk;H t&if;ESihf 0ifa&mufvmaomtcg awmifrif;}uD;ausmfx;DG onf ajrmufO;D rif;
xHrSvnf;aumif;/ &rf;_AJuGsef; tdrfa&S‹rif;a[mif; oufpHa&$xHrSvnf;aumif;/ rmefatmif_rdK‹pm; AkdvfxGef;atmif
ausmfxrH v
S nf;aumif; ppfual wmif;cHco
hJ nf? ok‹d aomf xkt
d csdet
f cgu tcsif; csif;oHo,0ifaejcif;/ pnf;vk;H r+
_ydKuGJaeaoma-umifh e,fcsJ‹&efoltm; ckcHwGef;vSef&ef pkpkpnf;pnf; r&SdcJh-uacs? xkdtcsdeftcgu &ckdifjynfY
ajrmufOD;bk&if orRw&mZmrif;tjyif ia-u;awmifwGif "m;rEkdifrif;/ yaEM;uGsef;wGif aumif;nGef‹&efrif;/
-uyfpifuGsef;wGif "m;ykdif}uD;oHa'rif;/ &kd;uGsef;wGif ukvm;a&$pmrif;/ wef;vGJwGif awmifrif;}uD;ausmfxGD;/
rmefatmifuGsef;wGif owkd;jzLrif;wkd‹onf olwpfvligwpfrif; jzpfaecJhonf? xkda-umifh Arme,fcsJ‹wkd‹onf
(1)

&ckdifjynftm; tvG,fwulodrf;ykdufEkdifcJhum (1784) 'DZifbm (31) &ufae‹wGif &ckdifjynf tcsKyftjcmtm%m
usqkH;um ol‹uGsefb0ukd usa&mufcJh&onf?
ESpfaygif; (5000)ausmf “avmuedAŠmef”tjzpfrS ted@m&kHrsm;pkaygif;qkH&m “'kuQbkHuav;”tjzpf
a&muf&Sdaponfh Zmwfvrf;tp yrm%yifjzpfonf?
Arme,fcsJ‹w‹dk onf &ckid jf ynfudk odr;f yku
d _f yD; “usLyifcw
k f usLikwrf usef”qko
d vkd &ckid v
f rl sKd; tajrmuf
tjrm;tm; zrf;qD;owfjzwfcJhonf?
Arme,f c sJ @ owf j zwf c J h a oma=umif h aoqk H ; cJ h & r_ r sm;
aygif;wkwfjyifwGif
1000
o&uftkyfwGif
1000
-uuf&kd;awmif
1000
pHum;awmifwGif
2000
ajrmufOD;_rdK‹ay:wGif
37000
ykcufwGif;rS uav;rsm;tm; "m;upm;ojzifh uav;aygif; 10000
bk&m;ay:/ 'kdif;usD/ armif;aqG;/ i&aumuf/ acgif;_ydK/ yk&drf/
&wemjyif/ vufrawmwef;/ ukd;q,fhukd;awmif/ oHwGJ/
&rf;_AJ/ rmefatmift&yf
184000
pk p k a ygif ;
2360000
&uf&ufpufpufowfjzwfcHcJhonf?
&ckdifjynfoljynfom;rsm;onf ‘ausmcsrS "m;jrrSef;’ odcJh-uonf? rdrdEkdifiHukd wkdufckdufodrf;ykduf
&efvmoltm; 0rf;omtm;& qD;}udKcJhaomtjzpf? xkd‹aemuf Arme,fcsJ‹rsm;onf &cdkiftrsdK;om;wdk‹. ZmwdaoG;/
Zmwdrmefudk csdK;ESdrf&ef &ckdifbk&ifr[morRw&mZm/ rdzk&m;jroEWm/ rif;nDrif;om;rsm;/ ynm&Sdtrwfrsm;ESifh
&[ef;ynm&Sifrsm;/ ukd,f&Hawmfrsm;ponfjzifh a,musfm;/ rdef;rpkpkaygif; (7700) ukdvnf; zrf;qD;ac:
aqmifoGm;cJhonf? ydËuwf (3) ykHESifh aA'if (56 ) usrf;t0if aq;usrf;/ "mwfusrf;/ ppfusrf;/ Adokumusrf;
aygif;rsm;pGmukdvn;f odrf;,lchJ-uonf? ajrmufOD;_rKd‹ay:&dS ausmif;}uD; (30)/ ausmif;i,f (3000) cef‹ESifhwuG
apwDyx
k ;dk tajrmuftjrm;udk Armrif;trde‹f jzifh zsuq
f ;D cJ-h uonf? ajrmufO;D a&$_rdK‹awmfEiS w
hf uG &rRm0wD_rdK‹awmf/
arC0wD_rKd‹awmf/ 'Gg&m0wD_rKd‹awmf&Sd _rdK‹t*Fgtm;vkH;ukdvnf; zsufqD;cJh-uonf? &ckdif&[ef;awmf ax&f}uD;/
0g}uD;rsm;ukd oduQmcs_yD; 'kef;/ [m&Dpaom ,kwfnHhaom trsdK;tEG,f0ifrsm;xHwGif jyefvnf &[ef;cHapjcif;/
tr&yl&rS yifhaqmifvmaom 0gi,fonfh &[ef;ysdKrsm;xHwGif jyefvnf&[ef;cHapjcif;jzifh omoemudkygrusef
csdK;ESdrfcJh-uonf? Arme,fcsJ‹wdk‹ yifhaqmifvmaom omoemjyKq&mawmf (12) yg;uvnf; &ckdif&Sd Ak'<pmayESifh
,Ofaus;r+t&yf&yfukd zsufqD;vkduf-uonf? &ckdifpmayusrf;*efrsm;ukdvnf; zsufqD;cJh-uonf? TuJhokd‹
Arme,fcsJ‹rsm;onf &ckdifjynfukd odrf;ykduf_yD; trsKd;rsKd;&ufpuf zdESdyfowfjzwf zsufqD;aer+rsm;ukd rcHr&yfEkdif
jzpf-uaom &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;onf Arme,fcsJ‹tm; &&mvufeufjzifh ckcHwGef;vSefchJ-uonf? od‹kaomfvnf;
olwpfvl igwpfrif; jzpf aeojzifh atmifjrifoifhoavmuf atmifjrifr+r&SdcJhbJ usqkH;cJh&onf? e,fcsJ‹qef‹usif
a&; tapmykdif;umvwGif awmifrif;}uD;ausmfxGD;ESifh Adkvfcsif;ysHwdk‹rSm xif&Sm;onf? Akdvfcsif;ysHonf (1811)
rS (1815) xd Armya'o&mZfudk ykefuefjcm;em;cJhonf? ajrmufOD;_rdK‹udk(2) ESpfwmr# odrf;ydkufEkdifcJhaomfvnf;
t*Fvdyfwdk‹xHrS axmufyHhulnDr+ r&&Sdjcif;/ usL;ausmfolArmwyf.vufeuftiftm;/ vltiftm;ukd rrSDjcif;
wkd‹a-umifh b*Fvm;e,fokd‹ qkwfcGgcJh&onf? (1815) wGif Akdvfcsif;ysHuG,fvGefoGm;aomtcg ‚if;csay;cJhaom
(2)

awmfvSefa&;rsdK;aphukd rif;om;}u;Da&$bef;/ a';0ef;atmifausmf&$DESifh _rdK‹ol}uD;atmifausmfZHwdk‹u qufcHcJh-u
onf?

t*F v d y f e ,f c sJ ‹ v uf a tmuf u sa&muf j cif ;
xkdacgif;aqmif (3) oHk;OD;onf (1824) wGif usL;ausmfol Armwdk‹udk wdkufxkwf&ef t*Fvdyfwkd‹
ESifhr[mrdwfpmcsKyf csKyfqkdcJh-uonf? xkdpmcsKyfwGif
(1) &cdkifESifh t*Fvdyf yl;aygif;I Arme,fcsJ‹wyfudk &cdkifjynfrS wdkufxkwf&ef?
(2) t*Fvdyfwdk‹xHrS vufeufESifhppftiftm; wcsdK‹xuf0ufulnD&ef?
(3) ppftoHk;p&dwfudk t*Fvdyfwdk‹xHrSuscH&ef?
(4) Arme,fcsJ‹wyfudk &ckdifjynfwGif;rS armif;xkwfjyD;v#if &ckdifrif;om;rsm;vufodk‹ &cdkifjynfudk
jyefvnftyfESif;&ef?
(5) ppf_yD;qHk;aomtcg ppftwGif;ukefusp&dwf. (2) qudk &cdkiftrsdK;om;rsm;rS jyefvnfay;
qyf&ef?
(6) t*Fvdyfwdk‹aejzifh &cdkifjynfol/ jynfom;rsm;tm; zdESdyfI qufqHjcif;rjyK&ef?
(7) ppf_yD;v#if_yD;csif; t*Fvdyfwdk‹onf &cdkifjynfrS vHk;0xGufay;&ef?
(8) ppfwdkuf&mwGif &cdkiftrsdK;om;wdk‹u OD;aqmifvrf;n$efjy&ef?
(9) -unf;wyf/ a&wyfESpf&yfpvHk;wGif (2)bufpvHk; nDnmwuf-uGpGm wm0ef,l-u&ef?
(10) ppftwGif;&duQmudk &cdkiftrsdK;om;rsm;u axmufyHh&ef wkd‹yg0ifonf?
pifppftm;jzifh t*Fvdyfwdk‹onf Armya'o&mZfudk acsr+ef;&efESifh &cdkifjynfudk u|efjyK&eftwGuf
enf;y&d,m,fqifcJhjcif;omjzpfayonf? &cdkifjynf ArmvufatmufrS vGwfajrmufaomtcgrSom &cdkif
trsdK;om;wdk‹onf t*Fvdyfwdk‹. oabmxm;rSefudk od&SdcJh-uonf? xdk‹a-umifh (1827) wGif jyifopf
tultnD&,lI t*Fvdyfwdk‹udk jyefvnfqef‹usif&ef rif;om;}uD;a&$bef;/ a';0ef;atmifausmf&$DESifh_rdK‹ol}uD;
atmifausmfZHwkd‹onf ajratmufpnf;&kH;a&;ESifh ajymufusm;ppfqifa&;rsm;ukd taumiftxnfazmfcJhonf?
odk‹aomf pH&azGacgif;aqmifaom opPmazmuftcsdK‹a-umifh acgif;aqmif (3)OD;onf 'uUm;axmifwGif axmif
oGif;tusOf;csjcif;cHcJh&on?f Tacgif;aqmifrsm;onf ‚if;wkd‹. aowrf;pmukd 'umU;axmifeH&HwGif vuf
armif;aoG;jzifh a&;xdk;vsuf aoonftxd tpmiwfcHwdkufyGJ0ifum &cdkiftrsdK;om;wdk‹. ZmwdaoG;/ Zmwd
rmefudk azmfxkwfjyocJh-uonf? acgif;aqmifrJhoGm;aom &cdkife,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;wdkufyGJrsm;rSm enf;ynmt&m/
vufeuftiftm;/ vltiftm;t&mwGif tzufzufrSomvGefaom e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfwdk‹. zdESdyfr+atmufwGif
rD;cJjymzHk; jzpfcJh&onf?
&ckdiftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfudk qef‹usifwdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;wGif tjcm;
xif&Sm;aomacgif;aqmifrsm;vnf; &Sdao;onf? (1828) wGif &ckdifjynfajrmufykdif; av;_rdK‹acsmif;wGif Akdvf
csKdufpH/ (1829) wGif oHwGJe,frS AkdvfatmifomOD;/ (1831) wGif usdE WvDq&mawmf/ (1870=71) wGif ajrmuf
OD;_rdK‹wGif AkdvfarmifOD;jzLtrsKd;om;awmfvSefa&;wpf&yfukd qifEGJcJhonf? okd‹aomf vufeuftiftm;rr#aom
a-umifh wkdufckdufzrf;qD;cH&_yD; owfjzwfcHvdkuf&onf? (1890) wGif oHwGJusdE WvDwGif aiGausmufpdrf;Akdvf
x-uGawmfvSefcJhonf? xkdESpfrSmyif oHwGJq&mawmf}uD;OD;aqmif_yD; Ak'<omoemawmfukd rdp>m_Adwdo#e,fcsJ‹
vufatmufu u,fwif&eftwGuf awmfvSefykefuefcJh-uonf? oHwGJjrpfwpf&kd;rS &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;ukd pnf;&kH;
(3)

_yD; _rdK‹ukd0ifpD;cJh-uonf? xkdwkdufyGJwGif q&mawmfESifh &[ef;awmftrsm;tjym;ysHvGefoGm;-u_yD; usef&[ef;
rsm; tzrf;tqD;cHcJh-u&onf? (1890) wGif &ckdifjynf ajrmufOD;/ ausmufawmf/ &aohawmif_rdK‹rsm;vnf;
awmfvSefx-uGr+ tajrmuftjrm; ay:aygufcJhonf? Akdvf-umxGef;/ Akdvfa&$vS/ Akdvfbwkd‹onf t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹tm;
awmfveS cf -hJ uonf? oHweJG ,frS Akv
d af usm0f onf awmifyidk ;f rSajrmufyidk ;f txd awmufav#muf awmfveS w
f u
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cJhonf? okd‹aomf t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹wkd‹. zrf;qD;owfjzwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? (1891) wGif Akdvfcsif;zkd‹ESifh om;armifazmf
atmifwkd‹onf awmifolv,form;rsm;ukdpnf;&kH;_yD; t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹tm; wkdufyGJ0ifcJhonf? t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹tm;
armif;xkwf_yD; rif;qufxlaxmif&ef}udK;yrf;cJh-uonf? (1892) azazmf0g&DvwGif om;zESpfOD;vkH;zrf;qD;cH&_yD;
ppfawGtusOf;axmifwGif wkdufydwfxm;cJhonf? tusOf;om;wpf&mausmfcef‹onf axmifwGif;wGif wuf-uG
ykefuef_yD; om;tzESpfOD;tm; v$wfay;vkduf-uonf? xkd‹aemuf axmifukd azmufxGif;&ef wkdufckdufcJh-uonf?
e,fcJs‹u wefjyef wkdufckdufr+a-umifh zrf;qD;rdum om;tzESpfOD;vkH; }udK;ay;_yD; owfjzwfcHcJh&onf?
&ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;.awmfvSefa&;onf wpfrsKd;om;vkH;yg0ifpkpnf;xm;aom awmfvSefa&;
rjzpfcJhaomfvnf; wpfyg;olvufatmufwGif acgif;ikH‹rcHcJhbJ &J&J0Hh0hH wkdufyGJ0ifcJh-uonf? ukd,fhjynfukd
jyef&zkd‹twGuf &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;onf toufaygif;ajrmufjrm;pGmay; qyfcJh-u&onf?

Armwpf j ynf v k H ; uG s ef b 0usa&muf j cif ;
t*Fvdyfwdk‹onf (1824) wGif atmuf Armjynf/ (1885) wGif txufjrefrmjynftm; wdkufcdkuf
odrf;ydkufvsuf Armjynf&Sdwdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;udk u|efjyKtkyfcsKyfcJh-uonf? e,fcsJ‹ t*Fvdyfwdk‹. enf;ynmESifh
vufeuftiftm;udk txif-uD;pdwfESifh jyif;xefaomzdESdyfr+rsm;a-umifh ArmtrsdK;om;wpf&yfvHk;.
t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;pdwf"mwfrSm wjznf;jznf; r+ef0g;vmcJhonf? (1917)wGif &ckdiftrsKd;om; q&mawmf
OD;OwWronf tm&SwdkuftESH‹vSnfhvnfvsuf Oa&myudkvdkeDpepfudk t-urf;rzuftEkenf;jzifh qef‹usif-u&ef
wdkufwGef;v+H‹aqmfcJhonf? q&mawmf. aus;Zl;a-umifh jynfolwpf&yfvHk; EdkifiHa&;tod Edk;-um;vm_yD; qENjyyGJ/
oydwfarSmufyGJESihf awmif;yGJ/ wdkufyGJrsm; EdkifiHtESH‹ay:aygufvmcJhonf?
q&mawmfum; 0dkiftrfbDtoif;}uD;u t*Fvdyfbk&ifrudk bk&m;ocifapmifrygap[laom _Adwd
o#tifyg,m. EdkifiHawmfoDcsif;udk oDqdkae&csdef/ jynfolvlxkwpf&yfvHk; _Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW&m;wGif
tr+xrf;aeonfh ArmvlrsdK;ykvdyfudkyif acgif;armfI r-unfh0HhcsdefwGif bk&ifcHqm&,f*sDe,fu&ufa'gufudk
t*FvefjyefomG ;[k owif;pmwGif ajAmifta&;qdk wdu
k yf 0JG ifco
hJ nfh tm*owW&d iS jf zpfayonf? (1917) rS (1939)
twGif; q&mawmf. EdkifiHa&;pmayESifh rdef‹cGef;rsm;onf Armjynfwpf0Srf;vHk;&Sd vlxk/ vlwef;pm;
tv$mtoD;oD;udk v$rf;rdk;xm;EdkifcJhonf? t*Fvdyftpkd;&onf q&mawmfudk (4) }udrfwdkifwdkif axmifoGif;
tusOf;csI n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufcHcJh&aomfvnf; q&mawmfum;ysHvGefcsdef (1939) pufwifbm (9) txd 'l;r
axmuf/ vufrajr‡muf tav#mhray;cJhay? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; Armjynf.vGwfvyfa&;AdokumjzpfI
q&mawmfum; ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;.rD;&+;wefaqmifjzpfayonf? Armjynf. r[wWr*END[k wifpm;

“tpkd;&[lonf rnfr#yif &ufpufapumrl jynfolwkd‹.wpfvkH;wpf0wnf;aygif;pnf;
}uHpnfI vGwfvyfa&;&Sm-uawmhrnf[laomt"d@mefjzifh vkyf}uHjcif;ukd wm&SnfpGm rcH
r&yfEidk jf zpfacsonf?”

q&mawmfOD;OwWr
(4)

xkdufaom jynfol‹bufawmfom;wpfOD;vnf; jzpfayonf?
,if;umvu &cdkiftrsdK;om;e,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;orm;rsm;wGif t,ltq (2) &yf uGJjym;cJh-uonf?
wpfcrk mS t*Fvyd Ef iS hf yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G u
f m &ckid v
f rl sKd;rsm;. ynma&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;wk;d wufatmifaqmif&u
G _f yD;
t*Fvdyftpdk;&. tkyfcsKyfa&;,E W&m;wGif 0ifa&muftr+xrf;um &cdkiftrsdK;om;wdk‹. &ydkifcGifhrsm;ukd wdk;jr‡ifh
awmif;qdkoGm;&efjzpfonf? aemufwpfckrSm ArmtrsdK;om;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;wdkufyJG0if_yD; t*FvdyfvufatmufrS
vGwfvyfa&;&,l&efjzpfonf? yxrt,ltqESifh trsdK;om;a&;v+yf&Sm;cJholrsm;wGif qmay:xGef;/ qmxGef;
atmifausmf/ tdkufpDtufpf OD;ausmfrif;ESifh OD;aratmifwkd‹yg0ifonf? 'kwd,tkyfpkwGif a'gufwma&$ZHatmif/
OD;pdefvSatmif/ OD;pdefxGef;atmif wkd‹yg0ifonf? xdkacgif;aqmifrsm;onf ArmtrsdK;om;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;I
(1920) wGif xlaxmifumtrsdK;/ bmom/ omoemtusdK;udk o,fydk;xrf;&GufcJh-uonf? ArmESifhyl;aygif;I
t*Fvyd u
f w
kd u
kd &f rnf[k cH,cl suf&o
dS nfo
h rl sm;wGif &efuek w
f uUov
kd f ausmif;om;oydwrf sm;udk OD;aqmifcahJ om
rsdK;qufopfvli,frsm;vnf; trsm;tjym;yg0ifcJhonf? ,if;wdk‹teuf yxrausmif;om;oydwf (1920) wGif
OD;bOD;/ 'kwd,ausmif;om;oydwf (1930) wGif OD;ausmf&if/ OD;ndKxGef;ESifh OD;bZHwdk‹rSm xif&Sm;onf? yl;wGJ
wdkufyGJ0ifI e,fcsJ‹vufatmufrS vGwfajrmufygu &cdkiftrsdK;om;rsm;taejzifh orRwEdkifiHxlaxmifI oD;jcm;
&yfwnfvdku &yfwnfcGifh&Sdap&rnf[k tmrcHcsufay;cJh-uaomArmtrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;. uwda-umifh
vnf; &cdkif/ ArmaoG;pnf;nDnGwfr+ ydkrdkjrifhrm;cJh&onf? (1937)wGif Armjynfudk tdENd,rScGJxkwfI oD;jcm;
tkyfcsKyfvkdufcsdefwGif trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;v+yf&Sm;r+ydkIt&Sdeft[kef}uD;rm;vmcJhonf? (1939) wGif &cdkif
jynf&Sd vlxk/ vlwef;pm;aygif;pHkudk udk,fpm;jyKonfhtzGJ‹tpnf;aygif;pHkyg0ifaom &ckdiftrsdK;om;uGef*&ufudk
zGJ‹pnf;EdkifcJhonf? &cdkifjynftESH‹tjym;wGif v,form;v+yf&Sm;r+ESifh vlxkv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;vnf; tm;aumif;vm
cJhonf?

zuf q pf * syef v uf a tmuf u sa&muf j cif ;
(1942) wGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfu tultnDawmif;I *syef0ifa&mufvmaomtcg
ArmwpfjynfvHk; *syefudk u,fwif&Sif[k xifrSwfcJh-uonf? zufqpf*syefwdk‹. n‡Of;yef; ESdyfpufr+'%fudk
vufawG‹cHpm;&onfhtcgrSom usm;a-umufvdk‹/ &Sif}uD;ukd;/ &Sif}uD; usm;xufqdk;onhf tjzpfudka&muf
cJh&a-umif; oabmaygufcJh-uonf? tdEdN,odk‹ qkwfcGgoGm;onfh t*Fvdyfwdk‹uvnf; ar,kc&dkif&Sd b*FvD
rlqvifrsm;vufwGif vufeufrsm; csefxm;&pfcJhjyD; &cdkiftrsdK;om;ESifh b*FvDrlqvifrsm;-um; vlrsdK;a&;
ESifhbmoma&; t"du&k%f;rsm; zefwD;um tpdk;&opfudk t-uyftwnf;ESifh}uHKatmif jyKvkyfcJh-uonf?
zufqpf*syefwdk‹onf (1943) -o*wf(pf) (1) &ufae‹wGif a'gufwmbarmfudk &kyfao;tpdk;&tzGJ‹.t}uD;t
uJtjzpf wifajr‡mufvsuf Armjynfudk twkta,mif vGwfvyfa&;ay;cJh-uonf? (1942) wGif wnfaxmif
aom &cdkiftrsdK;om;uGef*&uf. acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonfh q&mawmfOD;pdEWmESifh OD;nKdxGef;wdk‹onf Arm
acgif;aqmifrsm;. zdwf-um;csuft& (1944) wGif &efukefYusif;yonfh zufqpfqef‹usifa&;nDvmcHodk‹
wufa&mufum &cdkiftrsdK;om;rsm;udk,fpm; ArmhawmfvSefa&;wyfOD; oabmwlnDcsufwGif vufrSwfa&;
xkd;cJhonf? ArmhawmfvSefa&;wyfOD;.EdkifiHa&;vrf;pOfrSm tzdESdyfcHwdkif;&if;om;rsm;vufwGJI e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyf
udk wdkufxkwfum wef;wla&;ESifh udk,fhuH-urRmudk,fzefwD;cGifh&Sdaom jynfaxmifpkwnfaqmuf&efjzpfonf?
wdkif;&if;om;rsm; taejzifh rdrdwdk‹zmom/ rdrdwdk‹ oD;jcm;tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEkdifiHtjzpf &yfwnfvdkuvnf;
vufcHonf? &cdkiftrsdK;om;uGef*&ufacgif;aqmifrsm;onf zufqpf*syefudk wdkufcdkuf&eftwGuf Adkvf}uD;
-umvSatmifudk ppfOD;pD;csKyfcef‹vsuf tiftm; (3000)cef‹&Sdonfh &cdkifhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfudk &cdkifjynf
(5)

aus;vufa'orsm;Y zGJ‹pnf;xm;cJh-uonf? &cdkiftrsdK;om;uGef*&ufonf zufqpfqef‹usifa&; jynfol‹vGwf
ajrmufa&; tzGJ‹csKyfacgif;aqmifrsm; tdENd,odk‹oGm;a&mufI *syefudkwdkufzdk‹ t*Fvdyfudk tultnDawmif;cH&m
wGiv
f nf; rsm;pGmtultnDay;cJ-h uonf? (1944) ESpv
f ,fyikd ;f wGif &cdik u
hf muG,af &;wyfrawmfrS zufqpf*syef
udk ajymufusm;ppfjzifh pwifwdkufcdkufcJh&m ESpfukefydkif;wGif zufqpftm;vHk;udk &ckdifjynfwGif;rS armif;xkwfEdkifcJh
onf? xdk‹aemuf &cdkiftrsdK;om;tpdk;&zGJ‹pnf;&ef jyifqifaepOf &cdkifhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfvufxJ&Sd vufeuf
rsm;udk jynfr&SdAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;OD;aqmifaom zqyvwyfrsm;odk‹ v$Jajymif;ay;&ef[kqdkum t*Fvdyfwdk‹u
vufeufjyefvnftyfESif;&ef awmif;qdkcJh-uonf? t*Fvdyfwkd‹ uwdrwnfv#if vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ jyefvnf
qifEGJ_yD; vGwfvyfa&;&,lrnf[k jyifqifxm;-uaom OD;pdE Wmwdk‹tzGJ‹u vufeufjyefvnftyfESif;&ef jiif;qef
&m t*Fvdyftpkd;&u ‚if;wkd‹udk cdk;om;/ "m;jyrsm;tjzpf 0&rf;uyfI zrf;rdef‹xkwfcJhonf? pifppftm;jzifh zqyv
wyfzGJ‹rsm;odk‹ vufeufv$Jajymif;ay;&efqdkonfrSm taysmhqGJI vufeufodrf;vdkonfh e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfwdk‹.
y&d,m,fomjzpfonf? Tonfudk em;rvnfaomArmacgif;aqmifwpfcsdK‹onf &cdkiftrsdK;om;awmfvSefa&;
orm;rsm;tay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;um tcJra-u jzpfcJh-uonf?

e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfukd awmfvSefjcif;
(1945) ESpfOD;ykdif;wGif &ckdifjynfolvlxkt-um; t*Fvdyfqef‹usifa&;pdwf"mwfrsm; }uD;xGm;vm
um &ckdifjynftEHS‹tjym; qENjyyGJESifh oydwfwdkufyGJrsm; ay:aygufvmcJhonf? OD;pdEWmOD;aqmifaom &ckdifhjynf
ol ‹ v G w f v yf a &;tzG J ‹ c sKyf E S i f h jynf r rS pnf ; ±H k ; a&;qif ; vmaom zqyvvnf ; tif t m;aumif ; vmcJ h
onf? (1946) wGif ajrykHnDvmcHusif;ycJh&m &ckdifhjynfol‹vGwfvyfa&;tzGJ‹csKyf/ &ckdifwkdif; zqyv/ &ckdifwkdif;
jynfol‹&JabmftzGJ‹/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD(&ckdifwkdif;)/ tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD(Armjynf)/ vli,frsm;
tpnf;t±kH;/ trsKd;orD;tpnf;t±Hk;/ awmifolv,form;rsm;tzGJ‹csKyf/ &J0efxrf;or*~/ pma&;/ pmcsDpaom
vlxk/ vlwef;aygif;pHk tiftm; (60000) wufa&mufcJh-uonf? ‚if;wGif zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfacgif;aqmifAkdvf
csKyfatmifqef;ESifh twGif;a&;rSL;OD;baqGwkd‹vnf;yg0ifonf? TnDvmcHwGif ,if;umvua&yef;pm; aeaom
vuf0JEkdifiHa&; tawG;tac:udk tajccHvsuf vuf0J nD!Gwfa&;wyfaygif;pkukd zGJ‹pnf;EkdifcJh-uonf? ajrykH
nDvmcHt_yD;wGif t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹wkd‹onf q&mawmfOD;pdEWmudk "m;jyAdkvftjzpf 0&rf;xkwfI zrf;qD;cJh-uonf?
(1945) ESpfOD;ydkif;u t*Fvdyftpkd;&udk vufeufjyefvnftyfESHzdk‹ jiif;qefcsufudk em;vnfr+vGJum tcJra-u
jzpfae-uaom ArmEdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftcsdK‹uvnf; tzdESdyfcHcsif; ukd,fcsif;rpmbJ q&mawmftm; zrf;qD;
jcif;udk tm;ay;/ tm;ajr‡mufjyKcJh-uonf? q&mawmf tzrf;cH&onfhtay: rauseyfaomjynfolvlxkonf
t*Fvdyftpkd;&udk tcGef/ tcray;bJ oydwfarSmufcJh-uonf? &cdkifvli,ftcsdK‹uvnf; t*Fvdyfwdk‹. wyfpcef;
rsm;udk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufcJh-uonf? rif;jym;jrdK‹wGif vlxkqENjyyGJudk zqyvwyfrsm;u t-urf;zufESdrfESif;&m
jynfol (2) OD; aoqHk;oGm;ojzifh &cdkiftrsdK;om;rsm;omru Armjynfolrsm;ygrausreyfjzpfum q&mawmfudk
vGwfay;zkd‹ yl;aygif;wkdufyGJ0ifcJh-uonf? ,if;umvwGif zqyvESifh t*Fvdyfwyfrsm;yl;aygif; ppfqifum
&ckid af jymufusm;rsm;tm; ESrd ef if;cJ-h uonf? OD;ynmoD[/ OD;nKdxeG ;f ESihf OD;atmifZaH 0wk‹d url zqyvESihf Akv
d cf sKyf
atmifqef;acgif;aqmifr+ukd ,kH-unfum EdkifiHa&;t& awmif;qdkwdkufyGJ0ifI trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf
}udK;yrf;cJh-uonf? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifaom zqyvonf e,fcsJ‹t*FvdyfvufatmufrS vGwf
vyfa&; tjref&&Sdap&eftwGuf Armr[kwfaom wkdif;&if;om;rsm;udk wef;wltcGifhta&;ay;rnf[k tmrcHum
EkdifiHa&;t& pnf;&Hk;axmufcHr+udk&,lcJhonf? atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyfcsKyfqdkI (1) ESpftwGif; vGwfvyf
a&;t&,l&ef jyifqifpkdif;jyif;cJh-uonf? okd‹aomf (1947) Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹wGif *VefOD;apmu vkyf}uH
(6)

owfjzwfojzifh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;tygt0if wkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmif (9) OD; usqHk;cJh&onf? AkdvfcsKyf
.acgif;aqmifr+t±kduft&mudk OD;EkuqufcHum Ek=tufwvDpmcsKyfcsKyfqdkvsuf (1948) Zefe0g&Dv (4)
&ufae‹wGif ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;ukd &,lEkdifcJhonf?

ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdjcif;
vGwfvyfa&;&cgpwGif usifhoHk;cJhaom (1947) zGJ‹pnf;yHkonf Armr[kwfaomwdkif;&if;om;wdk‹.
trsKd;om;wef;wla&;ukd tmrcHcsufray;Ekdifaom wpfjynfaxmifpepf zGJ‹pnf;yHkomjzpfcJhonf? wdkif;&if;
om;wdk‹. EdkifiHa&;/ vlr+a&;/ pD;yGg;a&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ ppfa&;ESifh ,Ofaus;r+ponfwdk‹udk ArmvlrsdK;rsm;u
vuf0g;}uD; tkyfxm;cJh-uonf? okd‹jzpfI &ckdifjynfvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ‹(AIO) . twGif;a&;rSL; q&mpHausmf
xGef;u &ckdifjynfonf urBmurodvdkufbJ Arme,fcsJ‹vufatmufodk‹ oGwfoGif;cHvdkuf&onfh “u|efykef;
ukdvkdeDEkdifiH” jzpfonf[k aumufcsufcscJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh (1948) vGwfvyfa&;&pumvrS pwifI &cdkifEkdifiH
a&;tzGJ‹tpnf;tcsdK‹onf Arme,fcsJ‹&efudk jyefvnfwGef;vSefcJh&ayonf?
(1958) wGif zqyv (2) jcrf;uGJI OD;Ekacgif;aqmifaom wnf_rJzqyvu &cdkifjynfay;rnf[k
rJqG,fpnf;&kH;cJhonf? OD;baqGacgi;f aqmifaom wnf_rJzqyvu “jynfe,fawmh ray;Ekdifbl;? usefwJh
[mukd ay;Ekdifw,f” [kqdkum rJqG,fpnf;±Hk;onf? twdwfu udk,fhxD;/ ukd,hfeef;jzifh &yfwnfcJhaom/ r-um
rSDtcsdeftxd ArmtrsdK;om;wpf&yfvHk; e,fcsJ‹t*FvdyfESifh zufqpf*syefvufatmufrS vGwfajrmufzdk‹ oufpGef‹
wdkufyGJ0ifcJh-uaom &cdkiftrsKd;om;rsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;&csdefwGif trnfcHjynfe,ftqifhudkyif vuf0g;jzef‹I
renf; awmif;qdkae&ayonf? wef;wltcGifhta&;ESifh jynfe,fvkdcsifaom&ckdiftrsdK;om;trsm;pku OD;Ekukd
axmufcrH aJ y;I (1960) azazmf0g&DwiG f wnf_rJzqyv tm%m&&Sv
d monf? od‹k aomf &cdik w
f ‹kdrmS jynfe,fr&&Scd hJ
onfomru ar,kc±dkif&Sd w&m;r0if 0ifa&mufaexkdifae-uaom b*FvDrlqvifrsm;ukd EkdifiHom;tjzpf tod
trSwfjyKjcif;jzifh wkef‹jyefcJhonf? (1948) rS (1962) twGif; wdkif;&if;om;rsm;. wef;wljynfe,f &&Sda&;
v+yf&Sm;r+tiftm;aumif;vmcJhonf? (1962) azazmf0g&D (25) wGif wdkif;&if;om;rsm;pkaygif;Iordkif;0if
awmif}uD;nDvmcHusif;yvsuf “&Srf;rl”[k vlodrsm;aom jynfe,faygif;pk jynfaxmifpkzGJ‹pnf;yHkrl-urf;udk
a&;qGJcJh-uonf? jynfaxmifpkzGJ‹pnf;yHka&;qGJ&mwGif yg0if&rnfhtajccH&rnfh rlrsm;tm;atmufygtwdkif; csrswf
cJh-uonf?
(1) jynfaxmifpkudk wef;wltcGifhtm%m&Sdonfh trsdK;om;jynfe,f (8) jynfe,fudk tajccHvsufzGJ‹pnf;
&rnf?
(2) jynfaxmifpktpdk;&udk oD;jcm;tyfESif;xm;aom tm%mtcsdK‹rSvGJI jynfe,ftpkd;&wdkif;wGif wef;wl
tcGifh tm%m &Sdap&rnf?
(3) jynfe,ftvkduf oD;jcm;zGJ‹pnf;yHk/ Oya'jyKv$wfawmfESifh tpdk;&tzGJ‹rsm;&Sd&rnf?
(4) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfudk vlrsdK;pkv$wfawmfESifh jynfol‹v$wfawmf[lI v$wfawmf (2) &yfjzifh zGJ‹pnf;&
rnf? ,if;v$wfawmf (2) &yfonf xyfwltm%m&Sd&rnf?
(5) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfonf (u) EdkifiHjcm;a&; (c) umuG,fa&; (*) b¾ma&; (C) w&m;pD&ifa&;
(i) aiGpuUL&dkufESdyfxkwfa0a&; (p) qufoG,fa&;ESifh o,f,lydk‹aqmifa&; (q) rD;&xm;ESifhava-umif;
o,f,lydk‹aqmifa&; (Z) taumufcGefESifh qdyfurf;_rdK‹rsm;ESifhoufqdkifonfh Oya'rsm;udkjyKydkifcGifh&Sdap
&rnf?
(6) jynfe,frsm;onf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh tjynfht0&Sdvsuf/ jynfe,ftpdk;&rsm;onf jynfaxmifpktpdk;&
(7)

. 0ifa&muf pGufzufr+rS uif;vGwfcGifh&Sd&rnf?
(7) jynfe,fwdkif;twGuf tpdk;&. b¾ma&;toHk;p&dwfudk nDr#pGm cGJa0&rnf? jynfe,fydkif obm0o,H
ZmwESifh pD;yGg;a&; taqmufttHkrsm;udk jynfe,fvlxkuom pDrHcef‹cGJydkifcGifh &Sd&rnf?
xdkodk‹wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pkrsm;u trsKd;om;rsm;wef;wla&;udk tmrcHay;Edkifonfh jynfaxmifpkzGJ‹pnf;
yHkudk a&;qGJwifjy&ef }udK;yrf;aepOf AdkvfcsKyfae0if;OD;aqmifaom vlrsdK;}uD;0g'D ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;u
wkdif;jynf_ydKuGJrnfpkd;I[kqkdum (1962) wGif EdkifiHawmftm%mudk ppfwyftm;ukd;jzifh odrf;,lvdkufonf?
v$wfawmfudk zsufodrf;I orRwESifh tpdk;&tzGJ‹0if0ef}uD;rsm;/ awmif}uD;nDvmcHodk‹ wufa&mufcJhonfh
wkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk tjypfwpfpHk/ wpf&mr&SdbJ axmifoGif;tusOf;csvdkufonf? xdk‹aemuf ppf
Akdvf/ ppfom;rsm; }uD;pdk;aom jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDudk xlaxmifum t&if;&Sife,fcsJ‹0g'/ vlrsdK;}uD;
0g'/ ppftm%m&Sif0g'ESifh wpfygwDtm%m&Sifpepfudk w&m;0if usifhoHk;-uawmhonf?

ppf t m%m&S i f v uf a tmuf u sa&muf j cif ;
Adkvfae0if; ppftm%modrf;I r-umcifrSmyif OD;ay:OD;ESifh OD;armifpdefnGef‹wkd‹onf &ckdiftrsKd;om;
vGwfajrmufa&;tzGJ‹ukd zGJ‹pnf;xlaxmif_yD; (1962) rS (1969) txd rqvtpkd;&ukd awmfvSefcJh-uonf? wpf
csdefwnf;rSmyif OD;ausmfZH&GDESifh OD;armif[efwkd‹ OD;aqmifaom &ckdiftrsdK;om;rsm;onf ocifpkd;OD;aqmifaom
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (tvHeD)rS cGJxGufum &ckdifjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk xlaxmifvsuf &ckdiftrsKd;om;a&;
twGuf awmif;qdkwdkufyGJ0ifcJh-uonf? (1963) awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS wpfwkdif;jynfvkH; typftcwf&yfpJ
a-umif;a-unm_yD; wpfEdkifiHvHk;&Sd vufeufukdiftzGJ‹tpnf;rsm;ukd _idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;&ef zdwfac:
cJhonf? TaqG;aEG;yGJodk‹ &cdkifjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS OD;ausmfZH&GDESifh OD;odef;azwkd‹wufa&muf_yD; &ckdiftrsKd;om;
rsm;.ukd,fhuH-urRm ukd,fzefwD;cGifhukd todtrSwfjyKonfhtaejzifh &ckdifjynfrS Armwyfrsm; ±kyfodrf;&ef
awmif;qkd&m vdkufavsmr+wpfpkHwpf&mr&Sdojzifh aqG;aEG;yGJrS EkwfxGuf_yD; vufeufudkifwdkufyGJudk qufvuf
qifE$JcJhonf? vufawG‹tm;jzifhvnf; awmfvSefa&;aumifpD. _idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJrSm twdkuftcHrsm;u
_idrf;csrf;a&;rvdkvm;ojzifh jynfwGif;ppfrD; awmufavmifae&ygonf[k jynfolvlxkESifh EdkifiHwumudk
ta-umif;jycsufay;vdkaom AdkvfcsKyfae0if;. EdkifiHa&;vSnhfuGufwpfckom jzpfayonf? (1964) wGif Akdvf}uD;
-umvSatmifOD;aqmifaom &ckdiftrsKd;om;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ aus;vufa'orsm;udk tajccHum rqvtpdk;&tm;
ajymufusm;ppfjzifh wdkufcdkufcJh&m ppfa&;t& xda&mufr+&SdcJhaomfvnf; jynfolvlxkESifh a0;vHacgif;yg;aom
ae&mrsm;wGifom v+yf&Sm;cJhonfjzpf&m pnf;&Hk;a&;t& ta&;edrfhcJh&onf?
rqvtpkd;&vufatmufwGif wpfEdkifiHvHk; EdkifiHa&;t& zdESdyfcHcJh&onf? vlr+/ pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&m
-uyfwnf; epfemr+rsm;ESifh }uHKawG‹cJh&onf?

zJhay;vkduf&aom &uQXmeD
tcsKyftjcmtm%musqkH;oGm;aom &ckdifEkdifiHawmf.e,ferdwftm; tenf;i,fazmf jyvkdygonf?
&ckdifjynfonf Armjynf. taemufbufjcrf;wGifwnf&Sd_yD; ta&S‹bufwGif rauG;wkdif;/ taemuf
bufwGif b*Fvm;yifv,fatmf/ awmifbufwGif {&m0wDwdkif;/ ajrmufbufwGif csif;jynfe,f/ b*Fvm; a'h&Sf
EdkifiHwdk‹ESifh xdpyfvsuf&Sdonf? (1824) t*Fvdyf/ Armppft_yD;wGifcsKyfqdkaom &E WydkpmcsKyft& &cdkifjynf.e,f
erdwfrSm ajrmufydkif;wGif csif;jynfe,f yvuf0awmifwef;a'orS awmifykdif;e*a&tilESifh [kdif}uD;u|ef;txd
us,fjyef‹cJhonf? &ckdifjynf. e,ferdwftus,ft0ef;onfrSmvnf; (21694 ) pwk&ef;rkdif &SdcJhonf? okd‹&mwGif
(8)

&ckdifawmifykdif;a'o ausmufc|ef;jrpfrS e*a&tiltxd &Snfvsm;aome,fajrrsm;tm; _Adwdo#wkd‹u tkyfcsKyfa&;
,EW&m; ykdrkdvG,fula&;twGuf 'kwd,t*Fvdyf=Armppft_yD; c&mZfESpf (1853) wGif ykodrfc&kdif (,ck{&m0wD
wkid ;f ) twGi;f ok‹d xnfo
h iG ;f vdu
k af vonf? xkad -umifh &ckid jf ynf.e,ferd w
d rf mS (21694) pwk&ef;rkid rf S (18945)
pwk&ef;rkdif cef‹ avsmhusoGm;avonf?
tdEdN,=Arm cGJa&;/ wGJa&;jy\emt_yD; (1937) wGif t*FvdyftufOya't& ewfjrpf taemuf
bufurf; (37) rkdif&Snfvsm;aom taemufbufurf;&kd;wef;tm; tdENd,EkdifiH.tkyfcsKyfa&;vufatmufokd‹
oGwfoGif;vkdufaoma-umifh &ckdifurf;&kd;wef;tvsm;rSm (480) rkdifrS (443) rkdifokd‹ avsmqif;oGm;cJhonf? xkd‹jyif
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&_yD; (1953) wGif ,ckyvuf0c&dkif[kac:aom &cdkifajrmufykdif; awmifwef;a'oukdvnf;
csif;jynfe,fxJokd‹qGJoGif;jcif;cHvkduf&onfhtwGuf ,ckvuf&Sd ArmjynfwGif owfrSwfxm;aom &cdkifjynf
e,f.e,fedrdwftus,ft0ef;rSm (14200) pwk&ef;rdkifr#om usef&Sdawmhonf?

Akdvfae0if;ESifh qefjy\em
ppftm%m&SiAf v
dk af e0if;tpk;d &vufxuf rqvwpfygwDtm%m&Sipf epfjzifh wkid ;f jynftm; "m;rk;d tkyf
csKyfaecsdef( 1967) ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdifiHY qefjy\em t}uD;tus,fjzpfyGm;cJhonf?
rqvygwDonf tajccHvlwef;pm;}uD;ESpf&yf[k a-uG;a-umfxm;aom v,form;ESifh tvkyform;
rsm;twGuf awmifolv,form;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJESifh tvkyform;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJrsm;tm; ESpfpkjyKvkyfusif;y
ay;vsuf&Sdonf? 1967 ckESpf rwfv (2) &ufae‹wGif rqvygwDu “A[kdawmifolv,form;aumifpD”ukd
zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? xkdaumifpD pwifzGJ‹pnf;jcif;onfyif qef&Sm;yg;r+jy\emjzpfay:apaomta-umif;t&if; wpfck
jzpfayonf? 1966 ckESpf pkdufysKd;&moDwkef;u &moDOwkazmufjyefcJhaoma-umifh ArmjynfwGif pyg;pkdufysKd;{u
(11) odef;ausmfysufpD;cJh&_yD; pyg;wif; odef;aygif; (500) ausmfysufpD;cJh&onf? okd‹aomf Akdvfae0if;tpkd;&onf
jynfwGif;pm;okH;r+ukd tav;rxm;bJ qefjywfvwfr+jzpfrnfukd odod}uD;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;aiG&&Sda&;twGuf
qefwefcsdef (1.1) oef;ausmfwifykd‹a&mif;cscJhonf? xkd‹jyif tpkd;&u qefukd vGwfvyfpGma&mif;0,fcGifhray;bJ
wif;wif;usyfusyfcsKyfukdifxm;onfhtwGuf qef&Sm;yg;r+jy\em ykdrkd}uD;xGm;vmcJhonf? tpkd;&onf
jynfolvlxkvkdvm;csufukd tav;rxm;bJ EkdifiHjcm;wkdif;jynfrsm;okd‹ wifykd‹a&mif;csaer+/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyf
ief;rsm;tm; vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;r+/ csKyfcs,fuef‹owfaomay:vpDrsm;csrSwfum pD;yGm;a&;rSefor#tm;
ydwfyifuef‹owfr+rsm;a-umifh qefjywfvwfr+jy\emjzpf&jcif;ta-umif;t&if;rsm;jzpfayonf? (1967) ck
pyg;opfxGuf&Sd_yD; vykdif;cef‹om&Sdao;onfhtcsdefwGif qefjywfvwfr+ pwifjzpfyGm;cJh_yD; qefaps;rsm;vnf;
w[kefxkd; jrifhwufvmcJhonf? (1962) ckESpf ppftpkd;&tm%modrf;pOfu qefwpfjynf jym; (60) om&SdcJh&m
(1967) ckESpf qefjy\ em}uHKawG‹&pOfwGif qefwpfjynf (7) usyfrS (8) usyftxdjzpfyGm;cJhonf? xkduJhokd‹
Armjynfwpfjynfv;Hk qefjywf vwfrj+ y\emjzpfymG ;&m tqk;d 0g;qk;H cHpm;cJ&h olrsm;rSm &ckid jf ynforl sm;jzpfonf?

e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfwnfaom_rdK‹ (okd‹r[kwf) ppfawG
yxr t*Fvdyf=ArmppfyGJrSm bkd;awmfbk&m; &ckdifjynfukd odrf;,l_yD; ESpf (40) t-umwGif jzpfyGm;
cJhonf? xkdppfyGJa-umifh t*Fvdyf=Arm &EWykdpmcsKyfukd (1826) ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (26) &ufwGifcsKyfqkdcJh_yD;
&ckdifESifh weoFm&Da'oukd _Adwdo#e,fcsJ‹orm;rsm;tm; ay;vkduf&onf? &ckdifjynfukd e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfrsm; odrf;,l
onft
h csdex
f d &ckid jf ynf. _rdK‹awmfrmS ajrmufO;D _rdK‹jzpfonf? ajrmufO;D onf yifv,fEiS hf tvSr;f a0;jcif;/ yifv,f
(9)

ul;oabFmrsm; 0ifxGufoGm;vmEkdifr+ r&Sdjcif;/ c&D;oGm;vma&; cufcJjcif;/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;wGif _Adwdo#
e,fcsJ‹orm;rsm;twGuf t[ef‹twm;jzpfaejcif;wk‹d a-umifh &ckid jf ynf. _rdK‹awmftm; ppfawGusG ef;tm; a&G;cs,fchJ
-uonf?
&ckdifjynfonf tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifEkdifiHtjzpf&yfwnfcJhaomtcsdef &ckdifbk&ifrsm;vufxufu
ppfawGuGsef;onf ppfa&;t&tcsuftcsmuscJhaomuGsef;wpfuGsef;jzpfonf? uGsef;. trnfwGif “ppf”qkd onfh
pum;&yfonf ppfa&;t&ta&;ygr+ukd xif&Sm;aponf? rlv ppfwJqkdonfha0g[m&rS ppfaw;/ ppfawG[k
ajymif;vJjzpfvmjcif;jzpfonf? ppfw[
J al om t"dym` ,frmS ppfEiS q
hf idk &f mtiftm;pkrsm; ppfwcJ s&m t&yfjzpfonf?
ok‹d aomf &ckid jf ynftm; Arme,fcsJ‹rsm;odr;f yku
d v
f u
dk af oma-umifh ppfawGusG ef;. ppfa&;t& ta&;ygr+onfvnf;
avsmhusoGm;cJh_yD; wHig&GmtqifhjzpfcJh&onf? xkda-umifh ppfawG_rdK‹ t*FvdyfrSwfwrf;rsm;wGif “wHig&Gm”tjzpf
a&;om;cJh-uonf?
_Adwdo#e,fcsJ‹orm;rsm; tkyfpkd;pOfu ppfawG_rdK‹onf Armjynf. vlOD;a& trsm;qkH;_rdK‹}uD; (10)
_rdK‹teuf wpf_rdK‹tygt0ifjzpfonf? ppfawG_rdK‹tm; _Adwdo#e,fcsJ‹orm;rsm;onf olwkd‹tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf
wnfaxmifcJhjcif;jzpfonf? e,fcsJ‹orm;rsm;u ppfawG_rdK‹tm; olwkd‹tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf wnfaxmifcJh-uovkd
&ckdifrsKd;cspfrsm;uvnf; e,fcsJ‹qef‹a&;/ trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&; tiftm;pkrsm;arG;xkwfay;onf bkrRdeuf
oefajrtjzpftokH;jyKcJhonf? rif;om;}uD;a&$bef;/ _rdK‹ol}uD; atmifausmfZH/ a';0ef}uD;atmifausmf&$Dwkd‹OD;aqmif
onfh e,fcsJ‹qef‹usifa&;tiftm;pkrsm;onf ppfawG_rdK‹ukd tajccH_yD; e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyfrsm;tm; awmfvSefcJh-uonf?
ppfawG_rdK‹onf 'kwd,urBmppfumvuvnf; ta&;ygaom_rdK‹wpf_rdK‹jzpfonf?
ppfawGonf AkH;'%fvnf;cHcJh&onf? ppfajrjyifvnf;jzpfcJh&onf?
ukdvkdeDorkdif;ukd jzwfoef;cJh&aom ppfawG_rdK‹onf ukdvkdeDpepf. aumif;arG qkd;arGrsm;ukdvnf; vufcH&&SdcJh
onf? e,fcsJ‹t*FvdyfwnfaxmifcJhaom _rdK‹/ e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyf/ zufqpf*syef/ ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'D/ ppf0g'Drsm;
aoG;pkyf/ &ufpuf/ owfjzwfjcif;cHcJh&aom _rdK‹?
ukdvkdeDtaqmifta,mifrsm;wnf&Sd&m ppfawG_rdK‹wGif &mZ0if&kdif;avmufatmif &ufpuf-urf;
-uKwfvSaom tpktvkduft_yKHvkduf vlowfr+}uD;onf ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; &_yD; (19) ESpft-um (1967)
-o*wf(pf) (13) &ufae‹wGifjzpfyGm;cJhonf?
ppfawG_rdK‹&Sd qwf&kd;usacsmif;onf ta&S‹bufrS taemufbufokd‹ a0humpD;0ifvsuf&Sdonf? ppf
awGuGsef;. taemufajrmufbufwGif }uGDwJacsmif;ESifh r,ljrpf (3) ck aygif;qkH_yD; b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfxJ
okd‹ pD;0ifvsuf&Sdonf? qwf&kd;uswpf&kd;wGif ta&S‹rS taemuf emZD&Gmtxd qefpufrsm;/ pyg;okdavSmif&kHrsm;/
oabFmqdyfrsm;/ bkwfqdyfrsm;/ avmif;avSrsm; jynfhESufvsuf&Sdonf? ukvm;wefjrpfESifh aygif;qkH&m qwf&kd;us
acsmif;0rS rkdiftenf;i,f a0;aomae&mrSm EkdifiHjcm;oabFm}uD;rsm; qkdufuyfxm;onf?
ukvm;wefjrpf/ av;_rdK‹jrpfESifh &ckdifweHwvsm;rS xGufonfhpyg;rsm;ukd qwf&kd;usacsmif;w&kd; wGif
vma&mufa&mif;cs-uonf? qwf&kd;usacsmif;&Sd qefpufrsm;rS }udwfcGJ_yD; qefrsm;ukd EkdifiHjcm;okd‹ wifykd‹-uonf?
qwf&kd;usacsmif;rSm ppfawGwnfpuyif qef;pyg;a&mif;0,fa&; jzpfxGef;cJhonf? &ckdifjynf wpfckvkH;wGif
qefpyg;a&mif;0,fa&;&mY tcsuftcsmusonfh acsmif;jzpfonf? rif;*Hacsmif;0atmufem;rSpI qwf&kd;us
acsmif;txd jrpf&kd;wpfav#muf EkdifiHjcm;qefwifoabFmrsm;onf pDbDrsm;rSwqifh qefpyg;rsm;ukd ukefwifjcif;
jyKvkyfvsuf&Sdonf?

(10)

&ckdifjynf. yxrqkH; tiwfab;
bm;bl[d,ifh qef&Sd,ifh 'kdif;usD[d,ifh qef&Sd,ifh [lI &ckdifjynf. qefa&pyg;aygrsm;ykHtm;
pmzGJ‹rSwfwrf;wifcJhonf?
&ckdifjynfwGif qef&Sm;I tiwfab;ESifh }uHKawG‹cJh&onf[k orkdif;wav#mufrnfonhftcgwGifrS
rawG‹zl;/ r-um;cJh&zl;acs? ae0if;ppftkyfpkvufxuf (1967) ckESpfwGif &ckdifjynfol/ jynfom;rsm; yxrOD;
qkH;aom }uHKawG‹cJh&aom tiwfab;jzpfonf? qef&Sm;yg;r+a-umifh aiGa-u;wwfEkdifolrsm;awmif qefukd
0,fr&jzpf-u&onf? qef&Sm;yg;r+a-umifh jydef;OESifh csOfaygif}udKaomuf&onfhtxd qefpyg;&Sm;yg;cJhonf?
tusKd;quftjzpf 0rf;avsmum aoolrsm;owif;/ &SufI tqdyfaomuf owfaoolrsm;owif;ukd &ckdif
jynftESHr-um;csifqkH;-um;ae-u&onf?
ppfawG_rdK‹vrf;}udK vrf;-um;rsm;wGif “xrif;usefay;yg [if;usefay;yg” [k wpmpmESifh vkduf
vHawmif;pm;ae-uolrsm;ukd ae‹wkdif;vkdvkdawG‹jrifae&onf? &ifcGifxJwGifvnf; Ekd‹pkd‹t&G,fuav;i,f rsm;ukd
csDykd‹xm;-uonf? TuJhokd‹jrifuGif;tm; &ckdifjynfwGif rnfonfhtcsdeftcgr# rawG‹jrifcJh&acs? jrif&oltaygif;
a-uuG0J rf;enf;p&mjrifuiG ;f jzpfonf? rde;f rysKd/ vlysKdrsm;onfyif awmif;&rf;pm;aomuf&onfh tjzpf jzpfonf?
qef&mS ;yg;r+a-umifh aus;vufrsm;wGif csrf;omaomtdrrf sm;uk0d if_yD; qefvo
k nft
h jzpf rsm; jzpfymG ;vsuf&o
dS nf?
Armppftpkd;&onf &ckdifjynfolrsm; iwfjywfaeaomfvnf; at;at;aq;aq; yif? &ckdifjynfolvlxk&ifqkdifae&
onfh tiwfab;tm; ajz&Sif;ay;jcif;r&SdbJ &ckdiftcsif;csif; owfjzwf jcif;ukd tomw-unf apmifh-unfhvsuf
&Sdonf? “,ufvnf; nufap/ -uufvJ armap”qkdonfh rlukdvuf ukdifjyKxm;aomae0if;tpkd;&onf qefvk
yGJtjzpftysufrsm;tm; OyuQmjyKxm;cJhonf?
ppfawG_rdK‹wGif qyvkdif[kac:aom or0g,rqkdifrsm;rSS aus;&Gm&yfuGufwkdif;wGif u'fjym;rsm;jzifh
qefa0iS a&mif;csay;onf? vlwpfOD;v#if ,cifuEkd‹qDAl; (60) ay;&mrS qef&Sm;yg;onf[k qkdum Ekd‹qDAl;
(40) xdavsmhcs_yD;a&mif;csay;cJhonf? &ckdifjynfolrsm;rSm ykHrSefrpm;aomufEkdifbJ ravmufrijzifh r0a&pm
pm;aomufvm-u&onf?

arSmifrkdufaom ae‹&ufrsm;
-o*wf ( pf ) (11)/ (1967)
rkd;onf;xefpGm &Gmvkduf/ pJvkdufjzpfaeaom -o*wf(pf) (11) &ufae‹wGif c&kdifvkH_cHKa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyf
a&; aumfrwD (c/ v/ u) &kH;a&S‹wGif vltrsm; qENjyawmif;qkdae-uonf? awmif;qkdaomta-umif;t&m rSm
vuf&o
dS w
l ‹dk &ifqidk }f uHKawG‹ae&aom qefjy\emtm; ajz&Si;f ay;&efjzpfonf? (c/ v/ u) &k;H rS qefjy \emtm;
ajz&Sif;ay;aeonf[k owif;rsm;xGufaeaoma-umifh vma&muf pka0;-ujcif;jzpfonf? okd‹aomf xl;jcm;r+um;
r&Sdacs? ar#mfvifhcsufjzifh a&muf&Sdvmolrsm;onf tdrfrjyefbJ wpfckckajz&Sif;ay;avrvm;pdwfjzifh
quf v uf a pmif h q k d i f ; ae-u&m naeom wjznf ; jznf ; apmif ; vmcJ h o nf ? xk d t csd e f w G i f (c/v/u)
wm0ef&Sdolrsm;xGufvm_yD; “tdrfjyefygawmh” qkdaoma-umifh olwkd‹vm&mvrf;twkdif; toD;oD;jyefoGm;cJh
-uonf? tpkd;&tm; odrhfarG‹aomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh olwkd‹. touf&Sif&yfwnfa&;twGuf ajz&Sif;ay;&ef
awmif; qkdcJh-ujcif;jzpfonf?

(11)

-o*wf ( pf ) (12)
c&kdifvkHjcHKa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;aumfrwD (c/ v/ u) &kH;wGif qefjy\emESifh ywfowfI _rdK‹rd/ _rdK‹z
rsm;ukd ac: _yD; tpnf;ta0;wpf&yfusif;yvsuf&Sdonf? xkdtpnf;ta0;rS aeI vlwpfa,mufukd qefEkd‹qD
Al; (14) Al;pDjzifh wpfvpmjzef‹jzL;a&mif;csay;rnf[k owif;rsm;xGufay:vmcJhonf? vlwpfOD; qef (14)
Al;tm; wpfvtxd pm;&rnfh tpDtpOfjzpfonf?
vlwpfa,muf reufwpfAl;/ nwpfAl; wpfae‹tenf;qkH; (60) Al;vkdtyfayonf? ‚if;ukd qefEkd‹
qD;Al; (14) Al;ukd vlwpfOD;taejzifh wpfvpm;&rnfqkdonfrSm rnfokd‹enf;ESifhr# jzpfEkdifp&mta-umif; vkH;0
r&Sdacs? xkdtpDtpOftm; vufcHonfh vlwpfcsKd‹vnf;&Sd-uonf? Tokd‹qkdygu iwfI aozkd‹om usefawmh
onf? qefvkH;0r&SdI ao&rnfqkdv#if [kwfao;onf? qef*kda'gifrsm;/ EkdifiHjcm;oabFmrsm;wGif &ckdifjynfrS
xGuf&Sdaomqefrsm; tjynfh&Sdaeygvsuf tb,fa-umifh Armppftpkd;&onf &ckdifjynfolrsm;. tiwfab;
jy\emukd tb,fa-umifh ajz&Sif;ray;ygovJ?
nae (3) em&D
qiful;vrf;&yfuGuf/ (OD;apmjzL) qefpuf qyf&kd;usacsmif;_cH0if;. aemuf qdyfurf;azmifawmfwGif
vlrsm; &+yf,Sufcyfvsuf&Sdonf? (C B 28) trnf&Sd EkdifiHjcm;qefwifoabFmonfvnf; qdyfuyfvsuf &Sdonf?
vlrsm;onf oabFmay:rS qefrsm;ukd wpfykdifwpfEkdifo,fcsae-uonf? wpftdwfEkdifol wpftdwf/ wpf0ufEkdifol
wpf0uf o,f,lae-uonf? wpfcsKd‹rSm oabFm0rf;acgif;xJrS rEkdifreif;xrf;vmI a&xJokd‹ qeftdwfa&m/
vlyg vdrfhqif;oGm;onfrsm;ukdvnf; awG‹jrifae&ygonf? vkH_cHKa&;&Jom;rsm;uvnf; qef ,laeolrsm;tm;
rnfonfh [ef‹wm;r+r# rjyKvkyfbJ onftwkdif; &yf-unfhae-uygonf? qdwfurf;wpfck vkH;onf
qef,laeolrsm;jzifh tkwfatmfaomif;eif;jzpfvsuf&Sdayonf? n (7) em&Dcef‹wGif (C B 28) rS qefrsm;ukefoGm;
onf? vltrsm;vnf; wpfjznf;jznf;uG,faysmufoGm;cJhonf? pm;p&m qefr&Sd_yDjzpfaoma-umifh eD;&m
qef*kda'gifrsm;/ oabFmrsm;rS qefrsm;ukd azmuf,lae-ujcif;jzpfonf? n (9) em&Dcef‹wGif urf;rSxGufcGm
oGm;aom (CB) oabFmwGif rdef;uav;wpfOD;ygoGm;a-umif;/ aoqkH;oGm;a-umif; owif;xGufvmonf?
(CB) rS ,laqmifvmaom qefrsm;onf tqDcGsJum tvGefpm;I aumif;a-umif;ajymqkdae-uonf?
-o*kwf (12) &ufnaewGif touf&Sif&yfwnfa&;twGuf qefukd &onfhae&mrS azmuf,laeol
rsm;&Sdovkd/ qefjy\emtm; tpkd;&rS ajz&Sif;rS ajyvnfrnf[k ,kH-unfum qENjyawmif;qkd&ef }udK;yrf;ae
olrsm;vnf;&Sdonf?
vrf;rawmfawmif&yfuGuf ausmif;q&mr aetdrfwpftdrfwGif vli,f (30) ausmf qENjycsDwuf
&efpka0;um n (7) em&DwGif aetdrfrS pwifxGufcGm-uonf? “qefjy\em ajz&Sif;ay;/ ta&;awmfykH
atmif & rnf ” “jyKwf q ef r pm; &ck d i f o m;/ qef u G J r pm; &ck d i f o m;/ qef t jynf h t 0 a&mif ; csay;”
[ka-uG;a-umfum vrf;r}uD;vrf;twkdif; pwifcsDwufvm-uonf? olwkd‹csDwufaeaom aemufqkH;ae&mrSm
jrLeDpyg,fOuU@ OD;armifausmfOD; tdrfokd‹jzpfonf? OD;armifausmfOD;tdrfokd‹csDwufaejcif;rSm qefjy\em
ajz&Sif;ay;aeI r[kwf? olu tm%mykdifrsm;tm; vlwpfOD;v#if wpfae‹qefwpfAl;/ jyKwfqefESifh qefuGJay;
v#if &onf[k wifjycJhaoma-umifhjzpfonf? jynfolrsm;onf ol‹.wifjycsufrsm;tm; cHjyif;um ol‹qDokd‹
csDwufaejcif;jzpfonf? tdrfa&S‹ta&mufwGif qENjyolpkpkaygif; (200) cef‹&Sdrnf[k cef‹rSef;&onf? olwkd‹ onf
OD;armifausmfOD;aetdrftm; tkwfcJrsm;jzifh ypfayguf-uonf? xkduJhokd‹ ypfaygufaepOf vufeuftjynfhESifh
(12)

ppfom;rsm;vkdufygvmaom ppfum; (2) pD;a&muf&Sdvm_yD; ppfum;rsm;ESifhtwl AkdvfrSL;apmjzLvnf;
vkdufygvmcJhonf? tkd;wef;&yfuGufESifh &ly&GmcGqkHrS qENjyvli,frsm; ppfum; (2) pD;tm; 0kdif;vkduf-uonf?
AkdvfrSL;apmjzLonf vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;tm;ac:um qefjy\emukd olajz&Sif;ay;rnf[k uwday;_yD;
qENjyolrsm;tm; vlpkcGJ_yD; tdrfjyef&efajym-um;cJhonf? qENjyolrsm;vnf; qefjy\emajz&Sif;ay;rnfqkdaom
uwdtm; ,kH-unfum toD;oD;jyefoGm;cJh-uonf? tcsdefum; nOfh (10) em&Dcef‹&Sdae_yD?

aoG; pGe f; aom -o*wf( pf) (13)
-o*wf(pf) (13) &ufae‹wGif ppfawGwpf_rdK‹vkH;rSm v+yfv+yf&G&Gjzpfvsuf&Sd_yD; ,refae‹rsm;xuf ykdrkdxl;
jcm;vsuf&Sdonf? onfae‹wGif ppfawG_rdK‹Y rnfokd‹/ rnfykHjzpfvmrnfqkdonfukd rnfolwpfOD; wpfa,muf
ur# rcef‹reS ;f Ekid af cs? jynfov
l x
l w
k pf&yfv;Hk . rauseyforH sm;/ awmufacguforH sm;/ ikn
d O‡ ;f oHrsm;u ae&mtE‹HS
-um;ae&onf? olwkd‹rsufESmrsm;wGif romr,mjzifh wpfpkHwpfckukd pkd;&drfa-umifh-uae[ef&Sdonf?
bk&m;}uD;&ifjyifwGif ppfawGwpf_rdK‹vkH; qENjycsDwufyGJjyKvkyf&ef v#Kd‹0Suf}uHpnfxm;-uaom ausmif;
om; (12) a,mufcef‹a&muf&Sdvmonf? xkdtxJrS ausmif;om;wpfOD;u oltusôtwGif;rS ydwfzsifpwpfckukd
qGx
J w
k v
f u
dk o
f nf? xk‹d aemuf 0g;vk;H ESpv
f ;Hk wGif taotcsm csnfaESmifvu
dk o
f nf? xkyd w
d zf sifpwGif a&;xm;aom
t&mum; “qef j y\em ajz&S i f ; yg h h h h h &ck d i f t a&;awmf y k H a tmif & rnf ” [k a&;om;xm;onf ?
ausmif;om;ESpfOD;onf ydwfzsifptm; 0g;vkH;ESpfvkH;wGif csnfaESmifvkduf_yD; 0uFyguGif;&Sd ydawmufyif-um;wGif
axmifxm;vkdufonf? qENjyyGJtwGuf vlpkaejcif;jzpfonf? xkdtcsdefwGif vrf;rawmfawmifrS tokbykd‹aqmif
vm-u&m vkdufygvmolrsm;onf xkdydwfptm; jrif&m ok\efokd‹ roGm;a&mufbJ pka0;ae&mwGif qif;usefcJh
-uonf? tokbykd‹aqmifaom um;wef;wGif vlrygoavmufjzpfoGm;onf? Tokd‹jzifh wjznf;jznf;pka0;vm
-u&m pwifqENjyEkdifonfhvltiftm;&Sdvmonf? “qefjy\em ajz&Sif;yg h h h h h &ckdifta&;awmfykH
atmif&rnf”[ka&;xm;aom ydwfzsifonf qENjyyGJ. wpfckwnf;aom qkdif;bkwf}uD;vnf;jzpfonf?
xkyd w
d pf tm; ta0;rSyif xif&mS ;pGmjrifae&onf? ae‹vnf (1) em&Dcef‹wiG f pwifcsDwuf xGucf mG &ef jyifqifjcif;
tjzpf qENjyyGJtm; OD;aqmifolwpfOD;onf
“ES m acgif ; yk d i f ; ae0if ; tpk d ; &
tvk d r &S d ? ”
“rqvtpk d ; & tpk d ; &
tvk d r &S d ? ”
“qef j y\em
ajz&S i f ; yg?”
“&ck d i f h t a&;awmf y k H
atmif & rnf ? ”
a-uG;a-umfoHtm; pwif wkdifay;vkdufonf?
qENjyolrsm;onf bk&m;}uD;a&S‹0uFbmuGif;rS pwifxGufcGmvm&m a';0ef;&Gmvrf;/ [oFmuef a&S‹/
abmufoD;pkvrf; xkdrSwqifh rif;bm}uD;vrf;/ bkwfqdwf/ puf&Hkvrf;twkdif; csDwufvmcJh-uonf?
vrf;wav#muf vkdufygvmcJholrsm;a-umifh qENjyoltiftm;onf wjznf;jznf;wkd;yGm;vmcJhonf? xkduJhokd‹
csDwufvmcJh-u&m vrf;rawmfawmif&yfuGuf&Sd &ckdif'Drkdua&pDtzGJ‹csKyf jynfol‹vGwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f OD;pH
xGef; (ac: ) OD;vljzL tdrfa&S‹ta&mufwGif AkdvfrSL;apmjzL a&muf&Sdvm_yD; qufvufcsDwufqENrjy&ef [ef‹
wm;onf? qENjyolrsm;uvnf; “qefukd a&mif;csay;yg? a&mif;ay;&if tckyJ vlpkcGJr,f” [k awmif;qkd
-uonf? okd‹aomf OD;apmjzLrSm wpfpkHw&m jyefvnf ajz-um;jcif;r&SdbJ vm&mvrf;wkdif; jyefvnf aemuf
qkwfoGm;cJhonf? qENjyolrsm;uvnf; a&S‹quf_yD; a-uG;a-umfoHrsm; atmf[pfum qufvufcsDwuf-uonf?
vrf;wpfav#muf vufckwfrsm; wD;um axmufcHtm;ay;ae-uaom _rdK‹ol/ _rdK‹om;rsm;ukd awG‹-u&onf?
(13)

_rdK‹rtrSwf (1) &Jpcef;wGif &Jrsm; ywfywfvnf vkHjcHKa&;,lxm;-uonf? okd‹aomf qENjyaeolrsm;tm; taESmifh
t,Suf vkH;0 ray;bJ onftwkdif; &yf-unfhae-ujcif;jzpfonf?
vrf;r}uD;twkdif;csDwufvm-u&m ppfawGjynfol‹aq;&kH}uD;okd‹ a&muf&Sdvmonf? xkdrS }wd*HcGqHk/
jynfawmfomrlvwef;ausmif;a&S‹rS jzwfum ppfawGtusOf;axmifbl0wnfhwnfhvrf;twdkif;csDwufvmcJh
-uonf? vrf;wav#muftm;ay;aeolrsm;onf qENjyolrsm;tm; aomufa&rsm;wkdufauGs;um qENjyyGJ tm;
axmufcHtm;ay;-uonf? jynfolwpf&yfvkH;. vkdvm;csufukd awmif;qkdaom qENjyyGJjzpfaoma-umifh
wpf_rdK‹vkH; tm;ay;-uonf? xkd‹aemuf taemufpHjy/ (7) Xgevrf;twdkif; axmiftaemufbuf Adkvf}uD;zdk;
om&Gmvrf;twdkif; bkrvufzuf&nfqkdif (,ck avmueENmcGqHk)/ abmvHk;uGif;vrf;twdkif;av,OfuGif;rS
csDwufvm&m rD;puf}uD;cGqkH emZD&Gm (vuf&Sdpuf&kHpk) ukefweff;vrf;okd‹ a&muf&SdvmcJhonf? emZD&GmrS rGwfq
vifrsm;vnf; qENjycsDwuf&mwGif yg0ifvm-uonf? qENjycsDwufyGJonf vlv+dif;rsm; vdrfhqif;vmonfh
tvm; rsufpdwpfqkH;vSrf;jrifae&_yD; vltiftm;onf odef;ausmfcef‹&Sdrnf[k cef‹rSef;&onf? vlwkdif; touf
qufvuf&Sifoefa&;twGuf qef&&Sda&;onf t"dujzpfaoma-umifh ,ckuJhokd‹jynfoltajrmuftjrm;yg0ifcJh
-ujcif;jzpfonf? a-uG;a-umfoHum; ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sdacs?
xkduJhokd‹csDwufvm-u&m r-umrSD puf&kHpkvrf;ESifh uoJ&Gmvrf;xdyfwGif “jr” qefpufa&S‹okd‹
a&muf&SdvmcJhonf? qENjycsDwufvmolrsm;onf xkdae&mta&mufwGif a&S‹qufrwkd;EkdifbJ &yfwef‹oGm;cJh&
onf? tb,fa-umifhqkdaomf qefpufaa&S‹Y oHql;}udK;rsm;jzifh umqD;xm;aoma-umifhjzpfonf? xkd‹tjyif
qefpufvuf,mbufwGif (TE) [D;Ekd;um;}uD; (6) pD; &yfvsuf&Sd_yD; jrqefpuf_cH0if;ESifh vrf;b,fnmwGif
ppfom;rsm;onf &yfI ae&m,lxm;-uonf? ppfom;rsm;vufxJwGif (G-3) armif;jyefaoewfrsm; toifh
ukdifaqmifxm;-uonf? jrqefpufteD; [lar&mqefpuf_cH0if;wpfckvkH;wGifvnf; aoewfarmif;wifxm;_yD;
vkH_cHKr+cvkwfukd ydwfxm;um owd}uD;pGm &yfapmifhaeolppfom;rsm;ukdvnf;awG‹jrifae&onf? okd‹aomf
qENjyolrsm;um; a-umuf&GH wkefv+yfaemufqkwfjcif;um; vkH;0 r&Sdacs? okd‹aomf qENjyolrsm;tm; a&S‹quf
wkd;I r&atmif umqD;xm;aomt&mum; oHql;}udK;rsm;yifjzpfonf? oHql;}udK;. wpfbufwGif vuf
euftoifhukdifqkdifxm;aom ppfom;rsm;&Sdae_yD; tjcm;wpfzufwGif vufeufrJhjynfolrsm;/ xrif;iwfI
ao&rnfhjynfolrsm;? wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf Armppftm%m&Sifae0if;tvkdus trdef‹emcHae&aom jynf
ol‹om;orD; ppfom;rsm;ESifh iwfI ao&rnfhtpm; wkdufyGJ0ifI aornf[k qkH;jzwfxm;aom jynfolrsm;?
rnfolu tEkdif&&Sdrnfenf;qkdonfukd rnfolr#rajymEkdif? tm%m&SifESifh jynfol xdwkdufawG‹r+ aemufqkH;
tqifhokd‹ a&muf&Sdaeay_yD?
xkdtcsdefwGif AkdvfrSL;apmjzLonf aemufxyfwpfzefa&muf&Sdvm_yD; qENjyvltkyfxJrS wpfOD;xGuf
vmyg[k ac:,lvkdufonf? a&S‹qkH;wef;rS wpfOD;xGufoGm;_yD; AkdvfcsKyfapmjzLqDokd‹ oGm;cJhonf? AkdvfrSL;
apmjzLonf xkdoltm; pm&Gufwpf&Guf ay;tyfvkdufonf? xkdolonf AkdvfrSL;apmjzLay;vkdufaom pmtm;
,lvmum wHxm; tkwfckHxufrS &yfI zwf&efjyifvkdufonf? xkdtckduftwef‹wGif a&S‹qkH;wef;rS a&mufae
olrsm;xJrS wpfOD;u xkdpmonf trdef‹pmjzpfa-umif;/ rzwf&efajymaomfvnf; aemufuscJhay_yD? pm&Gufzwf
jyaeolonf pum;ttjzifh “(1967) -o*wf(pf)(13) &uf/ Tae‹rSpI yk'f yk'f yk'fr wpf wpf wpf&mh av;
av; q,fhav;ukd xkwfjyefvkdufonf h h h h” [k zwfjyvkdufonf? yk'fr 144 qkdonfrSm nrxGuf&/ vl (5)
OD;xufykdrpk& trdef‹jzpfonf? xkdtrdef‹pmtm; zwfjyaepOfrSmyif qENjyvltkyfonf a&S‹okd‹wjznf;jznf; ydI
zdI odyfonf;vmaeonf? xkdtcg AkdvfrSL;apmjzLu “&Jabmfwkd‹ &Jabmfwkd‹awmif;qkdaom qefAl; 60 ukd
ay;r,f/ [kdvrf;rS at;at;qENjyoGm;-uyg? Tvrf;ukd rausmfygESifh”[k ajymaepOf vltkyfu a&S‹okd‹ wa&G‹a&G‹
(14)

wkd;a0S‹vm_yD; iyd odyf icsOfodyf ovkd odyfonf;vmcJhonf? ppfom;rsm;u umqD;xm;aomoHql;}udK;rsm;ukd
b,fnmwpfckpDcGJI z,f&Sm;vkduf-uonf? “yk'fr (144) ukd&kwfodrf;vkduf_yD” qkdaom trdef‹ukdvnf; r-um;
vkduf&? oHql;}udK;rsm;ukd z,f&Sm;vkdufaoma-umifh tuef‹towfr&Sd pnf;vGwfurf;vGwfjzpfoGm;_yD; vltkyf
onfajy;wufoGm;ovkdjzpfoGm;cJhonf? xkdtcsdefwGif ppfwyfrS pnf; (3) wef owfrSwfxm;aom ae&mtrSwf
tom;ukd ra&mufcifrSmyif aoewfoHonf rkd;,Hokd‹ v#HxGufoGm;vmcJhonf? xkd‹aemuf tqufrjywf xGufay:
vmaom aoewfoH? qENjyolrsm;xJwGif usnfxdrSefI vJusol vJus upOfhuvsm;xGufajy;olajy;jzifh
tajctaewpf&yfvkH;onf &kwfcsif;ajymif;vJoGm;cJhonf? tltyGwfvkdufxGufaeonfukd vufESifhzkH;tkyfum
a0'emcHpm;ae&olrsm;/ rsufvkH;rSdwfwkwfrdSwfwkwfjzifh yufvufvefaeolrsm;/ ajr}uD;ay:wGif 0yfae&mrS ukef;
±kef; ajy;olrsm;ukd awG‹&onf?
xGufajy;olrsm;onf qefpufteD;rS pD;qif;vsuf&Sdaom qwf&kd;usacsmif;ukd jzwfI urf;wpfzufokd‹
xGufajy;&ef a&xJokd‹ ckefqif;-uonf? xkdokd‹xGufajy;&efaeolrsm;ukdyif ppfom;rsm;onf tvGwfvkH;0
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(15)

t&Sifvwfvwf i&Jjynfykd‹jcif;
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tcif;jzpfyGm;&mae&mwGif yGJcsif;_yD;aoqkH;olrsm;/ raobJ a0'emjyif;xefpGm cHpm;ae&olrsm;/ ajcaxmuf/
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wifaqmifum wpfae&mwnf;wGif usif;wl;I ajrjr‡yfo_*dKvfcJh-uonf?
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bJ touf&Sifusef&pfcJholrsm;tm; vkdufvHzrf;qD;cJhonf? qENjyyGJwGif yg0ifcJholrsm;vnf; tzrf;rcHbJ
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armifESifh abmufoD;pk&yfuGufrS OD;pHomausmfwkd‹jzpfonf? Armppftpkd;&onf &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;.awmf
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tm; &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;awG‹jrifum Armppftpkd;&tm; rawmfvSef&Jatmif/ awmfvSef/ tefwkv#if olwkd‹vkd
jzpfrnfqkd_yD; &uf&ufpufpufvkyfjycJhonf? ppftm%m&Sif.o&kyftm; yDjyifpGmzGifh[ jyocJhjcif;jzpfonf?

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qENjy&mwGif yg0ifcJholrsm;onf ntdyfcsdefwGif ypfcwfoHrsm;/ ikda-uG;oHrsm; em;xJ-um;aea-umif; ajymjy
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“&efol‹vufeuf wkd‹vufeuf” rltm; ESvkH;rlum ntcsdefwGif ppfom;/ &Jom;rsm;xHrS aoewfvk&ef }uHpnf
-uonf? aoewfvkI atmifjrifcJhonfrsm;vnf;&Sdovkd tzrf;cH&onfrsm;vnf;&SdcJhonf? aoewfrsm;tm;
a&$apwDbkef;}uD;ausmif; teD;w0kdufwGif vk,lcJh-uonf? ta&twGufrsm;rsm; rvk,lEkdifcJhaomfvnf;
-o*wf(pf)(13) aemufykdif;wGif Armppftpkd;&tm; &ckdifjynfwGif awmfvSefykefuef&ef tiftm;rsm;wkd;yGm; apcJh
onf? ppftpkd;&uvnf; awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm; raygufzGm;vmap&ef enf;rsKd;pkHokH; zrf;qD;axmifcscJh
onf? ajratmufwGif v+yf&Sm;aeaom &ckdifausmif;om;/ vli,frsm;vnf; _rdK‹ay:wGif qufvuf&yfwnfwkduf
yGJ0if&ef cufcJvmaoma-umifh awmckdcJh-uonf?

-o*wf(pf) (13) tm; jyefvnfajc&maumufjcif;
-o*wf(pf) (13) tpkvkduft_yKHvkdufowfjzwfr+tm; rauseyf/ cHjyif;um jyefvnfpkHprf;onfrsm;/
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(16)

Armppftm%m&Sifrsm; &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&SdusL;vGefcJha-umif; ay:vGifxif&Sm;vmcJhonf? -o*wf(pf) (13) ra&mufrSD
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xm;&ef/ zsm/ -urf;ESihf acgif;tk;H rsm;tm; vl (300) cef‹twGuf jyifqifxm;&ef trde‹f ay;xm;a-umif; od&&dS onf?
cv& (20) wyfwGif ausmif;q&mrtjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom yg'vdyfcsdyf&GmrS a':rapmodef;
(&JtkyfOD;'kd;vSatmif. orD;}uD;)uvnf; olrtodrsm;tm; ajymjyonfrSm cv& (20) wyfwGif ppfom;
rsm;onf -o*wf(pf) (13) rwkdifrSD qENjyo&kyfazmf_yD; ypfowfykH/ wyfrawmfom;rsm;tm; owd&Sd-u&ef avhusifh
rdef‹-um;aeonfukd awG‹jrifcJh&a-umif; ajymjycJhonf?
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olrsm; ajymjycsufrsm;/ xkdtcsdefu oufqkdif&mXmersm;wGif 0ifa&muftr+xrf;cJhaom 0efxrf;rsm;.ajym
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&ckdifjynfuJhokd‹ pkdufysKd;jcif;r&Sdacs? okd‹aomf wwkdif;jynfvkH;qef&Sm;yg;r+jzpfaomtcg &ckdifjynfol/ jynfom;rsm;
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&ckdifjynfolrsm;tm; owfjzwfjcif;jzifh tjcm;wkdif;&if;om;rsm;tm; erlemtjzpf jyocJhonf?
-o*wf(pf) (13) tpktvku
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jzpfaoma-umifh ArmvlrsKd;rsm;. &uf&ufpufpufowfjzwfjcif; cH&jcif;jzpfonf? igwkd‹&ckdifjynfuGsefb0 us
a&mufonfh (1784) wGifvnf; ArmvlrsKd;rsm;onf tpkHvkduft_yHKvkduf &uf&ufpufpufowfowfjzwfcJhonf?
,ckvnf; owfjzwfae-uonf? ta-umif;t&if;Zmpfjrpfonf &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;wGif tcsKyftjcmtm%mr&Sd/
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wGifvnf; &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;tm; uGsefZmwfoGif;cJhonf/ jynfe,ftqifhawmif &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm; r&&SdcJh? ,ckwpfzef
ppftm%m&Siv
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r+rsm;a-umifh &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;pdwfwGif “ArmvlrsKd;rsm;tm; r,kHESifh”qkdonfh tpGJrsm;jzpfay:vmcJhonf? xkduJhokd‹
orkdif;oifcef;pm;rsm;a-umifh &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;onf tcsKyftjcmtm%mukd ykdrkdwyfrufvmcJh-uonf? xkda-umifh
&ckdifjynfolrsm;onf trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;awmfvSefa&;tm; tm;ay;cJh-uonf? tm;ukd;cJh-uonf? &ckdif
trsKd;om;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tm; vkdvm;cJh-uonf?
* vlyk*~dKvfrsm;.trnfrsm;ukd vkH_cHKa&;t& csefvSyfxm;cJhygonf?
(17)

wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'ESifh Armppf0g'.cg;oD;aomtawG‹t}uHKtm; rsuf0g;xifxif
awG‹jrifc&hJ jcif;a-umifh jzpfonf? Armppf0g'Drsm;. tpG,jf yL;jyL; bDv;l &kyu
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topfwzef tm;opfavmif;ay;vkdufovkd jzpfapcJhonf? &ckdiftrsKd;om;awmfvSefa&;onfvnf; toGif
trsKd;rsKd;jzifh qufvufcsDwufcJh-uonf?

tarSmifukd _zdK
tvif;aqmifrnfh awmfvSefa&;
(1967)wGif yDwmbcsKdacgif;aqmifaom &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfOD;onf (1969) wGif &cdkifh
trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh yl;aygif;um &ckdiftrsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;ygwDudk xlaxmifvsuf vuf
eufudkifawmfvSefa&;jzifh rqvtpdk;&udk qef‹usifwdkufyJG0ifcJh-uonf?
OuU@xGef;a&$armifOD;aqmifaom ppfa-umif;onf (1972) wGif &cdkifjynfodk‹ atmifjrifpGm csDwuf
EdkifcJhonf? odk‹aomf (1977) wGif csDwufvmaom twGif;a&;rSL;pHausmfxGef;OD;aqmifonfh ppfa-umif;onf
csif;jynfe,fwGif vufeuftiftm;/ vltiftm; tqrwefomvGefaom rqvppfwyf. ESdrfESif;r+a-umifh
usqHk;cJh&onf?
(1973) OuU@ckdifrdk;vif;OD;aqmifaom &cdkifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;ygwDukd u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;
t±Hk;.tultnDjzifh u&ifjynfwGif zGJ‹pnf;xlaxmifcJhonf? u&iftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmfESifh
vufwGJI bHk&efolrqvudk (3) ESpfwdkifwkdif wdkufcdkufcJhjyD;aemuf (1976) wGif &cdkifjynfodk‹jyefvnf csDwuf
vm&m csif;awmifwef;wGif tqrweftiftm;rsm;aom&efol rqvwyf. acsr+ef;jcif; cHcJh&onf? OuU@
cdkifrdk;vif;rSm &efol‹vufwGif; tusrcHbJ rdrdudk,fudk tqHk;pD&ifcJhonf? “rdk;vif; &mZm”trnf&Sdaom Tppf
a-umif;wGif &cdkiftrsdK;om;awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onf u&ifjynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,f/ &Srf;jynfe,f/ ucsif
jynfe,f/ ppfudkif;wdkif;ESifh csif;jynfe,frsm;udk jzwfausmfum rdkifaygif; (2000)ausmfcef‹ csDwufcJh-u&onf?
vrf;c&D;wpfav#mufwGif &efolrqvwyf. vdkufvHacsr+ef;jcif;udkt}udrf}udrfcHcJh&&m csif;jynfe,fwpf
ckwnf;rSmyif wdkufyGJ}uD;i,f (100) ausmf wdkufcdkufcJh&onf? (1974) wGif ae0if;tpkd;&onf zGJ‹pnf;ykHtajccH
Oya'opfwpf&yfudk ‚if;wdk‹pdwfwdkif;usa&;qGJum twkkta,mifvlxkqENcHyGJjzifh twnfjyKcJhonf? TzGJ‹pnf;yHk
onf wdkif;&if;om;wdk‹. trsKd ;om;wef;wla&;udkomru Armjynfolvlxktm;vHk;. 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifh
ta&;udkyg vspfvsL±lvsufwpfygwDtm%m&Sifpepfjzifh wpfwkdif;jynfvHk;.pD;yGg;a&;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkyfI
jynfolvlxkudk w&m;0if*kyfaoG;pkyfonfh wpfygwDtm%m&Sifpepf zGJ‹pnf;yHkjzpfayonf? TzGJ‹pnf;yHka-umifh
EkdifiHt0Srf;wGif rqvtpdk;&udk rauseyfr+rsm; wdk;yGg;vm-uonf? (1986) wGif OD;armifapm&ifOD;aqmifaom
&ckdifjynfuGefjrLepfygwDonf rif;jym;udkodrf;ydkufI &ckdifjynfvGwfvyfa&; a-unmcJhonf? &cdkifjynfolvlxk
trsm;tjym;u axmufcHcJh-uaomfvnf; &efol rqv ppfwyftm; vufeuftiftm;/ vltiftm; r,SOfom
ojzihf(2) &uftwGif; qkwfcGgcJh&onf? rqvtpdk;&onf &Suf&rf; &rf;onfhtaejzifh ppfOya'xkwfjyefum
tjypfrJhjynfoltrsm;tjym;udk enf;rsdK;pHkjzifh pGJcsufwifvsuf zrf;qD;axmifcscJhonf? n‡Of;yrf;ESdyfpufcJh onf?
xdkodk‹ tzrf;qD;/ tESdyfpufcH&olrsm;xJwGif ,ckwdkif oufawmfxif&Sm;&Sdaeom ykodrfq&mawmfvnf; yg0ifay
onf?
(18)

88 vlxlxktkH -uGr+}uD;ESifh 90 a&G;aumuffyGJ
rqvygwDD. (26) ESpfwdkifwdkif zdESdyftkyfcsKyfr+udkcHpm;cJh-u&aom Armjynfolvlxkonf (1988)
wGif tHk-uGaygufuGJ&mrS &Spfav;vHk;ta&;awmfyHk ay:aygufvmonf? Tta&;awmfyHka-umifh (1974) zGJ‹
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axmifcsum axmifxJrSmyif vkyf}uHowfjzwfvdkufavonf? (1993) wGif ppftpkd;&onf wdkif;jynftm%mudk
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(19)

cJhonf? 1997 ckESpfwGif av;ygwDaygif;pnf;jyD; zGJŒpnf;aom &ckdifjynftrsKd;om;nDnGwfa&;ygwD (NUPA)wGif
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1998 ckESpf Akdvf&mZmusqkH;_yD;aemufwGif tpnf;t&kH;. A[kdaumfrwDwpf&yfvkH; ysufpD;cJh&onf? (1995)
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Armppftm%m&Sifrsm;onf (2008) arvwGif olwkd‹tm; w&m;0iftpkd;&jzpfaprnfh zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyf
(20)

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(21)

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vrf;rsdK;pHkjzifh n‡Of;yrf;ESdyfpufonf? tcGifhta&;&v#if&ovdk vlrsdK;wHk;owfjzwfaejcif;?
(6) qGJydkufoHk;I ig;zrf;ojzifh ig;/ ykZGefrsm; O O&m yifv,f-urf;cif;rsm; ysufpD;jcif;? vrk/ uepdk‹ ponfh
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pnf;urf;rJhckwfvSJjcif;/ obm0o,HZmwrsm;udk A&rf;Awmxkwf,loHk;pGJjcif;jzifh obm0ywf0ef;usifESifh
awm&dik ;f wd&pd m> efrsm; jyKef;wD;/ ysufp;D jcif;/ ajrqDvm$ crf;ajcmufjcif;/ o,HZmwESiw
hf iG ;f xGuyf pPn;f rsm; &Sm;yg;
vmjcif;?
(7) v#yfppfrD;&&SdEkdifavmufaom obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;&Sdaomfvnf; xkdo,HZmwrsm;ukd &ckdifjynfol/
jynfom;rsm;twGuf rokH;pGJbJ tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;okd‹a&mif;csum ,if;rS&&SdaomaiGrsm;jzifh ppfAkdvfwpfpkonf
ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm;0,f,ljcif;ESifh ukd,fusKd;twGuftokH;jyKaejcif;?
(22)

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2008 -o*kwf (13) &ufae‹onf &ckdifvlrsKd; (300) ausmftm; azmufjyefaom Armppftpkd;&u
&uf&ufpufpuf tpkvkduft_yHK vkdufowfjzwfcJhaom (41) ESpfajrmuf 0rf;enf;atmufarhzG,fae‹wpfae‹
jzpfonf? vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif; (41) ESpf onfvkdtcsdefcgrsKd;wGif &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;onf xrif;iwfcJh&onf?
aoa-ucJh&onf? owfjzwfcHcJh&onf? ,ckwkdifvnf; &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;iwfjywfae-uonf? qif;&J-uyfwnf;ae
-uonf? 'kuQrsKd;pkHukdcHpm;ae-u&onf? awmufycJhaom &ckdiforkdif;onf Armya'o&mZf/ e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyf/
zufqpf*syef/ ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'D/ Armppf0g'Dwkd‹a-umifh npfEGrf;cJh&onf? &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;tm; vlom;tjzpfyif
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igwkd‹onf zdESdyfr+ukd tvkdr&Sd? igwkd‹onf zdESdyfcs,fvS,faeaom e,fcsJ‹pepf/ vlrsKd;}uD;0g'ESifh ppf0g'[lor#ukd
qef‹usif&rnf? awmfveS &f rnf? onfpepfq;dk rsm;ukd &ckid af jray:rS armif;xkw&f rnf? ajrccJ&h aom &ckid ahf tmifvH
awmfukd jyefvnfpkdufxlzkd‹ }udK;yrf;&rnf? usqkH;oGm;aom &ckdifhtcsKyftjcmtm%mukd jyefvnf&,lzkd‹ wkdufyGJ
0if&rnf? vGefcJhaom (41) ESpfu awmif;&rf;pm;aomuf&onfhb0/ ypfowfcH&onfhb0/ iwfI owfao&
onfhb0ukd igwkd‹vkH;0rvkdvm;? onforkdif;ukd igwkd‹tqkH;owfjyrnf? igwkd‹qufEGJ&rnfhwkdufyGJonf orkdif;u
awmif;qkdaomwkdufyGJjzpfonf? w&m;aomwkdufyGJjzpfonf? jynfolwpf&yfvkH;vGwfajrmufa&;wkd‹twGuf wkduf
aomwkdufyGJjzpfonf? &ckdifjynfolrsm;. }uD;jrwfaomtrsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJ aemufqkH;
atmifycJG &H rnf? azmufjyefaom/ aumufuspfaom Armppf0g'Drsm;/ ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'Drsm;onf rkcs usqk;H &rnf?
&ckdiftrsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;awmfvSefa&;orkdif;wGif usqkH;oGm;cJhaom &ckdiftmZmenfrsm;tm;
OD;nGwftav;jyK-uygpkd‹?
olwkd‹.ppfrSefaomawmfvSefa&;c&D;ukd igwkd‹ qufvufav#mufvSrf;-uygpkd‹?
&ckdifhtcsKyftjcmtm%m &ckdiftrsKd;om;vufxJa&muf&Sdatmif igwkd‹aoG;/ acGs;/ ZGJrsm;ukd ay;qyf
-uygpkd‹?

rS D j irf ; pmtk y f r sm;
1? Arakanese Nationalism and the Struggle for National Self-determination by Khaing
Aung Win

2? aoG;pGef;aom -o*wfpf (13) aqmif;yg; ckdifatmifausmf (ppfawG)
3? OD;at;csrf;.e&OP&mtifwmAsL;
4? EkdifEkdif(ppfawG). rSwfwrf;rsm;
5? tarSmif-um;u Armjynf (0if;wifhxGef;)
6? ukdvkdeDb0 a&$jynf&ckdif (jrxGef;atmif)
7? rZd…sra'ota&;awmfykH (OD;vSxGef;jzL)
8? ppfawGem&DpifaemufcHorkdif; aqmif;yg; (jrxGef;atmif)
9? &ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;ESifhvli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH;orkdif; (ykHESdyfrxkwfa0&ao;)
10? (223)ESpfajrmuf uGsefoufwm&Snf&ckdifjynf (&ckdifjynfvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;ESifhvli,frsm;tpnf;t&kH;)

1967 -o*kwf (13) &ufae‹wiG f Armppf0g'Drsm;owfjzwfjcif;a-umifh usqk;H oGm;aom &ckid jf ynforl sm;
aumif;&mok*wda&mufygap?
&ckdifjynf uGsefb0rS vGwfajrmufEkdifygap?
?

&cdkifvlrsdK;rsm;twGuf 0rf;enf;atmufarhzG,fae‹&ufrsm;
aoG;pGef;aom qefjy\emae‹
q&m}uD; OD;ODomxGef;usqHk;ae‹
q&mawmfOD;OwWrae‹
&ckdifhtcsKyftjcmtm%musqkH;onfhae‹

(23)

(24)

-o*wf(pf) (13) &uf
}o*wf(pf) (14) &uf
pufwifbm (9) &uf
'DZifbm (31) &uf

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