Beyond 3G

: Technology and Market Trends
2008.10.25 Hyung G. Myung

Disclaimer

Any views expressed by the presenter do not necessarily reflect those of presenter’s employer.

1

Wireless Evolution

1973

2008

Analog voice

Voice + 3.6 Mbps data + GPS + Full Internet browsing + Multimedia messaging + Multimedia entertainment +…
2

Outline
Introduction and Background

Standardization Status

Beyond-3G Systems: 3GPP LTE, 3GPP2 UMB, & WiMAX

Market Trends

Summary and References
3

Introduction and Background
Standardization Status Beyond-3G Systems Market Trends Summary and References

Introduction and Background

Cellular Wireless System Evolution
Generation Comments Systems

1G

•Analog speech communications •FDMA •Digital modulation of speech communications •Advanced security and roaming •TDMA/narrowband CDMA •International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT)-2000 introduced 3G global standard. •Global harmonization/roaming and wideband CDMA •Systems beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced) to introduce evolutionary path beyond 3G. •Mobile class targets 100 Mbps and nomadic/ local area class targets 1 Gbps.

AMPS GSM IS-95 PDC UMTS/WCDMA cdma2000 TD-SCDMA

2G

3G

4G

3GPP LTE 3GPP2 UMB WiMAX
5

Introduction and Background

Beyond 3G: IMT-Advanced IMT-

*3G Americas, “Defining 4G: Understanding the ITU Process for the Next Generation of Wireless Technology”, Aug. 2008

6

Introduction and Background

Beyond 3G: IMT-Advanced IMT• Higher data rate
– Broader bandwidth – Advanced modulation and coding – Increased degree of freedom: MIMO

- cont.

• Better spectrum efficiency
– Multi-carrier modulation

• Lower latency
– Flat all-IP architecture

• Multimedia traffic
– Quality of service (QoS) support

7

Introduction and Background

B3G Enabling Technologies
• Multi-carrier modulation
– OFDM/OFDMA

• Power efficient modulation in the uplink
– Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)

• Frequency domain equalization • Multi-antenna technology
– Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

• Fast channel-dependent multi-carrier resource scheduling • Active interference management
– Fractional frequency reuse

8

Introduction and Background

Standardization Status
Beyond-3G Systems Market Trends Summary and References

Standardization Status

3GPP Evolution
• Release 99 (Mar. 2000): UMTS/WCDMA • Rel-5 (Mar. 2002): HSDPA • Rel-6 (Mar. 2005): HSUPA • Rel-7 (2007): DL MIMO, IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), optimized realtime services (VoIP, gaming, push-to-talk). • Long Term Evolution (LTE)
– 3GPP work on the Evolution of the 3G Mobile System started in November 2004. – Standardized in the form of Rel-8.

• LTE-Advanced
– More bandwidth (up to 100 MHz). – Backward compatible with LTE. – Standardization in progress (targeted for Rel-10).
10

Standardization Status

3GPP2 Evolution

• CDMA2000 1X (1999) • CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (2000) • EV-DO Rev. A (2004): VoIP • EV-DO Rev. B (2006): Multi-carrier • Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB), previously EV-DO Rev. C
– Based on EV-DO, IEEE 802.20, and FLASH-OFDM – Spec out in Apr. 2007.

11

Standardization Status

WiMAX

• Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access • IEEE 802.16-based system profile maintained by WiMAX Forum
– IEEE 802.16 standards only specify PHY and MAC layers. WiMAX specifies overall system profile based on 802.16 air interface. – WiMAX Forum certifies system components to ensure inter -operability.

• Mobile WiMAX
– Based on IEEE 802.16e-2005 and IEEE 802.16-2004 standards.

12

Standardization Status

IEEE 802.16 Evolution

• 802.16 (2002): Line-of-sight fixed operation in 10 to 66 GHz • 802.16a (2003): Air interface support for 2 to 11 GHz • 802.16d (2004): Minor improvements to fixes to 16a • 802.16e (2006): Support for vehicular mobility and asymmetrical link • 802.16m (in progress): Higher data rate, reduced latency, and efficient security mechanism

13

Introduction and Background Standardization Status

Beyond-3G Systems
Market Trends Summary and References

Beyond-3G Systems

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
• Multiple access scheme
– DL: OFDMA. – UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA).

• Adaptive modulation and coding
– DL/UL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM – Convolutional code and Rel-6 turbo code

• Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing techniques
– (2 or 4)x(2 or 4) downlink and uplink supported. – Multi-user MIMO also supported.

• Support for both FDD and TDD • H-ARQ, mobility support, rate control, security, and etc.
15

Beyond-3G Systems

LTE Network Architecture
• E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)
UMTS 3G: UTRAN EPC (Evolved Packet Core)

GGSN SGSN RNC RNC

MME S-GW/P-GW

MME S-GW/P-GW

S1

eNB X2 NB NB NB NB

eNB

eNB

eNB

E-UTRAN
NB: NodeB (base station) RNC: Radio Network Controller SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node eNB: E-UTRAN NodeB MME: Mobility Management Entity S-GW: Serving Gateway P-GW: PDN (Packet Data Network) Gateway

* 3GPP TS 36.300

16

Beyond-3G Systems

3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB)
• Multiples access schemes
– Forward link (FL): OFDMA – Reverse link (RL): OFDMA & quasi-orthogonal CDMA

• Peak data rate
– Up to 280 Mbps in FL and up to 68Mbps in RL.

• Advanced MIMO and SDMA • Low latency • Improved interference management techniques • Scalable IP-based flat or hierarchical architecture and flexible spectrum allocations
– Bandwidth allocations of 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz – Support for both FDD and TDD

17

Beyond-3G Systems

UMB Network Architecture
1xEV-DO UMB

Internet PDSN RNC

Internet

Gateway IP Network
AN AN

AN: Access Network RNC: Radio Network Controller PDSN: Packet Data Serving Node

AN

AN

AN

AN

AN

AN

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Beyond-3G Systems

Mobile WiMAX (802.16e)
• Multiple access scheme
– DL & UL: OFDMA

• TDD only • Scalable spectrum
– 5, 7, 8.5, and 10 MHz

• Advanced MIMO and SDMA • QoS, high mobility, handoff, advanced security, etc.

19

Beyond-3G Systems

Mobile WiMAX Network Architecture

Mobile terminals

Mobile WiMAX base station

ASN-GW

CSN

ASN ASN
ASN-GW: Access Service Network Gateway ASN: Access Service Network CSN: Core Service Network 20

Beyond-3G Systems

System Comparison
3GPP LTE Channel bandwidth DL multiple access UL multiple access Duplexing Subcarrier mapping Subcarrier hopping Data modulation Subcarrier spacing FFT size (5 MHz) 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz OFDMA SC-FDMA FDD and TDD Localized Yes QPSK, 16QAM, & 64QAM 15 kHz 512 Convolutional coding and turbo coding. 3GPP2 UMB 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 MHz OFDMA OFDMA and CDMA FDD and TDD Localized and distributed Yes QPSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, & 64QAM 9.6 kHz 512 Convolutional coding, turbo coding, and LDPC coding Mobile WiMAX (802.16e) 5, 7, 8.75, and 10 MHz OFDMA OFDMA TDD Localized and distributed Yes QPSK, 16QAM, & 64QAM 10.94 kHz 512 Convolutional coding and convolutional turbo coding. Block turbo coding and LDPC coding optional. Beamforming, Space-time coding, and spatial multiplexing

Channel coding

MIMO

Multi-layer precoded spatial multiplexing spacetime/frequency block coding, switched transmit diversity, and cyclic delay diversity

Multi-layer precoded spatial multiplexing, space-time transmit diversity, spatial division multiple access, and beamforming.

21

Beyond-3G Systems

Peak Data Rate Comparison
System WCDMA (Rel. 99) HSDPA (Rel. 5) HSUPA (Rel. 6) HSPA+ (Rel. 7) LTE (Rel. 8) CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. 0 CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. A CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. B UMB 802.16e WiMAX Wave 1 802.16e WiMAX Wave 2 802.16m DL [Mbps] 2.048 14.4 14.4 42 326 2.4 3.1 9.3 280 23 46 225 UL [Mbps] 0.768 0.768 5.76 11.5 2x2 MIMO 86 4x4 MIMO, 20 MHz 0.153 1.8 5.4 3 radio channels 68 4x4 MIMO, 20 MHz 4 1x2 SIMO, 10 MHz (DL:UL=3:1) 4 2x2 MIMO, 10 MHz (DL:UL=3:1) 33.75 Target values, 20 MHz (DL:UL = 3:1)
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Comment

*Rysavy Research & 3G Americas, “EDGE, HSPA and LTE Broadband Innovation”, Sep. 2008

Introduction and Background Standardization Status Beyond-3G Systems

Market Trends
Summary and References

Market Trends

Operator Trends
• All GSM/UMTS operators are migrating to LTE.
– Most will delay commercializing LTE because of HSPA deployment. – As was the case with WCDMA, NTT DoCoMo will be the most aggressive in deploying commercial LTE network.

• Major CDMA2000 operators likely to defect to LTE.
– Verizon Wireless, TELUS, KDDI, etc.

• China’s TD-SCDMA will migrate to LTE-TDD.
– China Mobile is planning a trial starting in 2010.

• WiMAX is drawing serious attentions mostly from Asia-Pacific region and developing nations.
– No major operator commitment except for Sprint Nextel (Xohm).

• UMB is practically out of the picture at the moment.
24

Market Trends

Device Trends
• Ultra Mobile Device (UMD)
– Mobile Internet Device (MID), Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC), Micro PC, Netbook, etc. – Full-fledged OS: Windows XP/Vista, Linux, OS X, etc. – Broad range of multimedia software – Full internet browsing

• UMDs and mobile PCs will be key drivers for mobile data usage.

Asus Eee PC 900 •Intel 900MHz CPU with Windows XP •8.9” 1024x600 display •1 GB memory with 20 GB SSD •1.3 Mpixel webcam •~$500
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Market Trends

Application Trends
• Identifying “killer” applications will be crucial.

Killer Application

1G: Voice

2G: Voice, SMS

3G: Voice, SMS, full browsing?, UGC?

4G: Voice, SMS, ???
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Market Trends

Application Trends

- cont.

• Open platform • Example: Apple iPhone App Store
– 60 million downloads in 30 days. – VC Kleiner Perkins starts $100M fund for startups developing iPhone applications.

27

Market Trends

Collaborative Trends

• Example 1: Amazon Kindle
– Wireless eBook – Collaboration with Qualcomm and Sprint

28

Market Trends

Collaborative Trends
• Example 2: Google Android phone
Open Handset Alliance
Operator Handset

- cont.

Chip

Software

29

Market Trends

Collaborative Trends
• Example 3: Fashion phones
Prada + LG Armani + Samsung

- cont.

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Introduction and Background Beyond-3G Systems Standardization Status Market Trends

Summary and References

Summary and References

Summary
• Key technologies of Beyond-3G systems
– Multicarrier-based radio air interface
• OFDMA and SC-FDMA

– Frequency domain equalization – IP-based flat network architecture – Multi-antenna technology
• MIMO

– Active interference avoidance and coordination
• Fractional frequency re-use (FFR)

– Fast frequency-selective multi-carrier resource scheduling

• Key Beyond-3G Systems
– 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) – IEEE 802.16-based WiMAX – 3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB)
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Summary and References

Summary
• LTE will be the dominant cellular wireless standard for 4G. • Ultra mobile devices (UMD) will be the center of mobile devices. • Application will be key to the market development.
– What is the “Killer Application” for 3G/4G?

- cont.

• Open platform will be essential for attracting users. • Multi-industry collaboration will become a major source of innovation.

33

Summary and References

References and Resources
• IMT-Advanced
– ITU web page: http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/go/rsg5-imt-advanced/ – 3G Americas, “Defining 4G: Understanding the ITU Process for the Next Generation of Wireless Technology”, available at http://3gamericas.org/PDFs/Defining4G2008.pdf

• B3G enabling technologies
– OFDM/OFDMA
• R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Artech House, 2000.

– SC-FDMA
• H. G. Myung and D. J. Goodman, Single Carrier FDMA: A New Air Interface for Long Term Evolution, John Wiley & Sons, 2008. • H. G. Myung et al., “Single Carrier FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Mag., vol. 1, no. 3, Sep. 2006. • http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/scfdma
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Summary and References

References and Resources
– Frequency domain equalization

- cont.

• D. Falconer et al., “Frequency Domain Equalization for Single-Carrier Broadband Wireless Systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 4, Apr. 2002, pp. 58-66.

– MIMO
• A. Paulraj et al., Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, May 2003. • G. L. Stüber et al., “Broadband MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications ,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb. 2004, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 271-294.

– Multicarrier scheduling
• G. Song and Y. Li, “Utility-based Resource Allocation and Scheduling in OFDM-based Wireless Broadband Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 12, Dec. 2005, pp. 127-134.

35

Summary and References

References and Resources

- cont.

• 3GPP LTE
– http://www.LTEwatch.com – Spec
• http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm • http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm (old)

– E. Dahlman et al., 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, Academic Press, 2008 – 3G Americas, “UMTS Evolution: From 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8, HSPA and SAE/LTE" available at http://3gamericas.org/PDFs/3GPPRel-7andRel-8_White_Paper0708-08.pdf

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Summary and References

References and Resources
• 3GPP2 UMB
– Spec (C.S0084 series)
• http://www.3gpp2.org/Public_html/specs/tsgc.cfm

- cont.

– CTIA Wireless 2007 Special Interest Seminar on UMB available at http://www.cdg.org/news/events/CDMASeminar/070327_UMB/in dex.asp – CDG Evolution Path available at http://www.cdg.org/news/events/webcast/061213_webcast/CD G%20Charts%20for%20Roadmap%20Webcast_13DEC2006F.pdf

• FLASH-OFDM
– R. Laroia et al., “Designing a Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Network,” IEEE Signal Proc. Mag., vol. 21, no. 5, Sep. 2004, pp. 2028

37

Summary and References

References and Resources
• WiMAX
– IEEE 802.16e Spec

- cont.

• http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.16e-2005.pdf

– WiMAX Forum Mobile System Profile: http://www.wimaxforum.org/ technology/documents/wimax_forum_mobile_system_profile_v1_ 40.pdf – WiMAX Forum, “Mobile WiMAX - Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation,” available at http://www.wimaxforum.or g/technology/downloads/Mobile_WiMAX_Part1_Overview_and_P erformance.pdf – K. Balachandran et al., “Design and Analysis of an IEEE 802.16ebased OFDMA Communication System,” Bell Labs Tech. Jour., vol. 11, no. 4, Mar. 2007, pp. 53-73 – IEEE 802.16m activities
• http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/16/tgm/

38

Summary and References

References and Resources
• 4G market reports

- cont.

– “The Road to 4G: LTE and WiMAX Lead the Way Worldwide”, In-Stat (Oct. '08) – “The Future of Mobile WiMAX: Where, When & How Much?”, Unstrung Insider (Sep. ’08) – “4G Inside: Embedded Modules for Mobile WiMAX & LTE”, Unstrung Insider (Jul. ’08) – “Long Term Evolution”, ABI research (Jun. ’08) – “Mobile WiMAX in Asia-Pacific”, ABI research (May, ’08) – “The LTE Business Case: Operator and Vendor Strategies”, ARCchart (Apr. ’08) – “4G Intellectual Property and Royalties”, ABI research (Mar., ’08) – “Evolved HSPA & the Roadmap to LTE”, Unstrung Insider (Oct. ’07) – “The Road to 4G: Will LTE, UMB and WiMAX Just Be Stops Along the Way?”, In-Stat (Aug. ’07)
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Thank you!
2008.10.25 Hyung G. Myung