BOOK

1

THE~~~ .. V TO .. _ KE··~~__ _ ~ ~_ _ ..

AR A

'C BI

Fast Track to Reading and Writing Arabic
Dr. Imran Hamza Alawiye

Introduction and Notes for Teachers
'The Key to Arabic' teaches students the skillsthey need to read and write Arabic. The letters of the alphabet are introduced one at a time. and the student isgiven the opportunity to read each letter with the various possible combinations of long and short vowels, as well as the 'ay' and 'ow' dipthongs, sukoon and shadda. The use of colour coding in presenting the various vowel sounds helps the student to grasp them more quickly. Each letter isalso shown in all Its forms: initial, medial, final and isolate so that the student can learn to recognise the letter wherever it appears in the word, as well as how to write it. Clear drrowed diagrams show the student the correct pen direction when writing. Arabic words are introduced from on early stage, but no word contains letters that the student has not already covered, Thisassimilative approach enables the student to learn the alphabet in a gradual yet thorough manner, without feeling daunted by the prospect of having to learn the entire alphabet at one go. Each letter in the first half of the alphabet iscovered on a double-page spread, As the student's confidence in reading and writing increases, this is reduced to a single page per letter, and exercises are introduced to reinforce reading and writing skillsand to encourage some basic vocabulary acquisition, For the self-taught student, a quick reference guide to reading skillsis provided at the outset to enable him or her to understand the various vowel sounds and gain an overview of the method of joining Arabic letters together to form words, before putting the skillinto practice. An optional CD recording of the materials in thiSworkbook isavailable to help students In mastering correct Arabic pronunciation. After completing the alphabet, students have the chance to develop their skillsfurther through a set of carefully designed exercises. The first of these (p.55) provides on opportunity for reading and dictation practice. by presenting pairs of similar sounding words, Thisencourages the student to listen carefully and distinguish between letters that might easily be confused by the non-A rabic-spea ker. Pages 56-59 introduce simple non-verbal sentences using the masculine and feminine forms of "Thisis".", as well as a wide range of useful vocabulary. Page 60 teaches the alif olrncqsuro. with plenty of reading practice. The primary use of '01' ('the') istaught on pages 61-64, with an explanation of how the following sun and moon letters affect the pronunciation of this word. Pages 65-68 employ passages of dialogue to teach the student simple useful expressionssuch as greetings, introducing oneself, asking someone their name and saying goodbye. These dialogues can form the basis for role playing within the classroom setting. The dialogues on page 67 can easily be adopted as a classroom game whereby one student imagines another student to be in one of the places shown on the page, and the rest of the closs take turns to ask questions in Arabic to establish the imaginary person's identity and whereabouts, Having completed "The Key to Arabic" successfully, students should feel comfortable in reading any passage of vocalised text presented to them, and will hopefully have gained the confidence needed to take their study of this challenging language further.

2

The Arabic Alphabet
Jeem

Thaa

Tao

Baa

Alif

-~-

----

.::.J

--

--

..::.J
-0001

---

4.,.,,) • •

-1----

,

....... ----

Roo

Dhaal

Khaa

Haa

-

~--

---

~

-

--

~

-

-t-Seen --~Za

-~Zoo

Daad

Saad

Sheen


-~-

_~-

-~-

--)-To

_i-J_
Noon -~-

Faa

Ghayn

--t-- .e --?-- -J-_
Meem Loam Yaa

CAyn

-~-

-~-

Kaaf

Qaaf

--~-

--4JHaa
-

..

-t.$- -r---j
3

..

Waaw

-,.,,/b-

Quick Reference Guide to Reading Skills
0

~ sukoon (no vowel) a

e
u

~ i

00
.;J

00 0-

e e
)f

shadda (doubled letter)

\

/'

s

ee

~ an
;"

~ un

J,y. un in
-;:.

/'

J, u i

J

"'::"'"

IL

a

'"

V

1. The Short Vowels and Tanween
There ore three short vowels in Arabic, They are written above or below the Arabic letters,

a) Kosrc

/'

This is a short diagonal stroke written below an Arabic It Is pronounced 'I', as in the English word 'lip'.

letter, e,g, -~/'

)
/'

)
/'

Di If kasra is doubled, it changes the sound from 'i' to 'in' as in the English word 'tin', This doubling of the vowel is known e,g, as "tanween kosro":

Ri

Wi

.::;:

.)
-;:.

Din

-;:. Rin

:J -j.::;:
Win

s
b) r;>amma
_ This is shaped rather like a small version of the Arabic letter woaw, and it Is written above an Arabic letter. It is pronounced 'u'. as in the English word 'full'. e.g .

s
~ Ou

y.

j.

)
Ru

J
Wu ~

l

.pl

J,y,

or

_

If damma is doubled, it changes the sound from 'u' to 'uri' as in the English word 'sun'. This doubling of the vowel is known as "tanween dcrnrno". The two dornrncs are usually written in a joined-up form, though they may also be written separately.e.g.

~
-~

.pl

-:J
Run

J u

0)

Dun
/'

c) Fatl10
(Say 'fat-ha']

This is a short diagonal stroke written above an Arabic It is pronounced 'a', as in the English word 'dad'. ~

letter. e.g. ~

,/

/'

..-

---:d'-J
Do R'a ~

Wo

If totho is doubled, it changes the sound from '0' to 'an' as in the English word 'man', It is usually - though not alwayssupported by an alit, This doubling of the vowel is known e,g. as "tanween torho".

~

\~
Dan

\)
Ran

-Y
Wo

-;:.

4

2. Joining up .Arabic Letters
Aroblc Is written from right to left across the page. Arabic words are written in a joined-up form. To achieve this, the letters within a word must be extended to join up with the following letter, unless they are one of the six 'naughty' letters (see overleaf). The letters that are being extended lose their tolls in the joining process. The last letter in the word is written in its final form, which usually resembles the isolate or 'by itself' form of the letter, though it is attached to the letter just before it by a short joining line. You will learn the correct way of joining each letter during the course of this book, but for now, study the following examples to gain an overview of how letters are joined .

./

//

a) 'Boat' shaped letters
to stand firm to open ~ ~

~

~

/'

.....

/'

.... -=- ~

-: _jJ .....~-~
u

.

~

,/

.....,/

,/

/'

b) Letters with U-shaped tails
to engrave

~

•..,-- ~....i. .

_;~....._-~-J

.....

J_

-

-d

I::. o--v

to smooth to be over to stick

c) Letters with trailing tails
to succeed to be busy ~~ to feel ~ embarrassed _.

-&
///

/"

C~_;'-'---L-C~
~j_~--

/'

/'

,/

.....

/'

- ~--

-

- ~:_____......" ~ .. =~

-J_:t~ ~......._-J~
--

e

d) Other letters, excluding the 'naughty letters'

-4? o.._y- .:.Ll?

_1

to do wrong to tell a fortune to be dry

~

- ;J1- ~..L j; -.--- -1 J_~ -~=--0- +s..-5

.;i sukoon (no vowel)

-&
u

~

aa
<.Ii
,/

00
i!\

Y.

ee

?
an
"..

~ un

J.;
un in

,/

a

shadda (doubled letter)

\

s
u
"..

J

IC ""':"'"

a

::::

e) The 'Naughty' Letters
There are six 'naughty' letters, which cannot be extended to the left and as a result should not be connected to the letter in front of them. The six naughty letters ore:

L__\

I~W-.---I-+-~---~--i--~-

~~---~-+-~---~-~---~-+~~II~} J _+_J_,_J_J J_+~)l __ _ __
3. The Long Vowels
Three letters of the Arabic alphabet are used to lengthen ..

J

Waaw is used to lengthen the 'u' sound of dornrno. so it sounds like '00' as in 'moon',

15 Yaa is used to lengthen

the sound of the short vowels, These letters are:

the T of kosro. so it sounds like "ee' as in 'knee'.

I

Alif is used to lengthen the '0' sound of fatha, so It sounds like 'cc: '(,aardVark')

)_)
Roo Joo Boo Ree by an olif, it becomes (amen):

'Aaomeen'

/

.

I_)
/

,/

Jee

Bee

Raa

Joa alif al-madd,

Baa which
IS

When alif itself is lengthened written like this:

T e.g,

c=" T.

an extra long '00' sound called

When a loam is followed

by an alit there is a special by another

way of writing it (called letter, like this:

/1
this: ) or, when the loam is preceded

'YL e.g.

'j)l

c:~ '\
a loom-out)
", 'j)l

which looks II e
'"

'

4.Sukoon

'Ioami'un' (shining)

'"

'soloomun'
(peace)

A is a small Circle placed on an Arabic letter to indicate the absence of a vowel upon the letter. The letter on which a sukoon is placed must be osslrnllcted to (i,e, slid together with) the sound of the last vowel before it, even if that vowel is at the end of the previous word .

_)_)
Kam Zur

_r
Fir

.
~ Mur

.
Nam

.
Q:

..

5.Shcdda
Shadda is a symbol written above a letter to show that the letter has been doubled, therefore sounds stronger. The short vowels are written with a shodda like this: and

QL_

--

6

Hamza: ~ and Alif: ,
Hamza, knawn as a glottal stop in English, is an Arabic cansanant that often accampanies tanween, sukaon, or short vowels. Hamza is itself often accompanied by a supporting letter or 'chair' which may take many forms, depending on rather complex rules that we needn't explore here, The various ways in which hamza may appear are shown below, For the purpose of reading, it is best to ignore the 'chair' hamza is sitting on and to concentrate on reading the vowel sound that the hamza is supporting, Alif, when not supporting a hamza, is a weak letter that tokes the sound of any vowel accompanying or preceding it, Sometimes alif is a silent letter. Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds,
Jl t

t
I
Alit

...

~

~

Hamza

Jl

s

J.

...!......_---\ots,jl--__:jT------_____L_\-----"""'L~'_>- ~

-~'------'---\ -J~,--J--=t--'\-

/'

£

-:::
~

J.
~

7

~ sukoon a (no vowel)

~ u

~
i

00
vJ
/'

00

_)

ee

~ an
.-

,)I

;; un in ~

/'

JI

shadda (doubled letter)

\

_)

~

"'::""

Ie

un

a

u

i
"..

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds,

)rL
-

~.

__ ._.. , ..

1/

1

»:

I;
L

2~
2 ."

_1~1

1

I "-:-

_ _..._.

--d- _I '-....J-\....,..

'>_j~_

/' II/'
1 1

Baa
I
1
1

---

1

_______

-T-J-1 1

1

I
1

1

I
I
I ~--------~

7

. · 56 I

------------I-~-\_ I

1

1

I ~J,

/;
l

~

/

_._J

••

__

I __

"=

's;L..J
••

__

I

_L~_ ~ _G_
•• I
I

I

~

1

~

.i. ~_I
• \

L....d

I/'I
I
1 1

/'

1

1
1

1

::::

1

-

-I

-

-

-

-

-

-I 1

-

-

-

t- - - - I
I

-I -1

1

I
1

1

1

1

\------~---~--+-I-/1
_, _-J ~
~ 1 ..

/1

-" 7-·
1

1

_'_;_II_

~_I_
1

L _I_a...!
• I

-"

1

;

I
I

1

1
_I ~
I
I

~

1

:.;---r-7
1

9 : 1 ..;
1

,_.J_I _ _",_J
I __

_I~_

1
1

1

__

1 __
1
1

-I __
1
1

+ __
1 1

1

I

_L __

I

L __
I

I __

I

1
I

I
1

I
I

-- I 1

-1- ~

-I - 1

-l - I
8

1

I - -I - -

_J_ -

-1- -

I

I

I

Copy each row onto the lines provided

and practise reading the words. my father a father

my door

a door

L
my father

source, core

he said 'daddy'
//

dad

August
/

__ LJu_ ••

>- >-

/

~_L__ ••

/

" r' \

-

+
Dad.!

r
9

~
sukoon (no vowel)

s
u

~

00
..,J

a

i

shadda (doubled letter)

\

....

00

J.

ee I'"

? an
/'

'IS!
un

~~
un in

..... a

s
U

J

~

i

""::'

:::-

--

Copy eoch row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds.

r- J. .....
..

1-

-

y.
...

,.,....

.J.

1 ...

,.,....

Y.

_ 4..:...J _
...

L':__:_' .....

_~ I
1

1

_;_ _, _ .....
1

L .. .;

U""ll".;
1 .....

1

1

-I-I
-~---

--+-1I
1

-1--

..
~
1,.11

Tao

-

1

-i
-

-;:J.,'

t~J.

Tao Marboota
(tied up toa)

-

-

------I.
,.,....1

_Q
-

,.,....y.

1

,.,....J.1,_Q

"""'I,_Q

I

l"'_:.j

~TL"

r_:j

I_Q_G...-s
I
I
I
1

I ,;
1

I
-

/I
-1--I

/

/

\_j ~ .." I~ /I I I ,;
I
1
1

I

1

-11

I -1--1----1

I

I I

I

I

I
I--

-

-

::

~-

-

--1

1-

_

I _

- ---L--1 _ _ _ _I

r-~_

~ I ~ I ~ I -:. I ! I ~ I ~ I ~ -~ 1_=_'+~I---LY_l_tS-J--=-' _0_1 ~l-O+~I~.• 4. ,/,.,.... ....... I 1 1 1 1 1 I \ 1 I I - -t - 1- -I - 1_ -I - -I ---t - f- --+- - 1- --+ I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 _ L_I _L _I _1---1 __ _l_I __ 1
:: I ::
I

I

GI

1

1

_

1

I

1

1

I

I

\

1

I

1

10

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words.

I repent
~ ~

Jl/

... f!

J

Q..J\

L; ...
//

definitely ~

a mulberry

she perished

Vl

-.

~

...

Jl
J

Q..J

...

... l

-

~/

~

...

l

.! ......... -:-:

..

repentance

dislike; pride

he stayed overnight
/ /

a house

~y------,oOL;lll'!~.~

/

19/

/

W\..J•

...

he repented

11

Q

-&
u

e
i

00
vJ

sukoon a (no vowel)

shadda (doubled letter)

\/

00
til

Jl

ee
~

'/

,;1

jljl

/

s
u i

J

IL
"

an

un

un

in

a

~

"

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds.

"" :..
l

;
~

1

• :.. ..
/

_-

I-t
I

,/

• ..

-

jl

-'-

..

1,/

I;
I~
I
I (:..~

_;

I~
I

Thea

-I
_l__
I-

1-1- -1

1 ~ ,/

I

r

s

-

I

--I ~~~ L~,
j___~ __
I

G

::

~

_-

I I

~

• ••

1
I "'~I
I

.•.

I-

+I

-=-- ---=--_ l_ -_t.S~

I

--L

1

_I
1 :.

1- I
~-

::

I
t~ I

:: I
-

-~-r--t
_I I

I

:: I :: j-L _l;

I

t1 __

1- ~ I :. Y- I --c:s' ~ .. / I /

I

I_I_+-_jl_ _ _ ~ _
I 12

_l _
I

1_ .. _ :_
I
I

I

I

Copy each row onto the lines provided

and practise reading the words.

furniture ~

garment; dress
.~
,/

establ ishmen t ~

he withstood
,/ ,/,/

0\ji

,/,/

Yy

..

'---'

..

,/

:.\

~
/'

~

• .. . ..
._..-.! ..
-_.-

furniture

a dress,

.c:
g,wn
---::::y

U :ll
/~ abundant growth ~

. .....~... ~,I l

he spread, scattered
/'

he yawned

s tab it izaiion

-~ ..

,/

!

,---,\.:s •
~--

,/

,/,/

my furniture

13

iii
sukoon a (no vowel)

~
u

~

00
oJl

00 A

Y
I

ee

:/

shodda (doubled letter)

\

J

Y ,.,.

r:

VI
un

JlJ un in
;:::.

,-

Jl u ,.,.

an

a

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds,

/~

-

~. 1/

s

-

-

-

~~e-~;-I
--1---__ .L-

I

Scl~ ---+ -t--1

1/

--.- r-

I

Jl

Jeem

I

-/

--;- -I .:

- - -1- t-;: -I ~;-

I

I

I
---rj___ ~------'
_

-I -~- ~ -I -

~~
___

l~~
I

I-~
I_ _

T k- L
1 __ \ __

c- r-k
I __
1
1 _

1

___ L __

+- __

I

_j
-I /

- /-1 -/
~-~
~ 1

-I

- - 1I

-+ I

/-1-/ I ~I ~r ~ +~I I I I.
-I

- ~- /

'I - '
-I
1

4=__j_I e I
I

_1- _I I

----1 -

t- -

I

1

--I-I-I-+-~J
14

~-I

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words.

he answered! replied
/'

a CTinun

'---'G:- r
/' /'

l

my pocket
/'

a pocket

a coward

-VI
l

/'

..

~~ ~.-...

. ...

-VlGi J2 >•
~

••

,/

--------------------------------------,--------

bragging, boasting

a crown

flowing

he came

...

a coward

15

,:;J

~
u

'!J i

00

00

sukoon a (no vowel)

"'" shadda
(doubled letter)

/'

9

ee

~
an

\

~ un

~5J
un in

/'

)l

~

'";:"

Ie

a

u

I

'"
and practise reading the sounds.

~

'"
I

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

--,.-

....

;

T

,.-

Jl ~

,.-

s

~

C

...:>/'

LL

e
5 I

~

Hoa .

-

,.-

;

.,9-

,.-

--+
-::.
--

fPT~
~~

J
;
/

~~

ir-:
'"

t""!lo.o~~

L~
I

-::.

~

L

,....

i:

__

L

/

./

~

..

~

...

~

/

__ l>- y--

/

;

~

..

..... ... >
",-

GJ

,.-

L

~

E

I 16

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words. a watermelon seeds hijab, headscar] pilgrims

~~

• J'

p1igrims

calamity hijab, a " headscarj

under

protest

he looked for; he researched

,~-

...

a watermelon

~

.

.

17

JJ
sukoon a (no vowel)

s
u

~
i

00
.,;J

shadda (doubled letter)

(

00
t'l.

j.

ee

?

VI
un

~;
un in
;:::;

...a

Jl u i
".

L "'::""
".

an

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided
-

and practise reading the sounds.

....-

J. •


-"

1

,/

~

e•

..9

....>c.-

->...-

,/

t_1 L

J.

.

'.
1

I

e
~~~ ~~

.

~

Khaa
g.5 8. 7.

4

I

I

-

~L~"_

• •

,/

~

~


-"

,/

~

;

I

~

~

~
-"

.

'l9. •

~

[_-~C~

-....-

I

,/

~

••

..

~

r

,/

I
I

\_;..

....-

s
J

:.:>-

I


~

..

--:>....-

..

~

/'

L

L
~

~

18

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words.

my sister

I

a wicked person

Vl
a peach

..
. C_J>.

l .. ~~
.;'

-~. ..

.;'

4

a peach

he hid, concealed

my brother

my sister

Excellent! Bravo'!
./ ./

a

brother

a nozzle

my brother

a nozzle

_j
19

j!

-&
u

~
i

..u
shadda (doubled letter)

00 -:

00 Y.

ee
~

~
an

,51 un

J'.J.
un in

,.... a

;

sukoon a (no vowel)

\

J

4

Ie
....

u

i
-"

~

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds,

'" -~

J.

I
~
,....

,.....

J.
~

.)

J_
I

-

I
~
.... I

'"
~

I

J.
~
~-

'"

Daal

I _-

II
I

I

I
'" J.
~~~ ~

I ---

_±_
:::-s
~

_~

~

I

-

/'

-t
--I

~~~

_j_)~__L_
....

I

\~
I

.)

.~

'"

~

_-

f-------

t=_'"

--+
_h_
/'

--

~

...

_,~ ...
",..,

¥-

'"

I

;.
~
~-

...

t20

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words,

------

a riding animal -vt(;i/ -------' ~\~.. .... ~

a worm -vt/
j ~
L

a~
j I ~/

a chicken
/ /

•.J~

4.>.,-~..----=---

a bear

r-a worm

my grandfather

a grandfather
~/

he began
,//

sound of j()Otsteps

~"...

.. J~ o~
s

t..S.l.::r:..

~

/

..l>-

\-lJ•

,/

-vt //

.. -lJ~ 4\..J
"'
/

--121

~
sukoon a (no vowel)

~
u

'!J
i

00
jJJ

..-

00

J

ee

shaddo (doubled letter)

\

_)

~

..........
;-

,c.

::an

.pi

J,; un in -;::

..

un

"'"

Jl u i

a

"

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds,
I

;' J.

•• .).))
,,-

I

..- •

...L

s•

-L

-

.)
,,-

..-

• .)

J.

.)

.)
,,-

.

j)
;:::::
Dhaal
(sound as In 'the')


3

4.

••• .).).)
.;::;

;' J.

~

~.).)
,..

•••

..-

\~~~
;'

-::- JI

~

+I

~

\~

'l>l

.)

I
-.;::;


~

--

-'-.S~ ..

..•

_,~ ..
~

I

J

~.)

..-•

,~
"'"
I
I

Jl

)~

_,.)

..,..

IC~
~

I

;;l

~

• s

,,-

22

Copy each row onto the lines provided

and practise reading the words.

a tool]

Vl
~ a shoe

. ._l.)
;.

Vl",

.. 4.J

a fly ",Jl

a lock of hair

he slaughtered

.)

Vl",,,,Jl

~\;. •

~

• '" "''''

L=.)

'"

awol!

how lovely/excellent!
VI

~~

.

~

.

(:&
,.

"',.

~,
he took

swinging
(like a pendulum)

a shoe

'" '"

'" '" • "''O '" ,--"J_j....lj
• •

Vl ".-

'"\wG'"

23

Find a word on the right that matches a picture on the left, then write it out In its joined-up the correct picture,

form next to

1.

2. Vt
3,

0

U '-.5 '--" .
'-"

..

4,

..
-v1
~

j

.. '--"
.. I '--"

5.

-v1
-6,

0

Y J '--"
o ,/

:.

_____

7.

Vt
_8.

,/

Y\~C
,;

___

9,

___

10.

24

Find a word on the right that matches a picture on the left, then write it out in its joined-up the correct picture,

form next to

1 1,

(.5
oVI ;:;J
£.

12.

,

..

~,
~
,....

; •

~

C
/'

~
13,

/'

0

~

C
~

~


/'

C

14.

>~

~

~~
II

'

I~

I

I
t' I I·
I

c
/'

lij,~,
t

4<
I

15,

I \

\\
\

J\ /

l II I

lff/r1 It I
r,

Cj C
• •
~

0

I

.__

1

;

16,

~

~

oVI
_ 17,

.. 0

/'

/'

/'

18,

CC .. 0
oVI
/'

\

~

;
~

~

j

~
19,

.. 0

/'

/'

Jl •

~


~

~

~

.:

~
20,

0
~,

~

(.5

~

'"

25

~

~

~ i

00
uJ
,/

00
i'I

J.

ee
C_

-::; an

,)t

jljl

,/

jl

sukoon
(no vowel)

a

u

shodda (doubled 'letter)

\

__)

"'::""

un

un

in ~

a

u

i

--

'"

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds.

'" .J.

.....-

)))
'"

J

....

.r: - )
'"

.J.

.....-

Jl
~ J

)

,

J
~

'"

Roo

~

\~'

!

....-Jl

.,_g:

....-

Y.J.

Y

VI

J))
~

J))
'"

\Jti
'"

\J

_}-

~

J

I

--

'"

-~)~

I

.....-

....-

r-----:3:J
_-

(,
J

;

-J-J--I

lfo~r~~
I
I

-

;JJ

I
_)

_)

--

26

Copy each row onto the lines provided

and practise reading the words,

a bicycle

corn, maize

.vl/
a bicycle

~\J~

iiJ/

.vl/ .9-

O)~

..

Rajab (name of month)

my Lord
I.I!/

.vl

/

/

'- • .,_;t;-)

..

....

-"

:.

test, experiment a chameleon

a bull

reward; pay, wages

post, mail

corn, maize

27

-

L
/ I

-'-:? j

~1
/ /

)J

,.
/

~

I

--_

J

3-:3

'-foj [ ~j
'"
/

Q
~


~

-t-

+I
28

I

11
I

Copy each row onto the lines provided

and practise reading the words, 01:1 ,vl butter
/
~/

a lie,jalsehood
~

a drinking glass, tumbler
~/

; •

a butcher

)J)

~b-' . J .

/

;

.. '-- _') ..

O~

.
.J

----

bread ~ ~ ....
/

a place of safely
,vl
~,

a butcher

carrots

;

J~

~ J

J?/

JJ~

\~

/./

Jr.-

,vl//

.rr":

.

29

~ sukoon
(no vowel) a

~ u

~
i

00
.;J

,-

00
0

.9

ee

~
an
"..

shadda (doubled letter)

\

J

"::""

,e

~

;.9

,-

;
u i

un

un

in

a

~

"

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds,

Seen

--,..,-;~-I-~
~

-1-,.9.
,.

-,..,- i
1

____

I

_

~
I

I------

-

----J -

I

-

r-----

-

[-

- cr" f

;"

/'
-"

1-..

I

,.., I""
I

I_L--+-~

;

:--T I

-I
I

- --d----d"
I
I

~

1

I "/

~

.:~
-

- -1- j_ -1I I ,

I
I

I
I

___l I
30

-4 I

I

-+I

-

I

I

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words.

a bridge

a computer

a bed

a

prayer

mar

a prayer mat

_J

+1
a head a computer teaching glorification afGod

~+.vty c.,
a sum; an accoun

'-._"

/'

.

.

/'

~

s

/'

y~

_L t_j
31

~

-J

_r-->:"

.;i

~ u

'!;!

00
L>!
",-

00 ..>I

ee
""'-"

~ an
_.

sukoon

a

i

(no vowel)

shadda (doubled letter)

\

~ un

_;_; un in
-;::;

/'

..>I

_/

0-

le

..

a

u

j

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds.

/'

.. ..

J. •
/'

•. ••

/'

~

.. cr:
..

J.
~

:..

_,..;J
/'

.. ..

/'

.r

..

J.
~

..

if
",-

..

..
._,
2

",-

~!'
Sheen
12. II..

10..

~",.t:_,,,ut.JL~,tJfJ t.,?z ·t "
I

"

I
~ ~
",-

.. .. ..

/'

..

J.

..

:. ..

..

/'

~

:.

J.

~

~
",-

~

~

~

~

u

."tJ

• ..

/_u ,.

."tJ

• ..

.",-

.~

..

..
..

..

/'

:.

/'

..oJ

J

~

..
..

.",-

~

r .s:" .. ..
/'

J.

..
..

.. ...

I

:.
/'

;;l

II !I~

if

:.

L

d

:.

32

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words.

insects

wood

old age; grey hair
/

VI
l

.. • ,-.~
,/

.,)l

~

.. .. -~
,/

a tree
,/

..

.,)l,//

O~
J

• ...

T
I I

bringer of good news afeather

she drinks

a smile
,/

feathers

J.

,/

.J~

. ..

33

iii
sukoon a (no vowel)

~ u

~

aa
<P

shadda (doubled letter)

--

00

Jl

ee

~ an

')$I

JlJ.

J

n

Ie "'='" ,.

un

un

in ~

-a

s
u
»:

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds.
I

(0)@

-t
i
-

Scad

I. I

dia·a~
-:::

--------,d:4

..~~ / "

La.a~ ~ J.
; r-

\'--f-l""
~

"

I---

I

~

'"

I

_. ~-~ ~
'" [-"

'"

-r-T .. -I

AJ. ~

34

Copy each row onto the lines provided
a mat

and practise reading the words,

I

--a

picture

voice

T

Vl/

.9

_O~-+O~
,/

I
I

~~-I

E ~'

mort1I11 c::

+-

1a

_ _j

rocket

particular, spec~f~

pears

cheap

a person, indirid

-t

35

~
sukoon a (no vowel)

-&
u

~
i

.-;

00

00
0.

shoddo (doubled letter)

\

'"
J

J.

ee

-::an

.,)!

_J.Jl

'-'"

Ie

...

un

un

in :::::

'"

).

a

u

I
/'

--

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds.

,/

jl

-l.,)' a·a~
I.
,/

..
-------,

,/

#

..

Yo
~;

·a

,/


~
/'

if uP~

Yo

..
'"

~p
Daad .

-.
"

--

~a~~~~
la. n_ 16.

Ct0 ~

9

---s-

3~


~

,/

jl

~

L"'.. ~

,/

~

..

::-

'-'

\_~a"a~ ..
;
)

.;::;

s

.;::;

I

..

'"

'"

L.o o" wrP

:::::
-

~

I

..

I
,/

I
I
,/

~

..

..

,/

_._;.p

..

T
~

r

..

L.o

,/

I
~

Yo

..

..
/'

I
~

..
/'

\...1

.;:,

~

U

.. ..t:'

I

--

I
36

Copy each row onto the lines provided and practise reading the words.

cioilisation

1
I

a molar tooth

light

I

noise. din

."sl,....

..

Q~
a molar tooth

\.
,....
-!_/~

,....

>-

an egg

earth, ground

eggs

lowest point

vreen o

.pl. --

4 .;, ._)
i ....

,,-

green

37

Find a word on the right that matches a picture on the left, then write it out in its joined-up the correct picture.

torrr-

r.e --,_

1.

Jj

\-oJ

..

2.

__ 3.

J)

C

o
5.

~

0

;

__

---"6.

__

----'8.

e _) ~
~
/'

..

)

.

~

-------,9

0s\

C

/'

if

_-----'-'1

o.

38

-= ~ ~ --'a l'"'1·ssillg ietters in the box on the right to complete

each word so that it matches

its picture.

I~:~

«>
/

0/

..

.

o
1.

~,-----_--=2.

..

/

O~

..

0


/'

3.

.

.•. ~)
/ /'

4.

~

if~

_..p
/' /

5.

J)
))-

L
~

-~

6.

~l
• ......toJW
/

.r

..

~/

8.

~~ ...., a

..

.

..
39

•• __ a:l>i

/

0

Gi
sukoon a (no vowel)

~
u

-d
i

,;J

aa ....

00

J.

ee

::an
".

~
un

j!j!

,..-

;.

shadda (doubled letter)

\

~ J

Ie _.
...

un

in
::;:;

a

...
_.

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds.
-

,..-

6k,b
;t

JI

.....-

_k_

JI

La

_b
....

I

.....-

_,l, _b 1, _
,..-

JI

~

....-

Jh
1

12l
--

g

Il\ ~IO~
I'.~;

Taa .

I I

...__._.. ------e:p-9 6
-::-

7;.~4'~

~t,L
~

..

~.
-

6bb
:

/"

t~

-::- jl

-l,_k
....

Lb
I

~_b

I

_b
~

....
I

-

_l,
~

••

..
I

~

-yb

....-

lb

.....-

J.
~.

;)i

J

"-:? ....

_b

..

~
,..-

_b
I

_b

i

I

I

an aeroplane

a pafh, way
..pl

«duck

VI/"
-~.

..

.....--

~
,..-

_b\r
,..-

.....-

b•
I

~

/'

~L, ....... .
J.
"J
....-

a map/chart

a doctor

VI
(

J~

.. .'
....-

1,

-

I

40

a duck Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise readi.ng the sounds,
I

Zaa

>----

-

---

'"
~~~j ~

;

~

I:2~~
j

'"

,;~j

;

I

,;-

\t; ~~
'"
I
I

\_L;

~k k
I

'"

~

cs "" ..
I I

j;

ufelice; enclosu re

--- --Abu Dhabi

luck, fortune

--r ------ I

gazelles

a wet nurse

I

I

41

sukoon (no vowel)

.:J a

~ u

~

aa
vJ

,.,

00

;

ee

~ an

~ un

;)1

,.,
In ~ a

_.,.

shadda (doubled letter)

\

..

un

u

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds,

'Ayn

I

••

..

an arm

a finger

-----t:1:J~
/'

,_Q

-vt

""

,.,

L ;.,
,..-

I

-vt""
~

..

a clock
/'

happy

an old Woma1l
/'

-vt

J_

..

-vt •

Jl

/'

,..-

42

.' .-, .
).-....a>lid a parrot afinger n clock

a

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds,

••
-~-"

J.

Ghayn

'"•

.~.'"-.f--C .
small

~

+

a lid

a crow

.vl


"..-

"..-

~~ ~
-"

_J
43

~-

~
sukoon a (no vowel)

~ u

~ i

aa
vi

shadda (doubled letter)

\/

00

)

ee

,;::. an
/

J

'"

"':!'"

Ie

~
un

)Jl

un

in ::::-

o

U

l

/1

!

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds,

• JI.. I _l,L_~O!'ooo_... Q_"""i~~ __

,/.

~

-A...

Jl •

jW
,/

JI

J

J
/'

.
Faa

I _J_
,/ J.

1-,
l

. . ..
,/

I

Q Q.J

I_

+__ I I

an envelope a whistle

----1
I

44

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds. ----

---,
""Yo

J..Ej-----t ---& ~_A_ _
1_
"" y.

/

Y.

.s. _J_ LJ
/ Y.

I
,

-r----+--1-+
....
~ ~ U

--

J

......
Qaaf
W 9

I

.. "" ..

~-

--

---

2Qj

u.J~~__

I

~

I _~

~~

I

I~

/_1
-------,-I

,
_I

__L

_,_

-+- _
GJ

-

r,.sL
••

::

I

t.J-I~-

..

..

_j

-1a market

---I

ajug

a bag, briefcase

--I

a train

a eat

...
/ /

,9,GJ

--

------

-I

-,--

I-~-

-: t _ ~

--L-i
45

Break up each word on the right Into its separate letters, then rewrite It in its joined form. Write the meaning of the word in English in the left hand column. The first one has been done for you.
I

a doctor

..

.

Vl
I

"-


,$I."

.. .
"
J

~

e.q.

o ~~11
/'

1,

"
,$I.
0

/'

..
---'-1

~2

,"
~ ~,

,

3.

4.

i

VI-"

49L."
,,0

/'

5.

II

I

VI-

~16.

"
7.

I

••

8"

46

Break up each word on the right into its separate letters, then rewrite It in its joined form, Write the 'lleaning of the word in English in the left hand column. The first one has been done for you.

".sl
(1

room

s .. . .$.~
/0

J

.. _0
".sl

.......

i...J ,y

.

0

~

".sl

-tiL

~_fo
".sl

.. .

/0

JI

e.g

I

"-'" J •s;. ..

~ ..J\
/

0

11

~/

.. , l;;Ja........~ o
J

/

12.

".sl<Jl
~
/

I
13.
/

~/

~

.. .. ...
""
".sl

I
14 .

~J L
~

0

~ l§,_

I
16.

""
~ ~
/

\.:...... I

..""

~

~

17.

".sl

.......

~ 18.

~\~
".sl .......

.. l · OJ _4,4:>/ /

19.

~

0

/

t;;;;,rl.)-U
"" i
47

20,

c;i

~
u

~
i

00
,.)J
,/

00
CI

)

ee

?

,.9un

JlJl
un in .p

a sukoon (no vowel)

shadda (doubled letter)

\

J

C ........
I

..

on _..

o

u

Copy each row twiCe onto the lines provided

and practise reoding the sounds,

!J
I

)

I I

!)

!)
-Kocf

-

1
-:; j

I

-

\.S3:s
....-

-:;
~

~

I

.. -+

I window

J1

'weak, feeble

a sofa, couch.

a star

a book

~

~_L:w__ l_~lS~
• ..

GiJ

~

,/
+,.

~,/
-+---.. _ ), ....

J

48

a window

an elephant

a rejngeraior, ice box

I
I

a cupboard, closet

I-

a dog

-,------

a spiral

_

1)51.~

I

--+
I

"/

I

~ ~ -: ~ --- 5\l

~

,,;

~
J

_~____:l_Q.LJ_

_II

+_
I~ -

I'

L

--K

I

~
l

I'

JJ
J

;';'

---

---i-

+--

49

:;
a sukoon (no vowel)

~
u

~
i

00
,;J

,..

00

J.

ee
"'::'

~

'l>1
un

y.;
un In

shadda (doubled letter)

\

~ J

Ie

an
,.

a

u

~

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided

and practise reading the sounds.

/

J.

"'-,-I

-r-r~ _l_
/

~

I)_

I

I

I

~I

_L

-~
~

/

J.

-_r-~
I

I

A

1-

'"

~-+
_'"

~--J.-

~I
I

+G I ;~ i----tl-----l
I
I a mouth ..,.st /

I

r-I_~_ f~-+_

~

I

~

I

r----_~~:_;; ;
+
,---

_

_..~=/_
l-t-

r

I

\--

-r~~ I--FW"~
an imam, prayer

_leader I

a teacher im.)

I
.oDl/

a

11W'se

I
J.

a banana

-~:__I~~
_l_

~/

I

I

I

--t50

all

eye

a mouth Copy each row twice onto the lines provided
/j2 / j2

~

~,!

and practise reading the sounds,
/

~_
/

--cr-_;__...i_j
/

_.j_
Noon

il
_I
-

_1
-

/j2

--c.f-L
~
,--

. CI

,.sl

I

• ..;_,
/

/

~j2

~----r-

---

~

--

+hi

~I • _u_
~
1

U

I___[

_j
L__

~I __J ..
-1a snake

(iJ

LL

I

1

-I Tan eye ,.sl ~
1

~ ,.sl

a pipe

/'

s

-r
-i
j2

a box .pi ..

an ostrich
j2

+--'-'J~
1-

Jl

I

I

+-

--

151

;;J sukoon a (no vowel)

-J;
u

'!!i

aa
.;J ,-

00
!,"i

;

ee

-;
an

')S!

jlJl
un in -;:;

shadda (doubled letter)

\

J

"':"'" ,

Ie

un

a

u

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided
.."

and practise reading the sounds.

_ 4 _g

;

,/

~ _L
.."

4....-"",,"------

+_ ~
__

I~I;------",,-0
1

~
1

Lo _
~

----+-+
.."

Hac

LI~=

"fI";S;~i=6
__ -~-_-_-_~

~~

;

1I

1-.;:.-;L/
-~-r
_I

__

I_

_

_L- __ ~

-r
I

~I~I". _o [

~o_

L ~~~
/ ~ /1

-I
/1 ~.
I

_L
1
__j_

I

-

-,---+
lir-:,)1 ./

~-I~*I~I"/
-

l...;.)bl
1

~I
.A
I -_.-

-I
I_~
,.9.

1
an alarm clock

I

I
--1--

1 -I important

--,----I

-

T

'# ./ ;

_____ o~

I~ ./;
I .."

h.ard-working

~+-~
1

~;
./

[
1

a telephone

-1--1
I
52

-+-

a face

a flower

n telephone

~J

.

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds.

---.:»
/

-----/
f!.

-

/}I

----r/

~j-3-

-

----------_J__ __l_

-----------1I
/ f!.

I

-j---)---J- /
I

J- ~ I
I
~f!.

.LJWaaw

I
'

___l__

_jJ-j-j- _j_h ~ - 3I
1

I

~

1

1.11

I

1-;; I

-------;---

1

--

---

--

---1----'
___ _____l____

I

,----I

----

-

--

_I _

'-f3 r 4 f--

/1

/

»- -IJ/

1/

I
I

}I

---:H ~

1
/

I
I
1

-.t_,J ----j
,.
I

~

-I JI

---t--t------r------I I

1

-+-+-----+------ peacock -r--a puppy
[J
1

I

1

--growth,
~
f!.}1

progress

-- --~-black
I

a face

1.11

s/

~.-

.\t",
I

VI

/

--j~

_j_ -~
I
____l__
1

·

-I ~ ~~- -~J$!

I

}I /'

/'

1

VI

,.

___ L __
.

I
-

I

-J --I

I

I

---1---

----I
53

---I

---

.:;:i

~
U

'di

oa
oJ

00
(l

sukoon a (no vowel)

shadda (doubled letter)

(

J.

ee

~
an

~
un

J.J.
un in

J

/C
"'::"" .-

a

u

~

Copy each row twice onto the lines provided and practise reading the sounds.

------fIC~-'-o!-

::-

~

....

.......

j

_-j-I_~l.J~

..

,/

Jl

..
I

J"

lJ_-=..

~ J"

..
-

....
/

I
grey (gray)

4~lA-:1

~

I
//

a chair

a kettle

I

a car

a day

~/l~ /
QJ
J

..

-vt

__ oJ

f~ J"

,/

54

Similar Sounding Words
The pairs of words listed below demonstrate the importance of correct pronunciation in Arabic, because the slightest difference in sound can totally change the meaning of a word. Each pair of words below contains similar sounding letters. Practise reading them several times with your Arabic teacher until you can tell them apart. Then ask your teacher to dictate them to you unt,l you can write them down correctly.

spacious

L-_."'~ ..
.

.....

. .

.....

eloquent

....

C;'
..

·a9 i
....

.

~
clay, soil

~

afig

~

0

.....

test

check-up;

awe; respect; prestige

a pilot

a trend

desire

inheritance

cleverness

civil strife

discord,

correct

rewords

he measured

he said

.,;l

()

.....

direction

dress

yy

...

a dog

a

heart

glossy

heavy

he deceived

he wrecked

a pyramid

holy; forbidden

after

..J..Ju

.

some

.
~

o"

he strove, endeavoured
'!lio .....

he denied

a path, trail

beating, hitting

a river

_;+J

.

an axe

.
~

~
a stench, stink

..........

..

victory, triumph

a

worker (m)

pregnant

he vowed

he looked

'!li

admission

confession,

profession, trade

j\__r:.>-\
,)I

.....

0

flowers

appearance

o

brain

lood
.,;1 ...............

JSi
0

.....

..... ..........

he whistled

.

he travelled

strangeness

~~

ruin

he poured

he insulted

excess

}l

~o

emptiness

son-in-law

sorcery

_r--

55

This is '"
If you want to say 'This Is a (something), in Arabic, you need to know whether the thing you are introducing is masculine or feminine, Many singular feminine nouns in Arable end in a 'tied tao' (tao marbuta) and are therefore easily recognisable. Most singular nouns that do not end in tao morbuto are masculine, In Arabic, the verb 'to be' is not usually used In the present tense, so you don't need a separate word for 'is' in the sentences that follow, because the idea of 'is' is implied in the word for 'this'. The masculine word for 'This is' in Arabic is: sound after the hoc For example: (~whiCh is pronounced
~ ,!!"
jI ""

'hoocnc.

as if It has a long '00'

This is a (male) teacher:

~

\~

Chaadha mu'allimun). again, as if it has a long

The feminine word for 'This is' in Arabic is: 0 ~
'00'

which is pronounced

'hoadhihi',

sound after the haa at the beginning
Vl"

of the word.
'!!/

s
0~ (haadhlhl rnu'olllrnotun).

For example: This Is a (female) teacher:

~

Practise reading the following sentences and learn the words and their meanings. Copy each sentence out onto the line provided,

This is a chair.

This is a lock.

This is a drum.

This is a (pair oj) glasses.

This is a hook.

This is a knife,

This is a cup.

This is a ball.

This is a desk.

56

Write a sentence in Arabic under each picture using the correct form of "Thisis", following the examples on the opposite page. The words ending in tao morbuta are all feminine: the rest are masculine,

This is a table.

This is a cherry.

This is an apricot

This is a lemon.

This is afridge (ice box)_._~r.-...

This is 1I rabbit.

This is a squirrel.

This is a prayer mat.

This is a candle.

~

u~ .

,,0

.

11
This is a snake.

D

This is a (piece of) meat.

Tlli is a fish.

This is a pig.

This is a lioness.

1
~ ~~. ~ ~ ~
,-

\_.-.
~
~,... 0/

0

f..~

0L..a.>-

~

,-0

0~

~

o__r.J

57

Using the vocabulary you have learned during the course of this book to help you, label the arrowed items in the following pictures, beginning each lobel with the correct form of 'This is', Two items hove been done for you by way of example,

This is a table.

This is a/ish.

This is a cup.

This is a ball.

This is a bear.

This is a horse.

This is a bicycle.

58

This is a bull.

This is a bear.

This is a wolf.

This is a rabbit.

This is a chameleon.

This is a computer.

This is a chicken.

This is a lioness.

This is a/ridge (icebox).

---J

This is an egg.

This is meat.

This is a lock.

59

AI·Allf al-Maqsuro
Some Arable words have a special kind of alii at the end of them, known as an alit al-maqsura. It has the shape of the letter 'vee'. but without any dots underneath it, It always has a fatho before it, and it is usually pronounced 'oo. Below are some examples of words ending in ol-ollt cl-rnoqsurc. Practise reading these words, and then copy them out In your exercise book.

"
a hospital he strove, endeavoured

./

he built

/./

a cafe

he intended

he ran

a building

he came, arrived

he told, related, reported

a lord, master
..... 0,...,

he gave

he saw

a goal; range

it was enough, sufficient
'" 0

he bought, purchased
J1

a shelter, place of refuge
/

smaller, younger (feminine)

he rebelled

Mustafa

lS' -

Ok,'44
i

'"

0

Jl

./

larger, older (feminine)

he spent time

'" ..

~

Musa (Moses)

farther, more distant; maximum

'" '"
he forbade, banned ~ ...-

.

,.

'Iso (Jesus)

nearer; lower; minimum

he walked

/'"

Yonvo (John)

higher

he fulfilled (0 promise)

.

Salma

higher, superior

he cried

/

Salwa

stronger

he gave someone a drink

.. '"

Layla
Jl

a patient
..- 0

he told, relcteo

Yusra

pasture, grazing

he refused

60

The Sun and Moon Letters
So far, the words you have been reading in this book have been indefinite (e,g, a book, an eye etc., rather than the book, the eye), Tanween is used on the last letter of a word to show that the word is indefinite. e.q, kitaabun - a book. One of the ways of making an Arabic word definite is to attach the word 'or (meaning 'the') before it. The alif in 'ol' is a weak ollt. meaning that it can only be pronounced if it is at the beginning of a sentence, (that is to say, when no other letter comes before it). When a word is defined, it can no longer take tanween, Instead, the last letter of the word takes a single vowel (i.e, a tctho. kasra or dornrno). e.g. al-kitaabu - the book,

'the'

The Arabic alphabet. as you may already have realised, has twenty-eight letters. These letters are divided into two equal groups. One group is known as the 'moon letters', and the other as the 'sun letters' , When the laam in 'cl' is followed by one of the moon letters, it automatically takes a sukoon and is pronounced. However, when the loam of 'or is followed by one of the sun letters, it becomes silent (in other words, it isn't pronounced), When a sun letter comes immediately after the '01', a shadda must be written on the sun letter, Study the examples below, and practise reading them aloud:

The Fourteen Moon Letters

I
the mouth

.s ..
--

J

~

\ .!J
-'"
0 .......

..
~

J
--

..

tt
--

. LCC
--

"-' .

\

I
~/

)2

V! /

~\
_)L,b..QJ\
"
~ 0~
~".. 0 .......

a mouth
,sI

~

the sofa the door

t~j\r\
/

a sofa
.... 0....

~

~j
/

~

the train r---the chair
--

a train
.s>-

jLk:£
"
/

;

'-'U\ ..

,sI

a door

"

~~

~?JI
M"
~

0.....

a chair -a teacher

'"

-~

--

~r ....

0;

..~

the carrot -;

)_r:J1
~\...w\
F

jI .........0 .....

a carrot -,sI

~ ....

0,..-

".a ~/

the teacher
--

~\
-;

~ -_
,sI

the shoe

"

-0/

jr
-....

V! ........

a shoe --

__
the bread

~\..i...:.__.::.__

the telephone

~4-I\
"
; .,/

.-0/

;0)

0.-

V!o;

a telephone
0 ......

~~
"
,sI

~\

bread
,/ 0 ....

.rr":
~
;

the boy
-

JJ}I
,; ,,~,...
M

a boy

JJ)
"" ,sI /

the old man --

j .~\ .
; ,,0

;

;

an old man
; 0....

j~
'Ill ....o »

the hand
I-

..wI __

a hand

~

the room
M

ij~\

a room

~

M'

.r"

--

61

Moon letter reading practice
When 'ol' (the) is preceded by a word ending In a vowel. the allf becomes silent and the preceding vowel sound is 'slid' together with the loom of the '01', so it sounds as if there is no space or pause between the words. Therefore, in the first example below, the sentence would read as follows: "Lao tajlis 'clcl-ordl," Note that the 'a' sound of the alit al-maqsura is shortened, so that It sounds like a fat~a, Similarly, In sentence 14 below, the 'ee' sound of 'fee' Is shortened as it Isslid together with the following word, thus: "Lao toda'il-yado fil-jaybi". It is therefore necessary to look ahead when reading Arabic to see If the sound at the end of one word needs to be slid together with the next word. Practise reading the sentences below out loud, paying close attention where necessary. to sliding the sounds together

1, Don't sit on the ground,

2. Ducks like [the] water.

3, I like [the) carrots,

4, This [the] shoe is new,

5. This [the] bread is delicious.

6. I like helping the old man.

7, This [the] room is wide,

8. Don't put the pen in the mouth.

9, This [the) train is fast,

10. This [the] chair is broken.

.e-:-: _)~\ Ih .:0~~1\~ ..
~ ..... )'" 0,...-

~

11, This [the] teacher

is excellent.

12, This [the] telephone

is out of order.

13. This [the] boy is polite,

14, Don't put the hand in the pocket,

62

The Fourteen Sun Letters
When the loam in 'or is followed by one of the sun letters, it becomes silent (not pronounced), and a shodda is written on the sun letter, making the sound of the sun letter more intense. So, for example, 'taajun' (a crown), becomes 'ortooju' (the crown). Study the examples below, and practise reading them aloud:

J
the tree

.
~

)

)
j

o~
_.P,...,

a tree
c;;

O~

the crown
JI.,."

L~
;JJ
j}i

i>i

a crown
~

the whistle

OJ ~

Gi

a whistle

the refrigerator

~-y.._;_

a refrigerator

~;JL.

.....

l)j

the molar tooth

a molar tooth ~"
4 -:-~• ,~

the bear
j 0~

a bear

~

a doctor

(f.)
_.. .,JI

the wolf

~J..

t.

a wolf

-------the envelope
; ....

on envelope

J_)b
.vt .......

0,

the wrist

C:
o~
-

.

J

a wrist

the ostrich ---.-----the painting

~k

,... ~

an ostrich -~

~W
~ ...... 0

.r

.....

the flower ---

j--

a flower ------

J .... {J

--

--

--

~}

--

~,_,1

......

a painting

the bed

a bed

----_------ -----As with the moon letter sentences, the last vowel sound on any word before a word beginning with 'ol' is 'slid' together with the sun Jetter. So the first sentence below would read: "Yalbasul-malikut-taajadhdhahablyya," Practise reading the following sentences out loud, 1, The king is wearing the golden crown, •~ ~,

l. (. ~\ ~ ~
-& ~

2, I put the ice in the refrigerator.
,..-, ....0/0 ~~

3. I like the block bear.

.~ J-.'/~ y -l \

I.-.-->" \

4. The wolf ate the rabbit.

5, This [the] wrist is broken,

6. This (the] flower is beautiful.

7. This [the] bed is comfortable,

63

8, This [the] tree is old,
'I!I.....
Jl

.~Jj;;~ • ;;.) J....L....,.,_,. ~ \
0 "" ;

1).51......

....:;.........

~

o~
"'

9. Ihe yellow

whistl,e is blocked,

/' 0

10, This [the] molar tooth is rotten.
'I!I.... ""

\~ . ;;~lc ..,_~............, ...
$ ""

11, That [the] doctor

(f.) is skilful.

12. This [the] envelope

Is open,

'CfoJ~ \~
.~U!r\ ~ ~1 Lk

13. The ostric h is faster tho n the human,

14. This [the] painting

is beautiful.

Further reading practice

with sun and moon letters
1.

This girl is opening the window.

This hoy is sitting on the table,

4.

This woman is typing on the computer ..

This man is reading the newspaper.

TIT is girl is riding the bicvcle .

7.

This lVoman is drinking the milk. 64

This boy is combing the hair.

Dialogue 1: Who is this?

o~

. ..-

....

j_j /
~
.....

...

.-'

Classroom Activity
Practise introducing yourself to your friends in Arabic, Ask your fT;end who another person in the classroom is by saying either 'Who is his?' or 'Who is that boy/girl?' in Arnoic.

Vocabulary
a girl
.- jl

09-

0

~ ~~
/' 0

I
0

G1
.-

this (m.)

I~
.-

he (is)

ylb

that (rn.)

who?

~if
09- /,/

this (I,)

O~

she (is)

~~

..

that (f.)

~

a boy

JJJ

65

Dialogue 2: What's your name?

~~i

0......

~\

.J

0-

...

oJ"

~"..

0

....

,...

~J .o~

~\:o~

-~

~...:_jl ~\

.,

.0..........

;;;:.

"..;'

...

;.)

~J .~

~\

-

:~

,

.~ .

_.
...

.O~~_;:O~

~.....

~

ViI,..,.

0

J1.....

.o~~) .o~~)
.-Jt....

~....

,,~/

«»

:~
,.

.....

~...

0;

:__r!~

~ ~\

;~o

.....

.:0J..i if
~
....

oo

....

<""'

~

Jl

.~.J_"o

.....

...

.~...l.p~ -~ ,
;; C. /'

.~
_....
00 ~

~~\

~

:-l-.>I

~
friend (rn.) friend (f.) my friend (rn.) my friend (f.)
.;.,..

,

~..L..:> ~ ... -L.p

O! (used to address someone) opportunity
~,

~

you (rn.) you (I.) hello (m.)

~1

my name

(is)
.....

L~

your (rn.) name your (1.) name

(is) (is)

~I

J

c<

~..L..:>
-, ~~ --

~
-

happy

o~

~

~I

~

Q

When used together: 'Pleased to meet you'

his ncrne (is)
welcome welcome (m.) (f.) ~

"

~

~

her nome (is) what?

~~t

66

Dialogue 3: Where is your friend?
Vocabulary

Peace 'be upon you,

: ..l.<>->-

(Reply): And upon you be peace,

<rr=:;

where (is)?

today

your friend (rn.)

in the library
your friend (f,)

in

.0~)\ ~C;
in the sports hall ~

~

~~

in the mosque

s

0

~~~

'_1~_W\~~'"

~ in the neadteacher's office

..

in the dining hall

67

Dialogue 4: Goodbye

·U . ..
;_.., ,/ 0..... ~

o~

~~b-~:~j~
;'

;'

.~~\)~
;:;

:L)
0.....

~~~~ij:~j}
;'

..fl;:;i

,r'

Q............

;:;J

0",..

.., .... JJ

/'

.....

...-

.~~\~:~

:L)

:_r.~

how ore you? (rn.) how are you? (I,) goodbye [Go] in God's protection until we meet again

~ •.:,UG-. ~ Y ~l>.;

;'

j

'"

....

0 .....

meet, meeting
::}

'~W "~
~\
c ....
0

praise

'" 0

-L.....::,;;j

~

morning evening good, well light

~

.....

~

....

good morning (reply) good morning good evening

~~Ie::
~LiiJ\)l ,

C~
.."l ,.",

;

.......

God, Allah

illI

!J..JI C~
~\
~ :::'/ ::J

&

to God
..-

JJ
~t.

illI 0C~I..F_•

)0

>-W
)I "" ..

...

health with

~

(reply) good evening how is vour (rn.) health? how is your (f.) health? praise be to God

_)_,..JI ~G y~~
... j~ ....

t"
~.... .......

how? your condition, state (m.)

Y~
;' .J ....

c .....

peace
",..;:.

;i,_,., ')\.....,

Y~........".
;jJ

..II;:;

~
0

.....

protection
.,. 0;

,..

01o i
/

-

.!Jj\.;...

ill..L...>J1
68

J

to, until

J1

your condition, state (f,) well, good

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