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Novel Companion

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer


Mark Twain

Dragonwings
Laurence Yep

Catherine, Called Birdy


Karen Cushman

I Am Mordred: A Tale from Camelot


Nancy Springer

Dandelion Wine
Ray Bradbury

The Time Machine The War of the Worlds


H. G. Wells

Photo Credits 7 CORBIS; 23 35 51 67 Bettmann/CORBIS; 95 99 Ted Streshinsky/CORBIS; 111 Bettmann/CORBIS; 123 E.O. Hopp/CORBIS; 139 CORBIS; 183 IT Stock/ PunchStock; 187 Historical Picture Archive/CORBIS; 199 211 227 231 Bettmann/ CORBIS; 243 NASA/Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS. Acknowledgments Grateful acknowledgment is given to authors, publishers, photographers, museums, and agents for permission to reprint the following copyrighted material. Every effort has been made to determine copyright owners. In case of any omissions, the Publisher will be pleased to make suitable acknowledgments in future editions.

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Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN 13: 978-0-07-889151-9 ISBN 10: 0-07-889151-5 Printed in the United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 047 14 13 12 11 10 09 08

TABLE OF CONTENTS
To Students, Parents, Guardians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Interactive Reading Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Note-Taking Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Note-Taking Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Introduction to the Novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Meet the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 CHAPTERS 110 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 CHAPTERS 1124 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CHAPTERS 2536 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Work with Related Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Connect to Other Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Respond Through Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

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Catherine, Called Birdy by Karen Cushman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


Introduction to the Novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Meet the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 SEPTEMBERDECEMBER Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 JANUARYAPRIL Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 MAYSEPTEMBER Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Work with Related Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Connect to Other Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Respond Through Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

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Dandelion Wine by Ray Bradbury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95


Introduction to the Novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Meet the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 CHAPTERS 116 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 CHAPTERS 1729 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 CHAPTERS 3040 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Work with Related Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Connect to Other Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Respond Through Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

TA BLE OF CONTENTS

Dragonwings by Laurence Yep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139


Introduction to the Novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Meet the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 CHAPTERS 14 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 CHAPTERS 58 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 CHAPTERS 912 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Work with Related Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Connect to Other Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Respond Through Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

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I Am Mordred: A Tale from Camelot by Nancy Springer . . . . . . . . . 183


Introduction to the Novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Meet the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 PROLOGUECHAPTER 4 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 CHAPTERS 510 Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 CHAPTERS 11EPILOGUE Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Work with Related Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Connect to Other Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Respond Through Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

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TA BLE OF CONTENTS

The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells . . . 227
Introduction to the Novel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Meet the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 THE TIME MACHINE Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 THE WAR OF THE WORLDS: BOOK ONE Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 THE WAR OF THE WORLDS: BOOK TWO Before You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Active Reading Graphic Organizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Interactive Reading: Literary Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Interactive Reading: Reading Skill or Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 On-Page Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Cornell Note-Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 After You Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Work with Related Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Connect to Other Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Respond Through Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

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TO STUDEN T S, PARENTS, AND GUARDIANS

Welcome to the Novel Companion. This portable book is designed for you to write in. It is interactive: The book prompts, and you respond. The Novel Companion encourages, questions, provides space for notes, and invites you to jot down your thoughts and ideas. You can use it to circle and underline words and phrases you think are important, and to write questions that will guide your reading. The Novel Companion helps you develop skills for reading, analyzing, and responding to novels, as well as to autobiographies and plays. These literary works are drawn from Glencoes Literature Library. They include some of the most notable works in literature. Many are award-winning modern works; others are classics. The Novel Companion is designed to follow the approach and themes in each unit of your textbook, Glencoe Literature. The Novel Companion includes two types of lessons: Note-Taking Lessons presents two methods of note-taking to help you connect major themes in Glencoe Literature to the other novels and works you will be reading. Using the book will help you learn these valuable note-taking methods, so you can make effective notes whenever you study. Interactive Reading Lessons are lessons based on the sequential chapter groupings in each novel. In this part of the book youll practice identifying important ideas and themes, analyzing literary elements, applying reading strategies, completing graphic organizers, and mastering vocabularyall skills that expert readers use to help them comprehend novels and other long works of literature. Note to Parents and Guardians: Ask your students to show you their work periodically, and explain how it helps them study. You might want to talk to them about how the skills they are learning cross over to other subjects.

To S tudents, Par ents, and G uardi ans

INTERACTIVE READING LESSONS

The notes and features in the interactive reading lessons will direct you through the process of reading and making meaning from each set of chapters. As you use these notes and features, youll be practicing and mastering the skills and strategies that good readers use whenever they read.

Get Set to Read


After reading about the novel and the author, you will begin to read the novel. You will study it in groupings of chapters, or chapter sets, in the Novel Companion. Each chapter set begins with an activity to connect your personal experience to the literature. You will also read background material to provide context for the chapter set content. Youre invited to interact with the information in Build Background by summarizing content or writing a caption for an image related to the content. You are then introduced to the targeted skills for the chapter set: the Big Question, the literary element, and the reading skill or strategy. You will also get vocabulary for the chapter set.
Write a Journal Entry

: Septem berD ecemb BEFOR E YOU READ

er

ture Conne ct to the Litera

felt pressured to do (or someone you know) Recall a time when you was your reaction? to. How did you feel? What something you didnt want people think or or traditions suggest that Sometimes social customs feelings or wishes. In conflict with their personal behave in ways that may that may be contrary of your thoughts or beliefs your journal, explore some thinks. to what most of society

NOVEL NOTEBOOK to record Keep a special notebook that you entries about the novels read this year. SUMMARIZE the Summarize in one sentence Build most important idea(s) in Background.

Build Backg round


Class and Privilege in the

in simple huts, but the majority of people lived During the Middle Ages, were usually a a manor house. Manor houses Catherines family lives in quarters as well as included the familys living collection of buildings. They gatehouse; a privy, or stables for the horses; a other buildings such as spends much of her . In this novel, Catherine outhouse; and a cowshed quarters. It is a room in the familys living time in the solar, a large as a private retreat and bedroom that serves combination of living room of her time in the solar Catherine spends some for the family members. was handmade at into fiber or thread. All cloth it. spinning, or twisting yarn class had to work to make someone of Catherines this time, and even not seem all that at the manor house may Although the conditions comfortable by the they were actually quite appealing to a modern reader, which reflected only thing better was a castle, standards of the time. The society. an even higher status in use of paper. Paper s privileged status is her Another sign of Catherine printing press was the Middle Ages, and the was not widely used during century. Consequently, most d until the mid-fifteenth ngly written not develope the Middle Ages were painstaki documents produced during or parchment, which substance called vellum or copied by hand onto a This thick, precious of cattle, sheep or goats. the was made from the skins , andas in the case of the powerful paper was used by the rich, e religious elite. monks Catherine visitsth

Middle Ages

BEF ORE YOU REA D: Sep tem ber


BIG Question Why Do You Read ? How big a role does reading play in your life? Think read many times about it. You proba throughout the day. As you read bly how reading helps this novel, think you understand about different peopl e, times, and place s. Literary Elem ent Conflict Conflict is the central struggle between oppos external confli ing forces in a ct is the strugg story. An le of a character such as nature against an outsid , society, fate, e force, or another chara takes place within cter. An intern a characters mind. al conflict to make a difficu For example, he lt choice. or she might have The events in most stories revolve around conflict. learn a lot about As a reader, you life by seeing how can people and chara resolve conflicts. cters confront and As you read, ask yourself, what internal and extern Catherine face? al conflicts does Use the graphic organizer on the you record the following page information. to help

Set Pur pos es for Rea din g

Dece mbe r

Vocabulary
betrothal [bi tro thl] n. a promise or a contract for a future marriage The king annou nced the betrot hal of his daughter to the prince. docile [dos l] adj. easily led or managed Because Tim was docile, he did what he was told. dowry [dour e ] n. money or property that a woman brings to her husband in marriage The dowry includ ed a sheep pasture, house hold goods, and money. impudence [im py dns] n. disregard for others ; willful disobedience Making insults and other impudence cause d people to dislike T ina.

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Reading Strat egy Evalu ate Characteriz Characterization ation refers to the metho the personality ds that an autho of characters. r uses to devel When authors op character is like, tell you exactly it is called direct what a characterization. a characters perso When authors nality through show his or her words through what other and actions and characters think indirect chara and say about cterization. When him or her, it is called you evaluate chara critically about the details the cterization, you author used to think reveal character. Evaluating chara ember 55 cteriz Birdy: Septem berDec ation will help Catherin e, Called of characters and you to deepen your appreciatio of the authors n both technique. To evaluate chara cterization 1/22/08 9:03:54 PM in this novel, ask conflict with socie yourself how Cathe ty helps reveal rines who she is. You use a graphic organ may find it helpfu izer like the one l to at the right.

swagger [swa r] v. to act superior or overw helmingly selfconfident Full of confidence, Elena would swagger as she walked down the hall.

What Catherine Wants.

What Others Want.

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AC TI VE READ I NG : Sep tem b er Decem b er

Catherines conflict with society is revealed through the customs and issues that she does not understand or with which she does not agree. Through her experiences and analyses of her culture, she develops independent opinions as she

matures and learns about herself. Some of her ideas seem valid; others seem nave. Use the organizer below to chart the ways in which Catherines opinions differ from those generally held by her parents and society.

Read, Respond, Interpret


Every lesson includes an active reading graphic organizer to fill in as you read. This graphic organizer is related to either the literary element or the reading skill or strategy for the chapter set. Interactive reading pages include text excerpts from the novels that emphasize a literary element or a reading skill or strategy. Questions in the margin help you interact with highlighted portions of the text.

Social Issue
behavior of young ladies

Societys View

Catherines View
Lady-tasks are pointless. If ladies can pick maggots from the salt meat, why cant they climb trees or throw stones in the river?

Crusades

t ING: Literar y Elemen INTER ACTIV E READ

Literary Element Conflict Name the external writes conflicts that Catherine about.

MBER EXCER of Jewish people NOVE L treatmentPT: SEPTE


12th day of September I am an account of my days: I am commanded to write is to say. by family. That is all there bit by fleas and plagued 13th day of September day, for he suffer from ale head this My father must privacy I hope his dinner instead of once. cracked me twice before angry liver bursts. 14th day of September torture. Corpus bones, what a Tangled my spinning again.
marriage Marriage is a business 15th day of September the villagers sowed hay, arrangement. A daughter Today the sun shone and I, must pulled fish from the stream. marry according to gathered apples, and a cloth for two hours embroideringher fathers wishes. trapped inside, spent my stitches after three hours picking out the church and . it. I wish I were a villager my mother saw

INT ERA CTI


Reading Stra tegy Evaluate Char acterization What methods of indirect characterizati on are used here? How well do they show Cath erines conflict with socie evaluation with ty? Support your evidence.

VE REA DIN G: Rea din g Stra teg y

16th day of September Spinning. Tangled. 17th day of September 55-98_NC_889151.indd 57 Untangled.

C a t he r ine , C a lle d B ir dy :

18th day of September account of thinks that writing this If my brother Edward more learned, grow less childish and my days will help me And I will I will do this no longer. he will have to write it. Less childish indeed. eat. not spin. And I will not . 19th day of September and I have made a bargain I am delivered! My mother account for as long as I write this I may forgo spinning but has it in not much for writing Edward. My mother is he is gone to be Edward, especially now her heart to please the foolish do worse things to escape a monk, and I would So I will write. boredom of spinning.

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Unit 2 NOVEL COMPAN ION:

T: DEC EM 9th day of BER December, Feast of Sain in Norfolk t Wolfeius, first hermit Gods knees! A person can kirtle at a time only wear one , so why are gown and one my mother making such and her ladi a fuss about es my coverin their spare g the bird cage ones! I cann ot believe they s with poor birds to freeze to would wan t my death. I will have plenty of time imprisoned to think on in the solar, this, for I am brushing feat bird dung off hers and seed of what seem and s enough clot French arm y. I see no deli hing for the verance. Perk grandmother in is busy with . Aelis is in London with his Thomas are the king. Geo from home much these rge and drinking and days, riding amusing othe and r people and knees, I mig ht as well be not me. God an orphan. s ... 14thcday of 57 S e pte m be r D e e m be r Decemb er, Feast of own Lincolns Saint Hybald, hire. I wonder abbot of our if he is a relat I am in disg ive race embroidery,1/22/08 9:03:54today. Grown quite PM weary with with my pric my ked fingers sore back, I and tired eyes kicked it dow and n the stairs dogs fought to the hall, and slobbere where d over it, so mess and thre I took the sogg the w it to the pigs. y Morwenna grabbed me by the ear and My mother gave me a pinched my gentle but ster face. behaving like n lecture abo a lady. Lad ut ies, it seem feelings and s, seldom hav , if they do, e strong never never thumbs! I alw let them sho ays have stro w. Gods ng feelings painful unti and they are l I let them out, like a cow quite milk and bell who needs ows with the to give pain in her disgrace in teats. So I am my chamber. in I pray Mor that being ench wenna nev ambered is er discovers no punishm would find ent for me. some new tort She ure, like send the ladies in ing me to liste the solar. n to 15th day of December, Feast of Sain Saxons, who t Offa, king left his wife, of the East his lands, his to become a family, and monk in Rom his country e and die

NO VEL EXC ERP

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Unit 2

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INTERACTIVE READING LESSONS

Show What You Know


After you read the chapters in the chapter set, you will answer questions about the content, including how the background information helped you as you read. You will then demonstrate what you learned from your interactive reading of the excerpts. You will also practice using the vocabulary words you were introduced to and learn a new vocabulary word that can be used in your academic writing. In addition, you will complete a short writing assignment and other activities related to what you read in the chapter set content. These activities will draw on what you studied in your interactive work on the excerpts from the chapters. After you read the entire novel, you will work with related readings, connect the novel to an excerpt from Glencoe Literature, and finally, write an essay or story that draws upon what you learned by reading.

: Septem berD ecemb AFTER YOU READ

er

Critic ally Respo nd and Think

as a young lady in s must Catherine master these skills? 1. What sort of lady-task she protest against learning medieval society? How does [Paraphrase]

APPLY BACKGROUND Novel Reread Introduction to the that on pages 5253. How did nd information help you understa read in or appreciate what you novel? the

? Why does ideas about the Crusades 2. What are Catherines [Analyze] laugh at Catherines ideas?

George

or distinguishing s major character traits, reveal these 3. What are some of Catherine or circumstances does Catherine qualities? In what ways traits? [Interpret]

AFT ER YO U REA D: Sep tem ber De


Literary Elem ent Conflict 1. Catherine is in conflict with her fathe brother Robe r and with rt. Why? Do you think her Robert think father the conflict is as great as Cath and thinks it is? [Eval erine uate]

cem ber

tice Respond to these questions. 1. Whom woul d you expect a betro merchants or two young peop thal to involvetwo le?
2. Which woul d you expect to be more doci a sheep? le a bull or

Vocabulary

Prac

placed on her by her responses to the demands 4. Describe Catherines and justified? Why her reactions reasonable family and by society. Are help you relate to do your own experiences or why not? In what ways Catherine? [Evaluate]

2. What quali ties does Cath erine have that her to be in cause conflict with her world? Expla each quality in why causes conf lict. [Synthesi ze]

3. What woul d you expect to do with a and trade it, dowryspen or eat and drink d it? 4. How woul d you expect to respond to a smile or a impudencew frown? ith 5. Whom woul d you expect to swagger politician or a proud a humble serva nt?

about the place main ideas have you learned ize] 5. Why Do You Read? What English manor in 1290? [Synthes where Catherine livesan

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Unit 2 NOVEL COMPAN ION:

Reading Stra tegy Eval uate Characte Is most of the rization characterizati on in this nove indirect? Expla l direct or in, using evide nce 9:03:54 PM [Conclude] 1/22/08 from the nove l.

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Sep tem ber U REA D: AFT ER YO

De cem ber

Academic Vocabulary One of Catherine s principal occu spinning yarn pations is the or thread. In chore of the preceding means main sentence, princ or major. Think ipal about a princ make of your ipal use you time. Explain why it takes time. up so much of your

as Con ten t Are Con nec t to Wr itin g


Write a Song
kind of songs. What s making up t herself and Catherine enjoy t write abou want, think she migh song do you for her. If you Write the song her situation? lar tune. set it to a popu Jot down some ideas here first.

Science

s and different plant Catherine uses us ailments Assignment to treat vario substances other natural her any of these any . Find out whet and whether and complaints ally effective, dies was actu reme today. are still in use steps: to treat Follow these Investigate Catherine uses of substances Make a list complaints. n about illnesses or ces of informatio of te reliable sour Try a variety Loca eval medicine. or search herbal and medi catalog s in a library able to search term may also be ence librarian mation on engine. A refer Cath erin works with infor e, Call ed reference Bird y: Sep recommend dies. tem ber Dece r natural reme mbe r 65 herbal and othe tances on your list to learn ing the subs Research tiveness in treat and their effec about them nts. 1/22/08 9:03:54 ailme PM poster list, chart, or e an illustrated Create Mak remedies. Note explaining the they are showing and in use and what are still which ones y. used for toda r and chart, or poste lay your list, in any Report Disp sure to expla it shows. Be explain what s you use. scientific term technical or

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CON NEC T
LA TED WI TH RE WO RK RE AD IN GS

LITE RAT URE TO OTH ER

CON NEC T

TO OTH ER LITE RAT URE


RE SP ON
you

Cather

have just read ly. right, which is to the literature excerpted from his father cold selection at the Charles by Shirle Literature. Then Laurie regarded said. y Jackson in Glenc answer the quest nothing, he oe ions below. Use text or explain Laurie started I didnt learn learn the exact words events and ideas The day my son I said. Didnt of the in the text to suppo d corduroy Anything, rt your answer. rten he renounce s kinderga s in Glencoe began wearing anything. ted Reading though, Com par e with bibs and Rela a go overalls & Con tras t spanked a boy, answers on s refer to the watched him The teacher d and 1. Confl with a belt; I wing question of this novel. Write your on the lines r girl blue jeans The follo essing his brea s ict ion ing with the olde n some note Library edit d, with Cathe How are Lauries conflicts the same Laurie said, addr texts. Literature but jot dow off the first morn rines conflicts? or different from an era of my g fresh, he adde ils from the t of paper, Are they intern g clearly that butter. For bein ers with deta est Heart separate shee al or external? next door, seein of the Hon ced nurseryport your answ The Knight d, my sweet-voi provided. Sup his mouth full. Who , life was ende let do? I asked. Crispin and ed Birdy a long-trousered Christina Ham What did he erine, Call t motivates tot replaced by res e to Cath school nections Wha forgot to stop do their desi Authors Not Make Con was it? les, he g character who vely? How decepti swaggerin It was Char hman -bye to me. or problems Celia to act e? Karen Cus Laurie thought. t qualities and wave good er spanked e of Catherin the front at the corner nections Wha teenagers of today? fresh. The teach parallel thos Make Con e the same way, said. He was a corner. He e share with He came hom on the e him stand in does Catherin open, his cap him and mad me door slamming . suddenly beco was awfully fresh d again, but and the voice ? floor, ody here do? I aske What did he ting, Isnt anyb a cookie, his raucous shou his chair, took e insolently to Laurie slid off still saying, Struc 2. Text At lunch he spok ture How is the rs milk, and e his father was text structure of his baby siste and left, whil different from the Charles the same were father, spilled g man. text structure of and teacher said we Catherine, Called See here, youn kes Boys rked at . rked that his rema in vain and-Bra Birdy? Laurie rema e of the Lord the WheelsThe next day n, Well, take the nam Becky and d, not to lar as he sat dow simi today? I aske y lunch, as soon ed Bird kys situation y. He w was school James Berr Cag Ho is Bec again toda ribed in nections How Charles was bad a Angelou rately casual. Make Con said, Today the birds desc May elabo pare mously and es? said. nections Com erine like both grinned enor to Catherin Make Con All right, he How is Cath father teacher. Catherine. anything? his Charles hit the the poem to ed bird? Did you learn and the cag the free bird asked.

LITE RAT URE

rles EXC ERP T: Cha

Compare the novel

Birdy ine, Called

3. Diction In Catherine, Called Birdy, word choic understand Cathe e helps the reade rines conflicts. r Is the same true Charles? Expla in this excerpt in your answer. from

sa y WRITE ABOUT Argue a Position IT Arranged Write a comparison cen for marriages turi -cont es. have bee paragraph that politica rast Do you think they UNDERSTAN n a par makes atl, cult are ever D THE TAS one a good idea t of some cultures main point about should leastural, economic, or To argue K exist? Dec ? Are ther othe how is to use e any reason or Catherine are alike Charles and ide on your pos r reasons why arra logic to try nged mar ition. to riages Preand/or different. write Ma readers idea influence a ke a list of s or actions three bes reasons for . t reasons. A positio your opin Use your statement: ion or pos n is an opin reasons to ition. Sele ion. It is usually stat write you ct your ed r thesis or position stat in a thesis, opinion Arranged ement, or marriages opinion statement. (should/sho _________ uld not) exis ____ t because (reason 1) , _____________ , and ______ (reason 2) _______. Grammar (reason 3) Tip Draft Sta te your thes Interjection is or opin paper. Pre s ion stateme sent each Use interjec nt near the of your rea explain eac tions to sho beginning sons in sep emotion, h reason w of or feeling. arate bod you give. what peo y paragraph your As part of Interjection ple with the may com your explana s. Fully s e before opposite counterarg or after a opinion mig tion, think complete uments. End about ht thin sentence. with a stro When they express stro ng conclud k or say. Address Revise Exc those ing stateme ng feeling hange pap on their own and nt. ers with a this one for , begin them stand classmate. each othe capital lette with a Complete rs work: r and follo a revision w them with an exc chart like Your thesis lamation point: is ______ _________ Corpus bon _________ Why thesis es! Gods _________ needs/doe thumbs! _________ ________. s not nee d rev _________ When an interjection _________ ision: _________ does not ___ _________ Your reason express stro _________ _______ ng feeling s are quieter tone or has a ________. 1. ______ , follow it _________ with a comma: ______ 2. ___
_________ _________ _________ _________ 3. ______ _________ _________ _________ ___ _________ _________ _________ _________ Why reason ___ _________ s need/do _________ not need revision ___ Why explan _________ ation nee ________. _________ ds/ _________ does not need rev isio _________ _________ n _______________ _________ ________. Edit and Pro ofread
Dear god , I can do no more for either of them.

Pe rsu as

D TH RO UG

ive Es

H W RI TIN

nce al Accepta Newbery Med s Apprentice) wife (for The Mid writes, hman l, Catherine Karen Cus s In the nove does Catherine e Connection Mak paints. How ing, and songs, and composes ing, song mak rests in writ expression? use her inte emotional a means of painting as

Edit your effectively writing so and is wel that it exp l organized. punctuation resses you Carefully , and spe r thoughts proofread lling errors. for gramm ar,

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Inter acti ve Readi ng Lessons

NOTE-TAKING SYSTEMS

You may dislike taking notes. Perhaps you dont believe that notes are useful or maybe you just havent been shown how to do an effective job of taking notes. The Novel Companion will teach you two different systems of taking notes. These systems will help you develop note-taking skills to use in school and for the rest of your life. Research shows that students who take good notes perform better on tests, and note-taking skills are crucial if you plan to attend college. When you take notes, you become more actively engaged in what you read by constantly looking for main ideas, supporting details, and key relationships.

Note-Taking Lessons and BIG Questions


The note-taking lessons in the Novel Companion are focused on helping you find a connection between the main ideas of featured novels (or autobiographies or plays) and the Big Questions, or major themes, of the units in your textbook, Glencoe Literature. By learning the note-taking skills presented in the Novel Companion, you will be able to make such connections more readily and easily.

On-Page Note-Taking
College students routinely write on the pages of the books they are reading, using the margins to jot down ideas and questions. If you are allowed to mark up your text, you can write notes directly on the page. The On-Page Note-Taking lessons prompt you to make connections to a Big Question by marking up an excerpt using a system of symbols.

N OTE-TAKING SYSTEMS

The Cornell Note-Taking System


The Novel Companion will also train you in the Cornell Note-Taking System, which was developed at Cornell University to help students take more effective notes. In this system, the page is divided into two columns, one wide and one narrow. This format provides a way to organize your thinking. Youll use the Cornell Note-Taking System to take notes on excerpts from the novels and how the excerpts relate to the Big Questions. The following summarizes the steps of the system: First, you will record notes in the right (wide) column as you read. Your notes may include summaries, bulleted lists, and graphic organizers. Next, you will reduce, or condense, your notes into key words, phrases, questions, and comments in the left (narrow) column. This step will help you clarify meaning, find information within your notes, and trigger your memory when you study. Finally, you will use the bottom portion of the page to recap, or summarize, what you have learned from your notes. This step helps strengthen your grasp of what you just read before you move on to the next section of text.
Recap Reduce Record

A Life-long Skill
Once you become accustomed to using the note-taking skills taught in the Novel Companion, youll be able to use these skills when you read other literature, when you listen to a lecture in class, when you attend a meeting, or even as you watch a film.

Note-Taki ng Syst ems

NOTE-TAKING LESSONS

Through the note-taking lessons presented in the Novel Companion, youll be learning to record important information in your own words, to reduce it to key words that will help you remember your notes, and to apply your notes as you answer questions and read and write about the novels and other longer works in the program.

O N-PA G E NO TE-TA K ING : B I G Q ues ti on

Read, Question, and Mark-Up


Not only will you be interacting with excerpts from the novels as you work with the literary elements and reading skills or strategies assigned to a chapter set, but you will also be working with excerpts that relate to the Big Question assigned to each chapter set. You will take notes on the excerptright on the page. With practice, you will devise a short-hand system that works for you. In the meantime, you can use the suggested on-page mark-up system.

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: OCTOBER


1st day of October My fathers clerk suffers today from an inflammation of his eyes, caused, no doubt, by his spying on our serving maids as they wash under their arms at the millpond. I did not have the mothers milk necessary for an ointment for the eyes, so I used garlic and goose fat left from doctoring Morwennas boils yesterweek. No matter how he bellowed, it will do him no harm. I can stand no more of lady-tasks, endless mindless sewing, hemming, brewing, doctoring, and counting linen! Why is a lady too gentle to climb a tree or throw stones into the river when it is ladys work to pick maggots from the salt meat? Why must I learn to walk with a ladys tiny steps one day and sweat over great steaming kettles of dung and nettle for remedies the next? Why must the lady of the manor do all the least lovable tasks? Id rather be the pig boy. 3rd day of October There are Jews in our hall tonight! On their way to London, they sought shelter from the rain. My father being away, my mother let them in. She is not afraid of Jews, but the cook and the kitchen boys have all fled to the barn, so no one will have supper tonight. I plan to hide in the shadows of the hall in order to see their horns and tails. Wait until Perkin hears of this. The hour of vespers, later this day: Bones! The Jews have no horns and no tails, just wet clothes and ragged children. They are leaving England by order of the king, who says Jews are Hell-born, wicked, and dangerous. He must know some others than the scared and scrawny ones who are here this night. I hid in the hall to watch them, hoping to see them talk to the Devil or perform evil deeds. But the men just drank and sang and argued and waved their arms about while the women chattered among themselves. Much like Christians. The children mostly snuffled and whined until one woman with a face like a withered apple gathered them about her. . . .

BIG Question
Why Do You Read? How does the information on this page help you understand the world in which Catherine lives? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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Record, Reduce, and Recap


You will also learn the Cornell Note-Taking System, described on the previous page. Here you will take notes on the excerpt you marked-up on the On-Page Note-Taking page.
CORNELL NOT E-TAKING: B IG Qu estion
Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key ideas.

Recap

C at h er i n e, C al l ed B i r d y: S ep tem b er Decem b er

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Tom Sawyer
Mark Twain

The Adventures of

The A dventur es of Tom Saw yer

INTRODUCTI ON TO THE NOVEL

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer


Mark Twain

Most of the adventures recorded in this book really occurred . . . . [P]art of my plan has been to try to pleasantly remind adults of what they once were themselves, and of how they felt and thought and talked, and what queer enterprises they sometimes engaged in.

Hannibal, Missouri, his hometown. He wrote: During my three days stay in the town, I woke up every morning with the impression that I was a boyfor in my dreams the faces were all young again, and looked as they had looked in the old times. In the Hannibal of his boyhood, it always seemed to be summer. The name Twain chose for the fictional version of his hometown tells you how highly he valued it. He called it St. Petersburg. In Christian beliefs, St. Peter tends the gates of heaven, and the imaginary town of St. Petersburg is very close to heaven in Mark Twains eyes. In the second chapter of Tom Sawyer, he describes life in St. Petersburg: [T]he summer world was bright and fresh, and brimming with life. There was a song in every heart. . . . There was cheer in every face and a spring in every step. Another writer, the American scholar Bernard DeVoto, echoed a word Twain himself used to describe the novel. Referring to Tom Sawyer, DeVoto said: It is a hymn . . . to the richness and security of a childs world, to a phase of American society now vanished altogether, . . . to many other things in which millions of readers have recognized themselves.

from the preface to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

In 1876 many Americans were in a mood to look backward. It was the hundredth anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The country had come a long way since it won its independence from Great Britain. The United States was becoming a powerful industrial country, with large cities, great factories, and railroads that crisscrossed the nation. For city dwellers, life was growing busier and busier. They longed for a simpler time, without smoke-spewing factories and clanging streetcars. To Americans, small towns and farming communities seemed friendlier than the cities.
A Fateful Visit Mark Twain also felt this longing for a simpler time. He was a busy man, a world-famous author and lecturer, living in the East far from his small-town, southwestern roots.

In the early 1870s, Twains nostalgia was triggered by a visit he made to


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NOV E L C O MPA NION: Un it 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL

Trouble in Paradise Tom Sawyer is often described as an idyll. An idyll is a remembrance of simple, peaceful, and innocent country life, often by a person who now lives in the city. Many parts of Tom Sawyer are certainly idyllic. However, Mark Twain does not remember only the pleasant parts of life in Hannibal. Evil is floating around the edges of Toms small-town paradise. In addition, St. Petersburg is divided into strict social classes, from wealthy, educated people to penniless drunks, enslaved African Americans, and homeless people.

fun of a type of book written for children at that time. These books portrayed admirable boys who always worked hard, behaved themselves perfectly, made touching sacrifices for others, attended church willingly, studied hard, saved their pennies, and never played hooky from school. Twain, along with some other authors of the time, felt these stories were preachy, unrealistic, and completely lacking in the fun and humor of real childrens lives. From the very first chapter, Twain makes fun of Model Boy books. Some critics claim that readers recognize something of themselves in Tom Sawyer. Tom represents a freedom that few, if any, people enjoy. This is another reason for the books continuing popularity. Who would not want to join in Toms search for lost treasure? Who has not dreamed of escaping to a deserted island to fish, swim, and play in the summer sun? Who has not longed to leave real life behind for a while and live in a world of the imagination?

Twain contrasts the world of childhood with the world of adults. Often these two worlds are in conflict. More often than not, the young people in Tom Sawyer succeed in tricking the adults. In many ways, Tom and his friends seem to run the town. There is a reason for this. One of Mark Twains purposes in writing The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was to make

Slavery in Missouri
In the years before the Civil War (18611865), Missouri and other southern states allowed slavery. Enslaved African Americans were a common sight in Mark Twains boyhood home of Hannibal. However, even though many people in Missouri were immigrants from southern states and supporters of slavery, many others opposed it. Missourians mixed feelings about slavery prevented the state from joining other slaveholding states in the Confederacy and made Missouri a battleground during the Civil War.

The A dventur es of Tom Saw yer

MEET THE AUTHOR

Mark Twain (18351910)

I was born the 30th of November, 1835, in the almost invisible village of Florida, Monroe County, Missouri. . . . The village contained a hundred people and I increased the population by 1 percent. It is more than many of the best men in history could have done for a town.

The Autobiography of Mark Twain

The real name of the author we know as Mark Twain was Samuel Langhorne Clemens. His father was a lawyer and store owner. While not poor, the family was never well-off.
Growing Up Along the Mississippi Four years after his birth, Samuel Clemenss family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a fast-growing town on the Mississippi River. Samuel spent the next fourteen years there.

Finding His Lifes Work When he was twenty-one, Clemens returned to the Mississippi River. He trained for the job he had always wanted: steamboat pilot. When the Civil War began in 1861, Clemens took a job in Virginia City, Nevada. There he began to write humorous sketches and tall tales for the local newspaper. In February 1863, he first signed a story with the pen name that he would make famous: Mark Twain. It was the riverboatmans term for water two fathoms, or twelve feet, deep meaning just barely deep enough to navigate safely.

All kinds of boats, from simple rafts and barges to magnificent steamboats, traveled the Mississippi River. Hannibal was also home to relatives, friends, and townspeople who would resurface years later as characters in Twains fiction. Many of them appear in Tom Sawyer. Clemens was only eleven years old when his father died. At thirteen he became a printers apprentice. When he was seventeen and had learned the trade, Clemens left Hannibal to work in printing shops and on newspapers from Iowa to New York.

Clemens next moved to California where he tried mining for a while. In 1865 a national magazine published his retelling of a tall tale he had heard from miners. The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County was an instant success. As a reporter for several newspapers, he traveled to Hawaii, Europe, and the Middle East. The book he wrote about his travels, The Innocents Abroad, made him famous. More books followed, including Roughing It, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, and The Prince and the Pauper. Thanks to his lecture tours and books, the image of the bushy-haired, mustachioed author known as Mark Twain became familiar around the world.

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N OV E L C OMPA NION: Un it 1

BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 110

Connect to the Literature


You have probably heard the expression Boys will be boys. What does it mean to you?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. SUMMARIZE Summarize in one sentence the most important idea(s) in Build Background.

Write a Journal Entry


Write in your journal about what this phrase means to you. Think about the circumstances in which youve heard it, the ways it can be used to excuse certain behavior, and the attitude it conveys.

Build Background
Staying True to the Characters
Though Mark Twains story of a Missouri childhood concerns the life and times of a boy named Tom Sawyer, in some ways the novel is also about Twain himself. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer brims with Twains very strong opinions on everything from education to religion to racial intolerance. But it is important to note that Twain allowed his characters to speak in their own very distinctive voices. The characters in the novel use colorful and often grammatically incorrect language. Although Twain himself did not speak in that way, he was able to re-create the language of the people he knew when he was a young boy growing up in smalltown Missouri. Another important difference between Twain and his characters becomes clear in Chapter 6, when Huck and Tom use racial slurs. Twain himself became a supporter of equal rights for African Americans, and in fact, one of his last works was a bitter attack on European colonial exploitation of Africa.

The A dventur es of Tom Sawyer : Chapters 110

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 110

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Whom Can You Count On? Think about the people in your life on whom you rely most. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, author Mark Twain introduces readers to Tom and some of the characters Tom counts on in his life. As you read the first ten chapters of the novel, consider which characters Tom counts on mostand why. Literary Element Narrator and Point of View In a literary work, point of view is the relationship of the narrator, or storyteller, to the story. A story with a first-person point of view is told by a narrator who is one of the characters, the I of the story. In a story with a limited third-person point of view, the narrator is outside the story and reveals the inner thoughts of only one character, but refers to the character as he or she. In a story with an omniscient point of view, the narrator is also outside the story but can reveal the inner thoughts of several characters as well as meaningful background information. In The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, the lively third-person omniscient narrator reveals details about the inhabitants of a small town called St. Petersburgand keeps readers laughing and thinking along the way. This narrator is a persona, a voice created by the author to tell the story. Even though the narrator has some exeriences in common with Mark Twain, the narrator is not the same as the author. As you read the first section of the novel, think about the effect this narrator has on the story. Reading Strategy Make Inferences About Characters When you make inferences, you make guesses based on clues. Most authors do not directly state everything there is to know about their characters, plot, and setting. Instead they provide clues that guide readers toward an interactive process of interpreting the story elements. Making inferences about characters is important because it can help you understand the story at a deeper level. To make inferences about a character, look for what the character thinks, says, and does how the character looks and sounds what others say about the character how others react to the character As you read, use the texts clues along with your own prior knowledge of human behavior to make inferences about characters. Use a chart like the one at right. You may also find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one on the next page.

Vocabulary
apprehensively [ap ri hen siv le] adv. cautiously Jenny heard a strange noise in the basement, and she apprehensively went down the steps. beguiled [bi ld ] v. tricked; misled They should have known better, but they were beguiled by the con mans promises of money and fame. perplexed [pr plekst ] adj. confused We were perplexed by the complicated rules of the board game. reluctance [ri luk tns] n. hesitation With great reluctance, the little girl opened her mouth and showed the dentist her sore tooth. turmoil [tur moil] n. uproar The whole family was thrown into turmoil by the arrival of an uninvited guest.

Character
Tom

Traits

My inference is

Aunt Polly

Huck

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ACT IVE READING: Chapters 110

Many new characters are introduced in the first section of Tom Sawyer. Use the web diagram on this page to keep track of the new characters and their relationship to Tom. As new characters appear, add each name to a circle and connect to

the Tom circle with a line. On the line, write a short description of the characters relationship to Tom. Also connect each new character with any other appropriate circle, and explain the relationship on a connecting line.

Aunt Polly

sg m To ua i rd an

Tom

The A dventur es of Tom Sawyer : Chapters 110

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Narrator and Point of View How does Tom respond to having to wash? What point does the narrator make about this response?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 4


Tom was a trifle disconcerted. The basin was refilled, and this time he stood over it a little while, gathering resolution; took in a big breath and began. When he entered the kitchen presently, with both eyes shut, and groping for the towel with his hands, an honourable testimony of suds and water was dripping from his face. But when he emerged from the towel, he was not yet satisfactory; for the clean territory stopped short at his chin and his jaws like a mask; below and beyond this line there was a dark expanse of unirrigated soil that spread downward in front and backward around his neck. Mary took him in hand, and when she was done with him he was a man and a brother, without distinction of colour, and his saturated hair was neatly brushed, and its short curls wrought into a dainty and symmetrical general effect. (He privately smoothed out the curls, with labour and difficulty, and plastered his hair close down to his head; for he held curls to be effeminate, and his own filled his life with bitterness.) Then Mary got out a suit of his clothing that had been used only on Sundays during two yearsthey were simply called his other clothesand so by that we know the size of his wardrobe. The girl put him to rights after he had dressed himself; she buttoned his neat roundabout up to his chin, turned his vast shirtcollar down over his shoulders, brushed him off and crowned him with his speckled straw hat. He now looked exceedingly improved and uncomfortable; he was fully as uncomfortable as he looked; for there was a restraint about whole clothes and cleanliness that galled him. He hoped that Mary would forget his shoes, but the hope was blighted; she coated them thoroughly with tallow, as was the custom, and brought them out. He lost his temper and said he was always being made to do everything he didnt want to do. But Mary said, persuasively: Please, Tomthats a good boy. So he got into his shoes, snarling. Mary was soon ready, and the three children set out for Sunday-school, a place that Tom hated with his whole heart; but Sid and Mary were fond of it.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

. . . The churchs high-backed uncushioned pews would seat about three hundred persons; the edifice was but a small, plain affair, with a sort of pine-board tree-box on top of it for a steeple. At the door Tom dropped back a step and accosted a Sunday-dressed comrade: Say, Bill, got a yaller ticket? Yes. Whatll you take for her? Whatll you give? Piece of lickrish and a fish-hook. Less see em. Tom exhibited. They were satisfactory, and the property changed hands. Then Tom traded a couple of white alleys for three red tickets, and some small trifle or other for a couple of blue ones. He waylaid other boys as they came, and went on buying tickets of various colours ten or fifteen minutes longer. He entered the church, now, with a swarm of clean and noisy boys and girls, proceeded to his seat and started a quarrel with the first boy that came handy. The teacher, a grave, elderly man, interfered; then turned his back a moment, and Tom pulled a boys hair in the next bench, and was absorbed in his book when the boy turned around; stuck a pin in another boy, presently, in order to hear him say Ouch! and got a new reprimand from his teacher. Toms whole class were of a patternrestless, noisy, and troublesome. When they came to recite their lessons, not one of them knew his verses perfectly, but had to be prompted all along. However, they worried through, and each got his reward in small blue tickets, each with a passage of Scripture on it; each blue ticket was pay for two verses of the recitation. Ten blue tickets equalled a red one, and could be exchanged for it; ten red tickets equalled a yellow one; for ten yellow tickets the Superintendent gave a very plainly bound Bible (worth forty cents in those easy times) to the pupil. How many of my readers would have the industry and the application to memorize two thousand verses, even for a Dor Bible?

Literary Element Narrator and Point of View In this case, do you think the attitudes and beliefs of the narrator are the same as the attitudes and beliefs of the author? Explain your answer.

The A dventur es of Tom Sawyer : Chapters 110

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Make Inferences About Characters What inference can you make about Tom based on his reaction to the new boy in town?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 1


The summer evenings were long. It was not dark yet. Presently Tom checked his whistle. A stranger was before him; a boy a shade larger than himself. A new-comer of any age or either sex was an impressive curiosity in the poor little village of St Petersburg. This boy was well dressed, toowell dressed on a week-day. This was simply astounding. His cap was a dainty thing, his close-buttoned blue-cloth roundabout was new and natty, and so were his pantaloons. He had shoes on, and yet it was only Friday. He even wore a neck-tie, a bright bit of ribbon. He had a citified air about him that ate into Toms vitals. The more Tom stared at the splendid marvel, the higher he turned up his nose at his finery, and the shabbier and shabbier his own outfit seemed to him to grow. Neither boy spoke. If one moved the other movedbut only sidewise, in a circle. They kept face to face and eye to eye all the time. Finally, Tom said: I can lick you! Id like to see you try it. Well, I can do it. No you cant, either. Yes I can. No you cant. I can. You cant. Can. Cant. An uncomfortable pause. Then Tom said: Whats your name? Tisnt any of your business, maybe. Well I low Ill make it my business. Well, why dont you? If you say much I will. Muchmuchmuch! There, now. Oh, you think youre mighty smart, dont you? I could lick you with one hand tied behind me, if I wanted to. Well, why dont you do it? You say you can do it.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Strategy

Well, I will, if you fool with me. . . . Awtake a walk! Sayif you give me much more of your sass, Ill take and bounce a rock offn your head. Oh, of course you will. Well, I will. Well, why dont you do it, then? What do you keep saying you will for? Why dont you do it? Its because youre afraid. I aint afraid. You are. I aint. You are. Another pause, and more eyeing and sidling around each other. Presently they were shoulder to shoulder. Tom said: Get away from here! Go away yourself! I wont. I wont, either. So they stood, each with a foot placed at an angle as a brace, and both shoving with might and main, and glowering at each other with hate. But neither could get an advantage. After struggling till both were hot and flushed, each relaxed his strain with watchful caution, and Tom said: Youre a coward and a pup. Ill tell my big brother on you, and he can lam you with his little finger, and Ill make him do it, too. What do I care for your big brother? Ive got a brother thats bigger than he is; and, whats more, he can throw him over that fence, too. (Both brothers were imaginary.) Thats a lie. Your saying so dont make it so. Tom drew a line in the dust with his big toe, and said: I dare you to step over that, and Ill lick you till you cant stand up. Anybody thatll take a dare will steal a sheep.

Reading Strategy Make Inferences About Characters Why do you think it takes the two boys so long to begin fighting?

The A dventur es of Tom Sawyer : C hapters 110

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 8


What if he turned his back, now, and disappeared mysteriously? What if he went awayever so far away, into unknown countries beyond the seasand never came back any more! How would she feel then? The idea of being a clown recurred to him now, only to fill him with disgust. For frivolity and jokes, and spotted tights, were an offence, when they intruded themselves upon a spirit that was exalted into the vague, august realm of the romantic. No, he would be a soldier, and return after long years, all war-worn and illustrious. No, better still, he would join the Indians and hunt buffaloes, and go on the war-path in the mountain ranges and the trackless great plains of the Far West, and away in the future come back a great chief, bristling with feathers, hideous with paint, and prance into Sunday-school, some drowsy summer morning, with a blood-curdling war-whoop, and sear the eyeballs of all his companions with unappeasable envy. But no, there was something grander even than this. He would be a pirate! That was it! Now his future lay plain before him, and glowing with unimaginable splendour. How his name would fill the world, and make people shudder! How gloriously he would go ploughing the dancing seas, in his long, low, black racer, the Spirit of the Storm, with his grisly flag flying at the fore! And, at the zenith of his fame, how he would suddenly appear at the old village and stalk into church all brown and weather-beaten, in his black velvet doublet and trunks, his great jack-boots, his crimson sash, his belt bristling with horse-pistols, his crime-rusted cutlass at his side, his slouch hat with waving plumes, his black flag unfurled with the skull and crossbones on it, and hear with swelling ecstasy the whisperings, Its Tom Sawyer the Pirate! the Black Avenger of the Spanish Main! Yes, it was settled; his career was determined. He would run away from home and enter upon it. He would start the very next morning. Therefore he must now begin to get ready. He would collect his resources together.

BIG Question
Whom Can You Count On? What decision does Tom make about whom to count on? How do you know? Why do you think he feels this way? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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N OV E L COMPA NION: Un it 1

CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key ideas.

Recap

The A dventur es of Tom Sawyer : Chapters 110

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 110

Respond and Think Critically


1. How does Tom get his friends to whitewash the fence for him? According to Mark Twain, what great law of human action is Tom following? [Recall]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 11. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. Who is Huckleberry Finn? Why does Tom find him appealing? [Analyze]

3. The narrator does not tell us what happens at the end of Chapter 4, when Tom is unable to answer the judges question correctly. Why, in your opinion, does the narrator not explain how the scene ends? [Infer]

4. Tom uses his imagination to escape from the boredom of everyday life. Is this a positive or a negative character trait? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Explain your answer. [Interpret]

5. Whom Can You Count On? Choose one of the characters you have read about so far and explain why you think Tom does or does not count on that character. [Interpret]

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N OV E L COM PA NION: Un it 1

AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 110

Literary Element Narrator and Point of View 1. In Chapter 9, Tom and Huck witness a grave robbery and a murder. This scene has a very different feeling from what preceded itthe comic overtones of Toms exploits are replaced with a sense of fear and suspense. Reread the section in which Injun Joe attacks Dr. Robinson. What do you think the narrators opinions of these events might be? How do you know? [Analyze]

Vocabulary Practice
Match each boldfaced vocabulary word with a word from the right column that has the same meaning. Two of the words in the right column will not have matches. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. apprehensively beguiled perplexed reluctance turmoil a. angrily b. disinclination c. surreptitiously d. charmed e. chaos f. confounded g. anxiously

Academic Vocabulary Tom is able to acquire enough tickets to qualify for a new Bible at Sunday school. In the preceding sentence acquire means to come into possession as ones own. To become more familiar with the word acquire, fill out the graphic organizer below. Reading Strategy Make Inferences About

Characters

1. In Chapter 10, a howling dog reminds Tom and Huck of a superstition they share. Though the narrator never reveals the superstition directly, what inference can you make about it based on the two boys behavior and dialogue?

definition

synonym

acquire

2. What details guided you to this inference? [Analyze]

antonym

sentence/image

The A dventur es of Tom Sawyer : C hapters 110

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 110

Writing
Personal Response What is your first impression of Tom? Make a list of words or phrases that you think describe him.

Speaking and Listening


Literature Groups
Assignment After reading the first ten chapters of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, do you think the narrator excuses in Tom behavior that others would find irresponsible or annoying? With a small group of classmates, discuss whether or not there are sometimes good reasons to let boys be boys. Try to reach a consensus, or general agreement, among the group. Prepare Before your group meets, examine the text for evidence of the narrators attitude toward Toms pranks, schemes, and, especially, treatment of other people. Take notes or create a chart like the one below to keep track of what you find.

Behavior
Tom skips school

Harmful to Tom

Harmful to others

Discuss During your discussion, respect the views of others by listening carefully. Remember to make eye contact and share your own ideas and opinions calmly. Offer support for your opinions, but keep yourself open to the possibility of changing your mind. Use your notes and your chart to support your opinions. Report Have one member of your group orally state your consensus to the class or state that no consensus was reached. This group member must speak loudly and clearly enough for all to hear. Evaluate How would you rate your own participation in the discussion? Write a short paragraph describing what you feel you did well and listing at least one element you feel you could improve. Exchange your self-evaluation with a peer, and discuss each others participation.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 1124

Connect to the Literature


Why, in your opinion, do some people see past events through rosecolored glasses? In other words, why does the past sometimes look better than it actually was?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, in the present tense, using information in Build Background. The photograph shows Mark Twains boyhood home in Hannibal, Missouri.

Have a Discussion
Discuss with a partner an experience in which you or a friend were looking at a past event through rose-colored glasses. What led to the positive feeling about the event? Did your view of the event ever change?

Build Background
Fact and Fiction
Mark Twain created the characters and places in his novels partly from the people and places he knew. His experiences in his boyhood home in Hannibal, Missouri, are reflected in some of his works, particularly in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Tom, Mark Twain later wrote, is made up of himself as a child and two of his friends. Aunt Polly is based on Twains mother, and Becky is based on Laura Hawkins, a neighbor. Henry, Twains younger brother, appears in the book as Sid, but Twain noted that Henry was never a tattletale. Tom Blankenship, son of a Hannibal neer-do-well, was the model for Huck. In real life, Injun Joe was a pitiful homeless person. Keep in mind that the real-life people Twain used are not the characters themselves. They have been filtered through Twains imagination. Twain often made reference to the wondrous power of the human imagination. He once wrote: Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities. Truth isnt.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 1124

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Whom Can You Count On? In the section of the novel you are about to read, Tom and two friends, Huck Finn and Joe Harper, leave home with a plan to make their own way in the world. As you read, note how their new circumstances force the boys to count on one another as well as how each boy counts on himself.

Vocabulary
chronic [kron ik] adj. permanent; long-term The pain in Sajids fingers is the result of a chronic medical condition. conspicuous [kn spik u s] adj. obvious With her enormous flowered hat, Aunt Lily was conspicuous even in a crowd. frivolous [friv ls] adj. not serious; silly or playful His frivolous behavior in class annoyed his teacher and classmates. ominous [om ns] adv. threatening; menacing It was about to storm and the sky looked very ominous. vindictive [vin dik tiv] adj. eager for revenge When Maurice feels hes been unfairly accused, he can be very vindictive.

Literary Element Description Description is writing that conveys the feeling and impression of a setting, a person, an animal, an object, or an event. Writers use sensory details to make their descriptions more vivid. Sensory details appeal to the readers five senses: hearing, sight, touch, taste, and smell. Sensory details are also called imagery. Writers use concrete words to appeal to the senses. Writers also use abstract words that express ideals or qualitiessuch as order, hope, and despairto describe what the senses cannot reveal. As you read, notice examples of concrete and abstract words that effectively convey Toms adventures and thoughts. Reading Skill Analyze Setting When you analyze, you look at the separate parts of something to understand the whole. When you analyze the setting of a literary work, you look at the different aspects of where and when the story takes place. A setting also embodies the values and traditions of a particular place or culture. Analyzing the setting is important because the setting can have a great influence on the characters and action of a story. Every change in setting can help move the plot forward. To analyze setting, pay attention to where and when the action takes place what the details of each new setting are how each setting affects the characters and their actions You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at right.

Where
Jackson Island

Details
natural beauty, quiet, no adults, plenty of free time

Effects
sense of freedom, homesickness

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ACTIVE READING: Chapters 1124

The long second paragraph of Chapter 14 contains many striking words and phrases that create a word painting of waking up on Jacksons Island. As you read this paragraph, keep track of words

and phrases that you feel are especially colorful and memorable. In one column of the chart below, write the word or phrase. In the other, explain how the description appeals to a reader.

Word or Phrase
cool gray dawn

How or Why It Works


appeals to senses of both touch (cool) and sight (gray)

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Description What details in this description help you imagine the sights and sounds of the oncoming storm?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 17


Now a weird flash turned night into day, and showed every little grass-blade separate and distinct, that grew about their feet. And it showed three white startled faces, too. A deep peal of thunder went rolling and tumbling down the heavens, and lost itself in sullen rumblings in the distance. A sweep of chilly air passed by, rustling all the leaves and snowing the flaky ashes broadcast about the fire. Another fierce glare lit up the forest, and an instant crash followed that seemed to rend the tree-tops right over the boys heads. They clung together in terror, in the thick gloom that followed. A few big rain-drops fell pattering upon the leaves. Quick, boys, go for the tent! exclaimed Tom. They sprang away, stumbling over roots and among vines in the dark, no two plunging in the same direction. A furious blast roared through the trees, making everything sing as it went. One blinding flash after another came, and peal on peal of deafening thunder. And now a drenching rain poured down, and the rising hurricane drove it in sheets along the ground. The boys cried out to each other, but the roaring wind and the booming thunderblasts drowned their voices utterly. However, one by one they straggled in at last, and took shelter under the tent, cold, scared, and streaming with water; but to have company in misery seemed something to be grateful for. They could not talk, the old sail flapped so furiously, even if the other noises would have allowed them. The tempest rose higher and higher, and presently the sail tore loose from its fastenings, and went winging away on the blast. The boys seized each others hands, and fled, with many tumblings and bruises, to the shelter of a great oak that stood upon the river bank. Now the battle was at its highest. Under the ceaseless conflagrations of lightnings that flamed in the skies, everything below stood out in clean-cut and shadowless distinctness; the bending trees, the billowy river white with foam, the driving spray of

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spume-flakes, the dim outlines of the high bluffs on the other side, glimpsed through the drifting cloud-rack and the slanting veil of rain. Every little while some giant tree yielded the fight and fell crashing through the younger growth; and the unflagging thunder-peals came now in ear-splitting explosive bursts, keen and sharp, and unspeakably appalling. The storm culminated in one matchless effort that seemed likely to tear the island to pieces, burn it up, drown it to the tree-tops, blow it away and deafen every creature in it, all at one and the same moment. It was a wild night for homeless young heads to be out in. But at last the battle was done, and the forces retired, with weaker and weaker threatenings and grumblings, and peace resumed her sway. The boys went back to camp a good deal awed; but they found there was still something to be thankful for, because the great sycamore, the shelter of their beds, was a ruin, now, blasted by the lightnings, and they were not under it when the catastrophe happened. Everything in camp was drenched, the camp-fire as well; for they were but heedless lads, like their generation, and had made no provision against rain. Here was matter for dismay, for they were soaked through and chilled. They were eloquent in their distress: but they presently discovered that the fire had eaten so far up under the great log it had been built against (where it curved upward and separated itself from the ground), that a handbreadth or so of it had escaped wetting; so they patiently wrought until, with shreds and bark gathered from the under sides of sheltered logs, they coaxed the fire to burn again. Then they piled on great dead boughs till they had a roaring furnace and were glad-hearted once more. They dried their boiled ham and had a feast, and after that they sat by the fire and expanded and glorified their midnight adventure until morning, for there was not a dry spot to sleep on anywhere around.

Literary Element Description To what does author Mark Twain compare the end of the storm? What details does he use to create this comparison?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Analyze Setting How has the town changed in response to the disappearance and assumed drowning of Tom, Joe, and Huck?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 18


But there was no hilarity in the little town that tranquil Saturday afternoon. The Harpers and Aunt Pollys family, were being put into mourning with great grief and many tears. An unusual quiet possessed the village, although it was ordinarily quiet enough in all conscience. The villagers conducted their concerns with an abstracted air, and talked little; but they sighed often. The Saturday holiday seemed a burden to the children. They had no heart in their sports, and gradually gave them up. In the afternoon Becky Thatcher found herself moping about the deserted school-house yard, and feeling very melancholy. But she found nothing there to comfort her. She soliloquized: Oh, if I only had his brass andiron knob again! But I havent got anything now to remember him by, and she choked back a little sob. Presently she stopped, and said to herself: It was right here. Oh, if it was to do over again, I wouldnt say thatI wouldnt say it for the whole world. But hes gone now; Ill never, never, never see him any more. This thought broke her down, and she wandered away with the tears rolling down her cheeks. Then quite a group of boys and girlsplaymates of Toms and Joescame by, and stood looking over the paling fence and talking in reverent tones of how Tom did so-and-so the last time they saw him, and how Joe said this and that small trifle (pregnant with awful prophecy, as they could easily see now!)and each speaker pointed out the exact spot where the lost lads stood at the time, and then added something like, and I was a standing just sojust as I am now, and as if you was himI was as close as thatand he smiled, just this wayand then something seemed to go all over me, likeawful, you knowand I never thought what it meant, of course, but I can see now! Then there was a dispute about who saw the dead boys last in life, and many claimed that dismal distinction, and offered evidences more or less tampered with by the witness; and when it was ultimately decided who did

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see the departed last, and exchanged the last words with them, the lucky parties took upon themselves a sort of sacred importance, and were gaped at and envied by all the rest. . . . When the Sunday-school hour was finished the next morning, the bell began to toll, instead of ringing in the usual way. It was a very still Sabbath, and the mournful sound seemed in keeping with the musing hush that lay upon nature. The villagers began to gather, loitering a moment in the vestibule to converse in whispers about the sad event. But there was no whispering in the house; only the funereal rustling of dresses, as the women gathered to their seats, disturbed the silence there. None could remember when the little church had been so full before. There was finally a waiting pause, an expectant dumbness, and then Aunt Polly entered, followed by Sid and Mary, and then by the Harper family, all in deep black, and the whole congregation, the old minister as well, rose reverently and stood, until the mourners were seated in the front pew. There was another communing silence, broken at intervals by muffled sobs, and then the minister spread his hands abroad and prayed. A moving hymn was sung, and the text followed: I am the resurrection and the life. As the service proceeded, the clergyman drew such pictures of the graces, the winning ways, and the rare promise of the lost lads, that every soul there, thinking he recognized these pictures, felt a pang in remembering that he had persistently blinded himself to them always before, and had as persistently seen only faults and flaws in the poor boys. The minister related many a touching incident in the lives of the departed, too, which illustrated their sweet, generous natures, and the people could easily see, now, how noble and beautiful those episodes were, and remembered with grief that at the time they occurred they had seemed rank rascalities, well deserving the cowhide. The congregation became more and more moved as the pathetic tale went on, till at last the whole company broke down and joined the weeping mourners in a chorus of anguished sobs, the preacher himself giving way to his feelings, and crying in the pulpit.

Reading Skill Analyze Setting Why do you think Mark Twain chose to set this scene in the church? What does this setting reveal about the way the townspeopleand people in generalsometimes behave after a tragedy?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 21


Tom shot a glance at Becky. He had seen a hunted and helpless rabbit look as she did, with a gun levelled at its head. Instantly he forgot his quarrel with her. Quick, something must be done! done in a flash, too! But the very imminence of the emergency paralyzed his invention. Good! he had an inspiration! He would run and snatch the book, spring through the door and fly! but his resolution shook for one little instant, and the chance was lostthe master opened the volume. If Tom only had the wasted opportunity back again! Too late; there was no help for Becky now, he said. The next moment the master faced the school. Every eye sank under his gaze; there was that in it which smote even the innocent with fear. There was silence while one might count ten; the master was gathering his wrath. Then he spoke: Who tore this book? There was not a sound. One could have heard a pin drop. The stillness continued; the master searched face after face for signs of guilt. Benjamin Rogers, did you tear this book? A denial. Another pause. Joseph Harper, did you? Another denial. Toms uneasiness grew more and more intense under the slow torture of these proceedings. The master scanned the ranks of boys, considered a while, then turned to the girls: Amy Lawrence? A shake of the head. . . . Susan Harper, did you do this? Another negative. The next girl was Becky Thatcher. Tom was trembling from head to foot with excitement, and a sense of the hopelessness of the situation. Rebecca Thatcher(Tom glanced at her face; it was white with terror)did you tearno, look me in the face(her hands rose in appeal)did you tear this book? A thought shot like lightning through Toms brain. He sprang to his feet and shouted: I done it!

BIG Question
Whom Can You Count On? Why does Tom take the blame for Beckys actions? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

ASK QUESTIONS Write a question about the novel. Can you find the answer in your notes?

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1124

Respond and Think Critically


1. How do Tom and Huck treat Muff Potter after he has been put in jail? Why, in your opinion, do they treat him this way? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 23. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What important decision does Tom make at the end of this section? What result does the decision have? [Analyze]

3. Do you feel that Mark Twain is successful in creating Injun Joe as a villain? Does Injun Joe seem like a real person to you? Explain your answer. [Classify]

4. Some readers feel that Tom goes too far in his pranks. What do you think? How would you feel if you were one of the people affected by his jokes, such as Aunt Polly or the people who attended his funeral? [Connect]

5. Whom Can You Count On? In terms of counting on others, what do you think are the benefits and disadvantages to Toms living in a small town? [Analyze]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1124

Literary Element Description 1. In your opinion, what was some of the most memorable imagery in Chapter 12s description of the cat and the pain-killer? [Recall]

Vocabulary Practice
On a separate sheet of paper, write the vocabulary word that best completes each sentence. chronic frivolous vindictive conspicuous ominous

2. What emotional effect do you think author Mark Twain had in mind with this description? [Evaluate]

1. My cousin hates being ____________ , so he always tries to blend into the scenery. 2. Some people respond in ____________ ways when they feel they have been wronged. 3. Andy is tired of his ____________ problem with math. 4. Sometimes people think Terri is a ____________ person, but thats only because she laughs too loudly. 5. There was a(n) ____________ pause after my mother asked who broke her favorite vase.

Reading Skill Analyze Setting 1. How do you think living on the island influences the way Tom, Joe, and Huck think about themselves? [Infer]

Academic Vocabulary Becky Thatcher thought Toms conduct was noble when he took the blame for tearing the book. In the preceding sentence, conduct means behavior. Conduct also has other meanings. For instance: Tom and his friends like to conduct imaginary battles after school. What do you think conduct means in the preceding sentence? What is the difference between the two meanings?

2. How do the values and traditions of the town make it easy for the three boys to return without being harshly reprimanded? [Interpret]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1124

Write with Style


Apply Description
Assignment Imagery is an important part of many authors writing style because it helps readers imagine the characters and events more vividly. Review some examples of imagery from the section of the novel you just read. Look for examples that convey a humorous effect. Then, using comic imagery, write a paragraph about a personal experience you had. Get Ideas Think about past experiences when you or someone you know did something funny. Then take a few minutes to write a list of these experiences. Dont write complete sentences at this stage. A word or two that reminds you of the experience will be enough. Write quickly and try not to judge your ideas. When youve finished your list, select one of your ideas to use as the basis for your paragraph. Choose the one that you are able to visualize most clearly. Give It Structure Begin your paragraph with a sentence that introduces readers to the comic situation. Follow it with sentences that describe the situation fully using imagery to create vivid word pictures. Look at Language When it comes to creating effective imagery, word choice is very important. Use a thesaurus to help you find strong synonyms for weak words. The underlined words in the sentences below, for example, could be effectively replaced by the bracketed words. EXAMPLE I come from a family of secret eaters. My brother sometimes takes [sneaks, pilfers, snitches] cookies and eats [gobbles, munches, devours] them under his bed. EXAMPLE When he comes out from under the bed, he has crumbs and chocolate on his face. [When he emerges from his subterranean lair, his face is a chocolate-smeared mask of crumbs.]

Connect to Content Areas


Art
Assignment A courtroom sketch is an artistic rendering of a scene or moment that takes place in a court of law. Because many courts in the United States do not allow cameras in the courtroom, artists are hired to create sketches of the proceedings. Chapter 24 of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer contains a vivid courtroom scene. Using details from the novel, draw your own courtroom sketch of one or more of the following characters: Tom, Injun Joe, Muff Potter. Investigate Using an Internet search engine such as Google, type in the key words courtroom sketches. View several Web pages that feature examples of this type of illustration. As you view the sketches, take notes, print out images, or create rough drawings to remind you of facial expressions and body positions you might like to use in your own sketch. Create Decide on the medium you will use: colored pencils, pastels, colored markers, charcoal, or pen and ink. On a large sheet of plain paper or poster board, create a preliminary sketch to show the positioning of the character or characters you would like to sketch. Use your research materials to guide your drawing, but do not trace copies of any of the images you found during your research process. Think about which moment of the trial scene you wish to depict. Report Display your courtroom sketch for the class and discuss why you chose the scene you did.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 2536

Connect to the Literature


One of the characters in the novel says, being rich aint what its cracked up to be. Its just worry and worry, and sweat and sweat.

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, in the present tense, using information from Build Background.

Sharing Ideas
Share ideas with a partner about the advantages and disadvantages of being wealthy. How might your life changefor the better and for the worse?

Build Background
Bad Boys and Good Boys
You read on page 9 about the good boy novels that Mark Twain poked fun at. In the final section of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, youll find out what happens to Tom, the bad boy, and his bad comrade, Huck Finn. Keep in mind that the good boys of the other books never misbehaved and were rewarded with wealth, true love, and the respect and admiration of others. Mark Twain had great affection for his literary creations, Tom and Huck. He brought them back in other novels. In 1885, nine years after The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was published, Twain published the first sequel to Tom Sawyer. This novel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is considered to be Twains masterpiece and one of the great American novels. It follows Huck and the runaway Jim on a journey down the Mississippi River to freedom. In 1894 Twain published Tom Sawyer Abroad and two years later, Tom Sawyer, Detective.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 2536

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question: Whom Can You Count On? You may have heard the expression It takes a village to raise a child. In what way does this statement relate to the novel? As you read, think about the people Tom and Huck can and cannot count on.

Vocabulary
apathy [ap the] n. lack of interest My sister used to love playing soccer, but now the idea of playing fills her with apathy. insipid [in sip id] adj. uninteresting; bland Some people find paintings of sweet, sad-eyed puppies to be quite insipid. subdued [sb dood ] adj. quiet; restrained When the other team scored a touchdown, our fans became subdued. threadbare [thred bar] adj. shabby; worn That old sofa is so threadbare that its springs are coming out. windfall [wind fol] n. unexpected gain; bonus My cousins inheritance was a windfall of more than a million dollars!

Literary Element Theme The theme is the main message about life that an author wants to share. Some works have a stated theme, which is expressed directly. More often, though, works have an implied theme, one that is revealed slowly through other elements such as plot, character, and setting. Identifying the theme of a story, poem, novel, or play helps you understand the authors message and purpose. In these final chapters of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, consider the way the narrators relationship to the story and the events of the story embody one of author Mark Twains major themes: Youth is a time of innocence. Reading Skill Analyze Plot Plot is the sequence of events in a story. The plot begins with exposition, which introduces the storys characters, setting, and situation. The rising action adds complications to the storys conflict, or central problem. The highest point of conflict, interest, or suspense in a story is called the climax. The falling action is the logical result of the climax, and the resolution presents the final outcome. When you analyze the plot of a literary work, you break it down in terms of these major structural elements. Analyzing the plot is important because it can help you understand not only the theme, setting, and characters, but also how the story itself is built. As you read the final chapters of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, pay attention to the characters needs and desires try to understand how one action leads to other actions note the emotional pull of each event or situation make predictions about what will happen next You may find it helpful to fill out graphic organizers like the one on the right and on the next page to keep track of the storys plot progression.

Climax Rising Action Exposition Falling Action Resolution

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Following the different events in the final chapters of Tom Sawyer is important to understanding the novels ending. Use the step-by-step chart on this

page to record the events as they occur in this section of the novel, starting with the first one listed.

Tom and Huck look for treasure in the haunted house.

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Theme In what way do Hucks problems with living in society reflect the authors nostalgic view of childhood?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 36


Huck Finns wealth, and the fact that he was now under the Widow Douglass protection, introduced him into societyno, dragged him into it, hurled him into itand his sufferings were almost more than he could bear. The widows servants kept him clean and neat, combed and brushed, and they bedded him nightly in unsympathetic sheets that had not one little spot or stain which he could press to his heart and know for a friend. He had to eat with knife and fork; he had to use napkin, cup, and plate; he had to learn his book; he had to go to church; he had to talk so properly that speech was become insipid in his mouth; whithersoever he turned, the bars and shackles of civilization shut him in and bound him hand and foot. He bravely bore his miseries three weeks, and then one day turned up missing. For forty-eight hours the widow hunted for him everywhere in great distress. The public were profoundly concerned; they searched high and low, they dragged the river for his body. Early the third morning Tom Sawyer wisely went poking among some old empty hogsheads down behind the abandoned slaughterhouse, and in one of them he found the refugee. Huck had slept there; he had just breakfasted upon some stolen odds and ends of food, and was lying off, now, in comfort with his pipe. He was unkempt, uncombed, and clad in the same old ruin of rags that had made him picturesque in the days when he was free and happy. Tom routed him out, told him the trouble he had been causing, and urged him to go home. Hucks face lost its tranquil content and took a melancholy cast. He said: Dont talk about it, Tom. Ive tried it, and it dont work; it dont work, Tom. It aint for me; I aint used to it. The widders good to me, and friendly; but I cant stand them ways. She makes me git up just at the same time every morning; she makes me wash, they comb me all to thunder; she wont let me sleep in the woodshed; I got to wear them blamed clothes that just smothers me, Tom; they dont seem to any air git through em, somehow; and theyre so rotten nice that I cant set down, or lay down,

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nor roll around anywheres; I aint slid on a cellar door forwell, it pears to be years; I got to go to church, and sweat and sweatI hate them ornery sermons! I cant ketch a fly in there, I cant chaw, I got to wear shoes all Sunday. The widder eats by a bell; she goes to bed by a bell; she gits up by a belleverythings so awful reglar a body cant stand it. Well, everybody does that way, Huck. Tom, it dont make no difference. I aint everybody and I cant stand it. Its awful to be tied up so. And grub comes too easyI dont take no interest in vittles that way. I got to ask to go a fishing; I got to ask to go in a swimming dernd if I haint got to ask to do everything. . . . The widder wouldnt let me smoke, she wouldnt let me yell, she wouldnt let me gape, nor stretch, nor scratch before folks. Then with a spasm of special irritation and injury: And dad fetch it, she prayed all the time! I never see such a woman! I had to shove, Tom, I just had to. And besides, that schools going to open, and Id a had to go to it; well, I wouldnt stand that, Tom. Looky here, Tom, being rich aint what its cracked up to be. Its just worry and worry, and sweat and sweat, and a wishing you was dead all the time. Now these clothes suits me and this barl suits me, and I aint ever going to shake em any more. Tom, I wouldnt ever got into all this trouble if it hadnt a ben for that money; now you just take my sheer of it along with yourn, and gimme a ten-center sometimesnot many times, becuz I dont give a dern for a thing thout its tollable hard to gitand you go and beg off for me with the widder. Oh, Huck, you know I cant do that. Taint fair; and besides, if youll try this thing just a while longer youll come to like it. Like it! Yesthe way Id like a hot stove if I was to set on it long enough. No Tom, I wont be rich, and I wont live in them cussed smothery houses. I like the woods, and the river, and hogsheads, and Ill stick to em too. Blame it all! just as wed got guns, and a cave, and all just fixed to rob, here this dern foolishness has got to come up and spile it all!

Literary Element Theme About what activities does Huck feel nostalgia? What do all these things represent to him?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Analyze Plot Keeping in mind the events of the novel up to this point, into which category of plot structure do you think this portion of the excerpt fallsexposition, rising action, falling action, or resolution? Explain your answer.

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 27


Two men entered. Each boy said to himself: Theres the old deaf and dumb Spaniard thats been about town once or twice latelynever saw tother man before. Tother was a ragged, unkempt creature, with nothing very pleasant in his face. The Spaniard was wrapped in a serape; he had bushy white whiskers, long white hair flowed from under his sombrero, and he wore green goggles. When they came in, tother was talking in a low voice; they sat down on the ground, facing the door, with their backs to the wall, and the speaker continued his remarks. His manner became less guarded and his words more distinct as he proceeded. No, said he, Ive thought it all over, and I dont like it. Its dangerous. Dangerous! grunted the deaf and dumb Spaniard, to the vast surprise of the boys. Milksop! This voice made the boys gasp and quake. It was Injun Joes! There was silence for some time. Then Joe said: Whats any more dangerous than that job up yonder but nothings come of it. Thats different. Away up the river so, and not another house about. Twont ever be known that we tried, anyway, long as we didnt succeed. Well, whats more dangerous than coming here in the daytime? anybody would suspicion us that saw us. I know that. But there wasnt any other place as handy after that fool of a job. I want to quit this shanty. I wanted to yesterday, only it warnt any use trying to stir out of here with those infernal boys playing over there on the hill right in full view. Those infernal boys quaked again under the inspiration of this remark, and thought how lucky it was that they had remembered it was Friday and concluded to wait a day. They wished in their hearts they had waited a year. The two men got out some food and made a luncheon. After a long and thoughtful silence, Injun Joe said:

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

Look here, lad, you go back up the river where you belong. Wait there till you hear from me. Ill take the chances on dropping into this town just once more, for a look. Well do that dangerous job after Ive spied around a little and think things look well for it. Then for Texas! Well leg it together! This was satisfactory. Both men presently fell to yawning, and Injun Joe said: Im dead for sleep! Its your turn to watch. He curled down in the weeds and soon began to snore. His comrade stirred him once or twice, and he became quiet. Presently the watcher began to nod; his head drooped lower and lower; both men began to snore now. . . . Now one snore ceased. Injun Joe sat up, stared around smiled grimly upon his comrade, whose head was drooping upon his kneesstirred him up with his foot and said: Here! Youre a watchman, aint you! All right, though nothings happened. My! have I been asleep? Oh, partly, partly. Nearly time for us to be moving, pard. Whatll we do with what little swag weve got left? I dont knowleave it here as weve always done, I reckon. No use to take it away till we start south. Six hundred and fifty in silvers something to carry. . . . Yes, but look here; it may be a good while before I get the right chance at that job; accidents might happen, taint in such a very good place; well just regularly bury itand bury it deep. Good idea, said the comrade, who walked across the room, knelt down, raised one of the rearward hearthstones and took out a bag that jingled pleasantly. He subtracted from it twenty or thirty dollars for himself and as much for Injun Joe, and passed the bag to the latter, who was on his knees in the corner, now, digging with his bowie-knife. The boys forgot all their fears, all their miseries in an instant.

Reading Skill Analyze Plot What do you predict will happen next?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 31


Is my Becky going to sleep all day? I just expected she would be tired to death. Your Becky? Yes, with a startled look. Didnt she stay with you last night? Why, no. Mrs Thatcher turned pale, and sank into a pew just as Aunt Polly, talking briskly with a friend, passed by. Aunt Polly said: Good morning, Mrs Thatcher. Good morning, Mrs Harper. Ive got a boy thats turned up missing. I reckon my Tom stayed at your house last nightone of you. And now hes afraid to come to church. Ive got to settle with him. Mrs Thatcher shook her head feebly and turned paler than ever. He didnt stay with us, said Mrs Harper, beginning to look uneasy. A marked anxiety came into Aunt Pollys face. Joe Harper, have you seen my Tom this morning? Nom. When did you see him last? Joe tried to remember, but was not sure he could say. The people had stopped moving out of church. Whispers passed along, and a boding uneasiness took possession of every countenance. Children were anxiously questioned, and young teachers. They all said they had not noticed whether Tom and Becky were on board the ferry-boat on the homeward trip; it was dark; no one thought of inquiring if anyone was missing. One young man finally blurted out his fear that they were still in the cave! Mrs Thatcher swooned away; Aunt Polly fell to crying and wringing her hands. The alarm swept from lip to lip, from group to group, from street to street; and within five minutes the bells were wildly clanging, and the whole town was up! The Cardiff Hill episode sank into instant insignificance, the burglars were forgotten, horses were saddled, skiffs were manned, the ferry-boat ordered out, and before the horror was half an hour old two hundred men were pouring down highroad and river towards the cave.

BIG Question
Whom Can You Count On? How do the townspeople work together to find the missing children? What does this behavior say about them as individuals and as a group? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

MY VIEW Comment on what you learned from your own notes.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 2536

Respond and Think Critically


1. Who is Uncle Jake? What does Hucks friendship with him say about Huck? What does it say about the different levels of St. Petersburg society? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 35. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. How does Huck help the Widow Douglas? Why does he want his actions kept secret? [Recall]

3. In what ways can the novel be seen as a study of the effects money has on peoples lives? [Evaluate]

4. The final section of the novel contains two examples of racist attitudes expressed by the characters, along with a sexist remark. Identify one of these examples. [Identify]

5. Whom Can You Count On? How would you describe Toms behavior in the cave with Becky? What personal characteristics does he demonstrate? [Summarize]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 2536

Literary Element Theme 1. Do you think Tom will ever reach his goal of becoming a famous and wealthy robber? Explain. [Evaluate]

Vocabulary Practice
Identify whether the words in each set have the same or the opposite meaning. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. apathy and lethargy insipid and scintillating subdued and raving threadbare and ragged windfall and boon

2. In what way does Huckleberry Finns final statement illustrate a theme of the novel? [Analyze]

Academic Vocabulary The people of the town of St. Petersburg often underestimated Huckleberry Finns potential based on his social class. Potential means capability or promise. Have you ever been underestimated in terms of your potential? What do you think were the reasons behind the way others saw you?

Reading Skill Analyze Plot 1. The plot of a novel is in many ways like a journeyfor the characters and for the reader. In what ways did Tom Sawyers journey through the events of the novel change him? Did your opinion of him change as a result? Explain. [Evaluate]

2. You will recall that the falling action of a novels plot happens after the climax. Identify the falling action in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. [Identify]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 2536

Writing
Write an Argument Consider again the idea of seeing life through rose-colored glasses. Can you find evidence that author Mark Twains story and its setting are not entirely viewed through rose-colored glasses? Does he focus only on the positive aspects of small-town life, or does he include negative aspects as well? Using examples from the novel, write an essay to support your argument. Before you begin writing, you may find it helpful to create a list of the advantages and disadvantages of living in a small town like St. Petersburg. For example: Positive factors: Everyone knows everyone else. People take care of each others children. The whole town goes out to look for people who have gone missing. There is a strong sense of family and community. Negative factors: People gossip about each other. People are often hypocritical about their beliefs. If a member of the community is seen as having bad reputation, it is hard to change the towns opinion about it. Jot down some notes here first.

Speaking and Listening


Performance
Assignment Many readers feel that Chapter 32, when Tom and Becky are lost in the cave, is the most exciting and best written part of the novel. With a group of classmates, prepare a dramatic reading of this scene. Prepare Working together, select three group members to play the roles of Tom, Becky, and the narrator. Discuss the best way to present the reading. You might want to stage the action. To do that, work as a group to determine where and how the characters will move. If your group prefers to use a sit-down format for the reading, decide where the chairs will be placed. The narrator should be seated a short distance away from Becky and Tom. Decide on what kind of background music would be effective. Consider creating sound effects such as water dripping, the echoes of voices, and the fluttering wings of bats. Select one group member to be in charge of the music and one or two others to produce live or recorded sound effects. Use dialogue from the novel as the basis for the script. Work as a group to write any extra dialogue needed. Then rehearse your presentation at least once. Perform Present the scene to the class. Performers should speak loudly enough that their classmates will be able to hear them without straining. Those group members who are operating the music or creating sound effects should maintain their concentration and adjust their volume if necessary. Evaluate After the performance, get together with your group and discuss how successfully you worked together. Use a chart like the one below to record your groups ideas.

What Worked Well


The music and voices built suspense. 46
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What Needed Improvement


We were nervous during the beginning of the scene.

WORK WITH RELATE D READINGS

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer


The following questions refer to the Related Readings in Glencoes Literature Library edition of this novel. Support your answers with details from the texts. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, but jot down some notes first on the lines provided.

Boys Manuscript Mark Twain Make Connections Give examples of people and events in Boys Manuscript that Mark Twain later used in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Sometimes I Feel This Way John Ciardi Make Connections Tom Sawyer wrestles with the choice of being good or bad. Which does he usually seem to choose? How does Aunt Polly describe Toms behavior?

A Rescue from an Underground Mine! Deborah Morris Make Connections Why are Tom Sawyer and Becky Thatcher better off in the cave than Josh is in the mine? What does each child do to survive?

from Ethics Susan Neiburg Terkel Make Connections Based on Terkels description of ethics, what would you say about Toms decision to tell the lawyer about Injun Joes part in the doctors murder?

Getting the Bugs Out of Tom Sawyer John D. Evans Make Connections How is the entomologist able to correctly identify the insect in Toms bedroom that makes a ghastly ticking of a death watch in the wall?

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CO NNECT TO OTHER LITER AT URE

LITERATURE EXCERPT: We Are All One


Night was coming fast and with it the cold. He rubbed his arms and hunted for shelter. In the twilight, he thought he could see the green tiles of a roof. He stumbled through the growing darkness until he reached a ruined temple. Weeds grew through cracks in the stones and most of the roof itself had fallen in. Still, the ruins would provide some protection. As he started inside, he saw a centipede with bright orange skin and red tufts of fur along its back. Yellow dots covered its sides like a dozen tiny eyes. It was also rushing into the temple as fast as it could, but there was a bird swooping down toward it. The old peddler waved his arms and shouted, scaring the bird away. Then he put down his palm in front of the insect. We are all one, you and I. The many feet tickled his skin as the centipede climbed onto his hand. Inside the temple, he gathered dried leaves and found old sticks of wood and soon he had a fire going. The peddler even picked some fresh leaves for the centipede from a bush near the temple doorway. I may have to go hungry, but you dont have to, friend. Stretching out beside the fire, the old peddler pillowed his head on his arms. He was so tired that he soon fell asleep, but even in his sleep he dreamed he was still searching in the woods. Suddenly he thought he heard footsteps near his head. He woke instantly and looked about, but he only saw the brightly colored centipede. Was it you, friend? The old peddler chuckled and, lying down, he closed his eyes again. I must be getting nervous. We are one, you and I, a voice said faintlyas if from a long distance. If you go south, you will find a pine tree with two trunks. By its roots, you will find a magic bead. A cousin of mine spat on it years ago. Dissolve that bead in wine and tell the rich man to drink it if he wants to heal his eyes. The old peddler trembled when he heard the voice, because he realized that the centipede was magical. He wanted to run from the temple, but he couldnt even get up. It was as if he were glued to the floor. But then the old peddler reasoned with himself: If the centipede had wanted to hurt me, he could have long ago. Instead, it seems to want to help me. So the old peddler stayed where he was, but he did not dare open his eyes. When the first sunlight fell through the roof, he raised one eyelid cautiously. There was no sigh of the centipede. He sat up and looked around, but the magical centipede was gone. He followed the centipedes instructions when he left the temple. Traveling south, he kept a sharp eye out for the pine tree with two trunks. He walked until late in the afternoon, but all he saw were normal pine trees.

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CONNECT TO OTHER LIT ERATURE

Compare the novel you have just read with the literature selection at the left, which is excerpted from We Are All One by Laurence Yep in Glencoe Literature. Then answer the questions below. Provide details from the selections to support your answers.

Compare & Contrast


1. Narrator and Point of View As you know, the point of view of a literary work is the relationship of the narrator to the story. What are some similarities between the narrators of We Are All One and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer? What is an important difference between them?

WRITE ABOUT IT Using very different means, both Tom Sawyer and the old peddler try to find a way to make a fortune. The peddler tries to win a particular reward by solving a problem. Tom Sawyer sets out to find his fortune using only his desire and his instincts. Which method do you think is usually more effective? Write a paragraph explaining your response.

2. Description The authors of both works use imagery and descriptions of the settings to convey not only a sense of place but also their attitudes about the larger world. Explain, using examples.

3. Theme How would you relate the statement We are all one to the people, places, and events depicted in Tom Sawyers small town of St. Petersburg?

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RES POND THROUGH WRITING

Research Report
Investigate Setting The events of the novel take place in and around the small town of St. Petersburg, in the preCivil War south. Although the town, which is located along the banks of the Mississippi River, is fictional, it is based on author Mark Twains hometown of Hannibal, Missouri. Using multiple research sources, write a research report of 1,500 words on the subject of Mississippi River towns and their function as centers of commerce and transportation during the time period of the novel. Use at least three sources, including at least one primary source. Prewrite Make a list of questions to guide your research. For example: What kinds of industry were most common in Mississippi River towns? What were the people like there? What was the climate like and how did that affect trade and industry? What were some of the political and social issues people faced?

UNDERSTAND THE TASK Primary sources are firsthand accounts of an event, such as diaries or eyewitness news articles written at the time the event took place. Secondary sources are sources written by people who did not influence or experience the event.

Grammar Tip
Parentheses To document each fact, quote, or idea you use in your report, enclose in parentheses the name of the author of your source and the page number on which you found the information: The Mississippi River is the second longest river in the United States (Jenner, p. 14).

Look for the answers to these questions by checking secondary sources, such as Web sites, encyclopedias, and books. Keep a detailed list of each fact or quote you findand its source. Then plan what you want your report to say. Draft Once you have selected the ideas you want to explore, create a thesis statement that explains what you plan to say about your chosen topic. Example: Great changes took place in towns along the Mississippi River during the 1820s as a result of new political policies and rapid population expansion. As you begin to write your report, continue to refer to your notes. Try to present the information in the most logical and effective way possible. Remember that graphics can help readers understand your topic more clearly. You may wish to enhance your report with copies of old photographs and historical documents. Revise As you continue to refine your ideas, be on the lookout for areas where your report might be over- or underwritten. Delete any facts or ideas that do not support your thesis. Locate and incorporate any missing facts or other information. Make sure you define any terms or regional expressions that might be unfamiliar to your readers. Edit and Proofread Edit your writing so that it expresses your thoughts effectively and is well organized. Carefully proofread for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

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Catherine, Called Birdy


Karen Cushman

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INTRODUCTI ON TO THE NOVEL

Catherine, Called Birdy


Karen Cushman

The England of 1290 is a foreign country. It would seem foreign even to people who have been to England or live there now. . . . Our ideas of individual identity, individual accomplishments and rights, individual effort and success did not exist. Family and community and guild and country were what mattered. No one was separate and independent, even the king.

read dealt with characters of great fame or social stature. She wanted to explore the lives of regular people who faced struggles that were typical of the era in which they lived. Thus, Catherine is the daughter of a country knight who hopes to increase his own wealth and status by arranging a profitable marriage for Catherine.
A Strong Female Character Catherine, like Cushmans other protagonists, is a strong female character who goes through the coming-of-age process, facing many of the challenges that teenagers of all ages have facedtrying to become an adult while at times still feeling like a child, rebelling against the dictates of parents and society, discovering a sense of self and individuality. The author herself can relate to her protagonist. Cushman says that there have been times in her life when she, like Catherine, has felt trapped in a way of life. When she was around ten years old, her family moved from Chicago to Los Angeles. The 1950s were not the freest time for a girl who was a little differentbookish and shy with a rich imagination. She recalls that it took her a long time to figure out what she wanted. Once she knew, like Catherine, she realized that she might not be able to achieve it.

Karen Cushman, Authors Note to Catherine, Called Birdy

As the novel begins, Catherine declares that What follows will be my bookthe book of Catherine, called Little Bird or Birdy, daughter of Rollo and the lady Aislinn, sister to Thomas, Edward, and the abominable Robert, of the village of Stonebridge in the shire of Lincoln, in the country of England, in the hands of God . . . . The writing I learned of my brother Edward, but the words are my own. Catherine identifies herself as a member of a family and of a society, yet she asserts that what follows will be uniquely hers, the story of an individual. Catherine, Called Birdy, Karen Cushmans first novel, is the product of years of reading, researching, imagining, and wondering. Cushman was inspired by books about the Middle Ages, but not in the usual way. Most of the books she had

Over the course of a year, Catherine challenges established modes of

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INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL

thinking, questions widely-held assumptions and beliefs, and learns a great deal about herself in an effort to find a way to function and find happiness in medieval society.
Feudalism Social and economic conditions in thirteenth-century England were much different than they are now. The economy was based on a system of feudalism, which originated as an economic arrangement designed to address military problems. A man would attach himself to someone superior to him in rank and, in return for a grant of land, would promise military service. By the thirteenth century, country knights, such as Lord Rollo of Catherine, Called Birdy, were no longer expected to bear arms and thus granted the use of their lands in exchange for rents (money or goods). These knights usually held lands that

belonged to a single neighborhood and managed their holdings from the manor house, a structure that was something like a small castle or a large farmstead.
Marriage During the Middle Ages Marriage was an issue of great importance during the Middle Ages. Villagers, who might marry for love or romantic attachment, enjoyed more freedom than those who were of the nobility. Women like Catherine, whose fathers held lands and titles, were treated as their fathers property and were given in marriage to the man who offered the greatest economic and social benefit to the family. Thus, Catherines father admonishes her not to discourage various suitors as he attempts to negotiate a marriage contract. Catherine and other young women in the novel face issues that women of their time typically faced.

Saints and Legends


In Catherine, Called Birdy, Catherine is named for St. Catherine of Alexandria, a legendary saint and martyr of the fourth century who was an extremely learned young woman of noble birth. She is the patron saint of philosophers and scholars. Other characters in the novel, such as Edward and George, are also named for saints. St. Edward, for example, was the son of King Ethelred III. He become a pious ruler and built St. Peters Abbey at Westminster. St. George is the patron saint of England. Legends portray him as a warrior-saint who slew a dragon, and he is often depicted as a knight in armor. Though they naturally fall short of the legends, in many ways the characters in Catherine, Called Birdy resemble the saints for whom they are named Catherine is learned and considers herself a martyr to her fathers cause, Edward is religious and is training to become a monk, and George is a returned crusader.

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MEET THE AUTHOR

Karen Cushman (1941 )

People ask me why I write books for young people, and when I grow up will I write for adults. I write about topics and issues that concern me, and they are issues that concern many other people, of all ages.

Karen Cushman, Bookcase, November 1995

Research, Research, Research Cushmans books are products of extensive research. Some of the source materials she uses include books about aspects of everyday life, such as clothing, manners, and foods, as well as primary sources, or first-hand accounts, such as letters, journals, and personal papers. One of her goals is to make her characters seem real so that readers can experience strange and exotic places through their stories. Her Career Catherine, Called Birdy, published in 1994, was an immediate success and was recognized as a Newbery Honor Book. Her second book, The Midwifes Apprentice, earned the prestigious Newbery Medal. Cushman has continued to write historical fiction; her other titles include The Ballad of Lucy Whipple (1996), set during the California gold rush, and Matilda Bone (2000), in which Cushman returns to medieval England.

Karen Cushman, who began her writing career at age 50, considers herself a late bloomer. Born in Chicago, Illinois, she grew up loving books, often visiting the public library. While growing up, Cushman attended Catholic school, and she draws on this background for her books about the Middle Ages. She earned degrees in Greek and English, and masters degrees in human behavior and museum studies.
Ordinary People Many of the books that Cushman read as a child told stories of kings and queens or great generals and presidents. In her own writing, she prefers to focus on the lives of ordinary young people from other times. In Catherine, Called Birdy, she explores the possibilities of what a young woman might do in a situation that she cannot control.

Cushmans works have been recognized by numerous organizations, including the American Library Association and School Library Journal. Cushman plans to continue researching and writing about the everyday lives of characters in remote times and places and to present to her readers lively characters who must overcome realistic challenges.

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BEFORE YOU READ: SeptemberDecember

Connect to the Literature


Recall a time when you (or someone you know) felt pressured to do something you didnt want to. How did you feel? What was your reaction?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. SUMMARIZE Summarize in one sentence the most important idea(s) in Build Background.

Write a Journal Entry


Sometimes social customs or traditions suggest that people think or behave in ways that may conflict with their personal feelings or wishes. In your journal, explore some of your thoughts or beliefs that may be contrary to what most of society thinks.

Build Background
Class and Privilege in the Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages, the majority of people lived in simple huts, but Catherines family lives in a manor house. Manor houses were usually a collection of buildings. They included the familys living quarters as well as other buildings such as stables for the horses; a gatehouse; a privy, or outhouse; and a cowshed. In this novel, Catherine spends much of her time in the solar, a large room in the familys living quarters. It is a combination of living room and bedroom that serves as a private retreat for the family members. Catherine spends some of her time in the solar spinning, or twisting yarn into fiber or thread. All cloth was handmade at this time, and even someone of Catherines class had to work to make it. Although the conditions at the manor house may not seem all that appealing to a modern reader, they were actually quite comfortable by the standards of the time. The only thing better was a castle, which reflected an even higher status in society. Another sign of Catherines privileged status is her use of paper. Paper was not widely used during the Middle Ages, and the printing press was not developed until the mid-fifteenth century. Consequently, most documents produced during the Middle Ages were painstakingly written or copied by hand onto a substance called vellum or parchment, which was made from the skins of cattle, sheep or goats. This thick, precious paper was used by the rich, the powerful, andas in the case of the monks Catherine visitsthe religious elite.

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BEFORE YOU READ: SeptemberDecember

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Why Do You Read? How big a role does reading play in your life? Think about it. You probably read many times throughout the day. As you read this novel, think about how reading helps you understand different people, times, and places.

Vocabulary
betrothal [bi tro thl] n. a promise or a contract for a future marriage The king announced the betrothal of his daughter to the prince. docile [dos l] adj. easily led or managed Because Tim was docile, he did what he was told. dowry [dour e ] n. money or property that a woman brings to her husband in marriage The dowry included a sheep pasture, household goods, and money. impudence [im py dns] n. disregard for others; willful disobedience Making insults and other impudence caused people to dislike T ina. swagger [swa r] v. to act superior or overwhelmingly selfconfident Full of confidence, Elena would swagger as she walked down the hall.

Literary Element Conflict Conflict is the central struggle between opposing forces in a story. An external conflict is the struggle of a character against an outside force, such as nature, society, fate, or another character. An internal conflict takes place within a characters mind. For example, he or she might have to make a difficult choice. The events in most stories revolve around conflict. As a reader, you can learn a lot about life by seeing how people and characters confront and resolve conflicts. As you read, ask yourself, what internal and external conflicts does Catherine face? Use the graphic organizer on the following page to help you record the information. Reading Strategy Evaluate Characterization Characterization refers to the methods that an author uses to develop the personality of characters. When authors tell you exactly what a character is like, it is called direct characterization. When authors show a characters personality through his or her words and actions and through what other characters think and say about him or her, it is called indirect characterization. When you evaluate characterization, you think critically about the details the author used to reveal character. Evaluating characterization will help you to deepen your appreciation both of characters and of the authors technique. To evaluate characterization in this novel, ask yourself how Catherines conflict with society helps reveal who she is. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at the right.

What Catherine Wants.

What Others Want.

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ACTIV E READING: SeptemberDecember

Catherines conflict with society is revealed through the customs and issues that she does not understand or with which she does not agree. Through her experiences and analyses of her culture, she develops independent opinions as she

matures and learns about herself. Some of her ideas seem valid; others seem nave. Use the organizer below to chart the ways in which Catherines opinions differ from those generally held by her parents and society.

Social Issue
behavior of young ladies

Societys View

Catherines View
Lady-tasks are pointless. If ladies can pick maggots from the salt meat, why cant they climb trees or throw stones in the river?

Crusades

treatment of Jewish people

privacy

marriage

Marriage is a business arrangement. A daughter must marry according to her fathers wishes.

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Conflict Name the external conflicts that Catherine writes about.

NOVEL EXCERPT: SEPTEMBER


12th day of September I am commanded to write an account of my days: I am bit by fleas and plagued by family. That is all there is to say. 13th day of September My father must suffer from ale head this day, for he cracked me twice before dinner instead of once. I hope his angry liver bursts. 14th day of September Tangled my spinning again. Corpus bones, what a torture. 15th day of September Today the sun shone and the villagers sowed hay, gathered apples, and pulled fish from the stream. I, trapped inside, spent two hours embroidering a cloth for the church and three hours picking out my stitches after my mother saw it. I wish I were a villager. 16th day of September Spinning. Tangled. 17th day of September Untangled. 18th day of September If my brother Edward thinks that writing this account of my days will help me grow less childish and more learned, he will have to write it. I will do this no longer. And I will not spin. And I will not eat. Less childish indeed. 19th day of September I am delivered! My mother and I have made a bargain. I may forgo spinning as long as I write this account for Edward. My mother is not much for writing but has it in her heart to please Edward, especially now he is gone to be a monk, and I would do worse things to escape the foolish boredom of spinning. So I will write.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

What follows will be my bookthe book of Catherine, called Little Bird or Birdy, daughter of Rollo and the lady Aislinn, sister to Thomas, Edward, and the abominable Robert, of the village of Stonebridge in the shire of Lincoln, in the country of England, in the hands of God. Begun this 19th day of September in the year of Our Lord 1290, the fourteenth year of my life. The skins are my fathers, left over from the household accounts, and the ink also. The writing I learned of my brother Edward, but the words are my own. Picked off twenty-nine fleas today. 20th day of September Today I chased a rat about the hall with a broom and set the broom afire, ruined my embroidery, threw it in the privy, ate too much for dinner, hid in the barn and sulked, teased the littlest kitchen boy until he cried, turned the mattresses, took the linen outside for airing, hid from Morwenna and her endless chores, ate supper, brought in the forgotten linen now wet with dew, endured scolding and slapping from Morwenna, pinched Perkin, and went to bed. And having writ this, Edward, I feel no less childish or more learned than I was. 21st day of September Something is astir. I can feel my fathers eyes following me about the hall, regarding me as he would a new warhorse or a bull bought for breeding. I am surprised that he has not asked to examine my hooves. And he asks me questions, the beast who never speaks to me except with the flat of his hand to my cheek or my rump. This morning: Exactly how old are you, daughter? This forenoon: Have you all your teeth? Is your breath sweet or foul? Are you a good eater? What color is your hair when it is clean? Before supper: How are your sewing and your bowels and your conversation? What is brewing here?

Literary Element Conflict Does Catherine appear to have any internal conflict here? Explain.

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Evaluate Characterization What methods of indirect characterization are used here? How well do they show Catherines conflict with society? Support your evaluation with evidence.

NOVEL EXCERPT: DECEMBER


9th day of December, Feast of Saint Wolfeius, first hermit in Norfolk Gods knees! A person can only wear one gown and one kirtle at a time, so why are my mother and her ladies making such a fuss about my covering the bird cages with their spare ones! I cannot believe they would want my poor birds to freeze to death. I will have plenty of time to think on this, for I am imprisoned in the solar, brushing feathers and seed and bird dung off of what seems enough clothing for the French army. I see no deliverance. Perkin is busy with his grandmother. Aelis is in London with the king. George and Thomas are from home much these days, riding and drinking and amusing other people and not me. Gods knees, I might as well be an orphan. . . . 14th day of December, Feast of Saint Hybald, abbot of our own Lincolnshire. I wonder if he is a relative I am in disgrace today. Grown quite weary with my embroidery, with my pricked fingers and tired eyes and sore back, I kicked it down the stairs to the hall, where the dogs fought and slobbered over it, so I took the soggy mess and threw it to the pigs. Morwenna grabbed me by the ear and pinched my face. My mother gave me a gentle but stern lecture about behaving like a lady. Ladies, it seems, seldom have strong feelings and, if they do, never never let them show. Gods thumbs! I always have strong feelings and they are quite painful until I let them out, like a cow who needs to give milk and bellows with the pain in her teats. So I am in disgrace in my chamber. I pray Morwenna never discovers that being enchambered is no punishment for me. She would find some new torture, like sending me to listen to the ladies in the solar. 15th day of December, Feast of Saint Offa, king of the East Saxons, who left his wife, his lands, his family, and his country to become a monk in Rome and die

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Strategy

I was seated at dinner this day with a visitor from Kent, another clodpole in search of a wife. This one was friendly and good-tempered, and had all his teeth and hair. But he did not compare with George or Perkin, so I would have none of him. Our talk at dinner went like this: Do you enjoy riding, Lady Catherine? Mmph. Could we perhaps ride together while I am here? Pfgh. I understand you read Latin. I admire learned women when they are also beautiful. Urgh. Mayhap you could show me about the manor after dinner. Grmph. So it went until I conceived my plan, after realizing that the only thing my father would want more than a rich son-in-law is not to part with one of his pennies or acres or bushels of onions. So I grew quite lively and talkative, bubbling with praise for our chests of treasure and untold acres and countless tenants and hoards of silver and for the modesty that prompted my father to hide his wealth and appear as a mere country knight. My suitors eyes, which had already rested kindly on me, caught fire, and he fairly flew over the rushes to talk with my father in the solar. The storm I expected was not long in coming. Poor Fire Eyes tumbled down the stairs from the solar, hands over his head, and rolled across the hall floor to the door and out while my father bellowed from above, Dowry! Manors! Treasure! You want me to pay you to take the girl? Dowry? Ill give you her dowry! And as the comely young man ran across the yard on his way to the stable and freedom, a brimming chamber pot came flying from the solar window and landed on his head. Farewell, suitor. Benedicite. Even now as I pity the young man in his spoiled tunic, I must smile to think of my dowry. No other maiden in England has one like it.

Reading Strategy Evaluate Characterization What methods of indirect characterization are used in these two diary entries? How well do they show Catherines conflict with society? Support your evaluation with evidence.

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: OCTOBER


1st day of October My fathers clerk suffers today from an inflammation of his eyes, caused, no doubt, by his spying on our serving maids as they wash under their arms at the millpond. I did not have the mothers milk necessary for an ointment for the eyes, so I used garlic and goose fat left from doctoring Morwennas boils yesterweek. No matter how he bellowed, it will do him no harm. I can stand no more of lady-tasks, endless mindless sewing, hemming, brewing, doctoring, and counting linen! Why is a lady too gentle to climb a tree or throw stones into the river when it is ladys work to pick maggots from the salt meat? Why must I learn to walk with a ladys tiny steps one day and sweat over great steaming kettles of dung and nettle for remedies the next? Why must the lady of the manor do all the least lovable tasks? Id rather be the pig boy. 3rd day of October There are Jews in our hall tonight! On their way to London, they sought shelter from the rain. My father being away, my mother let them in. She is not afraid of Jews, but the cook and the kitchen boys have all fled to the barn, so no one will have supper tonight. I plan to hide in the shadows of the hall in order to see their horns and tails. Wait until Perkin hears of this. The hour of vespers, later this day: Bones! The Jews have no horns and no tails, just wet clothes and ragged children. They are leaving England by order of the king, who says Jews are Hell-born, wicked, and dangerous. He must know some others than the scared and scrawny ones who are here this night. I hid in the hall to watch them, hoping to see them talk to the Devil or perform evil deeds. But the men just drank and sang and argued and waved their arms about while the women chattered among themselves. Much like Christians. The children mostly snuffled and whined until one woman with a face like a withered apple gathered them about her. . . .

BIG Question
Why Do You Read? How does the information on this page help you understand the world in which Catherine lives? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key ideas.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: SeptemberDecember

Respond and Think Critically


1. What sort of lady-tasks must Catherine master as a young lady in medieval society? How does she protest against learning these skills? [Paraphrase]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Introduction to the Novel on pages 5253. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What are Catherines ideas about the Crusades? Why does George laugh at Catherines ideas? [Analyze]

3. What are some of Catherines major character traits, or distinguishing qualities? In what ways or circumstances does Catherine reveal these traits? [Interpret]

4. Describe Catherines responses to the demands placed on her by her family and by society. Are her reactions reasonable and justified? Why or why not? In what ways do your own experiences help you relate to Catherine? [Evaluate]

5. Why Do You Read? What main ideas have you learned about the place where Catherine livesan English manor in 1290? [Synthesize]

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AFTER YOU READ: SeptemberDecember

Literary Element Conflict 1. Catherine is in conflict with her father and with brother Robert. Why? Do you think her father and Robert think the conflict is as great as Catherine thinks it is? [Evaluate]

Vocabulary Practice
Respond to these questions. 1. Whom would you expect a betrothal to involvetwo merchants or two young people? 2. Which would you expect to be more docilea bull or a sheep? 3. What would you expect to do with a dowryspend and trade it, or eat and drink it? 4. How would you expect to respond to impudencewith a smile or a frown? 5. Whom would you expect to swaggera proud politician or a humble servant?

2. What qualities does Catherine have that cause her to be in conflict with her world? Explain why each quality causes conflict. [Synthesize]

Academic Vocabulary One of Catherines principal occupations is the chore of spinning yarn or thread. In the preceding sentence, principal means main or major. Think about a principal use you make of your time. Explain why it takes up so much of your time.

Reading Strategy Evaluate Characterization Is most of the characterization in this novel direct or indirect? Explain, using evidence from the novel. [Conclude]

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AFTER YOU READ: SeptemberDecember

Writing
Write a Song
Catherine enjoys making up songs. What kind of song do you think she might write about herself and her situation? Write the song for her. If you want, set it to a popular tune. Jot down some ideas here first.

Connect to Content Areas


Science
Assignment Catherine uses different plants and other natural substances to treat various ailments and complaints. Find out whether any of these remedies was actually effective, and whether any are still in use today. Investigate Follow these steps: Make a list of substances Catherine uses to treat illnesses or complaints. Locate reliable sources of information about herbal and medieval medicine. Try a variety of search terms in a library catalog or search engine. A reference librarian may also be able to recommend reference works with information on herbal and other natural remedies. Research the substances on your list to learn about them and their effectiveness in treating ailments. Create Make an illustrated list, chart, or poster showing and explaining the remedies. Note which ones are still in use and what they are used for today. Report Display your list, chart, or poster and explain what it shows. Be sure to explain any technical or scientific terms you use.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Januar yApril

Connect to the Literature


Think of someone you especially like or admire. What qualities about this person appeal to you?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, using information in Build Background.

Make a Web
Create a web listing the positive qualities of a close friend or someone you admire. Think about why these qualities are especially important to you.

Build Background
Feasts in the Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages, holidays and the seasons of the year were marked by feasts, vacations from work, and then more feasts to celebrate the resumption of work. The most important holidays were Christmas, a celebration that lasted for nearly two weeks, and Easter. As part of the Christmas festivities, groups of masked pantomimists, called mummers, visited different homes to dance and present plays. Christmas marked the end of winter, and Hocktide, a festival at the end of Easter week, marked the beginning of summer. Lammas (August 1) ushered in the harvest season. Most holidays were celebrated with food, entertainment, games, and general merriment. In Catherines diary, almost every day is a feast day. Only some feast days were days of celebration, however. Most were simply days on which a particular saint was remembered or commemorated.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Januar yApril

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Why Do You Read? As you read, ask yourself, what do you know about the customs and beliefs of English people in 1290? What can you learn about them from a novel? Literary Element Text Structure Text structure is the way an author organizes information in a text. One way that authors structure information is in chronological order, or time order. When authors organize information in chronological order, they tell about events in the order in which they occurred. To recognize the order of events, look for time-order words and phrases such as first, next, then, later, and finally. Dates can also help you recognize chronological order. Identifying the order of events is important because it helps you recognize how one event leads to another to create a sequence. It also helps you find and recall key ideas and events. The structure of a diary allows you to understand what happened on a specific day or at a certain time. As you read, pay attention to the sequence of events in Catherines life. Look for time-order words and dates to understand how one event relates to another. Use the graphic organizer on the following page to list events in each column in time order. Reading Strategy Make Predictions About Plot When you make predictions, you make careful guesses about what will happen next in a story. You think about the events and details youve read so far, along with what you already know from your own experiences, to make a prediction. Making predictions helps you become a more involved reader. Its okay if your predictions turn out to be incorrect. You predict to get involved in the story and to follow the storys twists. To make predictions about plot, the events of a story, pay attention to descriptions of the characters take note of what the characters say and do look for details about the time and place in which the story occurs think about what you already know about the subject of the story guess what will happen next As you read, you may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at the right.

Vocabulary
blight [blt] v. to frustrate plans or hopes; to destroy My injuries blight my hopes for breaking a record this season. chide [chd] v. to scold or reprove In a firm voice, the parents chide their child for her messy room. closeted [kloz i tid] adj. secluded; working or meeting in private The managers are closeted in the office, deciding on next years budget. moderate [mod r it] adj. calm; avoiding extremes of behavior Amy is a moderate person who does not get angry easily. odious [o de s] adj. exciting strong dislike or repugnance No one wanted to go near the odious dog with its strange skin disease.

Novel Information

My Prediction

Was My Prediction Correct?

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ACT IVE READING: Januar yApril

While many events in this section of the novel are humorous, many are tragic, revealing some of the tremendous difficulties faced by people who lived during the Middle Ages. In fact, Catherine often dreams of pursuing romantic adventures in order to escape the realities of

medieval life. To get an overview of the ups and downs of daily life in the thirteenth century, use the chart below to record both positive and negative events that occur in this section of the novel. Record the events in each column in chronological order.

Positive or Humorous Event


End-of-holiday celebrations, feasting, games, plays

Negative or Tragic Event


Aelis marries a seven-year-old boy. George marries a rich widow and is unhappy.

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Text Structure How does the diary format show chronological order?

NOVEL EXCERPT: JANUARY


1st day of January, Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord. Seventh day of Christmas Perkin wants me to teach him to read. He dreams of being a scholar but most likely will just be a goat boy who can read. My Latin is none so goodI wish Edward were here to help. But Edward is not here, and Robert and Thomas cannot read or write. Robert can barely talk. Too bad Perkin doesnt want to learn how to skewer an enemy on a sword or tumble a laundress in the barn. 2nd day of January, Feast of Saint Abel the Patriarch, son of Adam killed by his brother Cain. Eighth day of Christmas New snow today. We had a snowball fight and everyone joined in. Even my lady mother was giddy and gay, laughing and blushing and acting much like a girl although she must be over thirty. William Steward grew smitten and made flowery speeches to her, but we put snow down his pants to cool his passion. 3rd day of january, Feast of Saint Genevieve, who through fasting and praying kept Attila the Hun from Paris. Ninth day of Christmas My head aches from the cold, the smoke, and the noise of too many people drinking too much ale. At supper, grown angry with the puppies nipping at my food, I swept them off the table onto the floor. Later in remorse I smuggled them all into my bed for the night. Good thing Morwenna sleeps heavy and never knows what she has been sleeping with until morning. 4th day of january, Feast of Saints Aquilinus, Geminus, Eugenius, Marcianus, Quinctus, Theodotus, and Tryphon, a band of martyrs put to death in Africa by the king of the Vandals. Tenth day of Christmas The eels in their tub in the kitchen froze last night, so we had an eel feast for dinner and eel pie for supper. I fear more eels with our breakfast bread and ale tomorrow.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

5th day of january, Feast of Saint Simeon Stylites, who lived for thirty-seven years atop a pillar, praising God. Eleventh day of Christmas I will not be sorry to see the Christmas days end, for I have been spending excessive time curing other peoples ale head, putrid stomach, and various wounds, cuts, and bruises sustained in drunken fights. I have near run out of mustard seed and boiled snake. 6th day of january, Feast of the Epiphany. Twelfth day of Christmas The end of Christmas. Mayhap I will soon have my chamber and my bed to share with only the usual residents. At dinner today my mother found the bean in her Twelfth Cake and chose my father to be king. I found the pea and was queen. My father and I had to sit next each other for the mumming and lead the dancing and eat together at supper. I could hardly swallow from being so near the beast for so long. I wish I had just eaten the pea and told no one . . . . 13th day of January, Feast of Saint Kentigern, called Mungo, grandson of a British prince It appears the curse has worked. George returned last night from York to say that Aelis has been married to the seven-year-old duke of Warrington. After the ceremony, the duke had an attack of putrid throat and had to go home to his mother to be nursed. His new wife remains at court. I am sorry that Aelis was sold at auction to the highest bidder like a horse at a horse fair, but I am gladdened to have my uncle George back.

Literary Element Text Structure What signal words and phrases in this excerpt indicate time order?

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Make Predictions About Plot What prediction might you make about Roberts actions in the future?

NOVEL EXCERPT: FEBRUARY


26th day of February, Feast of Saint Ethelbert of Kent, first English king to become a Christian . . . The wedding feast still rollicks below, but I have had my fill of merriment and have escaped to my chamber to write this account of the days events. The morning started out gray and drizzly, with a mist that wet our faces and our clothes and made the rushlights hard to fire, a poor omen for a wedding. We dressed the bride in her second-best gown (Morwenna let the seams out) and on her hair put a small veil held with a golden band. The musicians came at dawn, yawning and scratching, smelling of the sour wine they had drunk half the night. On bagpipe and crumhorn they played us to the church. Robert and his bride exchanged vows at the church door and we all went inside for Mass, a lengthy affair with priest droning and candles hissing and flickering. The loudest sound was the musicians snoring. I think Robert fell asleep himself but was jostled awake by my fathers sharp elbow. I watched the early morning light pass over and through the windows of colored glass, leaving streaks of red and green and yellow on the stone floor. When I was little, I used to try to capture the colored light. I thought I could hold it in my hand and carry it home. Now I know it is like happinessit is there or it is not, you cannot hold it or keep it. We walked back to the manor for the ale feast, showering the bride with rose petals, the musicians playing and tomfooling. Gerd the millers son fell into the river as we crossed, but Robert waded in and pulled him out so his wedding day would not be ruined. . . . I was partnered for the feast with an ugly shaggybearded hulk from the north. My father sought to honor

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Strategy

him because his manor lies next to my mothers, and my father lusts after it. I fail to see how sitting next to me and sharing my bowl and goblet honored himand it certainly did me no good. The man was a pig, which dishonors pigs. He blew his red and shiny nose on the table linen, sneezed on the meat, picked his teeth with his knife, and left wet greasy marks where he drank from the cup we shared. I could not bring myself to put my lips to the slimy rim, so endured a dinner without wine. . . . 27th day of February, Shrove Tuesday and the Feast of Saint Alnoth, serf and cowherd Today my father questioned me about the bearded pig. I said he affected my stomach like maggoty meat and my father laughed and said, Learn to like it. It bodes not well. Shaggy Beard has a son, Stephen, whom he spoke of with loathing, calling him Sir Priest, the clerk, and the girl, because the boy thinks and bathes and does not fart at Mass. I fear they are planning a match between me and Stephen. I will not. To be part of Shaggy Beards family and have to eat with him every day! If my father does not drive him away, I will, as I have done the others.

Reading Strategy Make Predictions About Plot Based on what you have read and what you already know, make a prediction about whether Catherine will learn to like it. Use evidence from the novel to support your prediction.

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73

ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: APRIL


12th day of April, Maundy Thursday and the Feast of Saint Zeno of Verona, who liked to fish Today we began to read of the Passion and death of Our Lord. It is a sad and tragic story and I do not sleep through it but watch it in my mind like a play unfolding. I picture Jesus like my uncle George, and my mother as His blessed mother. The evil Judas in my mind looks like the miller, scrawny and scowling and mean. Herod is my father, and Pontius Pilate that Sir Lack-Wit who was once my suitor. The apostles look like our villagers except for Saint Peter, who is Morwenna in leggings and a tunic. Saint Peter seems so human and unlike a saint. I think he may be my favorite, although Saint John is as beautiful as summeror Geoffrey. 13th day of April, Good Friday and the Feast of Saints Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice, scraped with claws and burned to death This sad holy day we spent in church, marking the death of Our Lord. I wore my second-best kirtle so I would not ruin my best as we crept on the floor toward the altar. I dont know if that is fair to God but I do not believe He wants me to ruin the only good kirtle I own. I believe He likes me to look my best when I hear Mass. 14th day of April, Holy Saturday and the Feast of Saint Caradoc, a Welsh harper who lost his princes greyhounds and so became a monk My mother was not with us for the procession of Our Lords coffin around the church. Being tortured with headaches and the bulk of the growing babe, she stayed abed with a tonic I made her of chamomile and honey. Her discomfort discomforts me.

BIG Question
Why Do You Read? What did you find out about English beliefs and customs in 1290? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes. ASK QUESTIONS Write any questions you have about the novel. Do you have to go to an outside source to find the answers?

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Januar yApril

Respond and Think Critically


1. What are Catherines fantasies about Madame Joanna, the kings cousin? How does Madame Joanna react when Catherine tells her about these fantasies? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 67. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. Who is Shaggy Beard? Why does Catherine dislike him so much? [Infer]

3. This section of the novel marks the transition from winter to spring. How do events in this section parallel the change of season? Does Catherines life also parallel the movement from winter to spring? Why or why not? [Conclude]

4. Which of Catherines qualities do you like or admire? Why do you admire these qualities? [Evaluate]

5. Why Do You Read? What do the people of Catherines time and place appear to value most? [Conclude]

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AFTER YOU READ: Januar yApril

Literary Element Text Structure 1. How does the text structure of this novel help you understand small details of life in the Middle Ages? [Analyze]

Vocabulary Practice
A synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. Match each boldfaced vocabulary word below with its synonym. Use a thesaurus or dictionary to check your answers. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. blight chide closeted moderate odious a. b. c. d. e. f. g. calm diminish hateful further secluded scold destroy

2. Tell how at least one event that occurred between January and the end of April led to another. [Analyze]

Academic Vocabulary Catherine often writes about her individual needs and concerns. To become more familiar with the word individual, fill out the graphic organizer below.

definition
Reading Strategy Make Predictions

synonyms

About Plot

1. Tell whether you think Catherine will marry before the novel ends. Cite evidence from the novel to support your prediction. [Apply]

individual

2. Tell what else you think is going to happen in the final section of this novel. Cite evidence from the novel to support your prediction. [Apply]

antonym

sentence/image

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AFTER YOU READ: Januar yApril

Writing
Personal Response What is your opinion of
Catherine at this point in the novel? Can you relate to her in any way? Why or why not?

Speaking and Listening


Speech
Assignment In Catherines world, many people made arranged marriages as a matter of survival or economic benefit. Even though some of these marriages led to great personal unhappiness, they were a way of life. Give a persuasive speech in which you urge the people of Catherines time to accept arranged marriage. Prepare List as many reasons as you can to support the opinion; then select the best ones. Outline your speech, beginning with a hook to engage your audience. Follow with a clear statement of your opinion. Then list your reasons in order from most important to least important, or vice versa. Use examples and ideas from Catherine, Called Birdy to explain your reasons. Deliver Make eye contact with your audience. Speak loudly and clearly so they can understand you. Maintain good posture to reflect confidence. Use gestures as appropriate, and be sure your tone and movements engage your audience. Evaluate Evaluate your speech by providing examples of and rating how well you met each of the criteria below.

Criterion

Example

My Rating

Nonverbal Made eye Good to Techniques contact after Excellent stating my thesis and each main reason Used gestures to show first, second, and third most important reasons Verbal Techniques Content and Clarity 78
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BEFORE YOU READ: MaySeptember

Connect to the Literature


How do you feel when you make personal sacrifices for others?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. SUMMARIZE Summarize in one sentence the most important idea(s) in Build Background.

Quickwrite
Think of a time when you made a sacrifice for the benefit of someone else. Was it difficult? What were your feelings? Write a paragraph describing your experience, your emotions, and the feelings of the person you helped.

Build Background
Medicine in the Middle Ages
During the Middle Ages, childbirth was very hazardous to both mother and baby, and one or both often died. Most babies were not delivered by doctors but by midwives, women who made a profession of assisting in childbirth. Though the midwife made some efforts at medical treatment, she also followed superstitious rituals, especially during a difficult delivery. For example, midwives might order servants to open all doors, drawers, and cupboards in the house as well as to untie all knots. This ritual was supposed to help speed the delivery of the baby. In Catherine, Called Birdy, as Catherines mother struggles to deliver her baby, Catherine untied all the knots and unstopped all the jugs in the manor, but to no immediate avail. In this section of the novel, Catherine begins to create an herbal, a book of remedies in which she draws various herbs and describes their uses in curing a range of ailments. Medieval cures went well beyond the use of single herbs and included various tonics and poultices. Tonics are medicines or potions that invigorate, restore, or refresh. Poultices are heated substances applied to a cut, wound, or sore. Ingredients for tonics included various kinds of organic matter ranging from fish bones to human nail trimmings. In this section, the physician recommends a poultice of raven manure as a cure for toothache.

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BEFORE YOU READ: MaySeptember

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Why Do You Read? As you read, ask yourself, how can reading a story about people in the Middle Ages help you learn about your world?

Vocabulary
cajole [k jo l ] v. to persuade with gentle urging If we cant cajole you into action, we may force you into it. desolate [des lit] adj. joyless; sorrowful The house was desolate with all the owners and their things gone. harrowing [har o in ] adj. distressing; tormenting Harrowing thoughts of having hurt her sister filled Meis head. relics [rel iks] n. objects valued for their associations with saints or martyrs People at the church kissed the relics and prayed to the saints. unlettered [un let rd] adj. lacking in knowledge to be gained from books; illiterate The unlettered woman could not write her name.

Literary Element Diction Diction refers to the authors choice of words. A writer chooses some words for their denotation, or exact meaning in the dictionary, and others for their connotations, or feelings associated with the word. Word choice can help an author present his or her bias, or inclination toward a particular attitude or opinion. Diction is important because a writers diction helps pull a reader into the writing. The words help influence how the reader feels about the characters, events, and issues of the time and place. As you read, think about the words author Karen Cushman chooses. Ask yourself the following questions: What feelings do they arouse in you? How do they show the authors bias? Why? Reading Skill Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships In a cause-and-effect relationship, one event or action causes another event or action. For example, a character does something wrong (cause) and then feels guilty about what he or she did (effect). The character may then try to correct the wrong that was done (a new effect caused by the characters feeling of guilt). Identifying cause-and-effect relationships helps readers understand the reasons why events happen and why characters act in certain ways. Use the graphic organizer on the following page to help you understand the changes that Catherine undergoes. To identify other cause-and-effect relationships, think about the connection between events or actions and the resulting outcomes ask yourself why things happen in the story and how events affect characters look for words, such as because, so, since, if . . . then, and as a result of, that signal cause and effect. As you read, you may want to also use a graphic organizer like the one at the right and on the next page to keep track of cause-and-effect relationships.

Cause
Catherine feels pity for the bear.

Effect/New Cause

Effect/New Cause

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ACTIVE READING: MaySeptember

In this section of the novel, Catherine becomes less selfish and more caring. As you read, use the diagram below to keep track of Catherines acts of

kindness and their effectsparticularly how performing these acts affects her feelings.

helps an antfeels as if she has saved the world

Catherines acts of kindness

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Diction Write two words in these entries for June that you think were chosen for their denotation and two that were chosen for their connotation. Explain your choices.

NOVEL EXCERPT: JUNE


20th day of June, Feast of Saint Alban, beheaded by a soldier whose eyes then fell out. Saint Alban is buried near here. At Saint Albans We returned in the midst of furious housecleaning. The courtyard and the orchard were bedecked with wet linen, hanging from ropes and walls and trees, while kettles bubbled with strong-smelling soapy water. Tonight my body will rejoiceclean linen! Home can never match the excitement of Lincoln, but I was happy to see my mother again. She is well and the babe she carries too, God save us all. 21st day of June, Feast of Saint Leufred, forty-eight years an abbot Old Tam, the father of Meg from the dairy, finally has three pigs, so Meg will marry Thomas Bakers oldest son, Alf, as soon as they have a cottage. Alf is puny and sneezes all summer, but still I would be Meg, about to marry the choice of my heart, rather than the lady Catherine, promised to a pig. I am desolate. 22nd day of June, Feast of Saint Ebbe the Younger, who cut off her nose to protect her virtue from marauding Danes This afternoon was flea-catching. I spread a white cloth on each bed so even my weak eyes could see the little black fleas as they jumped. I then caught each one and crushed it between my finger and thumb. It is tedious and leaves me bumpy and red with bites, but does not overvex my brain, so I can think and wonder while I work. Today I thought about ways the shaggy-bearded oaf who wishes to marry me might die and leave me free. He might be eaten by wolves or struck by lightning or explode from eating too much. He might encounter a dragon bigger and meaner and more evil even than he or be disemboweled by a Turk or a jealous husband. Mayhap all his teeth will fall out and he will be unable to eat and so will starve to death. Or he might jump off a roof in a drunk, thinking he could fly. He could be run over by a peddler's wagon full of heavy iron pots or have corrupt and rotten ulcers eat away his

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

body. I could put deadly thorn apple or monkshood in his soup or train my birds to fly north and peck him to death. Or a giant hand might reach down and pinch him between its thumb and finger. Life is full of possibilities. If only something would happen soon.

Literary Element Diction How does word choice in these entries for July help show the authors bias about arranged marriage in the England of 1290?

JULY
2nd day of July, Feast of Saints Processus and Martinian, Roman martyrs, whose relics cure the sick, reveal perjurers, and cure lunatics I have been thinking about my own marriage. Once I dreamed of a handsome prince on a white horse decked in silks and bells. Now I am offered a smelly, broken-toothed old man who drinks too much. I would rather even Alf! But it occurred to me that what actually makes people married is not the church or the priest but their consent, their I will. And I do not consent. Will never consent. I will not. I cannot be wed without my consent, can I? They cannot bind me with ropes and force my mouth open and closed while my father says in a high voice, I will. I am told this has happened, but even my father could not be so cruel. I will not consent and there will be no marriage. Amen. 4th day of July, Feast of Saint Andrew of Crete, stabbed to death by a fanatical Iconoclast I spent this summer evening lying in the field, watching stars come out in the sky. Free. Free. Free! After my harrowing days locked away, I rejoice to be free. It was like this: The evening after Meg's wedding, I encountered my father near the buttery. Now we will get on with it, daughter, he said. It is time to make good your promise and consent to marriage with Murgaw. Never, I said. Your villagers are allowed to marry where they will, but your daughter is sold like a cheese for your profit! Never. He blinked three times, opening and closing his mouth. Then his face grew purple and he choked out disconnected words: Meg . . . cottage . . . promise . . . marriage.

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships What is the effect of Catherines time spent thinking about her choices?

NOVEL EXCERPT: SEPTEMBER


Sitting beneath a pear tree later in the drizzling rain, I thought about my choices. I have no desire for three years of snowy mountains or some Saracen court. I cannot be a monk shut off from the world. I cannot be a crusader riding over the bloody bodies of strangers I am supposed to hate, or a wandering minstrel unconnected to any place or anybody. I cannot be like Odd William, involved only with the dead people he writes about while the living swirl in joy and pain around him. I cannot be like Aunt Ethelfritha, who, in being anyone she chooses, forgets who she really is. Suddenly I saw the old Jewish woman saying, Remember, Little Bird, in the world to come, you will not be asked Why were you not George? or Why were you not Perkin? but Why were you not Catherine? And it came into my head that I cannot run away. I am who I am wherever I am. Like the bear and my popinjay, I cannot survive by myself. But I also cannot survive if I am not myself. And who am I? I am no minstrel and no wart charmer but me, Birdy, Catherine of Stonebridge, daughter of Lord Rollo and the lady Aislinn, sister to Robert and Thomas and Edward and little Eleanor, friend of Perkin, goat boy and scholar. I am like the Jews in our hall, driven from England, from one life to another, and yet for them exile was no exile. Wherever they go, they take their lives, their families, their people, and their God with them, like a light that never goes out. I imagine them somewhere in Flanders eating their Jewish food and talking their horses talk and loving one another and their God. At home even in exile. Just so, my family and Perkin and Meg and Gerd and Aelis and the barn cats and even my father are part of me, and I part of them, so even in my new life I will not be far from home. I realize that Shaggy Beard has won my body, but no matter whose wife I am, I will still be me. Mayhap I can do what I must and still be me, still survive and, please God, even thrive. I have girded my loins like a warrior from the Bible and am going forth to do battle with the enemy. He

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

shall not find it a comfortable prize he has won, this grayeyed, sun-browned beauty. Amen. After dinner my uncle George came home, surprised but pleased to see me. His mouth smiled and his eyes almost did as I told him of the mad plans of Ethelfritha and how I decided I cannot escape my life but can only use my determination and courage to make it the best I can. He will take me home tomorrow. We will ride, which suits my feet just fine. 22nd day of September, Feast of Saint Maurice and his six thousand six hundred sixty-six companions, Roman soldiers of the Theban Legion, martyred for refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods We leave in one hour. In George's garden I saw a toad, may it bring me luck. And as Morwenna says, luck is better than early rising. 23rd day of September, Feast of Saint Thecla of Iconium, virgin and follower of Saint Paul. Condemned to be burnt, a storm put out the fire. Sent to be eaten by beasts, they would not. She escaped and lived in a cave for seventy-two years I am home again. Such ado! I was kissed and slapped and lectured until my ears turned inside out. I told my tale and then sat to listen to theirs. It seems God is indeed watching over me. Or else toads really are lucky. How I know is this: The riders from the north did not say that Shaggy Beard comes for his bride, but that he is dead, killed in a brawl over a tavern maid. His son Stephen is now Baron Selkirk, Lord of Lithgow, Smithburn, Random, and Fleece, and wishes to honor the marriage contract in his father's place. He sent me an enameled brooch of a little bird with a pearl in its beak. I am wearing it now. My lady mother and the beast my father think it no better and no worse that I marry Stephen instead of Shaggy Beard, but for me it is like moving from the darkness into the light, like coming in from a cold gray mist and seeing the fire make a warm and golden glow in the center of the hall, like the yolk of a boiled egg or the deeper gold in the belly of a rose.

Reading Skill Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships Why will Catherine marry Stephen and not Shaggy Beard?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: AUGUST


22nd day of August, Feast of Saint Alexander of Alexandria, who died a martyr after suffering numerous agonies from scrapers and whips It is Bartlemas Fair, easily the busiest and merriest days of the summer. After days of preparation, we left the manor gay and giddy and ready for play. And today we are here. Before I left her, my mother gave me ten pence for spending. I bought her a string of jet beads3 pennies, a wooden whistle for Perkin2 pennies, a bone rattle for the coming babe1 penny, and four skins of parchment for my herbal4 pennies. In one morning, all my money gone. Still, I have yet to eat my fill of pork and pastries, cheer the fastest horses and the fleetest runners, wonder at the tumblers and magicians, laugh at the puppets and giants, and clap for every dancer and minstrel at the fair. We are at an inn tonight in a room with seven people and seven thousand fleas. 23rd day of August, Feast of Saint Tydfil, killed by Saxons I used to think the saddest sight in the world was an eagle I once saw in a barons hall, wings clipped, chained to a perch from which it kept falling, flapping piteously until someone righted it again. But there is worse. Here at the fair is a dancing bear, moth-eaten and scrawny, anxious only to be taken home and fed and not prodded and pinched to do silly tricks for fairgoers. The performance I saw was so clumsy and sad and brought the bears owner so little profit that he announced a bearbaiting, planning to set a pack of dogs against the poor bear and see who cries and bleeds and dies first, all for the amusement of those wagering money on the outcome. How can we think ourselves made in the likeness of God when we act worse than beasts?

BIG Question
Why Do You Read? What have you learned about how people amused themselves in 13thcentury England? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key words.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: MaySeptember

Respond and Think Critically


1. How does Catherine help Meg and Alf to be able to marry? How are Catherines efforts a sacrifice for her? [Summarize]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 79. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. At the end of the novel, what does Catherine mean when she says, I am, if not free, at least less painfully caged? [Synthesize]

3. In what ways does Catherines tone, or attitude, change in this section of the novel? What was her tone in the beginning of the novel, and how is it different now? [Compare]

4. What do you think Catherine means when she says that she is having so many soft feelings? How do these soft feelings affect her behavior? [Conclude]

5. Why Do You Read? Does reading about a young adult in 13th-century England help you in any way to understand young adults in your own time and place? Explain. [Connect]

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AFTER YOU READ: MaySeptember

Literary Element Diction 1. When Catherine writes, the bear is safe and I am doomed, which word carries the strongest connotations? What are they? [Analyze]

Vocabulary Practice
Denotation is the literal, or dictionary, meaning of a word. Connotation is the implied, or cultural, meaning of a word. For example, the words scrawny and skeletal have a similar denotation, being very thin, but they have different connotations: Negative scrawny More Negative skeletal

2. By the end of the novel, Catherine is no longer writing Gods thumbs! or other curses. What does this change in diction help show about her? [Synthesize]

Each of the vocabulary words is listed with a word that has a similar denotation. Choose the word that has a more negative connotation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. cajole desolate harrowing relics unlettered force upset disturbing remains ignorant

Academic Vocabulary Author Karen Cushman uses the technique of diary entries to tell this story. In the preceding sentence, technique means a method of doing something. Think of a goal you wanted to achieve in writing, drawing, making music, or another activity. What technique did you use?

Reading Skill Identify Cause-and-Effect

Relationships

What causes Catherine to begin her book with such anger and to end it with such joy? [Synthesize]

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AFTER YOU READ: MaySeptember

Write With Style


Apply Diction
Assignment Think about the words Karen Cushman chose to help you see and understand Catherines world. Some told you exactly about the places and activities. Others gave you a strong sense of Catherines feelings and attitudes. Write a diary entry in which you use careful word choice to describe something a place in your world and your attitude toward it. Get Ideas Make a two-column chart like this one to list word choices that will bring your reader into your world.

Speaking and Listening


Interview
Assignment Imagine you have the opportunity to interview someone like Catherinea young woman from the Middle Ages. What would you like to ask her? With two partners, prepare an interview with the young woman that reflects your understanding of the novel. Prepare Write a list of relevant questions phrased in respectful language. Then prepare responses that accurately reflect the world and times in which Catherine lives. When you are satisfied with your questions and answers, mark them up with performance cues, such as places for eye contact, a humorous or serious tone, and appropriate body language such as leaning forward or back. Interview Have one person act as interviewer, one as the young woman, and one as stage manager. The host should follow these guidelines: Allow your subject to respond completely; dont interrupt. Take notes. When necessary, ask the young woman to say more or explain. Both the host and the young woman should follow these guidelines: Make frequent eye contact. Adjust your tone of voice or body language in response to the questions and answers. The stage manager should keep all the guidelines in mind, and give nonverbal cues as reminders (such as slow down or speak up) to the host and the young woman when they need them during the interview. Report Write a paragraph summarizing the interview information. Remember that a summary focuses on the main ideas rather than the details. Evaluate Write an evaluation of the interview based on how clearly, accurately, and effectively it communicated information about Catherines world.

Precise Words

Words That Show My Feelings


warm glow of bedside lamp

white plastic dresser shiny wood floor

Give It Structure Use spatial order to organize your ideas about the place. Options include describing from top to bottom, from left to right, or around the perimeter and working toward the center. Look at Language Sharpen word choices by making them more exact. For example, turn the field into the baseball field or the chair into the dentists chair. Add feelings, too. If you dont like a room, you might call it a cell. If you love the room, you might call it a haven.

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WORK WITH RELATED READINGS

Catherine, Called Birdy


The following questions refer to the Related Readings in Glencoes Literature Library edition of this novel. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, but jot down some notes on the lines provided. Support your answers with details from the texts.

Authors Note to Catherine, Called Birdy Karen Cushman Make Connections What qualities or problems does Catherine share with teenagers of today?

The Knight of the Honest Heart Christina Hamlet Make Connections What motivates Crispin and Celia to act deceptively? How do their desires parallel those of Catherine?

Caged Bird Maya Angelou Make Connections Compare the birds described in the poem to Catherine. How is Catherine like both the free bird and the caged bird?

Becky and the Wheels-and-Brakes Boys James Berry Make Connections How is Beckys situation similar to Catherines?

Newbery Medal Acceptance (for The Midwifes Apprentice) Karen Cushman Make Connections In the novel, Catherine writes, composes songs, and paints. How does Catherine use her interests in writing, song making, and painting as a means of emotional expression?

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CO NNECT TO OTHER LITER AT URE

LITERATURE EXCERPT: Charles


The day my son Laurie started kindergarten he renounced corduroy overalls with bibs and began wearing blue jeans with a belt; I watched him go off the first morning with the older girl next door, seeing clearly that an era of my life was ended, my sweet-voiced nurseryschool tot replaced by a long-trousered, swaggering character who forgot to stop at the corner and wave good-bye to me. He came home the same way, the front door slamming open, his cap on the floor, and the voice suddenly become raucous shouting, Isnt anybody here? At lunch he spoke insolently to his father, spilled his baby sisters milk, and remarked that his teacher said we were not to take the name of the Lord in vain. How was school today? I asked, elaborately casual. All right, he said. Did you learn anything? his father asked. Laurie regarded his father coldly. I didnt learn nothing, he said. Anything, I said. Didnt learn anything. The teacher spanked a boy, though, Laurie said, addressing his bread and butter. For being fresh, he added, with his mouth full. What did he do? I asked. Who was it? Laurie thought. It was Charles, he said. He was fresh. The teacher spanked him and made him stand in a corner. He was awfully fresh. What did he do? I asked again, but Laurie slid off his chair, took a cookie, and left, while his father was still saying, See here, young man. The next day Laurie remarked at lunch, as soon as he sat down, Well, Charles was bad again today. He grinned enormously and said, Today Charles hit the teacher.

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CONNECT TO OTHER LIT ERATURE

Compare the novel you have just read to the literature selection at the right, which is excerpted from Charles by Shirley Jackson in Glencoe Literature. Then answer the questions below. Use the exact words of the text or explain events and ideas in the text to support your answer.

WRITE ABOUT IT Write a comparison-contrast paragraph that makes at least one main point about how Charles and Catherine are alike and/or different.

Compare & Contrast


1. Conflict How are Lauries conflicts the same or different from Catherines conflicts? Are they internal or external?

2. Text Structure How is the text structure of Charles the same and different from the text structure of Catherine, Called Birdy?

3. Diction In Catherine, Called Birdy, word choice helps the reader understand Catherines conflicts. Is the same true in this excerpt from Charles? Explain your answer.

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RES POND THROUGH WRITING

Persuasive Essay
Argue a Position Arranged marriages have been a part of some cultures for centuries. Do you think they are ever a good idea? Are there any political, cultural, economic, or other reasons why arranged marriages should exist? Decide on your position. Prewrite Make a list of reasons for your opinion or position. Select your three best reasons. Use your reasons to write your thesis or opinion statement: Arranged marriages (should/should not) exist because _____________ , _____________ , and _____________. (reason 1) (reason 2) (reason 3) Draft State your thesis or opinion statement near the beginning of your paper. Present each of your reasons in separate body paragraphs. Fully explain each reason you give. As part of your explanation, think about what people with the opposite opinion might think or say. Address those counterarguments. End with a strong concluding statement. Revise Exchange papers with a classmate. Complete a revision chart like this one for each others work:

UNDERSTAND THE TASK To argue is to use reason or logic to try to influence a readers ideas or actions. A position is an opinion. It is usually stated in a thesis, position statement, or opinion statement.

Grammar Tip
Interjections Use interjections to show emotion, or feeling. Interjections may come before or after a complete sentence. When they express strong feeling and stand on their own, begin them with a capital letter and follow them with an exclamation point: Corpus bones! Gods thumbs! When an interjection does not express strong feeling or has a quieter tone, follow it with a comma: Dear god, I can do no more for either of them.

Your thesis is _________________________________________. Why thesis needs/does not need revision: ___________________ _____________________________________________________. Your reasons are 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ Why reasons need/do not need revision ____________________. Why explanation needs/does not need revision _______________ _____________________________________________________.
Edit and Proofread Edit your writing so that it expresses your thoughts effectively and is well organized. Carefully proofread for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

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Dandelion Wine
Ray Bradbury

D andel i on Wi ne

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INTRODUCTI ON TO THE NOVEL

Dandelion Wine
Ray Bradbury
Bradbury writes or speaks, When solid fact and metaphor getsthe line between hazy. He often adds his own details to true stories to make them more interesting or illustrative . . . . . . The more Bradbury twists the facts, the more he is able to wring from them.
Even this characters name shows reality transformed. Douglas Spaulding is made up from Bradburys own middle name and the middle name of his father, Leonard Spaulding Bradbury. In the same way, his home town of Waukegan is transformed into Green Town and friends, such as John Huff of Arizona are moved east to Green Town and woven into the story.
The Setting Dandelion Wine takes place in the summer of 1928, the summer just before the Great Depression, which began the following year. The so-called Roaring Twenties were years of great change. One world war had finished, and another lurked on the horizon.

Chris Jepson in a 1995 article, Ray Bradbury at the Fullerton Library

In an introduction to Dandelion Wine, Bradbury writes, I was gathering images all of my life, storing them away, and forgetting them. Somehow I had to send myself back, with words as catalysts, to open the memories out and see what they had to offer. Dandelion Wine, however, is fiction, not an autobiography.
Playing with Memories and Senses In this book, Bradbury takes real memories and sense impressions and plays with them. For example, at the age of thirteen, the writer actually looked at the hairs on the back of his wrist and suddenly became aware of the fact that he was alive. A similar experience takes place in the novel, when the main character, Douglas Spaulding, has this realization: Im really alive! he thought. I never knew it before, or if I did I dont remember!

The twenties were the first decade in which the population of the United States was above a hundred million, and for the first time, more Americans lived in cities than lived on farms. Still, a third of the people did live on farms. However, the rapid development of both the automobile and the radio were quickly making society more mobile and less provincial. Now people could not only travel to new places easily, but they could also hear about what was happening in the wider world.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL

Urban lifestyles also differed from those of small towns. Gangsters, flappers, and movie stars made newspaper headlines with their unconventional lives. Yet the heroes of the decade,

Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earheart, appealed to old-fashioned idealism when they flew their tiny planes alone across the Atlantic Ocean.

The Welcome Weed


The golden dandelion, whose name comes from the French dent de lion, or tooth of the lion, is well known to most people who have lawns. The flower is seen by many as a weed that should be eliminated. To others, though, the dandelion is a welcome plant. Its leaves are often used in salads and sandwiches or cooked like spinach and served hot. The roots, roasted and ground, are sometimes used to make a hot beverage similar to coffee.

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MEET THE AUTHOR

Ray Bradbury (1920 )


I write for fun. cant get dont pontificate Youmy work. Itoo serious. I in have fun with ideas. I play with them. I approach my craft with enthusiasm and respect. If my work sparks serious thought, fine. But I dont write with that in mind.
The Martian Chronicles, one of his bestknown works, established his reputation as a writer of science fiction, but the author sees himself differently. I am a collector of metaphors, he says. He points out that most of his books are fantasy, not science fiction, which he calls the art of the possible. His only novel of true science fiction, he believes, is Fahrenheit 451, a book that is set in a grim future in which people burn books. Bradbury himself does not worry much about the future. He told an interviewer, You put your head down and you do your work. Never think of the future. Only your work.
Playing Through Life In some ways, Ray Bradbury is not what people expect. Although he writes of rockets and other highly technical machines, he does not drive a car or use a computer. Although he has won numerous awards, such as the O. Henry Memorial Award and the Grand Master Award from the Science Fiction Writers of America, Bradbury does not rest on past achievements. Instead, he faces the future with zest. When asked how he would like to be remembered, he says, As someone who never had to take a vacation, as someone who played through life and had a great time.

Ray Bradbury in an interview with Future magazine


Born in 1920 in Waukegan, Illinois, Ray

Bradbury spent a childhood steeped in Buck Rogers comic strips, magic, movies, and literature. These influences, as well as the personal details of Bradburys own life, stayed with the author and inspired many of his later works. His hometown of Waukegan, for instance, is the basis for Green Town in Dandelion Wine. When Bradbury was fourteen, his family moved to Los Angeles, where the writer still lives. A few years later, he joined the local Science Fiction League and published his first story in a fan magazine. At twenty, his first story appeared in the professional publication Weird Tales.
Versatile Writer Bradbury is best known for his science fiction writing. But as a writer, he is incredibly versatile. In addition to books and stories, he has written television scripts, screenplays, poetry, and even musicals. He has been a consultant for the U.S. Pavilion at the 1964 Worlds Fair and for Spaceship Earth at Disney World. He is now creating CD-ROM adventure games. 98
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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 116

Connect to the Literature


What season is your favorite? What is particularly special about that season for you?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, in the present tense, using information in Build Background.

Write a Journal Entry


In your journal, write a paragraph about a memorable event that took place during your favorite season. Include as many details as you can.

Build Background
Herbal Medicine
For centuries the dandelion has been used as a medicinal herb. Arabian doctors in the tenth century called it Taraxacon. Today, the chemical that is found in the root is called Taraxacin. The plant is said to be a general stimulant that increases appetite and improves digestion. Some people squeeze juice from the roots and claim the juice will help cure liver problems. People also make dandelion tea, dandelion powder, and dandelion wine. The wine takes months to make. First, the plants are steeped in water and allowed to stand and then various ingredients are added. Only later is the wine placed in bottles that are then capped. Once bottled, dandelion wine can be stored for later use.

D andelion Wine: Chapters 116

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 116

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question What Makes Life Good? How do you define what is good in life? What are the things in life that give you pleasure or joy or a sense of belonging? As you read the first section of the novel, consider how the characters and plot embody the elements of a good lifewith all the contradictions that implies.

Vocabulary
ferrule [fer l] n. metal ring or cap put around the end of a shaft, such as a cane, to strengthen it The pipe was fitted at one end with a small steel ferrule. paraphernalia [par fr nal ya] n. pl. personal belongings When the children divided their paraphernalia, they found they had collected many treasures. ravine [r ven ] n. small, deep, narrow valley My uncles cottage is located at the bottom of a steep ravine. revelation [rev la shn] n. something that is revealed or disclosed The court gasped as the prosecutor brought out revelation after revelation about the defendants previous record. serenely [s ren le] adv. peacefully; calmly The raft drifted serenely down the river.

Literary Element Figurative Language Figurative language is language used for descriptive effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. Expressions of figurative language are not literally true but express some truth beyond the literal level. One example of figurative language is metaphor, a comparison of two seemingly unlike things. An extended metaphor is one that continues through a long poem or passage. A simile is a comparison of seemingly unlike things that uses the words like or as. Although figurative language can occur in many different genres, it is most common in poetry. Fiction writers like Ray Bradbury often bring a poetic sensibility to their work. As you read the first section of Dandelion Wine, consider how Bradbury uses figurative language to pull you into the rich world of his imagination. Reading Strategy Interpret Imagery Imagery is language that emphasizes sensory impressions to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste the scenes described in a literary work. When you interpret imagery, you use your own knowledge of the world to understand and experience the impressions presented. Interpreting imagery is important because using your own history and experiences gives you another way to understand what an author is really trying to say. To interpret imagery, look for details about the place the writer is describing. Ask yourself: What do the details help you see in your mind? look for details about the people discussed in the selection. How does the writer describe peoples physical features, clothing, and body language? look for details about objects the writer describes. What does the item sound, feel, smell, or taste like? As you read Dandelion Wine, pay close attention to the authors descriptions. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one to the right.

Detail
The street lights, like candles on a black cake, went out. The water was blue silk in the cup; clear, faintly blue silk.

My interpretation
The lights go out as quickly and completely as blowing out birthday candles.

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ACT IVE READING: Chapters 116

Dandelion Wine contains many settings, characters, stories, and objects, some of which are mentioned again later in the book. A recurring element that has symbolic significance in a story

is called a motif. As you read the opening chapters, pay attention to the items listed below. Record what you know about that item and how the characters felt about it.

Item
dandelion wine

Details
put away until January

Characters thoughts/feelings

new and old sneakers

the ravine

Grandfathers lawnmower

the Happiness Machine

Mrs. Bentleys photograph

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Figurative Language This is the beginning of an extended metaphor that goes on until the end of the chapter. What two seemingly unlike things is author Ray Bradbury comparing? Why do you think he uses metaphor instead of simply stating the facts?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 3


The town, later in the day. And yet another harvest. Grandfather stood on the wide front porch like a captain surveying the vast unmotioned calms of a season dead ahead. He questioned the wind and the untouchable sky and the lawn on which stood Douglas and Tom to question only him. Grandpa, are they ready? Now? Grandfather pinched his chin. Five hundred, a thousand, two thousand easy. Yes, yes, a good supply. Pick em easy, pick em all. A dime for every sack delivered to the press! Hey! The boys bent, smiling. They picked the golden flowers. The flowers that flooded the world, dripped off lawns onto brick streets, tapped softly at crystal cellar windows and agitated themselves so that on all sides lay the dazzle and glitter of molten sun. Every year, said Grandfather. They run amuck; I let them. Pride of lions in the yard. Stare, and they burn a hole in your retina. A common flower, a weed that no one sees, yes. But for us, a noble thing, the dandelion. So, plucked carefully, in sacks, the dandelions were carried below. The cellar dark glowed with their arrival. The wine press stood open, cold. A rush of flowers warmed it. The press, replaced, its screw rotated, twirled by Grandfather, squeezed gently on the crop. There . . . so . . . The golden tide, the essence of this fine fair month ran, then gushed from the spout below, to be crocked, skimmed of ferment, and bottled in clean ketchup shakers, then ranked in sparkling rows in cellar gloom. Dandelion wine. The words were summer on the tongue. The wine was summer caught and stoppered. And now that Douglas knew, he really knew he was alive, and moved turning through the world to touch and see it all, it was only right and proper that some of his new knowledge, some of this special vintage day would be sealed away for opening on a

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January day with snow falling fast and the sun unseen for weeks or months and perhaps some of the miracle by then forgotten and in need of renewal. Since this was going to be a summer of unguessed wonders, he wanted it all salvaged and labeled so that any time he wished, he might tiptoe down in this dank twilight and reach up his fingertips. And there, row upon row, with the soft gleam of flowers opened at morning, with the light of this June sun glowing through a faint skin of dust, would stand the dandelion wine. Peer through it at the wintry daythe snow melted to grass, the trees were reinhabitated with bird, leaf, and blossoms like a continent of butterflies breathing on the wind. And peering through, color sky from iron to blue. Hold summer in your hand, pour summer in a glass, a tiny glass of course, the smallest tingling sip for children; change the season in your veins by raising glass to lip and tilting summer in. Ready, now, the rain barrel! Nothing else in the world would do but the pure waters which had been summoned from the lakes far away and the sweet fields of grassy dew on early morning, lifted to the open sky, carried in laundered clusters nine hundred miles, brushed with wind, electrified with high voltage, and condensed upon cool air. This water, falling, raining, gathered yet more of the heavens in its crystals. Taking something of the east wind and the west wind and the north wind and the south, the water made rain and the rain, within this hour of rituals, would be well on its way to wine. Douglas ran with the dipper. He plunged it deep in the rain barrel. Here we go! The water was silk in the cup; clear, faintly blue silk. It softened the lip and the throat and the heart, if drunk. This water must be carried in dipper and bucket to the cellar, there to be leavened in freshets, in mountain streams, upon the dandelion harvest. Even Grandma, when snow was whirling fast, dizzying the world, blinding windows, stealing breath from gasping mouths, even Grandma, one day in February, would vanish to the cellar.

Literary Element Figurative Language What does the simile blossoms like a continent of butterflies mean? Try to paraphrase the meaning by creating your own simile.

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Interpret Imagery How does the authors use of imagery add to the suspense of this scene?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 10


He took her hand. Together they walked down St. James Street. Underfoot the concrete was still warm, and the crickets were sounding louder against the darkening dark. They reached a corner, turned, and walked toward the West Ravine. Off somewhere a car floated by, flashing its lights in the distance. There was such a complete lack of life, light, and activity. Here and there, back off from where they were walking, faint squares of light glowed where people were still up. But most of the houses darkened, were sleeping already, and there were a few lightless places where the occupants of a dwelling sat talking low night talk on their front porches. You heard a porch swing squeaking as you walked by. I wish your father was home, said Mother. Her large hand squeezed around his small one. Just waitll I get that boy. The Lonely Ones around again. Killing people. No ones safe any more. You never know when the Lonely Onell turn up or where. So help me, when Doug gets home Ill spank him within an inch of his life. Now they had walked another block and were standing by the holy black silhouette of the German Baptist Church at the corner of Chapel Street and Glen Rock. In back of the church, a hundred yards away, the ravine began. He could smell it. It had a dark-sewer, rotten-foliage, thickgreen odor. It was a wide ravine that cut and twisted across towna jungle by day, a place to let alone at night, Mother often declared. He should have felt encouraged by the nearness of the German Baptist Church but he was not, because the building was not illumined, was cold and useless as a pile of ruins on the ravine edge. He was only ten years old. He knew little of death, fear, or dread. Death was the waxen effigy in the coffin when he was six and Great-grandfather passed away, looking like a great fallen vulture in his casket, silent, withdrawn, no more to tell him how to be a good boy, no more to comment succinctly on politics. Death was his little sister one morning whe he awoke at the age of seven, looked

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into her crib, and saw her staring up at him with a blind, blue, fixed and frozen stare until the men came with a small wicker basket to take her away. Death was when he stood by her high chair four weeks later and suddenly realized shed never be in it again, laughing and crying and making him jealous of her because she was born. That was death. And Death was the Lonely One, unseen, walking and standing behind trees, waiting in the country to come in, once or twice a year, to this town, to these streets, to these many places where there was little light, to kill one, two, three women in the past three years. That was Death . . . . But this was more than Death. This summer night deep down under the stars was all things you would ever feel or see or hear in your life, drowning you all at once. Leaving the sidewalk, they walked along a trodden, pebbled, weed-fringed path while the crickets rose in a loud full drumming chorus. He followed obediently behind brave, fine, tall Motherdefender of the universe. Together, then, they approached, reached, and paused at the very end of civilization. The Ravine. Here and now, down in that pit of jungled blackness were suddenly all the things he would never know or understand; all the things without names lived in the huddled tree shadow, in the odor of decay. He realized he and his mother were alone. Her hand trembled. He felt the tremble . . . . Why? But she was bigger, stronger, more intelligent than himself, wasnt she? Did she, too, feel that intangible menace, that groping out of darkness, that crouching malignancy down below? Was there, then, no strength in growing up? No solace in being an adult? No sanctuary in life? No fleshly citadel strong enough to withstand the scrabbling assault of midnights? Doubts flushed him. Ice cream lived again in his throat, stomach, spine and limbs; he was instantly cold as a wind out of December gone.

Reading Strategy Interpret Imagery What imagery does the author use to describe the ravine? What senses does this imagery appeal to?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 5


The old man sighed. A minute later, seated panting quietly, he laced the tennis shoes to his long narrow feet. They looked detached and alien down there next to the dark cuffs of his business suit. Mr. Sanderson stood up. How do they feel? asked the boy. How do they feel, he asks; they feel fine. He started to sit down. Please! Douglas held out his hand. Mr. Sanderson, now could you kind of rock back and forth a little, sponge around, bounce kind of, while I tell you the rest? Its this: I give you my money, you give me the shoes, I owe you a dollar. But, Mr. Sanderson, butsoon as I get those shoes on, you know what happens? What? Bang! I deliver your packages, pick up packages, bring you coffee, burn your trash, run to the post office, telegraph office, library! Youll see twelve of me in and out, in and out, every minute. Feel those shoes, Mr. Sanderson, feel how fast theyd take me? All those springs inside? Feel all the running inside? Feel how they kind of grab hold and cant let you alone and dont like you just standing there? Feel how quick Id be doing the things youd rather not bother with? You stay in the nice cool store while Im jumping all around town! But its not me really, its the shoes. Theyre going like mad down alleys, cutting corners, and back! There they go! Mr. Sanderson stood amazed with the rush of words. When the words got going the flow carried him; he began to sink deep in the shoes, to flex his toes, limber his arches, test his ankles. He rocked softly, secretly, back and forth in a small breeze from the open door. The tennis shoes silently hushed themselves deep in the carpet, sank as in a jungle grass, in loam and resilient clay. He gave one solemn bounce of his heels in the yeasty dough, in the yielding and welcoming earth. Emotions hurried over his face as if many colored lights had been switched on and off. His mouth hung slightly open. Slowly he gentled and rocked himself to a halt, and the boys voice faded and they stood there looking at each other in a tremendous and natural silence.

BIG Question
What Makes Life Good? What meeting of the minds do you think Douglas and Mr. Sanderson come to about what makes life good? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key ideas.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 116

Respond and Think Critically


1. What does Tom become aware of the night that he goes to the ravine with his mother? [Identify]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 99. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What is Lena Auffmanns opinion about the Happiness Machine? On what does she base her opinion? What realization does Leo Auffmann have when he looks through his window? [Interpret]

3. Why, according to her husband, does Mrs. Bentley save things? What does she finally do with her possessions and how does that make her feel? [Analyze]

4. What character or characters remind you of people you know? In what ways? [Connect]

5. What Makes Life Good? What are three memorable moments when Douglas is aware of lifes goodness? [Infer]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 116

Literary Element Figurative Language 1. The author describes the ravine as tensing, bunching together its black fibers, drawing in power from sleeping countrysides. What do you visualize from this metaphor?

Vocabulary Practice
Choose the sentence that uses the vocabulary word correctly. 1. A. Without the ferrule, the spear would have broken in two. B. If you ferrule the pipe, it will not bend. 2. A. How many paraphernalia do you really need to keep? B. My room is loaded with paraphernalia. 3. A. Climb up into the ravine. B. Climb out of the ravine. 4. A. My father is famous in our town for his revelation about dolphins. B. My father is famous in our town for his ability to revelation about dolphins. 5. A. My grandmothers serenely attitude allows her to enjoy life. B. My grandmother lives serenely and enjoys life.

2. To what does Grandfather compare the first day of lawn mowing? What images support this comparison?

Academic Vocabulary Reading Strategy Interpret Imagery 1. In Chapter 15, an ice cream truck comes around a corner like an elfin band. To which of the five senses does this simile appeal? [Analyze] Leo Auffmanns Happiness Machine did not affect his wife the way he thought it would. In the preceding sentence affect means to produce an effect. Affect also has other meanings. For example: The child had a sullen affect after being scolded by her mother. What do you think affect means in the preceding sentence? What is the difference between the two meanings? Look in a dictionary to check your answer.

2. What sensory details does the author use describe the sound of the Happiness Machine? [Identify]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 116

Write with Style


Apply Figurative Language
Assignment One of the strongest elements of Ray Bradburys prose style is his use of figurative language. Bradburys story of summer in a small town brims over with metaphors and similes. Think about last summer. Write a paragraph about it that uses metaphors and similes. Get Ideas Take three minutes and write every image of summer that pops into your mind, including places, events, and objects. Write quickly, just a word or two per image. You should be able to come up with at least fifteen images. Then read through them and decide which one creates the strongest emotional tug for you. Choose that image to write about. Write the image in the center of a piece of paper. Around it write images that strike you as similar to the central image but that are in fact very different. Example: Activity: Sleeping in the backyard at night Metaphor: Tiny pinpricks of light in the velvety black canopy above us Similes: Like early explorers in a new land; As foreign as a moonscape Give It Structure Begin your paragraph with a sentence that introduces your central place, event, or object. Follow this with sentences that further describe it, using at least one metaphor and two similes. Look at Language Dont weigh your paragraph down with weak images. Three very strong images will work better than five or six weak ones.

Connect to Content Areas


Social Studies
Assignment The year 1928, in which Dandelion Wine is set, was a year of many historic firsts. Do research to find out more about what happened in 1928. Then combine your findings with those of your classmates to create a time line for that year. Investigate Before meeting with classmates and beginning your research, think about the categories you might use to classify your information. Create a chart like the one below.

Advances in Science/Technology
Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.

Advances in the Arts


Walt Disney introduces film audiences to Mickey Mouse.

Other categories might include events in world politics or important births and deaths. Create Using your chart as a guide, research the events of 1928. You may wish to use library resources or an Internet search engine such as Google. Add to your chart as you find more information that you think should be included on the time line. Then meet with your classmates and compare charts. From this larger list of events, try to find at least one major event for each month of the year 1928. Report You can create a poster version of your time line or a word-processed document. Each member of your group should read through the time line carefully before the group turns in the final version.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 1729

Connect to the Literature


In what ways would you say that change is a positive force? In what ways is it negative?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below using information in Build Background.

Freewrite
Spend two or three minutes freewriting about change. You might want to start by noting your feelings about change or by giving as many examples as you can. Write without stopping and without worrying about grammar, usage, or punctuation.

Build Background
Trolley Days
By the 1920s, automobiles and airplanes were changing the way people traveled. Before these inventions, people walked, rode in horse-drawn vehicles or bicycles, or traveled on local trolleys. A trolley is a wheeled vehicle that runs on tracks laid on roads. Most trolleys were drawn by horses or powered by steam, electricity, or cables. The trolleys ran on a schedule and carried people for relatively short distances. Some trolleys were beautiful machines, with brass or wooden trim, and windows that opened to let in fresh air. However, they were slower than modern cars and buses and often caused traffic jams. Gradually, trolleys were abandoned as a common form of public transportation. You will note that at one point in the next section of the novel, the character who has been the Green Town trolley driver announces the last trolley ride before the new bus service begins. This brief bit of information, addressed to Douglas Spaulding and the other Green Town children, signifies the end of an important period in their lives.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 1729

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question What Makes Life Good? What do you think are the elements of a good life? For many people, appreciating nature is one of lifes greatest pleasures. For others, laughter and humor play a larger role. As you read the next section of the novel, consider the various ways author Ray Bradbury expresses what makes life good for the people of Green Town.

Vocabulary
calamities [k lam tez] n. great misfortunes; disasters When natural calamities strike, the nations relief organizations get to work. concoction [kon kok shn] n. mixture of several ingredients The health food drink was a terrible concoction of wheat juice, yeast, and cranberry juice. desiccation [des i ka shn] n. dryness When you extract salt from ocean water the desiccation process turns it white. infinitesimal [in fi n tes ml] adj. so small that it is immeasurable The hotel manager told the tourists that their chances of finding the beach open during a hurricane warning were infinitesimal. ricochet [rik sha ] v. to cause to bounce back A pinball machine forces the ball to ricochet off various obstacles.

Literary Element Sound Devices Sound devices are techniques used to create a sense of rhythm or to emphasize certain sounds in writing. Some of the techniques that control sound are Repetitionthe recurrence of sounds, words, phrases, lines, or stanzas in a piece of writing. Parallelismthe use of a series of words, phrases, or sentences that have similar grammatical form. Parallelism emphasizes items that are arranged in the similar structures. Alliterationthe repetition of consonant sounds usually at the beginning of words or syllables. As you read the next section of the novel, listen for Ray Bradburys use of sound devices, and think about how these techniques amplify the imagery descriptive passages. Reading Skill Analyze Style When you analyze, you look at separate parts of something in order to better understand the whole. Style is the way an author chooses and arranges words and sentences. Diction, or word choice, use of imagery, and sentence structure and length are a few of the factors that contribute to a writers style. Analyzing style is important because it forces you to look more critically at a work of literature to understand the authors purpose in writing and attitude toward his or her subject. To analyze style, pay attention to the authors use of imagery and to the differences in the way the various characters speakand the way the narrator speaks about them. As you read, think about how the elements of diction and sentence length and structure work together to create an overall stylistic effect. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one to the right.

Example from text


Doug, whats up? Up? Nothings up!

Style
Diction: informal language Sentence structure: both phrases and sentences Sentence length: short, choppy

Effect
feeling of excitement or expectation

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Ray Bradbury is known for his evocative style the richness of his diction and imagery and the complicated ideas he is able to convey while maintaining an entertaining sense of drama. As

you read the next section of the novel and come to the examples listed in the chart below, fill in the right-hand side of the chart to analyze the authors style.

Example from text


The earth shook: rat-a-tat, boom! Rumble.

How does this add to the authors style?


Word choice and imagery appeals to sense of hearing.

the curtain coming down fast and the women weeping 1910 Boston Variety Arts Theatre poor man poor man It glided. It whispered, an ocean breeze. Delicate as maple leaves, fresher than creek water, it purred with the majesty of cats prowling the noontide. He fixed his bright, stuffed-fox, greenglass-eye gaze upon that wonderful merchandise. Mr. Tridden told them how it had been twenty years ago, the band playing on that ornate stand at night, the men pumping air into their brass horns, the plump conductor flinging perspiration from his baton, the children and fireflies running in the deep grass Tell me! Brown!" John turned away. No, sir. What you mean, no?" Youre not even close! Douglas peered off at the horizon where clouds filled the sky with immense shapes of old gods and warriors.

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Sound Devices Identify an example of parallelism in this section. What does this use of a sound device accomplish?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 17


Seems like the town is full of machines, said Douglas, running. Mr. Auffmann and his Happiness Machine, Miss Fern and Miss Roberta and their Green Machine. Now, Charlie, what you handing me? A Time Machine! panted Charlie Woodman, pacing him. Mothers, scouts, Injuns honor! Travels in the past and future? John Huff asked, easily circling them. Only in the past, but you cant have everything. Here we are. Charlie Woodman pulled up at a hedge. Douglas peered in at the old house. Heck, thats Colonel Freeleighs place. Cant be no Time Machine in there. Hes no inventor, and if he was, wed known about an important thing like a Time Machine years ago. Charlie and John tiptoed up the front-porch steps. Douglas snorted and shook his head, staying at the bottom of the steps. Okay, Douglas, said Charlie. Be a knucklehead. Sure, Colonel Freeleigh didnt invent this Time Machine. But hes got a proprietary interest in it, and its been here all the time. We were too darned dumb to notice! So long, Douglas Spaulding, to you! Charlie took Johns elbow as though he was escorting a lady, opened the front-porch screen and went in. The screen door did not slam. Douglas had caught the screen and was following silently. Charlie walked across the enclosed porch, knocked, and opened the inside door. They all peered down a long dark hall toward a room that was lit like an undersea grotto, soft green, dim, and watery. Colonel Freeleigh? Silence. He dont hear so good, whispered Charlie. But he told me to just come on in and yell. Colonel! The only answer was the dust sifting down and around the spiral stair well from above. Then there was a faint stir in that undersea chamber at the far end of the hall.

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NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 19


Oh, that glorious and enchanted first weekthe magical afternoons of golden light, humming through the shady town on a dreaming, timeless river, seated stiffly, smiling at passing acquaintances, sedately purring out their wrinkled claws at every turn, squeezing a hoarse cry from the black rubber horn at intersections, sometimes letting Douglas or Tom Spaulding or any of the other boys who trotted, chatting, alongside, hitch a little ride. Fifteen slow and pleasurable miles an hour top speed. They came and went through the summer sunlight and shadow, their faces freckled and stained by passing trees, going and coming like an ancient, wheeled vision. And then whispered Fern, this afternoon! Oh, this afternoon! It was an accident. But we ran away, and thats criminal! This noon. The smell of the leather cushions under their bodies, the gray perfume smell of their own sachets trailing back as they moved in their silent Green Machine through the small, languorous town. It happened quickly. Rolling soft onto the sidewalk at noon, because the streets were blistering and fiery, and the only shade was under the lawn trees, they had glided to a blind corner, bulbing their throaty horn. Suddenly, like a jackin-the-box, Mister Quartermain had tottered from nowhere! Look out! screamed Miss Fern. Look out! screamed Miss Roberta. Look out! cried Mister Quartermain. The two women grabbed each other instead of the steering stick. There was a terrible thud. The Green Machine sailed on in the hot daylight, under the shady chestnut trees, past the ripening apple trees. Looking back only once, the two old ladies eyes filled with faded horror. The old man lay on the sidewalk, silent. And here we are, mourned Miss Fern in the darkening attic. Oh, why didnt we stop! Why did we run away?

Literary Element Sound Devices Which sound device does the author employ here? What is its effect? How is Mr. Quartermains exclamation different from those of Miss Fern and Miss Roberta? How does this small difference affect the way you hear the three exclamations?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Analyze Style Compare the way William speaks in this section with the way Helen speaks. What does this tell you about their relationship?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 28


You cant predict death, he said at last. For fifty years Ive watched the grandfather clock in the hall, William. After it is wound I can predict to the hour when it will stop. Old people are no different. They can feel the machinery slow down and the last weights shift. Oh, please dont look that wayplease dont. I cant help it, he said. Weve had a nice time, havent we? It has been very special here, talking every day. It was that muchoverburdened and worn phrase referred to as a meeting of the minds. She turned the blue envelope in her hands. Ive alway known that the quality of love was the mind, even though the body sometimes refuses this knowledge. The body lives for itself. It lives only to feed and wait for the night. Its essentially nocturnal. But what of the mind which is born of the sun, William, and must spend thousands of hours of a lifetime awake and aware? Can you balance off the body, that pitiful, selfish thing of night against a whole lifetime of sun and intellect? I dont know. I only know there has been your mind here and my mind here, and the afternoons have been like none I can remember. There is still so much to talk about, but we must save it for another time. We dont seem to have much time now. No, but perhaps there will be another time. Time is so strange and life is twice as strange. The cogs miss, the wheels turn, and lives interlace too early or too late. I lived too long that much is certain. And you were born either too early or too late. It was a terrible bit of timing. But perhaps I am being punished for being a silly girl. Anyway, the next spin around, wheels might function right again. Meantime you must find a nice girl and be married and be happy. But you must promise me one thing. Anything. You must promise me not to live to be too old, William. If it is a all convenient, die before youre fifty. It may take a bit of doing. But advise this simply because there is no telling when another Helen Loomis might be born. It

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

would be dreadful, wouldnt it, if you lived on to be very, very old and some afternoon in 1999 walked down Main Street and saw me standing there, aged twenty-one, and the whole thing out of balance again? I dont think we could go through any more afternoons like these weve had, no matter how pleasant, do you? A thousand gallons of tea and five hundred biscuits is enough for one friendship. So you must have an attack of pneumonia some time in about twenty years. For I dont know how long they let you linger on the other side. Perhaps they send you back immediately. But I shall do my best, William, really I shall. And everything put right and in balance, do you know what might happen? You tell me. Some afternoon in 1985 or 1990 a young man named Tom Smith or John Green or a name like that, will be walking downtown and will stop in the drugstore and order, appropriately, a dish of some unusual ice cream. A young girl the same age will be sitting there and when she hears the name of that ice cream, something will happen. I cant say what or how. She wont know why or how, assuredly. Nor will the young man. It will simply be that the name of that ice cream will be a very good thing to both of them. Theyll talk. And later, when they know each others names, theyll walk from the drugstore together. She smiled at him. This is all very neat, but forgive an old lady for tying things in neat packets. Its a silly trifle to leave you. Now lets talk of something else. What shall we talk about? Is there any place in the world we havent traveled to yet? Have we been to Stockholm? Yes, its a fine town. Glasgow? Yes? Where then? Why not Green Town, Illinois? he said. Here. We havent really visited our own town together at all.

Reading Skill Analyze Style What do you notice about the length and structure of the sentences in this section? How do these stylistic elements relate to other sections of the novel?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 25


And, thousands of miles away, in a southern land, in an office in a building in that land, there was the sound of footsteps retreating from the phone. The old man leaned forward, gripping the receiver tight to his wrinkled ear that ached with waiting for the next sound. The raising of a window. Ah, sighed the old man. The sounds of Mexico City on a hot yellow noon rose through the open window into the waiting phone. He could see Jorge standing there holding the mouthpiece out, out into the bright day. Seor . . . No, no, please. Let me listen. He listened to the hooting of many metal horns, the squealing of brakes, the calls of vendors selling red-purple bananas and jungle oranges in their stalls. Colonel Freeleighs feet began to move, hanging from the edge of his wheel chair, making the motions of a man walking. His eyes squeezed tight. He gave a series of immense sniffs, as if to gain the odors of meats hung on iron hooks in sunshine, cloaked with flies like a mantle of raisins; the smell of stone alleys wet with morning rain. He could feel the sun burn his spiny-bearded cheek, and he was twenty-five years old again, walking, walking, looking, smiling, happy to be alive, very much alert, drinking in colors and smells. A rap on the door. Quickly he hid the phone under his lap robe. The nurse entered. Hello, she said. Have you been good? Yes. The old mans voice was mechanical. He could hardly see. The shock of a simple rap on the door was such that part of him was still in another city, far removed. He waited for his mind to rush homeit must be here to answer questions, act sane, be polite.

BIG Question
What Makes Life Good? What does this passage say about what makes life good for a person like Colonel Freeleigh? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

ASK QUESTIONS Write a question about the novel. Can you find the answer in your notes?

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1729

Respond and Think Critically


1. What does Douglas mean by the message he sends to Fern and Roberta saying that he saw everything and everythings all right? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Meet the Author on page 98. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. Why does Douglas consider John Huff the only god living in the whole of Green Town, Illinois, during the twentieth century? How does Douglas react when John leaves? Why do you think he does this? [Analyze]

3. Helen Loomis says, Time is so strange and life is twice as strange. . . . It was a terrible bit of timing. To what is she referring? Do you agree? Give your reasons. [Evaluate]

4. In your opinion, is this section of the book sad, heartwarming, or confusing? Explain. [Evaluate]

5. What Makes Life Good? Colonel Freeleigh takes Doug and his friends on a journey back to the past. How do his memories affect the boys? What role do you think memories play in making a persons life good? [Connect]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1729

Literary Element Sound Devices 1. Chapter 20 contains this sentence: There was a soft sigh of air; the door collapsed gently shut, tucking up its corrugated tongue. Identify the alliteration in the sentence and describe its effect.

Vocabulary Practice
On a separate sheet of paper, write the vocabulary word that correctly completes the sentence. calamities concoction desiccation infinitesimal ricochet

2. Write a sentence about a moment you remember from the section of the novel you just read. Use examples of both alliteration and repetition in your sentence.

1. When the chemist added acid to the _____________ it turned blue and began to bubble. 2. Nanotechnology is so small as to be _____________. 3. The _____________ process allowed the salted fish to remain edible for weeks. 4. When my brother gets excited he does nothing but _____________ around the house. 5. Of all the _____________ that could happen to my grandmother, the one she feared most was losing her home.

Reading Skill Analyze Style 1. Toward the end of Chapter 21, Ray Bradbury writes: A series of rifle shots. Screen doors banged one after the other, a sunset volley across the street. How does this idea reflect what Douglas is feeling about his friend John Huff? [Infer]

Academic Vocabulary In Chapter 21, Douglas seems to equate friendship and loyalty with permanence. In the preceding sentence equate means to treat or represent as equal or comparable. To become more familiar with the word equate, fill out the graphic organizer below.

definition

synonym

2. Note the imagery in this excerpt from Chapter 23: Her eyes felt like wads of blazing cotton. Her tongue tasted like a dust mop. Her ears were belling and ringing away? To what senses do these images appeal? [Identify]

equate

antonym

sentence/image

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1729

Write with Style


Apply Sound Devices
Assignment Review the authors use of sound devices in the section of the novel you just read. You will notice examples of alliteration and repetition, including parallelism. You will also find examples of onomatopoeia, or words and phrases that sound like the things they represent. Examples of onomatopoeia include click, buzz, bang, chug, and so on. Write a descriptive passage that conveys one of the main ideas you found in this section. Include examples of alliteration, repetition, and onomatopoeia. Get Ideas Reread the section of Chapter 21 in which Doug, John, and the others play Statues. Think about your own past and the sports, games, and other activities you have enjoyed participating in or watching during the summer. Make a list of phrases that convey the sounds of these events. Examples: toes squishing in mud the crack of the bat against the ball the tinkling of the bell on a bike the splash of water the thud-thud of running footsteps Give It Structure Begin your passage with a repeated word or phrase. Examples: Ping, ping, ping! The pebble flew out of Grandpas hand and skipped across the water three times. Go, go, go! we yelled to Brett as he careened from first to second base. Continue writing your description, including your feelings, sensory memories, and other impressions. Look at Language Using sound devices depends on your internal ear and your concise use of language to connect with readers. To enhance your diction and learn new words, you might want to use a thesaurus.

Speaking and Listening


Performance
Assignment With a partner or a small group of classmates, perform a scene from this part of the novel that contains mostly dialogue. Prepare With your scene partner(s), choose the scene you will perform from the novelfor example, the one between Helen Loomis and William Forrester, Chapter 17s discussion between Colonel Freeleigh and the boys, or the dialogue between John Huff and Douglas Spaulding. Together, decide which person will play each role. Then read through the scene, adding movements as you go. After you have read the entire scene, decide if you need to cut or add dialogue or movement to the scene. Make these changes and read through the scene again. To more effectively bring the characters to life, your group should provide feedback on each others performances. Create Choose an effective stage picture for the opening of your scene. For example, in a scene about Colonel Freeleigh, you might place the colonel on a chair in the center and group the boys around his feet. When you present your scene, make sure you speak loudly enough to reach the entire audience. Make sure your gestures and posture reflect the character you are portraying. Evaluate After the performance, get together with your fellow performers and discuss how successful your performance was. How might you have improved it? Use a chart like the one below to record your groups ideas.

What worked well


We created distinct characters. (The audience recognized them.)

What needed improvement


At times, performers played for laughs instead of staying in character.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 3040

Connect to the Literature


Would you want to know what the future holds? Why or why not?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, in the present tense, using information from Build Background.

Discuss
With a partner, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of knowing your future. How would that knowledge affect your present life? What if your future were better than the present? What if the future were far worse?

Build Background
For Your Amusement
An arcade is a long covered area, often containing shops. Amusement arcades contain various games and machines that are designed for fun. In older arcades, visitors would drop a penny, nickel, or dime into a machine anddepending on the machinethey might view a short film, play a game of skill, or watch a mechanical scene come to life. Some of the most popular arcade machines were the ones that promised to tell the future. These machines might simply print out a slip of paper, or they might be more complicated. The most elaborate fortune-telling machines had lifesize mannequins inside wooden booths with glass windows. The mannequins could look surprisingly real: they nodded, blinked, pointed, handled such items as pens and cards, and even seemed to breathe. Contemporary arcades most often feature computer and video games. Video arcades, though high-tech, rely to a great extent on the same human tendency as many of the old arcadesthe desire to win.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 3040

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question What Makes Life Good? In the next chapters of the novel, Douglas becomes more aware of both loss and his own mortality. He realizes that everyone dies. This reflects one of the larger questions of the novel: how can one enjoy life knowing that it will one day end? As you read this final section of Dandelion Wine, consider how Ray Bradbury attempts to answer this question.

Vocabulary
apparition [ap rish n] n. something strange or unexpected that comes suddenly into view; ghost What the boys mistook for an apparition in white turned out to be only Grandmother in her flannel nightgown. commotion [k mo sh n] n. noisy disturbance or excitement A raccoon got into the garbage cans last night and made a terrible commotion. equilibrium [ek w lib re m] n. state of balance, sometimes emotional balance After the marathon, some runners complained of dizziness and loss of equilibrium. exhalation [eks h la shn] n. act of letting air out of the lungs After final exams many students let out a long relieved exhalation. overwrought [o vr rt ] adj. worked up to an unhealthy state of excitement or nervousness My dog gets overwrought whenever I bring out the vacuum cleaner.

Literary Element Setting Setting is the time and place during which a story takes place. The setting can help create the storys atmosphere or mood. Although the overall setting of Dandelion Wine is the small Midwestern community of Green Town during the summer of 1928, the storys episodic structure reveals many settings within this larger onefor example, the ravine and the arcade. Each provides insights about the storys themes. As you read, think about how the setting adds to and helps illustrate the themes of life and death, magic, change, and the passage of time. Reading Strategy Connect to Personal Experience To connect, you look for links between ideas or information. When you connect to personal experience, you locate links between what you read and your own experience. Connecting to personal experience is important because it can help you to become a more focused reader. Ideas and events in literature mean more to you when you can connect them to feelings, thoughts, and impressions of your own. To connect to personal experience as you read, ask yourself: Have I been to places similar to the setting described by this writer? What experiences have I had that compare and contrast with what I am reading? What opinions do I already have about this topic? What characters from my life remind me of the Douglas plays with characters in this selection? friends, visits people Use the graphic organizers on the next page or the one at the right to help you make connections.

Douglas does chores with family

Summer
I _______________ I _______________

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ACTIVE READING: Chapters 3040

In the chapters that follow, many interesting events take place. As you read about these events, use the chart below to consider how the characters experiences and feelings relate to

your own personal experience. The first column lists the story details. In the second column, describe how each detail corresponds to your own experience.

Story detail
Lavinia Nebbs walks home through the ravine by herself.

My experience
Have you ever done something you knew was dangerous?

Great-grandma dies.

Have you ever lost a loved one? How did you feel?

Douglas doesnt want to think about the possibility of his own death.

Have you ever wanted to avoid thinking about this subject? Why or why not?

Douglas goes to the Tarot Witch to find out his future.

Have you ever wanted to know the answer to the future? What did you do?

The children of Green Town pick out treasures from Mr. Jonass wagon.

Have you ever gotten anything secondhand? How did you feel about it?

Douglas gets sick with a very high fever.

Describe a time when you were very sick.

Douglas recovers from his illness.

Describe how it feels to be well after an illness.

Douglas and his family have a festive dinner together.

What are big dinners with friends or family like in our experience?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Setting What does this exchange tell you about what it is like to live in Green Town in generaland about the characters of Lavinia and Helen in particular?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 30


The sound of the deep warm dark ravine came near. In a minute they stood before Helens house, looking at each other for a long time. The wind blew the odor of cut grass between them. The moon was sinking in a sky that was beginning to cloud. I dont suppose its any use asking you to stay, Lavinia? Ill be going on. Sometimes Sometimes what? Sometimes I think people want to die. Youve acted odd all evening. Im just not afraid, said Lavinia. And Im curious, I suppose. And Im using my head. Logically, the Lonely One cant be around. The police and all. The police are home with their covers up over their ears. Lets just say Im enjoying myself, precariously, but safely. If there was any real chance of anything happening to me, Id stay here with you, you can be sure of that. Maybe part of you doesnt want to live anymore. You and Francine. Honestly! I feel so guilty. Ill be drinking some hot cocoa just as you reach the ravine bottom and walk on the bridge. Drink a cup for me. Good night. Lavinia Nebbs walked alone down the midnight street, down the late summer-night silence. She saw houses with the dark windows and far away she heard a dog barking. In five minutes, she thought, Ill be safe at home. In five minutes Ill be phoning silly little Francine. Ill She heard the mans voice. A mans voice singing far away among the trees. Oh, give me a June night, the moonlight and you . . . She walked a little faster. The voice sang, In my arms . . . with all your charms . . . Down the street in the dim moonlight a man walked slowly and casually along. I can run knock on one of these doors, thought Lavinia, if I must. Oh, give me a June night, sang the man, and he carried a long club in his hand. The moonlight and you.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

Well, look whos here! What a time of night for you to be out, Miss Nebbs! Officer Kennedy! And thats who it was, of course. Id better see you home! Thanks, Ill make it. But you live across the ravine. . . . Yes, she thought, but I wont walk through the ravine with any man, not even an officer. How do I know who the Lonely One is? No, she said, Ill hurry. Ill wait right here, he said. If you need any help, give a yell. Voices carry good here. Ill come running. Thank you. She went on, leaving him under a light, humming to himself, alone. Here I am, she thought. The ravine. She stood on the edge of the one hundred and thirteen steps that went down the steep hill and then across the bridge seventy yards and up the hills leading to Park Street. And only one lantern to see by. Three minutes from now, she thought, Ill be putting my key in my house door. Nothing can happen in just one hundred eighty seconds. She started down the long dark-green steps into the deep ravine. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten steps, she counted in a whisper. She felt she was running, but she was not running. Fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty steps, she breathed. One fifth of the way! she announced to herself. The ravine was deep, black and black, black! And the world was gone behind, the world of safe people in bed, the locked doors, the town, the drugstore, the theater, the lights, everything was gone. Only the ravine existed and lived, black and huge, about her. Nothings happened, has it? No one around, is there? Twenty-four, twenty-five steps. Remember that old ghost story you told each other when you were children? She listened to her shoes on the steps.

Literary Element Setting What two major themes does the setting of the ravine emphasize in this section? Explain.

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Connect to Personal Experience Taking into account your own family and friends, do you agree or disagree with what Greatgrandma says about the way people go on living? Why?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 32


Douglas was crying. She roused herself again. Now, why are you doing that? Because, he said, you wont be here tomorrow. She turned a small hand mirror from herself to the boy. He looked at her face and himself in the mirror and then at her face again as she said, Tomorrow morning Ill get up at seven and wash behind my ears; Ill run to church with Charlie Woodman; Ill picnic at Electric Park; Ill swim, run barefoot, fall out of trees, chew spearmint gum. . . . Douglas, Douglas, for shame! You cut your fingernails, dont you? Yesm. And you dont yell when your body makes itself over every seven years or so, old cells dead and new ones added to your fingers and your heart. You dont mind that, do you? Nom. Well, consider then, boy. Any man saves fingernail clippings is a fool. You ever see a snake bother to keep his peeled skin? Thats about all you got here today in this bed is fingernails and snake skin. One good breath would send me up in flakes. Important thing is not the me thats lying here, but the me thats sitting on the edge of the bed looking back at me, and the me thats downstairs cooking supper, or out in the garage under the car, or in the library reading. All the new parts, they count. Im not really dying today. No person ever died that had a family. Ill be around a long time. A thousand years from now a whole township of my offspring will be biting sour apples in the gumwood shade. Thats my answer to anyone asks big questions! Quick now, send in the rest! At last the entire family stood, like people seeing someone off at the rail station, waiting in the room. Well, said Great-grandma, there I am. Im not humble, so its nice seeing you standing around my bed. Now next week theres late gardening and closet-cleaning and clothes-buying for the children to do. And since that

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Strategy

part of me which is called, for convenience, Great-grandma, wont be here to step it along, those others parts of me called Uncle Bert and Leo and Tom and Douglas, and all the other names, will have to take over, each to his own. Yes, Grandma. I dont want any Halloween parties here tomorrow. Dont want anyone saying anything sweet about me; I said it all in my time and my pride. Ive tasted every victual and danced every dance; now theres one last tart I havent bit on, one tune I havent whistled. But Im not afraid. Im truly curious. Death wont get a crumb by my mouth I wont keep and savor. So dont you worry over me. Now, all of you go, and let me find my sleep. . . . Somewhere a door closed quietly. Thats better. Alone, she snuggled luxuriously down through the warm snowbank of linen and wool, sheet and cover, and the colors of the patchwork quilt were bright as the circus banners of old time. Lying there, she felt as small and secret as on those mornings eighty-some-odd years ago when, wakening, she comforted her tender bones in bed. A long time back, she thought, I dreamed a dream, and was enjoying it so much when someone wakened me, and that was the day when I was born. And now? Now, let me see . . . She cast her mind back. Where was I? she thought. Ninety years . . . how to take up the thread and the pattern of that lost dream again? She put out a small hand. There. . . Yes, that was it. She smiled. Deeper in the warm snow hill she turned her head upon her pillow. That was better. Now, yes, now she saw it shaping in her mind quietly, and with a serenity like a sea moving along an endless and selfrefreshing shore. Now she let the old dream touch and lift her from the snow and drift her above the scarceremembered bed. Downstairs, she thought, they are polishing the silver, and rummaging the cellar, and dusting in the halls. She could hear them living all through the house. Its all right, whispered Great-grandma, as the dream floated her. Like everything else in this life, its fitting. And the sea moved her back down the shore.

Reading Strategy Connect to Personal Experience How does Great-grandma feel about her impending death? Think about an elderly person you know well. What is his or her outlook on life and death? Compare and contrast this persons point of view with Great-grandmas.

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 39


How do I thank Mr. Jonas, he wondered, for what hes done? How do I thank him, how pay him back? . . . Keep the chain moving. Look around, find someone, and pass it on. That was the only way. . . . Cayenne, marjoram, cinnamon. The names of lost and fabulous cities through which storms of spice bloomed up and dusted away. He tossed the cloves that had traveled from some dark continent where once they had spilled on milk marble, jack-stones for children with licorice hands. And looking at one single label on a jar, he felt himself gone round the calendar to that private day this summer when he had looked at the circling world and found himself at its center. The word on the jar was RELISH. And he was glad he had decided to live. RELISH! What a special name for the minced pickle sweetly crushed in its white-capped jar. The man who had named it, what a man he must have been. Roaring, stamping around, he must have tromped the joys of the world and jammed them in this jar and writ in a big hand, shouting, RELISH! For its very sound meant rolling in sweet fields with roistering chestnut mares, mouths bearded with grass, plunging your head fathoms deep in trough water so the sea poured cavernously through your head. RELISH! He put out his hand. And here was SAVORY. Whats Grandma cooking for dinner tonight? said Aunt Roses voice from the real world of afternoon in the parlor. No one knows what Grandma cooks, said Grandfather, home from the office early to tend this immense flower, until we sit at table. Theres always mystery, always suspense. Well, I always like to know what Im going to eat, cried Aunt Rose, and laughed. The chandelier prisms in the dining room rang with pain. Douglas moved deeper into pantry darkness. Savory . . . thats a swell word. And Basil and Betel. Capsicum. Curry. All great. But Relish, now, Relish with a capital R. No argument, thats the best.

BIG Question
What Makes Life Good? What new insights about what makes life good do you think Douglas got from having been sick? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

MY VIEW Comment on what you learned from your own notes.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 3040

Respond and Think Critically


1. At the end of the book, when Douglas is ill, Mr. Jones says to him, Killing hot. And a long summer its been and too much happening, eh? What does Mr. Jones mean, and could he have been right? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Meet the Author on page 98. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What is Aunt Roses opinion of Grandmas kitchen methods? What does Aunt Rose do, and what is the effect of her actions? From this, what can you conclude about the authors attitude toward good cooks and how they operate? [Analyze]

3. How many ketchup bottles were in the basement? What value do they have for Tom? How does Grandfathers attitude toward them differ from Toms? [Recall]

4. Tom says that he will remember what happened on every day of this year, forever. Grandfather says that as you get older, days blur together. Which person is correct? Explain. [Evaluate]

5. What Makes Life Good? Why do you think some of the younger Green Town residents are sad about the death of Lonely One? How does this connect to the idea of what makes life good? Explain. [Infer]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 3040

Literary Element Setting 1. Do you think the episodic structure of the novel works well? Why or why not?

Vocabulary Practice
On a separate sheet of paper, write the vocabulary word that correctly completes each sentence. apparition commotion equilibrium exhalation overwrought

2. How does Douglas mark the passage of time over the course of the summer of 1928?

1. Here, here! the policeman shouted to the crowd. Whats all this _____________? 2. Being _____________ can have many negative effects on the body. 3. Carla couldnt believe her eyes when she thought she saw a(n) _____________ floating at the top of the stairs. 4. To be a tightrope walker, one needs a very strong sense of _____________. 5. Proper _____________ is very important to all athletes.

Reading Strategy Connect to

Personal Experience
Academic Vocabulary Discussing the Lonely One had become a tradition in Green Townit was part of living in the community. Tradition means an inherited or customary pattern of thought or action. Do you have a special tradition in your family or community? What is it, and how and why did it get started?

1. What are some examples from real life that remind you of Green Towns situation with the Lonely One? [Connect]

2. In your experience, do people who share a community respond to serious problems in the way the people did in the novel? [Analyze]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 3040

Writing
Personal Response What did you think of the way
this book ended? Did you find the ending satisfying or not? Give your reasons.

Research and Report


Literary Criticism
Assignment Use the Internet to find out more about Ray Bradbury and his work. Bradbury is not only hardworking but also versatile: he has written short stories, novels, poems, screenplays, television dramas, and even musicals. Look for interviews with the author and critical analyses of his work. Get Ideas Begin by making a list of specific questions to answer. Each question should pertain to your central topic: The Writings of Ray Bradbury. Research As you try to find the answers to your research questions, use the guidelines below to help you evaluate the reliability of each Web site. The site should be affiliated with a reputable organization. The writer of the Web content should have credentials. Any Web site information should be verified with at least one other reliable source. As you find the answers to your research questions, record them in a chart like the one below.

Question

Answer

Source

As you proceed, think about how the information you are finding fits together. From these connections, you will build the central idea of your report. When you have completed your research, reorganize the answers in a logical progression that supports your central idea. Report At the end of your report include a list of correctly formatted citations for the Web sites you consulted.

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WORK WITH RELATE D READINGS

Dandelion Wine
The following questions refer to the Related Readings in Glencoes Literature Library edition of this novel. Support your answers with details from the text. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, but jot down some notes first on the lines provided.

Just This Side of Byzantium Ray Bradbury Make Connections Bradbury writes: I blundered into creativity as blindly as any child learning to walk and see. Judging from what you have read in the novel and in Just This Side of Byzantium, what part does creativity have in Bradburys writing?

Homesickness Brent Ashabranner Make Connections In what ways are Ya Thongs feelings toward home similar to those of Douglas Spaulding? What is different about Ya Thongs situation?

Knoxville, Tennessee; Mango Juice Nikki Giovanni; Pat Mora Make Connections In both Mango Juice and Knoxville, Tennessee, the speakers recall summertime experiences. Contrast their methods of remembering summers with Douglas Spauldings method.

Dandelions: Survivors in a Challenging World Jenepher Lingelbach, editor Make Connections Which details in this article are reflected in Dandelion Wine? Why might Bradbury have ignored the other details?

Searching for Summer Joan Aiken Make Connections Both Aiken and Bradbury write about summer. In what ways are their views similar, judging from these works? Give reasons for your answer.

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CO NNECT TO OTHER LITER AT URE

LITERATURE EXCERPT: An American Childhood


A soft snowball hit the drivers windshield right before the drivers face. It made a smashed star with a hump in the middle. Often, of course, we hit our target, but this time, the only time in all of life, the car pulled over and stopped. Its wide black door opened; a man got out of it, running. He didnt even close the car door. He ran after us, and we ran away from him, up the snowy Reynolds sidewalk. At the corner, I looked back; incredibly, he was still after us. He was in city clothes: a suit and tie, street shoes. Any normal adult would have quit, having sprung us into flight and made his point. This man was gaining on us. He was a thin man, all action. All of a sudden, we were running for our lives. Wordless, we split up. We were on our turf; we could lose ourselves in the neighborhood backyards, everyone for himself. I paused and considered. Everyone had vanished except Mikey Fahey, who was just rounding the corner of a yellow brick house. Poor Mikey, I trailed him. The driver of the Buick sensibly picked the two of us to follow. The man apparently had all day. He chased Mikey and me around the yellow house and up a backyard path we knew by heart: under a low tree, up a bank, through a hedge, down some snowy steps, and across the grocery stores delivery driveway. We smashed through a gap in another hedge, entered a scruffy backyard and ran around its back porch and tight between houses to Edgerton Avenue; we ran across Edgerton to an alley and up our own sliding woodpile to the Halls front yard; he kept coming. We ran up Lloyd Street and wound through mazy backyards toward the steep hilltop at Willard and Lang. He chased us silently, block after block. He chased us silently over picket fences, through thorny hedges, between houses, around garbage cans, and across streets. Every time I glanced back, choking for breath, I expected he would have quit. He must have been as breathless as we were. His jacket strained over his body. It was an immense discovery . . .

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CONNECT TO OTHER LIT ERATURE

Compare the novel you have just read to the literature selection at the left, which is excerpted from An American Childhood by Annie Dillard in Glencoe Literature. Then answer the questions below.

Compare & Contrast


1. Figurative Language How does the language of the chase scene in An American Childhood differ from that of Lavinia Nebbss terrifying walk through the ravine in Dandelion Wine? How does each author achieve a level of suspense?

WRITE ABOUT IT One of the things that makes life good is experiencing and appreciating nature. Both Annie Dillards An American Childhood and Ray Bradburys Dandelion Wine reflect this idea in different ways. Compare and contrast one way each author does this.

2. Sound Devices The two stories bring their scenes to life with amazing clarity. Do you think Annie Dillards use of sound devices is like or unlike Ray Bradburys? What are some of the similarities between their styles? What are some of the differences? Explain.

3. Setting Although Annie Dillards An American Childhood takes place in Pittsburgh in the early 1950s and Dandelion Wine is set in small-town Illinois in 1928, there are some similarities between the two settings. Compare and contrast how the setting affects the central characters in both stories.

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RES POND THROUGH WRITING

Review
Convince an Audience Write a book review of Dandelion Wine. In your opinion, does the book appeal to contemporary teenage readers? Do you think it is an important work of literature? Explain your point of view and the reasons behind it in a book review. Use evidence from the novel to support your ideas. Prewrite You have already read Dandelion Wine, so you already know whether or not you liked the book. But liking or disliking a book is not a strong enough foundation for a well-reasoned review. Firm up your ideas and opinions by skimming and scanning the novel to determine what your controlling idea will be. Write a quick summary of the overall plot. From there you can begin to set forth your own opinions on the themes, setting, characters, and overall effect of the work. Draft Create your thesis. After introducing the novel, you may wish to include a rhetorical question (see Grammar Tip) to pull readers in to the guiding idea of your review. Develop a logical sequence of information based on the outline you created in your prewriting phase. You may refer to plot events and character traits, or you may quote directly from the novel. You may wish to create a chart like the one below to ensure that your points are well supported.

UNDERSTAND THE TASK A book review is a form of persuasive essay. In a book review, a reviewer presents his or her opinions about a work of fiction or nonfiction. To be effective, the opinions in any book review must be well supported with examples from the book itself.

Grammar Tip
Rhetorical Questions A rhetorical question is a form of interrogation that is used to open or extend discussion rather than to elicit a direct answer from a respondent. In book reviews and other persuasive essays, rhetorical questions can be used to introduce a subject and then address it: Will contemporary teenage audiences find Dandelion Wine to be compelling reading? To my mind the answer is an enthusiastic yes. The changes Douglas Spaulding experiences in his final preteen summer have universal appeal.

Claim
Ray Bradburys novel is, to some extent, about the contradictions of lifelife and death, happiness and sadness, change and continuance.

Evidence
Douglas experiences joy and wonder when he realizes for the first time that hes alive. Yet during that same summer, several people he knows die and another, his best friend, moves away forever.

Revise As you review your first draft, make sure you have considered the other side of the argument. Careful attention to the opposing viewpoint can show an audience that your opinion is balanced and thoughtful. Edit and Proofread Edit your writing so that it expresses your thoughts effectively and is well organized. Carefully proofread for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

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Dragonwings
Lawrence Yep

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INTRODUCTI ON TO THE NOVEL

Dragonwings
by Laurence Yep

It was an important moment in my life. Perhaps the most important. I had never seen my father, though I had often tried to picture him from Mothers and Grandmothers descriptions. His letters were certainly warm enough, filled with his worries about us and his longing to be back home. But a man cannot be a father in a letter.

But Moon Shadow knows there are things one must do: There was a certain rightness in lifethe feeling you got when you did something the way you knew you should.
The Land of the Demons So begins the journey of a young boy to meet the father he does not know in a world of which he knows little. In the United States, Moon Shadow is an outsider learning his way around a strange place with strange customs, a strange language, and strange people. The new world is not always a gentle or wholesome one. Drugs are there as well as danger and violence. The boy is not totally alone, however. Other Chinese immigrants are there too. Through them, readers learn about the traditional culture of Chinese immigrants. Literary critic Marla Dinchak writes:

Moon Shadow, in Dragonwings

Young Moon Shadow faces a difficult choice as he is given an opportunity to meet his father for the first time. Moon Shadows cousin, Hand Clap, has returned to China from the United States to visit family and friends. He has brought with him a letter from Moon Shadows father, who is now in San Francisco. Moon Shadows father wants his son to travel to the United States with Hand Clap and join him in the Land of the Golden Mountain.
Outsider Status Moon Shadow is hesitant to leave his mother and grandmother in China for a new life in America. He has been told of the demonswhite peoplein the United States who killed his grandfather. The white people forbid Chinese men to bring their families to the United States. The demons harass and beat Chinese people without cause, though they most often spare the children, for even the demons have some principles. 140
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Chinese folklore, myths, and legends are interwoven so readers not only sympathize with Moon Shadow and the other Chinese, but understand more of their culture and traditions. That is true of most of Yeps work, for he not only tells a story but bridges a cultural gap. Moon Shadows father also is there to guide his son, but the father has a dream of his ownhe dreams of building a flying machine. His secret dream will coincide with one of the most important events in history.
Chinatown Dragonwings begins in southern China in 1903. Most of the novel

INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL

takes place in San Francisco, California, from 1903 to 1910. In 1850 only a few hundred Chinese lived in California. Two years later, 10 percent of the population was Chinese. Today, the densely populated Chinatown area of San Francisco, home to the Tang community of Moon Shadow and his father, is one of the largest Chinese communities outside Asia.
Discrimination Many people came to California because of the jobs associated with the California Gold Rush. Life was not easy. Most newcomers took simple labor jobs, but as gold rush fever faded and jobs became scarce, feelings of ill will toward the Chinese soon followed. The United States had long discriminated against Asian immigrants. In fact, the first law in American history restricting immigration was directed against Asians. Passed in 1862, the law

forbade American ships to transport Chinese people to the United States. In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited the entry of any Chinese immigrants into the United States. Until 1936, Asians were required, by law, to attend separate schools. The Chinese Exclusion Act was not repealed until the middle of World War II. Many of the men who had come to work in the United States after 1850 formed bachelor societies because they were unable to bring their families. The men sent money back to their families in China, where there was little work. When women were able to join their husbands, Asian American families often adapted to American customs and lost touch with their traditions. In Dragonwings Laurence Yep has tried to give readers a sense of what these traditions and customs were like.

Dialects and Standard Chinese


More people speak some form of Chinese as their native language than any other language in the world. The major forms of Chinese are often called dialects, but they are really separate languages. Although the languages are related, speakers of one dialect have difficulty understanding speakers of another. Mandarin is the most widely spoken language in China. It is spoken in northern, central, and western China. Wu, Min, Kan, Hakka, Hsiang, and Cantonese, or Yeh, are spoken in the southeastern part of the country. Efforts have been made to standardize Mandarin Chinese. These efforts have resulted in what is called Modern Standard Chinese, one of the official languages of the United Nations. In the 1950s, the Peoples Republic of China gave official standing to a new form of English-type spelling called Pinyin. All correspondence from China is now in Pinyin, and many governments, encyclopedias, and scholars use this form. Pinyin was not created to replace traditional Chinese characters, but to help teach pronunciation and create a single spelling for the names of persons and places.

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MEET THE AUTHOR

Laurence Yep (1948 )

I wanted to show that Chinese Americans are human beings upon whom America has had a unique effect. I have tried to do this by seeing America through the eyes of a recently arrived Chinese boy, and by presenting the struggles of his father in following his dream.

Laurence Yep, in the Afterword to Dragonwings

Yeps first novel, Sweetwater, was published in 1973. The science fiction story takes place on a planet named Harmony, where a young man is one of a group of relocated aliens. The group struggles to find a place among the rich colonists from Earth and the native people of the planet. Racial tension, jealousy, money, and social position divide the groups.
A Kite-Making Father In 1975 Yeps second novel, Dragonwings, was published. This novel established Yep as a powerful voice for Chinese Americans. His own father, a kite maker, was the model for the character of Windrider. Yep sees his book as a way of stepping into the shoes of members of my family. But his efforts as a writer are not just about family, or even about how people find their place in the world. Laurence Yep has written many other books and articles and has received numerous awards. He lives with his wife, Joanne Ryder, also a writer.

As a boy, Laurence Yep was exposed to many different cultures, but he did not feel he could call any one of them his own. His parents were of Chinese heritage, though both grew up in the United States, and his father owned a grocery store in an African American neighborhood in San Francisco. It was in this neighborhood that Laurence grew up, but he did not feel part of the community. Yep was not exposed to the culture of mainstream white America until he entered high school.
Relating to Teen Readers Yeps experiences as a youth made him feel like an outsider, which he believes helped him as a writer:

Probably the reason that much of my writing has found its way to a teenage audience is that Im always pursuing the theme of being an outsideran alienand many teenagers feel theyre aliens.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 14

Connect to the Literature


Think about a time when you were some place new and didnt know your way around or the customs that people there followed. What was the experience like? What did you do?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. SUMMARIZE Summarize in one sentence the most important idea(s) in Build Background.

Write a Journal Entry


Describe how it feels to be a stranger in a strange place.

Build Background
Chinatown in San Francisco
Today, Chinatown spreads over more than twenty blocks of Nob Hill in San Francisco, California. Established around the time of the Gold Rush of 1849, San Franciscos Chinatown is one of the largest and oldest Chinese settlements outside Asia. When gold was discovered in 1848 at Sutters Mill, near Californias Sacramento River, thousands of Chinese immigrated to the United States. Concerned that the large influx of immigrants would cause employment problems, the San Francisco City Council passed antiChinese ordinances in 1870. These ordinances limited housing and employment opportunities for Chinese immigrants. In 1882 Congress passed the first of several Chinese Exclusion Acts. These acts further restricted housing and employment opportunities for Chinese immigrants. As a result of the ordinances and the act, the Chinese American population of San Francisco decreased. Chinese immigrants suffered further misfortune when the earthquake and fires that devastated San Francisco in 1906 destroyed most of Chinatown. The area was rebuilt and, to appease the anti-Chinese city officials, the new Chinatown featured a unique East-meets-West architectural design. In 1943 the Exclusion Acts were repealed, and Chinese immigrants were allowed to become American citizens. Today, Chinatown is the second most popular tourist attraction in San Francisco after the Golden Gate Bridge. Its streets are filled with small shops and restaurants that reflect the Chinese culture.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 1 4

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question What Influences You? What influences the choices you make? Is it your parents or other adults in your life? Is it the everyday world you live in? Or is it belonging to a religious, ethnic, or other group? As you read Dragonwings, think about whats truly behind the things that Moon Shadow thinks, does, and says.

Vocabulary
amiably [a me ble] adv. good naturedly Even when others were unkind, Kai still reacted amiably. dynasty [d ns te] n. succession of family members All the rulers from the same family created a dynasty. heirlooms [ar looms ] n. treasured family possessions Among the heirlooms from my grandmother are a lace tablecloth and a wedding ring. insolent [in s lnt] adj. disrespectful; rude When the child was insolent to his parents, he was sent to his room. intuitive [in too tiv] adj. instinctive; by hunch Tina had not learned the theorem, but she had an intuitive understanding of it.

Literary Element Characterization Characterization includes all the methods that a writer uses to develop the personality of a character. This is generally done by What a character says What a character does What other characters say about a character What the narrator says about a character When the narrator of a story tells you exactly what a character is like, this is called direct characterization. When a characters personality is revealed through his or her words and actions and through what others think and say about him or her, this is called indirect characterization. Often writers use both direct and indirect characterization to develop a character. Characterization is important because it makes characters seem real and believable. When you pay attention to how characters are developed in a story, you will gain a better understanding of them. As you read, pay attention to what the narrator says about the characters. Ask yourself what a characters actions and words reveal about his or her personality. Think about what other characters say and think about the character. Use the graphic organizer on the following page to record your ideas. Reading Skill Analyze Cultural Context The customs, beliefs, relationships, and traditions that are typical of a certain region and time period are the cultural context in a story. Understanding the cultural context of a novel is important because culture helps show characters, conflicts, and themes. The cultural context of early Chinese immigration to the West Coast and life in a Chinese American community is central to Dragonwings. As you read, list details that suggest the cultural context of the novel. Use a graphic organizer like the one to the right to help you.

Details
The characters call Americans demons.

What They Show


They think of Americans as evil spirits or as their enemies.

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ACT IVE READING: Chapters 1 4

When Moon Shadow comes to America, he meets new people in the Company. To keep track of these characters, use the following chart. For each

character you encounter, make a note of his personality or appearance and the method the writer uses to reveal the character.

Character and Trait


Hand Clap: likes to exaggerate

Example
There was never a flea that Hand Clap didn't call a horse.

Method of Characterization
Other characters words, indirect characterization

Uncle Bright Star:

White Deer:

Lefty:

Black Dog:

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Characterization What do you learn about Windrider on these pages? Which indirect methods of characterization are used?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 3


As Father led me up the stairs, I forgot about the demons, for I began to wonder again about his name, Windrider. Every Tang man can have several names. He has a family name and a personal name given to him at birth. He can have another name given to him when he comes of age, a nickname from his friends, and if he is a poet, he can have a pen name. We are not like the demons, who lock a child into one name from birthwith maybe a nickname if he is lucky. We feel that a man should be able to change his name as he changes, the way a hermit crab can throw away his shell when its too small and find another one. When Father stopped before our door, I asked him, Why do they call you Windrider? Wait, he said. Youll see. Its really a name I had before I was born in this life. He pushed open the door. He waited almost shyly by the doorway as I went inside. The room was only about ten feet wide. By one wall were two mats and a trunk. A large, long table filled the opposite wall, while shelves covered the other two walls. There were piles of the strange, thick, cloth-like paper of the demons on one corner of the table. (I was used to the much thinner rice paper of the Tang people.) Every other inch of space in the room was crowded with small, strangely constructed machines whose purpose I could not guess. I did not dare touch a thing. I thought that each machine was like a magical bottle or box, with demons waiting inside to burst out. But then Father became as excited as a small boy. He showed me each item, handling the strange machines as if he had tamed whatever demons were trapped inside. (Though, even so, if I had been left alone in that room, I would have bolted.) . . . Then Father showed me a device which he called an electric light. It consisted of a stand in which was set a globe of clear glass. Inside, filaments of burnt bamboo perched like a black insect. The guts of the lightthey

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

were really wiresled from the globe across the table, vanishing into the jumble of machines. Father dimmed the gaslight. Watch this, he said eagerly. He examined the table, gave a grunt when he found what he wanted, and turned a switch. I heard a click. Suddenly the insect within the globe shone with a light that was so bright and intense that it hurt my eyes, and I cried out. Father turned off the switch. Whats wrong? I didnt say anything, but Father realized I was scared from the way I was shaking. He put his arm around me and I felt his reassuring bulk. He waved his free arm around at the room. All of these things are only toys. Theyre harmless. Because you learned the demons magic to protect you? Father smiled and laughed softly. No. No. Whats here belongs neither to us nor to the demons. Its only a form of a much greater and purer magic. It can do harm in the hands of a wrong man and lash back on him; but the superior man need not be afraid. But he could see from my face that I was not too sure about the devices in the room. He sighed and scratched the back of his head as if puzzled. Wont you take my word for it, boy? Its hard to order someone to believe. I added, Sir. We both felt stiff and awkward. Father spread his hands. Oh, hell, boy. I dont know much about being a father. I guess I dont know much about being your son, I said slowly. Yes, well, he nodded to me. I guess well have to learn together then. He sat down on the mat. But I can see Ill have to tell you about my name. Then youll understand why you should not be afraid. He patted a place beside him. I sat down there. He nodded his head at the devices on the table. All of these are part of my name. The story was told to me by the Dragon King himself.

Literary Element Characterization What do you learn about Moon Shadow on these pages? By what methods of characterization do you learn it?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Analyze Cultural Content How does the setting reflect a culture different from your own?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 3


We stopped before a small, neat, three-story building painted bright red and green. On the front of the building was a huge sign on which were painted Tang peoples symbols and demon words, announcing to the whole wide world that this was the Company of the Peach Orchard Vow. The demons always thought the name was funny. Uncle let them laugh. It was Uncle who told me that the Peach Orchard Vow was a famous vow, taken by the man who became the god of war and his two sworn brothers, to serve the people and help one another. On the door were painted the names of the two door guardians who kept the demons away. And on the windows were painted the words for Long Life and Prosperity. With a flourish, Uncle opened the front door for me and ushered me inside. A superior home for superior men, he said. Uncle was fond of the phrase the superior man, which he said he had taken from the wise man Confucius. I stepped in and looked around. The air inside smelled of soap and food and sweat. The bottom floor was given over to the laundry. . . . On the walls above the ironing boards were strips of thick, bright red paper with poems and sayings on them. Since the words of the Tang people were more alivemore like pictures, reallyhandwriting was more of an art form than among demons. All the poems and the sayings were done in lively, or lovely, hands. The most delicately written poem had been done by Lefty when he still had his right hand. It was a poem written by the Drunken Genius, Lee the White, who drowned one night when he tried to embrace the moon as it appeared on the lake. The poem went like this: Upon my bed Lies the bright moonlight Like frost upon the earth. Lifting my eyes, I see the bright moon. Closing my eyes, I see home.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill

The poem hung above Leftys ironing board. There were other, more conventional pious sayings up on the walls. Ones like: Peace and prosperity upon this store. They had been written by a man who had belonged to the Company before us. And there was one strip, faded and smoke-smudged by time, which had been written by one of the men who had founded the Company and who was long since dead. The founder had written: The three virtues of the Stranger are to be silent, to be cunning, but above all to be invisible. Uncle told me that the warning had been taken from one of the Middle Kingdoms oldest books, Classic of Changes. All of us went up the stairs that led to the second floor. This was used as a kitchen and relaxation room, where the Company could read or gossip or play Mah-Jongg, the game with tiles that is something like the demons card game of gin rummy. On the third floor were our sleeping quarters. The dinner we had that night was the finest I had ever had. White Deer was the cook. He was a devout Buddhist who ate no meat and so few vegetables that I doubt if a grasshopper could have lived on what he ate. Still, he was one of the finest cooks around. . . . At any rate, White Deer outdid himself that day. He made duck with the skin parted and crisped and the meat salty and rich and good. He had cooked squab in soy sauce so that the skin and meat were a deep, deep brown all the way to the bone. There was sharks-fin soup, tasting of the sea. There were huge prawns fried in a special butter that gave them an extra fluffy coat. And on and on. But we werent allowed to touch any of the courses until we had the toasts.

Analyze Cultural Context What evidence of a culture different from yours do you find in this excerpt? Consider art, religion, pastimes, and food.

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 4


Father spread the magazine out before me. I saw a series of drawings of a boxlike contraption. Father pointed to the big letters beneath the picture. This means the demon flew. Flew? I said excitedly. Thats what it says. A pair of demon brothers by the name of Wright flew in an ae-ro-plane. . . . Were they given the wings by the Dragon King? I asked. Father laughed. No. He tousled my hair affectionately. Not so they say. They repair bicycles. But what some demon did, I can do. His eyes had gone as deep as they had when he had spoken of learning to fly on that strange beach. The others were down on the second floor where our dining room-kitchen doubled as a gaming room in the evenings, when the dishes had been cleared away. Only Uncle was not excited by the demon magazine. He folded his arms across his chest and pondered his next move at the Tang peoples chess, which is slightly different from demon chess (for one thing, there is a river across the board). Finally, Uncle pushed a chariot forward and sat back for White Deer to make his move. Its probably just some fairy tale for children, Uncle said. You just havent read it the right way. No, no, its fact, Father insisted. You cant trust everything you read in the demons papers, Uncle observed loftily. He was sitting in his special treasure, a chair which the founder of the Company had built and carved from teak wood brought all the way from the Middle Kingdom. The head of the Company always sat in that chair. Uncle treated his chair very much like a throne in which no one else was allowed to sit. When Uncle was settled into his chair, he did not so much speak as make proclamations, so we knew better than to argue with him at that time. I could not understand why Uncle took such a stubborn attitude against the fact that some demon had flown.

BIG Question
What Influences You? Who influences Moon Shadow most his father or Uncle Bright Star? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

MY VIEW Write down your thoughts on the excerpt.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1 4

Respond and Think Critically


1. Why isnt Moon Shadows entire family in the United States? [Analyze]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Meet the Author on page 142. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What trouble does Black Dog get into? What problems might be behind some of his troubles? [Synthesize]

3. In your opinion, why might Laurence Yep have put all English speech in italic print? [Infer]

4. Why does Moon Shadow refer to white people as demons? Do you think Moon Shadow will still feel this way after he has spent some time in the United States? [Conclude]

5. What Influences You? Name two great influences on Moon Shadows life in his new home. Explain your answer using details from the novel. [Conclude]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 1 4

Literary Element Respond and Think Critically 1. What is Moon Shadow like? What is the main method of characterization used to show his traits? [Synthesize]

Vocabulary Practice
Write the boldfaced vocabulary word below that correctly completes each sentence. If none of the words fits the sentence, write none. amiably insolent dynasty intuitive heirlooms

1. Felicia responded didnt trust what we said. 2. You learn about Windrider in part through the narrator, as well as through Windriders words and actions. How else do you learn about him? [Analyze]

because she

2. That trunk has been used for sixty years to store those .
3. At times, the girl was polite, but she could also be . 4. LiChen was done the work. 5. Responding friends. to admit that she had not is a good way to make grasp of

6. Jordan seemed to have an the workings of her computer.

Reading Skill Analyze Cultural Context 1. How is Moon Shadow different from other children living in California at the time when the novel takes place? [Synthesize]

7. The ruling more than a century.

had been unchallenged for

Academic Vocabulary As narrator, Moon Shadow explains that Mother and Grandmother had decided to invest the money Father sent us to buy more land and livestock. Using context clues, try to figure out the meaning of the word invest in the sentence above. Write your guess below. Then check your answer in a dictionary. 2. Explain why you think the novel is called Dragonwings. [Synthesize]

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AFTER YOU READ: C h a p t e r s 1 4

Writing
Write a Letter The Land of the Golden Mountain turns out to be different from what Moon Shadow expected. Write a letter from Moon Shadow to another relative who wants to come to America. Use the voice of Moon Shadow, as well as his experiences and those of the Company, to prepare the person for what he or she will and wont find in the United States. Jot down some notes here first.

Speaking and Listening


Oral Report
Assignment A pecking order is a social organization having definite levels of rank. In Chapter 2, Laurence Yep discusses the pecking order within the Company. He makes it clear who is at the top, as well as where other members fall in relation to the leader and to one another. Make your own pecking order chart for the Company or for a social organization in your life. Prepare Sketch the pecking order you chose. Decide how you will present it visually. You may use a graphics or wordprocessing program, or create original art work. Be sure your visual shows not only rank but a sense of how decision-making and other judgments might filter from the top of the pecking order to its lowest members. Consider your audience as you make choices such as type size and font. Make sure that your visual will be clear and readable to your entire audience. Next, prepare an oral report to explain what your visual shows. Organize your report from top, or highest rank, to bottom, or lowest rank. Then add opening and/or summary comments. Rehearse your oral report by presenting it to a classmate. Report As you present your visual and oral report to the class, use these presentation techniques. Be sure to display your visual where everyone can see it. Stand so that you do not block anyones view of it. Look at your visual only when you are pointing to or calling your audiences attention to something on it. The rest of the time, make eye contact with your audience. Speak loudly enough for your audience to hear, but do not shout. Evaluate Write a paragraph assessing your work. Decide how effective your visual was and why, how well you incorporated your visual into your oral report, and how well you got your ideas across to your audience.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 58

Connect to the Literature


How do you get to know someone? One day you are complete strangers, and after some time passes, you know a person well. How does this happen?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. SUMMARIZE Summarize in one sentence the most important idea(s) in Build Background.

List Steps
With a partner, make a list of steps that people often go through as they get acquainted.

Build Background
Opium Wars
Opium is a dangerous drug produced from the juice of the unripe opium poppy. Opium and the other drugs that are made from the opium poppy plantmorphine, codeine, and heroinare highly addictive. Opium was used for medicinal purposes as far back as A.D. 100. Toward the middle of the 1600s, people began smoking opium in China. Many became addicted. By the 1700s, Chinas rulers recognized the problems caused by opium. They began to take actions to stop cultivation of the plant and to prohibit opium trade with the Western countries. In the mid-1800s, the opium trade caused two wars between China and Great Britain. The Opium Wars, as they were known, began when the Chinese government attempted to stop the illegal importation of opium into China by the British. China lost both wars. The Chinese government was forced to sign a treaty that gave Hong Kong to the British and opened several Chinese ports to British residence and trade. The importation of opium was legalized.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 58

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question What Influences You? When people come to live in a new place and culture, the people, places, customs, and language of their past can be an enormous influence on how they act in their new home. As you read, decide how much Chinese culture influences what Moon Shadow thinks, says, and does.

Vocabulary
antiquated [an t kwa tid] adj. old; out-of-date You have to start that antiquated machine with a crank. benevolence [b nev lns] n. kindness; generosity Giving away all her money to the poor was an act of benevolence. ironically [ ron i kl le] adv. with double meaning; sarcastically Josh said great ironically he didnt mean it. patronizing [pa tr nz in ] adj. snobbish; haughty The patronizing man thought he did us a favor by saying hello. tainted [tan tid] adj. poisoned; disgraced The dog sniffed the tainted meat but would not eat it.

Literary Element Allusion An allusion is a reference in a literary work to characters, places, or situations from other literary works, music, art, contemporary life, or history. When readers recognize an allusion in a work, it can enrich their understanding of the text. For instance, if a character in a work is compared to Superman, a reader would likely instantly gain a greater appreciation for the good or strong qualities of the character. As you read, look for allusions to people, places, or ideas from Chinese or Chinese American culture. Reading Strategy Visualize When you visualize, you create images, or pictures, in your mind as you read. You use the authors descriptions and details to imagine characters, settings, and plot events. Visualizing helps you enjoy stories more because you imagine the sights, sounds, smells, and feelings the author describes. When you visualize, you are better able to understand and remember what you read. Try these steps to visualize as you read. Pay attention to the sensory details that help you see the story. Try to imagine the scene as if it were taking place in a movie. Think about whether your images make sense with what you know about the story. Drawing a picture can help you practice visualizing. Make a graphic organizer like the one shown below. List descriptive details, and then use those details to sketch things you can see as you read.

Detail

Detail

Detail

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ACT IVE READING: Chapters 58

Visualize the scene in the Whitlaws kitchen when Moon Shadow presents the paper picture of the Stove King. Use the space below to sketch the

room. Show where the characters and furnishings might be within it. Add color to your drawing if you like to show better what you see.

Whitlaw Kitchen

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Allusion There is an allusion to the Listener on this page. How does it help you understand that Miss Whitlaw was different from the person Moon Shadow expected?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 6


I think that the demoness had been waiting for us, because Father had no sooner knocked once than she opened the door. She was the first demoness that I had ever seen this close up, and I stared. I had expected her to be ten feet tall with blue skin and to have a face covered with warts and ear lobes that hung all the way down to her knees so that her ear lobes would bounce off the knees when she walked. And she might have a potbelly shiny as a mirror, and big sacs of flesh for breasts, and maybe she would only be wearing a loin cloth. Instead I saw a petite lady, not much bigger than Hand Clap. She had a large nosebut not absurdly soand a red face and silver hair; and she wore a long dress of what looked like white cotton, over which she had put a red apron. The dress was freshly starched, and crinkled when she moved and smelled good. She had a smile like the Listener, She Who Hears Prayers, who refused release from the cycle of lives until all her brothers and sisters too could be freed from sin. Well, she said. Well. I looked at her eyes and saw a friendly twinkle in them that made her seem even less threatening. There were demons, after all, who could be kindly disposed. I suddenly felt calm and unafraid as I stood before her. My father nudged me. I bowed carefully and presented our present. It was a paper picture of the Stove King, who reported to the Lord of Heaven each year about what the family had doneboth the good things and the bad things. It was customary each New Years to bribe the little Stove King. Some families offered him cookies and tea, which he could snack on during his journey to heaven. Others took a more direct approach and smeared his face with honey. . . . Father thought it might be a nice gesture to give the picture to the demoness and I agreed, for the little Stove King might take the demons ignorance into account and give a good report for them; for the Stove King was basically as kind and gentle a person as one was likely to find among the gods.

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The demoness turned it over and over in her hands in puzzlement until Father spoke. He Chinee saint of kitchen. I doubt if the demoness would have had a heathen god inside her kitchen but a holy man was a different matter. Well, isnt that nice. She smiled pleasantly and stepped aside from the door. Please, do come in. . . . But as the demon girl fetched the box of viewing cards, I was looking at one corner of the room that was filled with a blend of strange colors. I looked up to see that it was the result of a window. Would you like to see our stained-glass window? the demoness asked gently. I glanced at Father and he nodded, so I walked over to it until I was about two yards away. You can take a closer look than that, the demoness said. It was a tall, rectangular window. On the outside there was a border of flowers and vines made from bits of colored glass set into a lead frame. But on the inner part of the window there was a great green creature, breathing yellow and red flames and biting at the spear that a silverclad demon thrust into him. With a rustle of skirts, the demoness joined me. Whats that? I asked, pointing at the green creature. A dragon, she said. You know. Its a very wicked animal that breathes fire and goes about eating up people and destroying towns. St. George killed many of them. I looked at Father horrified, for these demons had turned the story of dragons upside down if they thought a holy man would kill them. But Father answered for me. Very interesting. We have dragons too. Do you have a Chinese saint who did the same things as St. George? the demoness asked with obvious satisfaction. You should tell them the truth about dragons, I told Father. Maybe dragons in the demon lands are all as evil as they believe. Father shrugged. At any rate, when youre someones guest, you dont correct her no matter how wrong she may be.

Literary Element Allusion Explain how the allusion to St. George helps you understand some of the differences between Miss Whitlaws culture and Windriders culture.

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Strategy Visualize What can you see in your minds eye as you read this page?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 7


I had begun to think that the demons were not really so bad, but that very evening I found out that there can be some bad demons too. I was taking the trash out to the trash barrels when I saw a demon boy lounging against the wall of our alley. I was to find out later that he lived in the tenement house next door. He was about two or three years older than I was, and he was dressed in a gray shirt without a collar. The shirt was of a good, if rough, material. His hair was brown and his face was covered with brown spotsfreckles, Robin told me later. I passed by him, when he kicked me in the backs of my legs. I fell on my back, cracking my head against the ground, the breath driven out of me. Our garbage pail spilled out all over the alley. The boy leered down at me. And above me, on the back landing of the tenement house next door, I saw a half dozen boys begin to shout. Ching Chong Chinaman, Sitting in a tree, Wanted to pick a berry But sat on a bee. I jumped to my feet and made the mistake of trying to express my anger in the demon tongue. All I could come up with was, I no like you. The boys fell over one another laughing. You no likee me? the boy asked mockingly. I no likee you. In my frustration, I began to curse him in the Tang peoples language, using some of Uncles more memorable curses. Im going to cut off your head, I told him, and leave it in the gutter for the dogs to eat . . . . I went on from there, embroidering on the scene, but the boy shinnied over the fence while the boys above him began to make mock Tang-people soundssounds like Wing-DuckSo-Long and Wun-Long-Hop in rising and falling voices. I could have bitten off my tongue. But I stood there, staring at them, not wanting to let them chase me away. I felt

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something soft and wet hit my leg. It was an old tomato. They began to throw bits and pieces of garbage at me. Still I stood there. Finally stones began falling around me. I suppose they had collected the garbage and the stones before they tried to get me. I felt a vague feeling of triumph at having made them use their biggest weapons. I turned slowly, as if I were not afraid of them but only bored. A stone caught me in the small of the back. I grunted, but I took my time despite the pain, remembering how Red Rabbit had behaved that other time. Besides, I did not want to give them the satisfaction of seeing me cry. . . . Let go, Father said. I did and the glider leaped out of my hands three feet into the air and hovered indecisively. Robin ran parallel to the surf line, her pigtails flying. The glider was one of Fathers earlier models, without the rudder controls. It was really like a big box kite in some ways. Suddenly the sea winds caught the glider and lifted it upward toward the sun, veering and soaring like a thing alive, pulling stubbornly at the string. Robin had stopped way down on the beach, a solitary little figure with the waves washing her legs. Father cupped his hands about his mouth. Give it more string, he shouted to her. Give it more string. It smells its home. And Robin did. She had to, or it would have been lost. Father went down then to fetch her hat. That long afternoon we took turns flying the glider. First Robin. Then me. Then even Miss Whitlaw. Flying is a rather exhilarating experience, she confessed to us. Her eyes were shining as a twist of her wrist sent the glider dipping and then rising. By the end of the day it was Fathers turn. I remember how he stood on the beach, his pants rolled up as he highstepped, whooping and shouting, through the surf. Once he stumbled and went down in the water, but he came right back up, laughing and spluttering and spitting out seawater. Triumphantly he held up the string to show us he had held on to the glider.

Reading Strategy Visualize Name five things you can visualize as you read this scene.

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 7


I dont mean to make myself sound like a goody-goody. She was a demoness to me at that time, who lived in a magical kind of lair. It was an adventure. It was a challenge. And if I could remind her of some of the true things about dragons that people ought to know but that she seemed to have forgotten, well, that was to the good. I went up to the demoness house in my clean tunic and pants, my boots shined and my face scrubbedand my charm around my neck. She smiled quietly and prettily as she had that first day. . . . We drank our tea in a friendly kind of silence, and then Miss Whitlaw picked up the box again. Her finger traced the long sinuous curves of the golden dragon. Oh, my, isnt it ait sounded likebu-dee-fu dragon? Please? Beautiful, she repeated, and explained the word to me. Once I understood her, I shook my head vehemently. No, no. It a . . . I fumbled for the right word in the demon language, but all I could come up with was, a dragonee dragon. Another thing to say for the demoness was her genuine interest in learning about people as people. Where some idiot like myself would have been smug and patronizing, the demoness really wanted to learn. And like Father, she was not afraid to talk to me like an equal. I dont think I understand. Dragon do terrible thing, yes, I said, struggling for the right words. But dragon, they do good thing too. Bring rain for crops. They king among all . . . all reptile. They emperor of all animal. And so on. I went on to tell the demoness everything my Father had told me about dragons. Why, how marvelous, the demoness exclaimed when I was finished. I never knew dragons did so much. Maybe only bad kind go live here. You know, outlaw, that respectable dragon no want. Why, yes. The demoness nodded. That would make sense. All the dragons Ive read about havent been very pleasant creatures. No dragon pleasant. A dragon dragonee.

BIG Question
What Influences You? How does Moon Shadows culture influence him? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

ASK QUESTIONS Write a question about the novel. Can you find the answer in your notes?

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 5 8

Respond and Think Critically


1. Why must Moon Shadow and his father leave the Company? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 155. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. How does Miss Whitlaw help Windrider come closer to achieving his dream? [Analyze]

3. How does Yep make the Whitlaws seem different from other demons? [Compare]

4. Does the growing friendship between Moon Shadow and his father and the Whitlaws seem true to life? Why or why not? [Evaluate]

5. What Influences You? What person, event, or other value or idea do you think influences Moon Shadow to hit Jack? [Conclude]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 58

Literary Element Allusion 1. Father often refers to the superior man. As Chapter 2 explains, this is an allusion to wisdom of Confucius. Why do you think Yep keeps repeating this allusion throughout the novel? [Analyze]

Vocabulary Practice
Identify whether each set of paired words has the same or the opposite meaning. 1. antiquated and modern

2. benevolence and stinginess

3. ironically and sarcastically

4. patronizing and snobbish 2. How do the allusions in this novel help you learn about Chinese culture? Name at least one example to support your answer. [Analyze]

5. tainted and pure

Academic Vocabulary Reading Strategy Visualize 1. Describe what you see in the encounter that takes place between only Black Dog and Moon Shadow. [Apply] That the Whitlaws are not like other demons is evident from the first time that Moon Shadow and his father meet them. In the preceding sentence, evident means clear or able to be understood. Think about why the contrast with other demons is evident. Then fill in the blank for this statement: It is evident that the Whitlaws are not like other demons because

2. Describe what you see in the scene when Moon Shadow, his father, and the Whitlaws look up at the night sky. [Apply]

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Writing
Personal Response How do you think the relationship between Moon Shadow and his father and the Whitlaws might affect Moon Shadow in the future?

Speaking and Listening


Speech
Assignment Getting to know people from a different culture can provide unexpectedand sometimes comicmoments. Write a persuasive speech in which you give advice to people who are trying to become part of a new culture or to people who are dealing with newcomers to their culture. Use examples from Dragonwings to explain and/or support your ideas. Prepare Choose your audience: newcomers or people who will live with newcomers in their own culture. Outline your speech, beginning with a hook to engage your audience. One way to do that is by identifying with them. Another way is by telling an anecdote: a little story that introduces your topic and makes the audience laugh, gasp, or reflect. Then list three or four bits of advice for your intended audience. Explain the advice with details from Dragonwings, from your own experience, or with other humorous, serious, or engaging examples. Use ethical appeals, such as appeals to your listeners higher selves, and logical or emotional appeals, such as points about how understanding cultural differences enriches us all and our nation. Deliver Make eye contact with your audience. Speak loudly and clearly so they can understand you. Maintain a posture that makes you appear friendly to your audience rather than stiff and formal. Evaluate Write an evaluative paragraph that describes how well you addressed and interested your intended audience; how appropriate your advice was; how well you delivered your speech; and how persuasive you believe you were.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 912

Connect to the Literature


What is the test of a new relationship? How do you know when youve really become friends with someone?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, using information in Build Background.

Quickwrite
Write a short paragraph that defines the meaning of friendship.

Build Background
The Wright Stuff
In 1903 two small-town bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio, stunned the world. Orville and Wilbur Wright, who designed and made bicycles, became interested in flight after reading about glider experiments. One day Wilbur was watching buzzards fly and noticed that they must tilt, as well as steer and climb, to use air efficiently. When the Wrights built their first glider in 1899, it could do all these things. Control wires could warp the wings to change shape and thus bank to regain control if necessary. Between 1900 and 1902, the Wrights built three experimental gliders. Then they designed propellers and a lightweight engine for a powered airplane. On December 17, 1903, the Wrights flyer, powered by a gasoline engine, took off with Orville at the controls. The flight lasted twelve seconds. A later flight that day lasted fifty-nine seconds, and an age-old dream to fly was realized. Many peopleincluding the U.S. Armyrefused to believe the Wrights had flown. Although the Wrights quickly offered their flyer to the army, it took six years to get a contract signed.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 912

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question What Influences You? As you read, ask yourself, how do the latest ideas in science and technology influence Windrider and Moon Shadow? Literary Element Conflict and Resolution Conflict is the central struggle between opposing forces in a story. An external conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another person, nature, society, or fate. An internal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between opposing feelings or goals. The resolution is the part of the plot that presents the final outcome of the story. At that time, the plots conflicts are resolved and the story ends. Conflict is important in storytelling because it advances the plot, and readers always hope for a satisfyingor at least interestingending or resolution. Most plots are built around one or more conflicts. As you read, ask yourself, what conflicts are the characters facing? How might these conflicts be resolved? Use the graphic organizer on the following page to record information. Reading Skill Analyze Theme When you analyze, you look at separate parts of something in order to understand the whole thing. Theme is the central message or meaning of the whole poem or story. Some themes are directly stated; others are implied. A theme is often stated as a simple sentence such as Honesty is the best policy or Trust your instincts. A theme is not the works specific subject. It is a more universal message about life. Analyzing theme helps you understand how the author gets his or her message across. It helps you read more deeply. You go beyond knowing what the work is about to understanding how it expresses meaning. To analyze a theme, read the whole work or large sections of it look for big ideas about how to live life that the work suggests identify where and how you learn those big ideas As you read, ask yourself what message author Laurence Yep is sending about life and how he sends it. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at the right.

Vocabulary
abominable [ bom n bl] adj. hateful; vile We couldnt wait to complete the abominable job of picking up trash. desolate [des lit] adj. lonely; ruined No one would hear Maggie if she called out in this desolate place. indifferent [in dif r nt] adj. uncaring; apathetic Jamal cared deeply about the old woman, but Dee was indifferent to her. monopolize [m nop lz] v. to take over; to control Those two boys monopolize every conversation with their nonstop chatter. venerable [ven r bl] adj. aged; worthy of reverence The people bowed before their venerable ruler.

Event or Scene

Message

How Message Is Sent

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There are many conflicts in Dragonwings. Are they all resolved at the end of the novel? Write the resolution of the story in the center of the web below. Use the other circles to record conflicts in

this section of the novel or from previous sections. For each conflict that you believe is resolved at the end of the novel, darken the dotted line leading from the conflict to the resolution.

Resolution

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Conflict and Resolution Identify the conflict in this passage.

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 10


Father playfully tipped his hat forward so that it shaded his eyes. Yes, and you go on losing those new friends that you make just like you lose the new house you build. Dont you want something better, purer, freer in this life? I dont think there is, I said doubtfully. Father pulled off his hat and smoothed his hair. I think an aeronaut is free. I think an aeronaut may be the freest of all humankind. But you dont have an aeroplane. Ill build one. And how will you live? Ill put on shows and people will pay to see just how pure and free a man can live. He bit his lips thoughtfully. I think this is my final test, Moon Shadow: the final and truest measure of whether Im worthy to become a dragon again. I felt as lonely as I had that first day on the pier, looking at the crowd of strange Tang men. I was not only losing the Whitlaws, but Father as well. Why do you always have to change your life just when it looks like youre finally settling in? I asked. Dragons are able to change shape, and so must I. Do you understand? Father glanced over at me. I dropped my eyes. Do you, Moon Shadow? I still did not answer. Do you?. . . I did not say much to Father as we rode back to the Tang peoples town. What could I say to a man whom I had come to love and respect but who wanted to leave me? That night Father got Uncle alone and I sat down by them. Father turned to me. Moon Shadow, you once asked me who or what caused the earthquake. I dont know. It could have been the gods, or dragons, or demons, or it could have simply been a natural event. It doesnt matter, supernatural or natural; it means the same: This life is too short to spend it pursuing little things. I have to do what I know I can and must do. Uncle banged his fist on the arm of his chair. Not that damn dream again.

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Dream or not, I can fly, Father said matter-of-factly. I can build a flying machine. Uncle looked grim. Even assuming you can build a flying machine and then make money flying it, what will you and your family eat while youre building the machine? Its time I thought of myself, Father asserted. Uncle was scandalized. Supposing your father and mother had thought that? Or suppose their fathers and mothers had thought that before? Thats cheating. Father sagged in his chair and rested his hands on his knees. A superior man admits the truth, Uncle snapped. I could see Father was beat. He hung his head for the longest time, staring down at his hands. I could only think of some immortal who had suddenly woken one morning to find himself in a mans body and realized he was being punished. For the second time in my life, I made an important decision to be with him. I want to fly too, Father, I said. Stay out of this, Uncle snapped. Pardon me, Uncle, but you brought me into this. I looked at Father again. We should build the flying machine. Maybe you can make a living doing it. And while were building it, well both get jobs. Well all manage somehow. Father straightened a little. Despite what everyone says? A superior man can only do what hes meant to do, I said. Uncle laughed scornfully. Dont give me that nonsense. Hes the only one I hear talking sense, Father said. Dont expect to come back here, either of you, Uncle warned us. He was hurt by our leaving him a second time. I wont have anything to do with fools. Please let me go with you, Father. I wont be any trouble at all, and youll need help. Father put his hand on my shoulder. Yes. I know Ill need help. I was hoping youd come along.

Literary Element Conflict and Resolution How does the rest of this excerpt resolve the conflict highlighted on the previous page? What additional conflict does it introduce?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Analyze Theme The theme shown by this passage is a theme that has appeared in many other places in the novel? What is it?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 10


Sometimes I think there are scales in Heaven, and for every good thing that happens in your life, Heaven balances it with a bad thing. The Company had no sooner warmed to Miss Whitlaw than other demons proved just how malicious they could be. Three days later Father and I were over visiting with Miss Whitlaw when we heard the tramp and clatter of the demon soldiers. In here, we heard a voice say. The tent flap was raised by a young demon officer. One of Miss Whitlaws demon neighbors was pointing at us. Come along, you two, the young officer said. Were moving you out. All of us? father asked incredulously. Just YOU, Chinamen, the young officer said. You sabe me? Fathers hands clenched and unclenched, but behind the young officer we could see a squad of demon soldiers. They were not the same friendly ones who had given out bread and taken care of the refugees. These soldiers all wore the same stern, tense expressions and handled their bayonetted rifles nervously, as if they were in the camp of the enemy. I sabe, Father said. You must excuse, he said to Miss Whitlaw. Well, I dont sabe. Miss Whitlaw rose in magnificent outrage. How dare you come poking into my tent and commanding my two friends to leave? How dare you tell the Chinese to leave? The officer was taken aback. He became a little less haughty. Maam, those are the orders. The Chinamen have to go. Why? I daresay they make better neighbors than some other folk whom I wont name because Im a Christian woman. Miss Whitlaw darted a poisonous glance at the demon who had guided the soldiers over here. The demon shifted uncomfortably on his feet. Im . . . Im sure, maam, the officer said hastily. But theyve got to go. Im to take them bound up if necessary.. . .

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The squad was guarding other Tang people, who stood with their gear on their backs or in wheelbarrows. We were marched through the camp, with demons staring at us, while the soldiers rounded up more and more Tang people. When we got back to the main camp of the Tang people, we found most of the tents already struck. The Company was loading our stuff onto our wagon. There were more soldiers there, standing with rifles at the ready, waiting for some outbreak of rebellion. From the way the demon soldiers acted, you would have thought each of us had a knife up his sleeve. A long procession of Tang people, many on foot, marched along Van Ness Avenue past the gutted mansions of the rich. What the earthquake had not destroyed, the fires had. At the end of Van Ness, after several footwearying miles, we came to a warehouse. Except for Uncle, myself, and Hand Clap, who rode on the wagon, the rest of the Company had walked. Red Rabbit already had to carry several wagonloads at the same time. Somehow he did it. But then, the very next day, we were moved to a parade ground at an army fort near the entrance to the bay, the Golden Gate. I cant remember everywhere we moved, or when. But I think Thursday morning we were moved to the golf course at the Presidio, another army base slightly to the east of the Golden Gate. It was as if the demons could not make up their minds. . . . Last year the demon officials of the city had tried to move the Tang people out of our old area to a place called Hunters Point in the southern part of the city, where some Tang fishermen already had a camp. It was now rumored that the demon officials were going to make us rebuild the Tang peoples town not in our original location but down at Hunters Point; and yet every other ethnic group in the city was going to be allowed to return to its old homesite.

Reading Skill Analyze Theme How does author Laurence Yep reveal the theme of this passage? For example, does he use characters, events, or setting?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 12


Then Hand Clap, Lefty, and White Deer crowded around. Am I ever glad youre here, I said. Poor Father Uncle held up his hands. We know. Thats why we came. But how? Why? I was bursting with a dozen questions all at once. Why, to help you get that thing up to the top of the hill, Uncle said. Why else would we close up our shop and take a boat and climb this abominable hill, all on the coldest, wettest day ever known since creation? But you dont believe in flying machines. I still dont, Uncle said sternly. But I still feel as if I owe you something for what was done to you by that man who once was my son. Ill be there to haul your machine up the hill, and Ill be there to haul it back down when it doesnt fly. We were all getting fat anyway, White Deer said, especially Uncle. It might be easier to rent a team of horses and a wagon from a demon, I warned. Who wants their wagons and their lazy horses? Uncle asked airily. But you have only one horse and well need a team. Uncle swept his hand around the Company. When a lot of the demons fathers were too lazy to work their mines, we took those mines over and made them pay by the sweat of our brows and the ache in our backs. And when the demons were too scared to go into the mountains to build the paths for their trains, we went and dug up whole mountains. Between Red Rabbit and us, well carry your flying machine to Heaven and back if we have to. Call it our penance. We dont want to come back in our next lives as dogs because we felt no shame. Uncle held me off at arms length. But look how tall youve grown. And how thin, White Deer said. And ragged, Lefty fingered a patch on my pants. Weve been doing all right, I insisted. Well, you havent starved to death or broken your necks, Uncle observed, which was more than I ever expected. Now. He clapped his hands together. Come, Im getting cold.

BIG Question
Why Influences You? What influences everyones words and actions in this scene? How do you know? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses or answers the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

MY VIEW Write down your thoughts on the excerpt.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 912

Respond and Think Critically


1. How does the Company keep itself from being moved permanently out of the city? [Analyze]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 167. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What conflict does Black Dog cause? [Interpret]

3. Have you ever experienced an emergency? How do you think you would react to a major event like the one faced by the characters in San Francisco? [Connect]

4. Were you satisfied with the response of Moon Shadows father to the flight? Is this his last flight? How do you know? [Conclude]

5. What Influences You? What do you think is the most important influence on Uncle Bright Star? Cite details from the novel to support your answers. [Conclude]

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Literary Element Conflict and Resolution 1. There are several conflicts in this novel. What do you think is the most important one? Explain your answer by referring to the events of the novel. [Summarize]

Vocabulary Practice
Identify the context clues in the following sentences that help you determine the meaning of each boldfaced vocabulary word. 1. Throwing eggs at the old mans house was an abominable act. 2. After the hurricane hit, the streets were desolate. 3. The people were cold and hungry, but the indifferent ruler did not take action. 4. Two students monopolize the discussion while all the others are silent. 5. People called the queen venerable because of her wisdom and generosity.

2. Describe the resolution of this novel. Which conflict or conflicts are resolved? [Analyze]

Reading Skill Analyze Theme 1. What do you think is the main theme of Dragonwings? Explain your answer by referring to specific ideas and events in the novel. [Synthesize]

Academic Vocabulary One of the main factors leading to the success of the glider flight is Windriders technical ability. In the preceding sentence, factor means something that contributes to a result or an ingredient. Factor also has other meanings. For example: You must multiply by a factor of four. What do you think factor means in the preceding sentence? What is the difference between the two meanings?

2. Name two other themes you find in the novel. [Analyze]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 912

Writing
Write Storyboard Text Make a storyboard of the events in this section that lead up to the climax of the novel. A storyboard is a charting of the events of the novel, just as they might appear in a movie or video. Your storyboard should show main events in the rising action as well as the climax. For each scene, write a summary statement of the action. If you want, create the images, too. Jot down some notes here first.

Speaking and Listening


Connect to Content Areas
Math Because earthquakes tend to recur according to a cycle, graphing and charting them are useful operations in sizing up risk. Learn more about the technology of graphing and charting earthquakes. Show what you have learned in a computer-slide presentation for the class. Investigate Use multiple sources to learn about why and how people make earthquake graphs and what they show. Use the Internet or your library catalog to locate information. Identify and determine the subject-specific meanings of any technical terms related to earthquake graphing, such as risk, magnitude, recurrence interval, and fault length. Create Create a computer-slide presentation with three parts: a slide or slides explaining any technical terms that your audience will need to understand your report one or more examples of earthquake graphs, with oral explanation of what they show and how they were made a slide that credits your sources, including the source of your graph(s) Report Be sure to project your slides slowly and to leave them up long enough for your audience to completely absorb what they show. Speak loudly, slowly, and clearly as you explain what each slide shows.

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WORK WITH RELATE D READINGS

Dragonwings
The following questions refer to the Related Readings in Glencoes Literature Library edition of this novel. Support your answers with details from the text. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, but jot down some notes first on the lines provided.

Writing Dragonwings Laurence Yep Make Connections How did identifying his audience help Yep to write Dragonwings?

Success at Kill Devil Hills Becky Welch Make Connections The Roman writer Seneca said, It is a rough road that leads to the heights of greatness. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? How might this statement apply to Windrider and the Wright Brothers?

from Chinese Kites Wang Hongxun Make Connections How might a knowledge of kite design have helped the characters in Dragonwings to build their airplanes?

from The Case of the Goblin Pearls Laurence Yep Make Connections Compare and contrast the relationship of Auntie and Lily with the relationship of Windrider and Moon Shadow.

Some Personal Recollections Gerstle Mack Make Connections How does Gerstle Macks experience compare with Moon Shadows experience?

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CO NNECT TO OTHER LITER AT URE

LITERATURE EXCERPT: The War of the Wall


Me and Lou had no time for courtesies. We were late for school. So we just flat out told the painter lady to quit messing with the wall. It was our wall, and she had no right coming into our neighborhood painting on it. Stirring in the paint bucket and not even looking at us, she mumbled something about Mr. Eubanks, the barber, giving her permission. That had nothing to do with it as far as we were concerned. Weve been pitching pennies against that wall since we were little kids. Old folks have been dragging their chairs out to sit in the shade of the wall for years. Big kids have been playing handball against the wall since so-called integration when the crazies cross town poured cement in our pool so we couldnt use it. Id sprained my neck one time boosting my cousin Lou up to chisel Jimmy Lyonss name into the wall when we found out he was never coming home from the war in Vietnam to take us fishing. . . Mama beckoned us over. And then we saw it. The wall. Reds, greens, figures outlined in black. Swirls of purple and orange. Storms of blues and yellows. It was something. I recognized some of the faces right off. There was Martin Luther King, Jr. And there was a man with glasses on and his mouth open like he was laying down a heavy rap. Daddy came up alongside and reminded us that that was Minister Malcolm X. The serious woman with a rifle I knew was Harriet Tubman because my grandmama has pictures of her all over the house. And I knew Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer cause a signed photograph of her hangs in the restaurant next to the calendar. . . . Read the inscription, honey, Mrs. Morris said, urging little Frieda forward. She didnt have to urge much. Frieda marched right up, bent down, and in a loud voice that made everybody quit oohing and ahhing and listen, she read, To the People of Taliaferro Street I Dedicate This Wall of Respect Painted in Memory of My Cousin Jimmy Lyons

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CONNECT TO OTHER LIT ERATURE

Compare the novel you have just read to the literature selection at the left, which is excerpted from The War of the Wall by Toni Cade Bambara in Glencoe Literature. Then answer the questions below. Use the exact words of the text or explain events and ideas in the text to support your answers.

Compare & Contrast


1. Characterization How do you find out about the character of the narrator in the first paragraph? How is that similar to or different from the way you find out about Moon Shadow?

WRITE ABOUT IT Write some advice to the children in The War of the Wall about jumping to the wrong conclusions about people. To support and explain your advice, use examples from Dragonwings that show how people can make mistakes as a result of lack of understanding.

2. Allusion What allusions do you find in this excerpt? How is the use of allusions in this story like the use of allusions in Dragonwings?

3. Conflict and Resolution How do the conflict and resolution in this story differ from the conflict and resolution in Dragonwings?

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RES POND THROUGH WRITING

Expository Essay
Compare and Contrast Theme One of the major themes of Dragonwings is the immigrant experience and how it influences a persons life. Identify a literary work from Glencoe Literature with a similar theme. Compare and contrast the two themes and how they are revealed. Prewrite Make notes about how the immigrant experience is shown in Dragonwings. Record scenes and bits of evidence, or quoted words and phrases, that help reveal the theme. Reflect on how Yep shows the theme, such as through actual historical events, problems and solutions, conflicts, or details of the setting. Then do the same for the literary work from Glencoe Literature. Draft State the title and author of both works you will compare and lead up to your thesis by making a general statement about the works or their themes. End your introductory paragraph with a clear statement of your thesis. Use your body paragraphs to demonstrate your understanding of the themes of both works. Be sure to make detailed references to both works, either by quoting them or carefully explaining what happens in them, to support the points you make about each theme. Revise As you revise, look for ways to link your quoted evidence to the sentences that come before and after the quotations. For example, to lead into a quotation, you might write, One problem of the immigrant experience is shown when says . To lead out of, or explain the same quotation, you might write, These words show . Edit and Proofread Edit your writing so that it expresses your thoughts effectively and is well organized. Carefully proofread for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

UNDERSTAND THE TASK To compare and contrast is to discover and explain likenesses and differences between two or more things. A theme is the central message about life in an essay or work of literature. Like a thesis, a theme is a controlling idea in a work. Unlike a thesis, a theme is almost always unstated. Instead, the reader understands the theme by thinking about the overall meaning conveyed by the work.

Grammar Tip
Italics Italics are used to show book, newspaper, movie, and other titles. They also have other special uses. One of these is the use of italics to show foreign words that are not common in English: It has become de rigueur to be tolerant of cultural differences, she said. Use italics when you refer to a word as a word: De rigueur means the same as proper or right.

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I Am Mordred: A Tale from Camelot


Nancy Springer

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INTRODUCTI ON TO THE NOVEL

I Am Mordred: A Tale from Camelot


Nancy Springer

. . . People often ask me how I can write novels for both children and adults. I cant understand why this should be such a strange idea to them. The way any fiction writer works is to get inside the main character, to see through the characters eyes, to walk around in the characters skin for awhileand when writing a novel for children the main character is a child, thats all. Style, vocabulary, subject matter, everything else follows naturally once the fundamental act of imagination takes place.

Nancy Springer

Was there a real King Arthur? Historical documents and archaeological remains in England hint that such a leader may have lived in the early 500s. According to these sources, a Celtic chieftain named Arthur fought against Germanic invaders. A vast oral literature developed around Arthur, and by the time the stories were written down, truth and fiction had been forever blended.
Questioning Legend In the Arthurian tales, Mordred is infamous as the illegitimate heir to Arthurs throne. Together with his aunt Morgan, he convinces a number of knights of the Round Table to join him in his fight

against King Arthur. But Mordred is missing from the Arthurian tales that are set in the period between his birth and his entrance into court as Arthurs rival. It was Mordreds absence from these stories that first prompted Nancy Springer to write The Raven, a short story about Mordreds life. Springer felt that the presentation of Mordred in earlier versions of the story as the unique cause of the failure of Arthurs glorious ideals was perhaps undeserved. Her novel asks readers to consider whether Mordred deserves that blame. I Am Mordred: A Tale from Camelot takes readers inside Mordreds mind so that they can decide for themselves who caused Camelots fall.
An Ageless Story Stories of Arthur and his court had been passed down orally for some years before Sir Thomas Malory and other authors first published them. Malorys collection of tales, called Le Morte dArthur (The Death of Arthur), came out in 1485. However, the stories are set in a much earlier time. Arthur and his knights are said to have lived around the fifth or sixth century in Britain; the earliest mentions of the legendary king occur shortly after this period. But the stories developed slowly, over several centuries, adding characters drawn from ancient Celtic stories (such as Gawain)

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INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL and traditional French tales (such as Lancelot). People telling these stories were looking back to a legendary golden age of peace. That ageand Arthur probably never existed, but the legends were more thrilling and more appealing than reality for medieval listeners. Even today, the stories are being written anew and filmed in movies.

The Road to Knighthood


It wasnt easy to become a medieval knight. Boys began training young with mock weapons to build their strength so that they could carry the heavy armor knights wore. At about age ten, a boy would be taken into an influential lord's household, where he would serve the lord, learning humility and how the household operated. He sparred with other boys his age and learned to hawk, ride, and care for horses. Finally, at fourteen, he could become a squire to a knight, learning about armor and real weapons. Not until he was about nineteen could he wear armor and join in war games on horseback. First, however, the young man underwent an initiation ritual. In the morning, he put on his best clothes, feasted with his family, and presented himself to his lord. Other knights fastened on his spurs, and he kissed his new sword. The famous dubbing followed, and though a knight's dubbing in England is shown today as a gentle tap on the shoulder with the king's sword, in medieval times it was often a blow hard enough to send the new knight sprawling. When the ceremony was over, the knight did what people who have achieved a hard goal still do today: he celebrated!

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MEET THE AUTHOR

Nancy Springer (1948 )

. . . Once I had started writing books for children, I finally started growing up.

writing fantasy, just as she had turned to reading it during her teen years.
Room for a Pony Like many children, Springer always dreamed of having her own horse, and her success as a writer allowed her to buy her own horse when she was thirty-three. Her experiences with this somewhat unruly animal gave her confidence and a new direction in her writing:

Nancy Springer, Authors and Artists for Young Adults

Born on July 5, 1948, Nancy (Connor) Springer was the only girl and youngest child in her family. From a young age, she felt presssure to do just what the adults in her life said she should. I was miserably shy, and very small and skinny, and of course I was picked on, she recalls. Springer spent her teen years helping out in her parents business, a small motel in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. She found that reading works of fantasy helped her escape from daily cares: Without quite knowing why, when I was in my teens I started to daydream a lot about heroes facing an evil, hostile world. . . .
An Avid Reader From an early age, Springer lived to read, keeping notebooks with lists of the books she had read and new words she had learned from them. But it wasnt until after college that she dare[d] to really write. Springer taught high school for a year and then left to raise a family. When the demands of family life seemed pressing, she turned to

[I] found myself writing books specifically for children and young adults. The horse, for me, was a key that let me back into my own childhood in a more complete and realistic way than my fantasy heroes had.
Exploring Mordred Springer first explored Mordreds tale in a short story but was intrigued enough to develop the story into a novel. She has since written a companion volume, I Am Morgan le Fay: A Tale from Camelot, to flesh out Morgans tale as well. Springer has a rubber stamp with her motto on it, a motto she says has defined her life: Conform, go crazy, or become an artist. She continues to write novels, stories, and poetry that explore how each person finds his or her place in the world.

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BEFORE YOU READ: PrologueChapter 4

Connect to the Literature


Recall a time when you learned something so unexpected and surprising that it affected you deeply. How did you react when you heard it? Did the information change your life in some way?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, using information in Build Background.

Write a Journal Entry


Write about the instance you just recalled or about a time when you had momentous news to tell someone else. Is there a best way to tell important news?

Build Background
Medieval Households
Most of Mordreds story is set in the households of medieval nobility. Such households were large and required many people to run them. The seneschal, for example, was in charge of directing the servants and keeping the accounts, while the steward made sure that the kitchen and pantry were stocked and staffed. A lord had his retainers, men-at-arms in his service, and a lady had ladies-in-waiting who met her personal needs. Wealthy households sponsored bards, singers of tales who kept the family history alive. Outside the castle, crofters worked the fields and vineyards that provided the households foods. All these people are part of the backdrop of this tale. Most members of a noble household, including the knights and the servants, ate together daily in the castles great hall. This method allowed the nobles to pay off their servants with food and to foster loyalty and goodwill in the household. But it was also a matter of practicality, as no refrigeration methods existed at that time. If an animal was slaughtered, it had to be eaten promptly to prevent spoilage.

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BEFORE YOU READ: PrologueChapter 4

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question How Can You Become Who You Want to Be? Most people have hopes and dreams about who they will become and how their lives will turn out. As you read the first section of I Am Mordred, think about the specific actions young Mordred takesand the actions others take on his behalfthat mold and shape him. Ask yourself: Is Mordred becoming the person he wants to be? Literary Element Narrator and Point of View Point of view is the relationship of the narrator, or storyteller, to the story. In a work with a first-person point of view, the story is told by one of the characters, who refers to himself or herself as I. In a first-person narrative, all information about the storys characters and events comes from the narrator. A skillful reader must determine how the narrators experiences and opinions influence the telling of the story. In I Am Mordred, the identity of the first-person narrator is clear from the title. As you read this first section of the novel, think about how Mordreds point of view about the events of his life affects the way you interpret the story. Reading Skill Make Generalizations About Character When you make generalizations, you form a general rule or conclusion based on particular facts and examples. When you make generalizations about characters, you use the details the author provides to form a general idea or conclusion about the characters. Making generalizations about characters is important because authors sometimes provide only limited details about a character. When you make generalizations, you put those details together with what you already know about the world and about human nature to understand the character better. To make generalizations about characters, pay close attention to details about the characters think about what you already know about the way people behave connect what the author tells you with what you already know Once you have made a generalization based on this information, ask yourself whether or not your generalization helps you understand something more about the characters. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one on the right.

Vocabulary
cozen (kuz n) v. to cheat; deceive The bully had to cozen others into giving him their lunch money. fealty (fe l te) n. deeply felt loyalty The workers had great fealty for their boss after she gave them all raises. pretext (pre tekst ) n. an open purpose that hides a real but secret purpose I went to the store on the pretext of buying eggs, but I really wanted to buy candy bars. rapt (rapt) adj. fascinated, enthralled Mr. Dowd gave a spellbinding lecture to a rapt audience. uncanny (un kan e) adj. suggesting supernatural or mysterious powers at work Brett has the uncanny ability to disappear before doing his Saturday morning chores.

What the Author Tells Me

What I Already Know

Generalization

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ACTIVE READING: PrologueChapter 4

Mordred interacts with several parent figures in the first part of the book, and each affects him in a unique and significant way. In each circle below, describe how the mother figure or father figure

behaves toward Mordred. On the line connecting the circle to Mordred's name, write how Mordred feels about that person.

King Arthur
kind, proud of him, welcomes him as his son

Morgause

Fisherfather MORDRED

Fishermother

Lothe

Nyneve

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Narrator and Point of View What does this tell you about Mordreds assessment of his current skills and his potential?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 2


Time went by. Another winter, deep with snow; the bard did not return to Lothian that winter. Nor did Nyneve. Another summer. Gawain turned fifteen and rode away, as was customary, for Camelot, hoping to be knighted and serve King Arthur. After that, Garet went as sour as pickled cabbage. He would joust with me, for he usually bettered me, but he stopped studying arithmetic and letters with me. We rode out together hawkinghe flew the goshawk, I the smaller birds, the merlins, the hovering kestrelsbut he was a stormy stripling now and I was still a child; we seldom liked each other. Seasons passed. Nyneve did not come again to Lothian, and I decided that she had forgotten me. Garet turned fourteen and became wild with waiting, for in another year he would go to Camelot and wear mail and fight and smite helms and proudly bear a shield blazoned with the device of Lothian: white, a quarter red, with eagles. I turned eleven, nursing a secret fear that I was unworthy to be a noble and King Lothes son. I did not like jousting. I did not like sword fighting. Sometimes when I was sleeping restlessly I dreamed of the sea, of the white gulls wheeling and the herring flashing silver in the waves. If some miracle were to happen and I were to wake up one day no longer Mordred, Prince of Lothian, I would gladly be a fisherman on the sea. Or a bard chanting songs of old gods and heroes. Or even a sheepherder on the rocky hills, spending my days with the sun and rain and the foxes and meadowlarks. But I could tell these thoughts to no one; I was a kings son and I had to be a knight and a fighter. Mock combat had taught me enough of fighting, so that I dreaded the time when I would have to fight in earnest; I knew I was a coward. Or so I thought until one summer day. A hot day, so villainously hot that Gull and I were spending it lying on the floor of one of the basement storerooms. Gull was five years old then, a lovely pure white brachet, strong backed, well sprung, sturdy legged, hard of tooth and soft of temper, with the soulful eyes of a bride. When she ran, her short legs churned and her long

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

ears flew, so that she seemed to skim the ground like a white bird. She could run as fast as any scent-hound in the pack. But this was Gulls oddity: She had not yet whelped. When she was not with me, she ran with the other castle dogs, scent-hounds and sight-hounds and harriers; she was no virgin. Like King Arthurs Queen, Guinevere, Gull was barrenso folk teased me. But I did not care if Gull never bore pups. We lay nose to noseI could always count on Gull for a wet, cold nose on a hot daywe sprawled on the cool dirt, and I felt so much at peace that I must have dozed; I did not hear Garet calling me or hear him stride in. Mor-dred! He was in a temper. He kicked me in the ribsthis was his customary way of lifting me off the floor, with the toe of his bootbut then he did what he had not done before, what he should not have done: He kicked Gull. She yelped, and a heat I had never felt before burned in my chest, and I lunged up, caught him around the knees, and toppled him. He fell hard, for I had taken him by surprise. The fall knocked the breath out of him, and before he could move I pinned his arms with my shins and sat on his chest, hitting him in the faceGull watched with her floppy ears hoisted in interest as I chastised him. I should not have been able to do itGaret stood a head taller than I and two stone heavierbut an angel of rage was in me that day. It was the day I learned to fight from the heart. Get off me, stinking brat! Garet tried to jounce me off, tried to wriggle free, but I settled my knees harder on his shoulders and punched him in the eye. Bastard! Garet almost wept with fury, for he was used to being the one who beat me, not the other way around. As he could not hit me with his fists, he flung words at me. Brat, you want to know why they put you in the boat? Because you were supposed to die, stupid. Thats why they put babies out to sea, to kill them when theyre wrong. Like you.

Literary Element Narrator and Point of View Although Mordred does not mention it directly, what personality trait does his fighting back against his brother reveal about him?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Make Generalizations About Characters What generalization can you make about Morgan le Fay based on what she says and does here?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 4


Gulls sober gaze made me think of the pool in the Forest Perilous, and of Nyneve, and made me feel how far I must stay from speaking of them to my aunt, to anyone. But I had to answer something. I said, I asked my mother to show me how to scry in a mirror. Some instinct made me say scry boldly to Morgan le Fay; daring was less dangerous than cringing in front of her. Why, Mordred! She laughed, much diverted. Scrying is for women, dont you know that? She would not show you, would she? My silence answered her. I thought not. She laughed anew. What do you want to find out, Mordred? What did you want to see? Because her laughter stiffened my spine, I answered boldly again. I want to see my father. King Arthur. She laughed again, but this time low and dark. I shivered, remembering the dark voices of the black hounds in the night of the Forest Perilous. She stood regarding me with glinting interest. I will teach you how to scry, she said, and something had put teeth in her tone. She asked no more questions of me. I think that by saying my fathers name I had answered all her questions. Or else she saw more to be gained. Come, she said with hard-edged sweetness, is your bitch quite finished? Let us go within. She took me to her chamberI barely recognized the place as Lothian, for it seemed that Morgan le Fay journeyed nowhere without a great many draperies; tapestries hung everywhere, masking the stone. I stared at them, at twisted beasts stitched in thread of gold, but Morgan le Fay brushed past them and ordered her maidservant to find her a mirror. The girl brought her a circle of polished metal from her baggagebronze, or perhaps brass. I had thought that Morgan le Fay would have a silver mirror with a tooled border, like Queen Morgause. Perhaps this one was her second best, for traveling. She took it by its handle from the maid, sent her out of the room with a gesture and closed the door. . . .

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

She blew out the candles, then placed the mirror on the floor, where it lay like a small pool, shimmering in the moonlight that sifted into the room through the high, narrow windows. A moonless night would be better, Morgan le Fay said. But it is dark enough. She settled herself on the bedthe ropes creaked under her weight, and the canopy shifted. Sit on the floor, Mordred, and look slantwise in the mirror. Think of what you desire to see and let the desire fill you. Then be still and gaze without blinking until you see nothing that is in this room. I could not have seen my own bony face in the mirror if I tried. That small circle of metal lay like a mystery, all shadows and intimations. I stared, and lost sense of time, and the shadows began to swirl, and in the shifting dimness I saw the sheen of goldand thenit was he, King Arthur, I knew it by the coiled druid vine work of his crown. He stood with his back to me, on some lonely shore, staring out to sea. I saw his wine-red cloak, his broad shoulders, his curling hair nearly as golden as his crown, and in a moment he would turn, my father, I would see more, I would seehis face But as if feeling a cold shadow fall upon me I felt the presence of Morgan le Fay in the room with me; could she see what I was seeing? I did not know. There was too much I did not know about her. Where did she live? How did she come to travel like a queen? Where were her husband, her children? Did she have none? Had she killed them? That thought came out of nowhere. It made me blink, and the vision of my father, King Arthur, vanished before he could turn his face to me. Stiffly I struggled to my feet. What did you see? asked Morgan le Fay. Nothing, my lady. I saw nothing. My heart was a white stag leaping in my chest; I would share nothing of my father with her. II am weary, my lady. By your leave. I bowed to her and bolted, running to my chamber. My dreams that night were of Arthur, King Arthur, Very King, looking out to sea.

Reading Skill Make Generalizations About Characters What generalization can you make about the magic it takes for Mordred to do the scrying?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 3


I lay there. I did not want to move. If I moved I would have to begin to comprehend what Garet had told me. Gull padded up to me and stood over me, her silky ears hanging in my face. She whined. She licked my nose. I sat up and took her head between my shaking hands and looked into her eyeshoney-sweet eyes, soft eyes, eyes like brown pools of sorrowas if they were the only safe place in the world. I saw Nyneve looking back at me. In Gulls eyes. Nyneve, wearing her green gown and baldric and golden dagger, her eyes sorrowful, like Gulls. After what Garet had said, words that had struck me down like a blow from a broadsword, my first experience of scrying did not stagger me much. There was Nyneve, that was all, making my heart watery; at the sight of her I whimpered like a pup. I could not speak. Nyneve spoke to me. I heard the words in my mind. Courage, Mordred, she said. It is all true, yet it is all false. Have courage. I am coming to you. Courage, she said. I needed courage, and I wanted it; I lacked it. I did not have enough courage to face King Lothe at supper. Though I felt little for him, still, to think that he was not my father after allI could not face him or my own thoughts. I kept to my chamber. King Arthur, my father? Every day, almost, I heard someone say Thank the goodliness of our blessed King Arthur. . . . but if our blessed King was my father and he had tried to kill me, I hated him. I hated him. With a black flame burning in my heart I hated him. I hated King Arthur. Butbut King Arthur was good. The people said so, the bards said so. Prince of kings, jewel of kings, flower of kings, they hailed him. If I hated King Arthur, then I must be what Garet had said, devil spawn. Evil. I was the child of the King and hishis sister? My stomach heaved at the thought. Evil.

BIG Question
How Can You Become Who You Want to Be? How has Garets information changed Mordreds ideas about himself? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key ideas.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: PrologueChapter 4

Respond and Think Critically


1. Tad clearly loves Fishermother. Why does he not cry when Nyneve takes him away from her? Why have his feelings changed by the end of the chapter? [Interpret]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Introduction to the Novel on page 184. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. How does Gull react to Mordreds aunt Morgan, and what does the brachets reaction make you suspect about her? [Infer]

3. How do Gawain and Garet treat Mordred? Are the fights the boys have merely the rivalries that most siblings experience, or do the halfbrothers have other reasons to be at odds? [Analyze]

4. What prompts Garet to tell Mordred the devastating truth about Arthur? Do you agree with Mordred that harsh words can hurt worse than physical blows? Why or why not? [Connect]

5. How Do You Become Who You Want to Be? At the end of Chapter 4, how does Mordreds attitude change about who he wants to become? Why? [Infer]

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AFTER YOU READ: PrologueChapter 4

Literary Element Narrator and Point of View 1. Why do you think Mordred proclaims over and over again the words I am Mordred? [Infer]

Vocabulary Practice
A synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. Match each boldfaced vocabulary word below with its synonym. Use a thesaurus or dictionary to check your answers. cozen fealty pretext rapt uncanny captivated mysterious deceive ploy fidelity

2. How do you think Mordreds story would be different if it were told from the point of view of another character? Choose one character to use in your answer. [Interpret]

Academic Vocabulary Nyneve tells Mordred that he will one day interpret King Arthurs actions toward him very differently. Think about something you interpret differently today than you did several years ago. In your opinion, what accounted for the change in your interpretation? Reading Skill Make Generalizations

About Character

1. What do the Fishermother and Nyneve have in common? What generalization can you make about Mordred based on his relationship with them? [Generalize]

2. What generalization can you make about the two kinds of people in Mordreds life to this point in the novel? [Identify]

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AFTER YOU READ: PrologueChapter 4

Writing
Write a Letter Imagine that you are Mordred and you have just learned that King Arthur is your father. Write a letter to King Arthur telling him that you know he is your father. What will you say to him? What will you ask him? Remember you are writing to a king who has not yet met you and who has the astonishing power to sentence people to death. Once you have completed this letter, write a response to it from King Arthurs point of view. Try to use language similar to the dialogue in the novel. Jot down some notes here first.

Research and Report


Visual Media/Presentation
Assignment In these chapters and throughout the novel, Mordred describes parts of the castles he inhabits. Find out more about these fortresslike buildings by using reference texts or an Internet search engine to research an example of an existing castle as the basis for a visual presentation. Get Ideas Think about how you want to create your visual presentation. Perhaps you will want to relate it to various castles you have read about in I Am Mordred. Recall the terms you have come across so far in the novel: keep, portcullis, caer, barbican, great hall, mews, and bastion. What do these words mean? Find out, write the definitions, and then use them as research guides. Research There are many ruined and restored castles throughout Europe. On the Internet and in text sources such as David Macauleys Castle, you will find excellent photos, drawings, and information. Find a picture or pictures of a representative castle. You will need to locate both interior and exterior views. Try to find reproducible examples of each of the architectural components you have learned about in the novel. This may require you to combine views of several different castles. If so, remember to identify each castle by its name and location. Prepare When you have located all your pictures and information, consider the best method by which to present it. For example, you may wish to create a poster with the copy of the castle exterior in the center surrounded by insets of various architectural details. Letter your labels carefully to ensure your viewers comprehension of the graphics. Present Take your viewers on a walk through the castle. Use a pointer to reference the various architectural components. As much as you can, relate these components to what your classmates already know from reading I Am Mordred.

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Connect to the Literature


Think of a time when you or someone else set a challenging goal for you. What is the most challenging goal you have ever reached?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, using information in Build Background.

Share an Experience
Think about what it takes to overcome obstacles in the way of reaching a goal. Do you need help from others? Must you face failures and setbacks and go on? Compare your ideas with a classmates, and then share them with the class as a whole.

BUILD BACKGROUND
The Quest for the Holy Grail
Pelleas leaves Nyneve on a quest to seek the Holy Grail, and Mordred seeks his own grail, in a figurative sense. What was the Grail? The word simply means a kind of dish, usually a goblet or bowl. People in medieval England believed that the Grail was the cup used by Jesus Christ at the Last Supper and that it held drops of Jesuss blood. According to myth, the Grail came to England when one of Jesuss worshippers traveled there. It could heal body and soul, but only the pure of heart could see it. For the legendary Knights of the Round Table, the quest for the Grail was the holiest of missions, a religious goal shared by nearly all of them. Today, the term holy grail means a nearly impossible but much-desired goal. For instance, medical researchers might say that the grail they seek is a vaccine to prevent cancer.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapters 510

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question How Can You Become Who You Want to Be? Whom do you admire? How did that person become who he or she is today? What goals will you set to help you become the person you want to be? As you read the next section of the novel, ask yourself how the people around Mordred help him or hinder him in becoming the person he wants to be. Literary Element Symbol A symbol is any object, person, animal, place, or event that represents something else, usually something abstract. Symbolism is the use of images to represent internal realities. Identifying symbols in a literary work helps you understand the authors purpose and themes. There are many symbols in I Am Mordred. They appear, for example, in Mordreds interactions with birds and with water. Even the birthmark behind Mordreds ear is a symbol, a repeated reminder of his difficult fate. As you read the next six chapters of the novel, look for these and other symbols that provide keys to the storys meaning. Use the graphic organizer on the next page to help you. Reading Skill Analyze Historical Context When you analyze, you look at the separate parts of something in order to better understand the whole. When you analyze historical context in a story or play, you look for clues to the broader political and social issues of the day. Analyzing historical context in a literary work helps you fill in the blanks and better understand the cultural and social backdrop of the time you are reading about. This in turn affects your interpretation of the characters and their actions. To analyze historical context in a literary work, readers must interpret background clues about the social issues of the time during which the work takes place. As you read, the next section of I Am Mordred, think about how the social and political aspects of medieval times are reflected in King Arthurs court. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at right.

Vocabulary
boon (boon) n. a favor given in answer to a request; a blessing When the automobile was invented, some people thought it was a boonothers called it a curse. cosset (kos it) v. to pamper My mother would cosset us when we were little, but now that were grown up, shes stricter.
expediency (iks pe de n se) n. an action that sets aside a principle in order to achieve a goal It was political expediency to pass a law that placed fewer limits on polluting factories.

paragon (par on ) n. a model or example of perfection or excellence Aunt Mae was a paragon of virtue who worked for the betterment of the poor. sumptuous (sump choo s) adj. very costly, luxurious The drapes are made of sumptuous blue velvet.

Knights
Sir Gawain, Sir Lancelot, Sir Galahad, Sir Torre, etc.

Historical Context
Operated by a strict code of conduct, had to be loyal to the king, were referred to as Sir

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Author Nancy Springers tale takes Mordred through several very different settings, each one symbolizing something significant in his life.

Describe each setting below and tell what it symbolizes for young Mordred. If you cite exactly worded examples from the text, put them in quotes.

Setting
the sea

Description

What It Symbolizes
Youth and innocence, later his heritage and curse

Lothian

Camelot

the Forest Perilous

Caer Morgana

isolated but beautiful, a luxurious castle held together by Morgans spells

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Literary Element Symbol What clue does this description provide about Camelot as a symbol in Mordreds life?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 6


I could not sleep that night for dreaming of King Arthur. I would keep the vow I had sworn to Gawain, to be silent; it would be better that way. . . . In the morning I dressed in my best clothing: tunic of bleached cambric and tabard of quilted indigo silk, blue cap, blue leggings, bootsand knew it to be not nearly good enough. Gawain and Garet took me to the kitchen, but I could not eat. Gawain jested with his serving fork, but I could not smile. When he had eaten, he led me through a maze of passagewaysthis castle was as bewildering in its way as the Forest Perilous, this Camelot. Vast and towering and labyrinthine. But not green-shadow dim; even inside, Camelot shone white. The courtyard, where Gawain led me, glowed with sunlight. In the sunlight sat a blind harper, an old man in a simple robe of brown homespun, playing on his harp and chanting a ballad: Down in yonder green field Lies a knight slain under his shield. His hounds lie down at his feet To guard him in his final sleep. His hawks fly a watch so fierce No carrion bird dares to come near. Down there comes a fair red doe Great with fawn, weighted with sorrow. She kissed him on his bloody head. She carried him to his earthen bed. She buried him in days first light. She was dead herself by gray twilight. May the gods give every knight Such hawks, such hounds, such a lady love . . . The wonder of the song rang through me, yet made me cold. Might the gods give me life rather than such a death, I thought, but then I put the thoughts away from me in shame. A cowards thought.

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The blind harper chanted on, his eyes staring as milk white as the towers of Camelot, as white as his beard. On his shoulder there perched a raven, a wise bird with a great black heavy bill that made me think of an executioners ax. The harper did not see me walking by, of course, but the raven saw me and croaked, Branded, branded! Red-handed! Those who had gathered to hear the harper laughed at its cheekiness, but I shivered, for I felt as if it spoke straight to me. Yetyet there was no reason for me to feel that way. I was King Arthurs son. Firming my face, lifting my head, I followed Gawain into the great hall with Gull pattering at my heels. Even now, after all the years, I remember the great hall of Camelot, that aspiring vaulted hall hung with many tapestries embroidered in threads of red, royal blue, gold. I remember the tapestries: a white stag leaping, a red dragon, a lady in a garden of blue roses, many others. But that morning I saw nothing of their splendor, for my heart pounded like a war stallion charging and I could not think of anything but him, my father. At last. Blinking in the muted light, I looked for a throne. I saw none. Yet I knew him at once. King Arthur. There he sat at his place upon the rim of the Round Table, and by that time he had ruled for more years than I was old. Yet he turned toward me the face of a young man at the height of his powers. No gray dulled the bronze of his beard or his hair curling crisp under his golden crown. He held his chin high as he scanned me with the sea-gray eyes of a visionary. He looked wise, regal, strong, fierce, and fair, an eagle among men, all that a King should be, and what was more to me, he was a man any daydreaming boy would choose as a father. Such awe and longing washed through me that I could barely stand; weakness as much as courtesy made me fold to my knees at his side. He looked at me quizzically, then up at Gawain, who had not kneeled.

Literary Element Symbol What does the raven symbolize for Mordred? How do you know?

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Reading Skill Analyze Historical Context What can you tell about the knights code of chivalry from this conversation?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 7


From the moment that Pellinore rode in with King Lothes head at his knee, it was plain to Gawain and Garet that Pellinore had to be killed. It was equally plain to them that I would help them. And as Pellinore was a knight of the Round Table, he could not be challenged; he would have to be ambushed. But thats three against one, I said. What do I care? In our chamber, Gawain sat drinking his sixth or seventh mug of hard mead; he glared at me, half weeping, half savage. He had seen King Lothes head. Garet had not seen it; Garet sat more sober. Butif this Pellinore killed your father as he says he did, in fair combat Only the table and his own drunkenness kept Gawain from lunging at me. Fair? His flushed face jutted toward mine like a gargoyle. Fair fight, to wear our fathers head as a trophy? It had fallen to me to go to Pellinore and see if I could get Lothes head back, for burial, but he had already fed it to the kennel dogs, he said. A paragon of chivalry, Pellinore. I plan to haul him from the horse and tie him to a tree I did not want to hear this. But thats murder. Murder? Gawain surprised me; he leaned back and began to laugh. Why, well all be murderers together, then. Show me someone in the world who is not a murderer. Im a murderer, our mother, Morgause, is a murderer, our aunt Morgan is a murderer, our uncle King Arthur Gawain! Garet protested. Youre drunk, I said. You dont believe me? What else do you call it when he kills thirty-nine others trying to kill you? Gawain! Garet stood to hush him. I, also, got up, not knowing where I was going. I stood there, my heart stuttering like my mouth. Wh-wh-what? Babies, Gawain snarled. I could not tell what he was saying, whether our mother, Morgause, had killed babies which she might have, I had sometimes wondered, our

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baby sisters all deador whether he was calling Garet and me babies, orI was not sure he had said what I thought I had heard; he had said something of King Arthur Gawain, Garet warned, speak no more, not a single word. Gawain did not obey, of course. And your precious Nyneve, he barked at me, blurring the words, shes a murderer too. He was drunk. Not worth answering. I turned my back on him and walked out of our chamber. I went looking for Nyneve and found her, not in her tower, but by the central fountain in Queen Guineveres gardenthe one place in Camelot where Gull was not allowed to follow me. It was a peaceful place, that garden, full of order and symmetry, quite unlike the twisted wilderness outside the castle walls. A high square of hedge enclosed it for shade and silence, and inside, straight white-cobbled paths ran under trellises of rosesany churl can grow violets, but a noble garden fosters great roses, red and white, and beds of lilies and carnations. Fruit trees stood in the garden too, apple, pear, pomegranate, their fruit hanging as yellow and red and heavy as the flowers. And in the trees, golden cages held linnets and blackbirds and nightingales. I felt bad for the birdswould not sweetly singing birds have winged to those trees without being caged there? Still, it was a royal garden, a jewel among gardens, heady with roses, a fitting haven for the Queen. Few folk were allowed there, but Nyneve was a favored courtier, and so was I. King Arthur cosseted me, and so, perforce, did the Queen. On the soft turf by the fountain, Nyneve sat gazing into the water even though it stirred constantly and she would see nothing there. After encountering Pellinore, she had made her way to water for comfort, I knew, just as I had made my way to her.

Reading Skill Analyze Historical Context Given what you have learned about the political and social systems of the medieval court, why do you think most people were banned from the queens garden? Why do you think Nyneve and Mordred are allowed to enter the garden?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 7


Have a whack at him, Mordred! Gawain cried. He and Garet had done just as they had said they would. They had overpowered Pellinore, stripped him of his armor, slapped his face to shame him, and tied him to an oak in the Forest Perilous as I, their squire, held the horses. Now they were killing him in painful ways. And Gawain was offering me a turn. Go ahead! He thrust at me the pommel of his bloodied sword. I shook my head. I could not look at him. What, Garet put in, you dont like this game? Gawain complained, Be a man, Mordred! That lout Pellinore was a man, I will give him that. He had not begged, he would not speak except to curse, and he had not yet cried out. Tied to the tree, bleeding, he stood with his head up, glaring like a wild boar. Last chance! Gawain persisted in wanting to share with me his bloody deed, offering me the sword, his gloved hand stained dark and wet. No, I whispered. I said it again somewhat more strongly. No. Your father was not my father. At the tree, Pellinore barked out a harsh laugh. Gawain whirled and struck him hard across the face with the flat of the blade. Coward, Garet accused me. True enough. If I were not such a coward, I would not have come with them at all. How do you ever expect to be a knight? grumbled Gawain, disgusted with me. They turned their backs on me andand they went on with it. I wish to say no more. Standing back, clutching three pairs of reins, I lowered my eyes and would not watchbut heard their blades thudding into flesh. I heard the screams toward the end, Pellinore could not help but scream. When he fell silent, I looked up. That was a mistake. I had not known there was so much blood in a man.

BIG Question
How Can You Become Who You Want To Be? How does Mordreds saying no in such a situation help him become a better person? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes. ASK QUESTIONS Write a question about the novel. Can you find the answer in your notes?

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 510

Respond and Think Critically


1. Mordred does not want Nyneve to leave, but he thinks it might be better if I depended less on her advice. Why does he say this, and what does it tell you about his personality? [Analyze]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Meet the Author on page 186. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What sorts of obstacles must Mordred overcome to fulfill his quest? Why is the last sight he sees in the Forest Perilous the most frightening to him? [Evaluate]

3. Arthur tells Mordred, theres small freedom in being King. Most often a King does not what he wishes, but what he must. What do you think Arthur is trying to say to Mordred? Why does Mordred misunderstand Arthurs intent? [Infer]

4. Mordred calls the sea my enemy who had taken me away from . . . my mother, starved me, . . . tried to kill me. Why, then, does he go first to the sea? What does it symbolize for him? [Interpret]

5. How Do You Become Who You Want to Be? When he is with the fisherman and his son, Mordred is glad they do not call him Tad or Mordred or my lord. Why do you think he prefers being called nothing? [Infer]

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AFTE R YOU READ: Chapters 510

Literary Element Symbol 1. What is the significance of the sea to Mordred? In what way is the sea a symbol of his father? [Interpret]

Vocabulary Practice
On a separate sheet of paper, write the vocabulary word that correctly completes eachsentence. boon expediency sumptuous cosset paragon

1. Gus is an athlete and a health. 2. What symbol did Morgan le Fay use to show Mordred the meaning of fate? [Identify]

of good

2. When we left Marians ranch, she told us with tears in her eyes that our visit had been a real . 3. There was no sense of fair play in the committees decisionit had simply handled the matter with . 4. The lobster feast was truly as butter dripped down my chin. 5. Mother birds seem to for a very brief period. , I said their young

Reading Skill Analyze Historical Context 1. Do you think it would have been physically comfortable to live in a castle like the one belonging to Morgan le Fay? Why or why not? Use details from the story to support your answer. [Conclude]

Academic Vocabulary With anger as his fuel, Mordred finds himself able to dominate his foes in battle. Using context clues, try to figure out the meaning of dominate in the previous sentence. Write your guess below. Then check your answer in a dictionary.

2. Do you think by the end of Chapter 10 Mordred has become more or less like a knight of the Round Table? Explain your answer. [Evaluate]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapters 510

Write with Style


Apply Figurative Language
Assignment As you know, a symbol is any object, person, animal, place, or event that means more than what it appears to be. Think about the challenges you have faced in your life. Write a description of one of these challenges, using symbols to reveal what it was, why it was important, and how you met or did not meet it. Get Ideas Skim the first ten chapters of I Am Mordred to find the symbols that have the most impact on Mordreds life. Do you have a place you are both attracted to and repelled by, as Mordred is by the sea? Do you have a special friend or mentor who symbolizes the good things in your life, as Nyneve does for Mordred? If you had a coat of armsa symbol that defined youwhat might it be? Create a chart like the one below to list your personal symbols.

Speaking and Listening


Debate
Assignment You will notice as you read I Am Mordred that only queens and wealthy women had mirrors at this time, and their mirrors did not reflect as accurately as mirrors do today. Most people never saw their own faces and bodies except when reflected in still water. How would not knowing how you look change the way you think of yourself and others? Divide into two teams and conduct a debate on whether contemporary life would be better or worse without mirrors. Prepare For one day, or perhaps a weekend, take care to avoid all mirrors, even when you get dressed in the morning. Keep track of the number of times you would have looked in the mirror on a normal day. Using your mirror-free experience as an example, organize your thoughts into arguments and evidence. Begin by making a chart to include all your important points. Fill out a second column to reflect the arguments your opponents will use to counter you.

Personal Qualities
Talents: acting, guitar, painting

Possible Symbol
musical notes, comedy and tragedy masks, paintbrush or palette scales of justice, clasped hands

Argument
Banning mirrors would make people less concerned with personal appearance.

Counterargument
If mirrors were banned, there would be no rearview mirrors in cars and trucks.

Personal Traits: warm, friendly, loyal, fair quick tempered, tough, thought before action

Give It Structure Dont clutter your description of the challenge with too many symbols. Choose one or two that clearly say something about who you are and the challenge you faced. Look at Language Instead of choosing symbols that are well known (such as a heart as a symbol of romantic love), think in terms of your personal themes to create symbols that have meaning for you. Choose words that reflect that meaning.

Debate Use your chart to help defend your points with specific ideas. Listen carefully to your team members and your opponents. Nothing sinks a debate more quickly than lashing out and insulting the opposition. Evaluate Write a paragraph in which you assess both your own and your teams performance.

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BEFOR E YOU READ: Chapter 11Epilogue

Connect to the Literature


Have you ever heard a rumor that caused people to laugh at or avoid another person?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, using information in Build Background.

Make a Web
With your classmates, explore the emotions that center on gossip. Why would a person spread a rumor? What sorts of reactions are common to malicious rumors? How can someone stop a rumor from circulating? Arrange your ideas in a web on the board.

Build Background
Malorys Arthurian Legend
Over the years there have been many literary interpretations of the legendary King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. One of the most popular of these, written by Sir Thomas Malory (14051471), was Le Morte dArthur (The Death of Arthur). In Malorys interpretation, when Arthur made Guinevere his queen, Guineveres father gave them the Round Table as a wedding gift. Arthur decided this table would be the place where his knights would convene; he reasoned that if no one sat at the head of the table, there would be fewer quarrels over hierarchy. At the end of Malorys version, Arthur, a beloved but troubled monarch, left Britain to take part in a distant battle, leaving Mordred in charge of Camelot. But the evil, scheming Mordred had dark plans of his own, and Arthur was soon obliged to come back to reclaim his court. This led to Arthurs final battle on Salisbury Plain, during which he killed Mordred but was also seriously wounded himself. Malorys version of Arthurs fate is not conclusive; it ends with Arthur on a boat bound for Avalon.

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BEFORE YOU READ: Chapter 11Epilogue

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question How Can You Become Who You Want to Be? Some people believe that their lives are, to one extent or another, guided by fate. Others believe they themselves are solely responsible for becoming who they want to be. What do you think? As you read the final section of I Am Mordred, think about the role fate playsand the role Mordred himself playsin shaping the person Mordred becomes. Literary Element Legend A legend is a traditional story, often based on history and an actual person. Like folktales and myths, legends belong to the oral tradition that is, they are passed by word of mouth from one generation to the next. While some legends are about people who actually lived, these people become larger-than-life heroes as the stories are told again and again. Legends sometimes contain magic or elements of the supernatural. Legends can often also express the values of a culture. Despite the magical events of the Arthurian legend, author Nancy Springer has tried to bring verisimilitude to her version of the legend. Verisimilitude is the appearance of being true. Readers get a real sense of what life was like in long-ago England. As you read the final section of I Am Mordred, note the amazing events and larger-than-life people who exist in its world. Try to identify the beliefs and values by which the people in the legend operate. Reading Skill Interpret Plot Events When you interpret plot events, you use your own understanding of the world to decide what the sequence of events or ideas in a selection mean and how those events relate to the works overall theme. Interpreting plot events is important because it forces readers to become more interactive with the work. Ask yourself what the writer is really trying to say through the events of the story. As you read the final section of I Am Mordred, try to interpret each turn of the plot. You may find it helpful to use graphic organizers like the one on the right and on the next page.

Vocabulary
aghast ( ast ) adj. shocked; struck by horror Everyone looked aghast when Aunt Pat took her dentures out and put them on the dinner table. alchemy (al k me) n. a mysterious transformation, such as common metals being turned into gold As if by alchemy, our once ugly kitchen had turned into a real showplace. droll (drol) n. whimsical or odd humor Some people find that stand-up comic droll, but to me his jokes arent funny at all. sardonically (sar don ik le) adv. disdainfully mocking The mysterious visitor stood on the doorstep, sardonically smiling. transfigured (tranz fi yrd) v. transformed outwardly for the better Time has transfigured that spindly-legged colt into a stunning chestnut mare.

Climax
g lin Fal
on Ac ti

ti Ac

sin g

on

Exposition

Ri

Resolution

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ACTIVE READING: Chapter 11Epilogue

As Mordred follows his quest, he finds or is given several possible solutions to the problem of his evil destiny. Use the chart below to interpret the corresponding plot events. Each solution is listed in a

circle. On the arrow line, explain your interpretation of why the solution does not work, and in the box, describe Mordreds reaction to the failure.

a life spent in love with Lynette

a simple life as a woodcutter or hunter

simply doing good, as when he releases the captive hawk

giving his soul to Arthur for safekeeping

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Legend What does the discussion between Nyneve and Mordred tell you about the social status of women during medieval times? How does Nyneve feel about her status? Is this an example of verisimilitude?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 11


Nyneve sat up and scowled at me. You of all men should understand. You have felt yourself to be a chattel of your so-called fate; is not a woman a chattel of her low estate? Morgan le Fay rules her lands as ably as any lord in the realm, but King Arthur will not title her or admit her to his council. But King Arthur was right. The idea of titling a woman was laughable. Why, what would he call her? Lord Morgan? Nyneve did not answer, but merely gazed at me levelly and asked, Have you found that for which you quest? She stopped my laughter in my throat. How did she know of my quest? And what was she trying to tell me? No, I replied, feeling fear coil in the hollow of my chest, I have found nothing. Speaking with my fisherfather had not helped me. Speaking with Morgan le Fay had only made things worse. I felt my fate riding like a serpent on my shoulders, winding tighter around me day by day. And for what did you come here? To speak with me? I understood her then. She was saying that I needed hera womanto be my ally. She angered me, but I saw the falcon on her shoulder and pitied her, so I said nothing of my anger. I came to thank you for saving my life, I told her quietly, and to see if you are all right. That surprised a soft sound out of her, a sigh that might almost have been a sob. After a moment she said with something of her old gentle merriment, Youre welcome. And what will you do about it if I am not all right? I dont know. Dear Mordred. She had never spoken to me so tenderly. There is nothing you can do. But since you are here, you should seek audience with the Lady of the Lake. Perhaps she can help you find what you are seeking. I slept that night in an airy pavilion on Avalon shore, and the next day the maidens fed me flowers by the plateful, amaranth and lilies and columbine and asphodel. It seemed not at all odd to eat flowers. In that one day my

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

wounds healed as if they had never been. Then I slept again in the pavilion with Gull by my side. In the afternoon of the next day, Nyneve came for me. Are you ready? I stood up and buckled on my sword so as to appear before the Lady of the Lake as a knight and a warrior. But Nyneve stood smilingI remembered that selfsame smile from when she had first greeted me, nearly ten years beforeand shaking her head at me. Mordred, she said, youd do better to put that aside, with your shield and helm and mail. Better to put off your boots and spurs too. And go barefoot? Assuredly. Dont you remember? We took away all those toys once before, ladywater and I, in the river below Caer Morgana. I stood with my hand on my sword hilt, my mouth sagging open, gawking at her. She said, What made you in such a hurry to take up arms again? Or ever? You could have been once more a carefree churl, a lad with a little white dog, both of you lying in the sun. You could have gone off and picked wild cherries. You could have built yourself a hut and lived there and been a woodcutter, and Gull could have caught you rabbits to eat. Why didnt you? Such thoughts had never occurred to me. It made my heart ache that they had not, but I firmed my mouth and let my face show her nothing. Im a true noble, as you once said. Yes, and that little X behind your ear, it is a dark, dark bird flying lower every day. Put off your boots and your sword if you wish to speak with my liege lady. I did so, and followed her to the verge of the lake. Very still, the water gleamed a deep, glassy green in the evening light. Lilies floated with their yellow throats open to the sky, their petals stark white against the dark water and the velvet-green lily pads. I saw no castle, no court, no lady. I looked around. Where is she? She is everywhere. To speak with her, you must go to sleep in the lake.

Literary Element Legend What core beliefs does Nyneve try to make Mordred understand before he visits the Lady of the Lake? How is this different from the male-dominated world Mordred inhabits?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Interpret Plot Events By now you have become familiar with the events that have shaped Mordred. What do you think has led him to feel such empathy for the caged hawk? How does this tie in to the larger theme of the story?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 13


There in the middle of the tangled wildwood grew a walled garden, like Queen Guineveres garden in Camelot but not square; the stones and hedges of this wall stood in a great circle. I rode init was so great a garden that one could ride in on horseback. Roses grew as tall as trees there, and fruit trees interlaced like druid vine work into lattices and arches and pavilions, and yew bushes stood in shapes of peacocks, their tails bright with red and blue berries. Fountains of gold rose as tall as castle towers. In every way it was more splendid and fair than any garden I had seen or imagined. And over it all the sweetness of the harp music spread like the perfume of the roses, notes like petals falling. Then, at the very center of the circular garden, I saw a great spiral cage standing. And in it, a hawk, playing with its beak upon the golden and silver wires that enclosed it as if upon the harp of Taliesin himself. I had found the harper. It was so humbling a marvel that I dismounted, and put aside my shield and helm, and left my horse behind. With Gull padding beside me I walked closer, gazing. Intent upon his music, the hawk paid no attention to Gull and me. He was not hooded or leashed or belled, only caged as if he were a linnet, a starlingit had always hurt my heart to see the caged birds in gardens, imprisoned for the sake of their music, and the hawks standing blind and silent in the mews. It seemed somehow not only a hurtful thing but a shameful thing to make a prisoner of such a proud bird as a hawk, even a small hawk, an ordinary pigeon hawk such as this one, with his slate-gray back, his tawny breast streaked with brown. He carried his head erect above his square shoulders. His fierce dark eyes glanced through me as if I were a bug to be killed and eaten, nothing more. As a boy in Lothian I had learned falconry with such a hawk on my arm. With the curved tip of his blue-black beak, and with his curved black claws, he plucked music from the bars of his prison.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

I stood gazing with Gull by my side, and the harp notes flew up wild and free all around meas a boy I had unhooded hawks and watched them fly, free and hungry, and felt joy as keen as a knife in my chest. If the hawks would not come back to the lure I was glad, even though it meant a punishment for me; I flew my hawks badly so that they might fly away. I understood this harper hawk defying his cage with music, with notes that soared, golden, silver winged, singing joy, happiness, freedom. How brave a spirit he must be. I knew what it was to be a prisoner, trapped in despair. All creatures should be free, and fate should snip itself and die. If I had wings I would fly away. As if be could hear me thinking, the hawk paused in his harping and looked at me. He looked at me this time, not through me, his gaze as deep as a well. As never before I saw a falcons nearly human eyes, dark as the dark of the moon between pallid yellow eyelids, under a frown of gray feathers. He opened his beak soundlessly. I saw his thick blue tongue, so different from mine. I took three steps, unlatched the door of the cage, and opened it wide. A whir of pointed wingshe flew at once, as swiftly as only a falcon can fly. In an eye blink he darted above the treetops. With my head tilted back I watched as he circled once, then vanished eastward with a high, wild cry. I lowered my gaze. Well, Gull, I murmured, patting her. . . . I looked around at twining plum trees, at snickering fountains, at tawny roses climbing to the sky, all golden in sunset light. Even without the music of the mystic harper, this was a garden surpassing beauty. Lets stay here tonight, I said to Gull. I sat down on the soft turf patted my faithful brachet and watched her grin and pant in reply. I pressed my nose to her wet nose and stared crosseyed at her. She licked me under the chin and I grinned; I felt happy. Maybe that was the answer to my quest, just to do good and be happy. Maybe there was no need to go on looking for Merlin.

Reading Skill Interpret Plot Events From what you know of the storys plot so far, who do you think the harper hawk might actually be?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 15


King Arthur stood facing me. Mordred, he whispered, the single word, my name. I did not answer. The blind harper took his place and struck his harp, chanting strange words in the druidic tongue. King Arthur lifted his hands to his heart, cupping between them the casket, the small silk-lined coffer of pure gold in which he would receive whatever might fly from my chest. If I had to take my soul out of my body and give it to someone for safe-keeping . . . It had to be someone whom I trusted. He waited. It did not take long. It was far easier than I expected, far easier than it would have been for anyone less worn and alone than I. Without even a need to say good-bye I felt it leave me, I felt it fly, I felt self take wing. Before, there had been the slow constant ache of my struggle with fate. As soul took flight, there was a sharper pang, as if my thin, taut body were a harp string, plucked. Then there was a simple, welcome nothingness, a soundless peace, and near my face I saw the white moth fluttering in the night. King Arthur awaited it with a pale face but steady hands to cherish it for my sake. Though to tell the truth, once I was rid of the troublesome thing I no longer cared whether he cherished it or not. I let my arms fall to my sides. The stillness within me welled deep, so deep I could float on it, as if on the lake of Avalon. All was peaceful and silent and floating, like water lilies. Nothing mattered to me. Nothing. Dancing on the dark air went my soul, no larger than a dandelion puff, hardly as substantial as cloud wisp. With relief as vast as the sea, I watched it go. But then before it reached my liege, I heard a harsh noise I did not at first recognize, and a clacking sound. And it was gone. My white wisp of soul. Gone.

BIG Question
How Can You Become Who You Want to Be? How has Mordred achieved his goal of being acknowledged by King Arthur? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

MY VIEW Comment on what you learned from your own notes.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapter 11Epilogue

Respond and Think Critically


1. On the way back to Tintagel, how does Mordred react to challenges in his way? Why is he no longer afraid of being called a coward? [Analyze] APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Introduction to the Novel on page 184. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. How will Mordreds life improve after he gives up his soul? When Arthur speaks to the soulless Mordred, the king bowed his headed blew out the candle. What might the snuffed candle symbolize? [Infer]

3. To what extent does Merlins prophecy about Arthur and Mordred come true in the end? What does the epilogue suggest about the fate Mordred felt he could not escape? [Interpret]

4. How does Mordreds very name cause trouble for him wherever he goes? Nyneve tells him not to be ashamed of his name, which means noble counselor. Why, then, does he call himself the Knight of the White Brachet when he is with Lynette? [Evaluate]

5. How Do You Become Who You Want to Be? Do you think Mordred escaped the fate that had been prophesied? Explain your answer. [Interpret]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapter 11Epilogue

Literary Element Legend 1. What are some characteristics of a legend that can be found in I Am Mordred ? Use events from the story in your answer. [Analyze]

Vocabulary Practice
Identify whether the words in each pair have the same or opposite meaning. 1. aghast 2. alchemy 3. droll 4. sardonically 5. transfigured thrilled transformation humorless contemptuously worsened

2. What other legends have you read or heard? Compare and contrast them with this version of the legend of King Arthur. [Synthesize]

Academic Vocabulary The philosophy of the Lady in the Lake is that all the worlds problems can be solved through love, not war and killing. In the preceding sentence, philosophy means point of view about life. How would you describe your own personal philosophy?

Reading Skill Interpret Plot Events 1. What overall theme is revealed by the final action Mordred takes in the book? [Infer]

2. Do you think the ending of the book is hopeful? Why or why not? [Respond]

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AFTER YOU READ: Chapter11Epilogue

Writing
Personal Response Nancy Springer wrote of I Am Mordred: I was thinking as I wrote of modern teens, assumed guilty, deprived of constitutional rights the moment they enter a school door, discriminated against in ways that no other American has to tolerate. . . . I was thinking of young people in general when I dedicated the book to oddlings everywhere. Is Springers opinion about teens extreme? Are all teens oddlings? Write a paragraph in which you agree or disagree with Springers position.

Speaking and Listening


Literature Groups
Assignment Springer says that while writing the novel, she found a whole new meaning to the words self-fulfilling prophecy. Find out what that term means, and then discuss with your group how the idea affects peoples lives. Is Mordred a victim of a self-fulfilling prophecy? What causes his failure to resist his fate? With a small group of classmates, discuss these issues in terms of your experiences. Then try to reach a consensus on the questions as they relate to Mordreds life. Prepare Before you meet with your group, skim through the part of Chapter 2 in which Garet tells Mordred the truth about the prophecy. How does the news change Mordred? Then think about a time when you told yourself that a negative outcome would occur. Create a chart like the one below.

Mordreds Event
Mordred finds out about the prophecy. Responses: feels cursed, guilty, afraid, worthless Outcome: fulfills prophecy

My Event
I was afraid I d flunk a math test. Responses:

Outcome:

Discuss When you meet with your group, listen carefully to the views of others. Deliver your own views in a strong clear voice, and use specific examples from your chart. Report If you reach a consensus within your group, select one member to state it orally to the class. If no consensus was reached, select two members with opposing views and have each of them state the reasoning behind their point of view. Evaluate Write a brief paragraph evaluating your report.

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WORK WITH RELATE D READINGS

I Am Mordred
The following questions refer to the Related Readings in Glencoes Literature Library edition of this novel. Support your answers with details from the texts. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, but jot down some notes first on the lines provided.

Boudicca Milton Meltzer Make Connections Compare and contrast Boudica and Arthur as monarchs.

A Call to Armor Robert K. Elder Make Connections When Mordred takes the armor from Sir Dalbert, he asks for his help in mounting his horse. (Sir Dalbert refuses, of course.) Given the pictures here and what you have learned of armor from the book, why can Mordred not mount by himself? What must he do with the armor once Sir Dalbert is dead?

Eldorado Edgar Allan Poe Make Connections Both Mordred and the knight in the poem make a questing journey. Compare and contrast the cause of each characters failure.

from The Legend of Tarik Walter Dean Myers Make Connections The color black is symbolic in both novels. Mordred chooses to wear black as his quest fails, and Tarik is known throughout his world as the black knight. What does the color stand for in each novel?

from Camelot 3000 Mike W. Barr and Brian Bolland Make Connections In the novel and the comic book, King Arthur is noble. Compare Arthurs treatment of his knights, including Mordred, in the novel with his treatment of Tom and Merlin in Camelot 3000.

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CO NNECT TO OTHER LITER AT URE

LITERATURE EXCERPT: The Teacher Who Changed My Life


There, she drilled us on grammar until I finally began to understand the logic and structure of the English language. She assigned stories for us to read and discuss; not tales of heroes, like the Greek myths I knew, but stories of underdogspoor people, even immigrants, who seemed ordinary until a crisis drove them to do something extraordinary. She also introduced us to the literary wealth of Greecegiving me a new perspective on my war-ravaged, impoverished homeland. I began to be proud of my origins. One day, after discussing how writers should write about what they know, she assigned us to compose an essay from our own experience. Fixing me with a stern look, she added, Nick, I want you to write about what happened to your family in Greece. I had been trying to put those painful memories behind me and left the assignment until the last moment. Then, on a warm spring afternoon, I sat in my room with a yellow pad and pencil and stared out the window at the buds on the trees. I wrote that the coming of spring always reminded me of the last time I said goodbye to my mother on a green and gold day in 1948. I kept writing, one line after another, telling how the Communist guerrillas occupied our village, took our home and food, how my mother started planning our escape when she learned that the children were to be sent to re-education camps behind the Iron Curtain and how, at the last moment, she couldnt escape with us because the guerrillas sent her with a group of women to thresh wheat in a distant village. She promised she would try to get away on her own, she told me to be brave and hung a silver cross around my neck, and then she kissed me. I watched the line of women being led down into the ravine and up the other side, until they disappeared around the bendmy mother a tiny brown figure at the end who stopped for an instant to raise her hand in one last farewell. I wrote about our nighttime escape down the mountain, across the minefields, and into the lines of the Nationalist soldiers, who sent us to a refugee camp. It was there that we learned of our mothers execution. I felt very lucky to have come to America, I concluded, but every year, the coming of spring made me feel sad because it reminded me of the last time I saw my mother. I handed in the essay, hoping never to see it again, but Miss Hurd had it published in the school paper. This mortified me at first, until I saw that my classmates reacted with sympathy and tact to my familys story.

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CONNECT TO OTHER LIT ERATURE


WRITE ABOUT IT Sometimes becoming the person you want to be means relying on other people for help. Both I Am Mordred and The Teacher Who Changed My Life reflect this idea in different ways. Compare and contrast the two authors methods in a paragraph.

Compare the novel you have just read with the literature selection at the left, which is excerpted from The Teacher Who Changed My Life by Nicholas Gage in Glencoe Literature. Then answer the questions below.

Compare & Contrast


1. Narrator and Point of View Nick and Mordred, the narrators of The Teacher Who Changed My Life and I Am Mordred, have several traits in common. Name these traits and describe the common themes that unite the two points of view.

2. Symbol What might be a good symbol to represent Nick in The Teacher Who Changed My Life? Compare and contrast it with one of the symbols that represents Mordred.

3. Legend I Am Mordred is a tale that spins off from an ancient legend about King Arthur, the Knights of Round Table, and Camelot. In some ways, The Teacher Who Changed My Life has some of the basic elements of legend. What elements do both stories share?

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RES POND THROUGH WRITING

Expository Essay
Evaluate Theme In I Am Mordred, young Mordred grapples with a question that has fascinated philosophers for centuries: Is a persons life ruled by a predetermined fate or do free will and the ability to choose guide a persons existence? What do you think? In an essay, evaluate how well the author presented Mordreds struggle with this question. Support your idea with examples from the text. Prewrite Plan carefully before you begin to write. It is a good idea to skim the novel and make a list of important events, their causes, and the immediate and eventual effects. Which events simply happen to Mordred? Which ones does he himself bring about? As you skim, you might find it helpful to keep track of your ideas in a chart like the one below.

UNDERSTAND THE TASK Theme is a message about life that that author wants to convey, usually in a statement (Love hurts, not Love). To evaluate is to make a reasoned judgment or form an opinion about a topic. When you evaluate, you provide evidence to support your opinion. In this task you are not just telling how the author presents the theme, but how well she does it.

Events Beyond Mordreds Control


Mordred is put in a boat and left to die at sea.

Grammar Tip Events Caused by Mordred


Mordred goes to Camelot to try to meet his father and change his fate.
Usage Watch out for homonyms, words that are pronounced alike but may have very different meanings. Many writers often confuse and misuse homonyms. For example, all ready is an adjective. It means all prepared. Correct: We had gotten all ready to get on the plane when our flight was canceled. Incorrect: We should all ready have been on the plane. Already is an adverb that means before or previously. Correct: Our flight was already canceled by the time we arrived at the airport. Incorrect: We are already to forget the whole thing.

Once you have completed your chart, use the information as the basis of a thesis for your essay. What overall point do you think the information adds up to? In what order will you present the information to best make that point? Draft Identify the most significant events and ideas in I Am Mordred. Then consider how each of them plays into the works larger theme of fate versus self-determination. Dont worry if you feel there is gray area in the novel. The fact that readers must decide what they think of the events is part of what makes the work complex and interesting. Revise When you have completed your draft, exchange papers with a classmate. Review each others work carefully. Does the writer express viewpoints in a coherent way? Are the statements well supported by the text? Give your classmate detailed oral feedback. Accept the same from your classmate and revise your work accordingly. Edit and Proofread Edit your writing so that it expresses your thoughts effectively and is well organized. Carefully proofread for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

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The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds


H. G. Wells

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INTRODUCTI ON TO THE NOVEL

The Time Machine


H. G. Wells

Indeed, the whole story can be regarded as an extended allegory on the theme of the exploitation of man by man.

J. R. Hammond, An H. G. Wells Companion, 1979

H. G. Wells is known today as the father of modern science fiction. Well-known writers of the time read and admired Wellss works. Joseph Conrad called Wells a realist of the fantastic, hitting upon the two concepts in the currently used term science fiction. George Orwell believed that the minds of all of us, and therefore the physical world, would be perceptibly different if Wells never existed.
A Time of Great Change Wells began developing his ideas for The Time Machine during the late 1880s and early 1890s. These last years of the nineteenth century were a time of great change. New means of travel were being developed. Industrialism was growing rapidly, and with it flourished factories and new kinds of machines that were previously unimaginable.

Wells and the avid readers of his fiction were fascinated by what the future might hold. Where would all these strange new inventions take them? What would society and humanity become? Wellss fascination led him so far as to wonder what it would be like to travel into the future and find out the answers to these questions. In writing The Time Machine, he created a machine that could travel through time as well as space.
A Future Version of the Present The story unfolds in two different times, although the setting is the same in each time period. Some of the story takes place in nineteenth-century England. The bulk of the story, however, takes place in the year a.d. 802,701. Most of the evidence of the earlier time has disappeared, although enough landmarks and dilapidated ruins remain that the Time Traveller is able to recognize his new location as being a future version of the present one.

The Future of the Universe


Scientists do not know what the universe will be like in the remote future, billions of years from now. Two theories dominate their speculations. One theory is that the cosmos will continue to expand until the galaxies and stars die and the universe becomes a cold, dark, barren place. Another view is that the universe will begin to contract. According to this view, temperatures will become hotter and hotter until everything is fused together in a big squeeze.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE NOVEL

The War of the Worlds


H. G. Wells
When we read Wellss The War of the Worlds we are reading, then, not simply a novel but the beginning of a genre.

James Gunn, in the Afterward to an edition of The War of the Worlds

When Wells wrote The War of the Worlds in 1898, he was living in Woking, England. To make the story realistic, he walked around Woking, making notes on people and places to be destroyed in the story. He wrote to a friend, Im doing the dearest little serial for Pearsons new magazine, in which I completely wreck and destroy Wokingkilling my neighbors in painful and eccentric waysthen proceed via Kingston and Richmond to London, which I sack, selecting South Kensington for feats of peculiar atrocity.
The First Tale of Martian Invasion Wellss imagination of the invasion by Martians was highly inventive and

original. At the time he wrote, interplanetary space travel was far in the future. Wells was the first writer to create a tale of invasion by aliens. Thereafter, the survival of the human race against an attack by invaders from outer space became a standard element in science fiction. Wells has been called the father of science fiction because, with his publication of The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, and other scientific romances (as they were known at the time), he established the genre as readers know it today.
An Accurate Portrayal The story takes place at the end of the nineteenth century. Woking is a district in England about twenty-five miles southwest of London. A railroad line connects the two locations. Wellss portrayal of Woking as a quiet residential area surrounded by countryside is accurate. Not far away is the Thames River, a gentle river flowing through the English countryside.

Terrifying a Nation
In 1938 in the United States, Orson Welles broadcast over the radio a play based on H. G. Wellss The War of the Worlds. Many listeners panicked, thinking Earth really was being invaded by Martians. Don Freeman, who attended rehearsals for the radio play, said, It seemed merely a good joke, though it turned out to be the performance in which he scared half the nation out of its skin with the Martian invasion.

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MEET THE AUTHOR

H. G. Wells (18661946)

Personally I have no use at all for life as it is, except as raw material. It bores me to look at things unless there is also the idea of doing something with them. . . . It is always about life being altered that I write, or about people developing schemes for altering life.

[My apprenticeship stiffened] my naturally indolent, rather slovenly, and far too genial nature into a grim rebellion against the worlda spurt of revolt that enabled me to do wonders of self-education. . . . If I had been the son of a prosperous gentleman I should never, I am sure, have done anything at all. Wells escaped the hated life of drapers apprentice when, at the age of eighteen, he was awarded a scholarship to the Normal School of Science in London. There he studied biology under T. H. Huxley, a champion of Charles Darwin and a noted scientist, whose views on evolution greatly influenced Wellss imagination. The social and biological evolution of humanity would form a longrunning theme in Wellss works. He began to imagine the future and to write about it, publishing his first work, A Tale of the Twentieth Century, before he was twenty.
Achieving Utopia Over time, Wellss emphasis in writing shifted to history, philosophy, and politics. Wells was also a supporter of socialism, a system in which all people share labor, profits, goods, and services. Although Wells believed that humanity could achieve utopia through evolution and scientific advances, he grew discouraged in this belief in later life, partly in response to the world wars.

H. G. Wells, Something about the Author, Volume 20

By the time of his death in 1946, Herbert George Wells had become a wealthy and famous author of novels, short stories, essays, and critical works. In his works, he exhibited an uncanny knack for foretelling future scientific developments, including robots and chemical warfare. Wells introduced his readers to the possibilities of the futureboth positive and negative.
Rising Above His Circumstances Born to lower-middle-class parents in 1866, Wells grew up in his struggling familys small china shop near London. He received a less-than-adequate education, and at age fourteen, because of his familys financial woes, he was apprenticed to a curtainmaker. This driving, systematic, incessant work caused him to view with envy other boys who were able to go to school. But lack of schooling did not prevent him from learning:

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BEFORE YOU READ: The Time Machine

Connect to the Literature


What do you think the world will be like a million years from now?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below, using information in Build Background.

Quickwrite
Jot down your thoughts about how the future of a million years from now might be different from the present time. How will society be structured? How will people live their daily lives? How will they relate to one another? What will cause these changes?

Build Background
Utopian Societies
A utopia is a society whose inhabitants exist in perfect conditions. Writers from Plato to H. G. Wells and others have tried to imagine what a utopian society would be like. Some people have even experimented with the creation of utopian societies. In fact, the United States was home to a number of utopian communities during the 19th century, including the Shaker communities of the eastern seaboard and the Harmonists of Pennsylvania and Indiana. Such communities were often formed by religious separatists seeking a simpler and more humane way of life. The Shakers created beautiful handcrafted wood furniture and woven cloth with a distinctive style all its own. However, sustaining this simpler way of life in the face of the progressive push of the modern world proved difficult, and most utopian societies were disbanded after a period of years. As you read about the Time Travellers encounters with the Eloi and the Morlocks, think about what the author is implying about utopian societies.

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BEFORE YOU READ: The Time Machine

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Why Share Stories? Since the beginning of human history, whether around a fire, in a church, or within a close family circle, people have found it necessary to tell their stories. Today, people have many ways to communicate over great distances and small, and yet the need for sharing stories has never disappeared. As you read The Time Machine, consider the reasons behind why the Time Traveller feels it is so important to share his story with his friends and colleagues.

Vocabulary
anachronism [ nak r niz m] n. something that is out of its proper place in history The play was set in the 1950s, so it was a strange anachronism when one character entered talking on a cell phone. deliquesce [del kwes ] v. to melt away As the majority of the party guests began to deliquesce, the conversation got quieter and quieter. plausible [plo z bl] adj. believable Youre going to need a plausible excuse, young man, Mrs. Borchard told her son, pointing at her watch angrily. recondite [rek n dt] adj. beyond the grasp of ordinary understanding The algebra professor was losing patience as he cried, This problem is not recondite, ladies and gentlemen! temerity [t mer te] n. foolishness, recklessness Everything was fine until the moment when young Oliver Twist had the temerity to ask for more porridge.

Literary Element Flashback A flashback is an interruption in a chronological narrative that tells about something that happened before that point in the story or before the story began. A flashback gives readers information that helps to explain the main events of the story. In The Time Machine, a character known only as the Time Traveller shares with a group of friends the news of his strange new invention, a time machine. A week later, the story he tells them takes the form of a flashback retold by one of the dinner guests, as it covers events that happened between the occasions when the men dined together. As you read The Time Machine, notice how the author uses the idea of time both literally and thematically. Reading Strategy Activate Prior Knowledge When you activate prior knowledge about literature, you use information and ideas that you already possess in order to make sense of new information and ideas in your reading. Activating prior knowledge is important because reading is an interactive process between you and a writer. When you use your own knowledge and experience and combine it with words on a page, you create meaning in the selection. To activate prior knowledge as you read, ask yourself What do I know about this topic? What experiences have I had that compare or contrast with what I am reading? What characters from life or literature remind me of the characters or narrator in the selection? You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at the right.

What the Author Tells Me

What I Already Know

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ACTIVE READING: The Time Machine

The Time Traveller notices many differences between the Eloi and the Morlocks. As you read, jot down details about each race. Use your prior

knowledge of other works of literature, film, and television to discuss such creatures as these in terms of their traits and similarities and differences.

Eloi
childlike apelike

Morlocks

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Flashback Why do you think the author chose to tell the Time Travellers story as a flashback as opposed to taking readers along on the journey with him?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 4


There was the sound of a clap of thunder in my ears. I may have been stunned for a moment. A pitiless hail was hissing round me, and I was sitting on soft turf in front of the overset machine. Everything still seemed grey, but presently I remarked that the confusion in my ears was gone. I looked round me. I was on what seemed to be a little lawn in a garden, surrounded by rhododendron bushes, and I noticed that their mauve and purple blossoms were dropping in a shower under the beating of the hail-stones. The rebounding, dancing hail hung in a cloud over the machine, and drove along the ground like smoke. In a moment I was wet to the skin. Fine hospitality, said I, to a man who has travelled innumerable years to see you. Presently I thought what a fool I was to get wet. I stood up and looked round me. A colossal figure, carved apparently in some white stone, loomed indistinctly beyond the rhododendrons through the hazy downpour. But all else of the world was invisible. My sensations would be hard to describe. As the columns of hail grew thinner, I saw the white figure more distinctly. It was very large, for a silver birch-tree touched its shoulder. It was of white marble, in shape something like a winged sphinx, but the wings, instead of being carried vertically at the sides, were spread so that it seemed to hover. The pedestal, it appeared to me, was of bronze, and was thick with verdigris. It chanced that the face was towards me; the sightless eyes seemed to watch me; there was the faint shadow of a smile on the lips. It was greatly weather-worn, and that imparted an unpleasant suggestion of disease. I stood looking at it for a little spacehalf a minute, perhaps, or half an hour. It seemed to advance and to recede as the hail drove before it denser or thinner. At last I tore my eyes from it for a moment, and saw that the hail curtain had worn threadbare, and that the sky was lightening with the promise of the sun.

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I looked up again at the crouching white shape, and the full temerity of my voyage came suddenly upon me. What might appear when the hazy curtain was altogether withdrawn? What might not have happened to men? What if cruelty had grown into a common passion? What if in this interval the race had lost its manliness, and had developed into something inhuman, unsympathetic, and overwhelmingly powerful? I might seem some old-world savage animal, only the more dreadful and disgusting for our common likenessa foul creature to be incontinently slain. Already I saw other vast shapeshuge buildings with intricate parapets and tall columns, with a wooded hillside dimly creeping in upon me through the lessening storm. I was seized with a panic fear. I turned frantically to the Time Machine, and strove hard to readjust it. As I did so the shafts of the sun smote through the thunderstorm. The grey downpour was swept aside and vanished like the trailing garments of a ghost. Above me, in the intense blue of the summer sky, some faint brown shreds of cloud whirled into nothingness. The great buildings about me stood out clear and distinct, shining with the wet of the thunderstorm, and picked out in white by the unmelted hailstones piled along their courses. I felt naked in a strange world. I felt as perhaps a bird may feel in the clear air, knowing the hawk wings above and will swoop. My fear grew to frenzy. I took a breathing space, set my teeth, and again grappled fiercely, wrist and knee, with the machine. It gave under my desperate onset and turned over. It struck my chin violently. One hand on the saddle, the other on the lever, I stood panting heavily in attitude to mount again. But with this recovery of a prompt retreat my courage recovered. I looked more curiously and less fearfully at this world of the remote future. In a circular opening, high up in the wall of the nearer house, I saw a group of figures clad in rich soft robes. They had seen me, and their faces were directed towards me.

Literary Element Flashback How are these plot events affected by the storys flashback structure?

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Activate Prior Knowledge How does this description relate to other things you have read or seen about the possible future changes to the earths environment?

NOVEL EXCERPT: CHAPTER 5


I cannot convey the sense of abominable desolation that hung over the world. The red eastern sky, the northward blackness, the salt Dead Sea, the stony beach crawling with these foul, slow-stirring monsters, the uniform poisonous-looking green of the lichenous plants, the thin air that hurts ones lungs: all contributed to an appalling effect. I moved on a hundred years, and there was the same red suna little larger, a little dullerthe same dying sea, the same chill air, and the same crowd of earthy crustacea creeping in and out among the green weed and the red rocks. And in the westward sky, I saw a curved pale line like a vast new moon. So I travelled, stopping ever and again, in great strides of a thousand years or more, drawn on by the mystery of the earths fate, watching with a strange fascination the sun grow larger and duller in the westward sky, and the life of the old earth ebb away. At last, more than thirty million years hence, the huge red-hot dome of the sun had come to obscure nearly a tenth part of the darkling heavens. Then I stopped once more, for the crawling multitude of crabs had disappeared, and the red beach, save for its livid green liverworts and lichens, seemed lifeless. And now it was flecked with white. A bitter cold assailed me. Rare white flakes ever and again came eddying down. To the north-eastward, the glare of snow lay under the starlight of the sable sky and I could see an undulating crest of hillocks pinkish white. There were fringes of ice along the sea margin, with drifting masses further out; but the main expanse of that salt ocean, all bloody under the eternal sunset, was still unfrozen. I looked about me to see if any traces of animal life remained. A certain indefinable apprehension still kept me in the saddle of the machine. But I saw nothing moving, in earth or sky or sea. The green slime on the rocks alone testified that life was not extinct. A shallow sandbank had

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appeared in the sea and the water had receded from the beach. I fancied I saw some black object flopping about upon this bank, but it became motionless as I looked at it, and I judged that my eye had been deceived, and that the black object was merely a rock. The stars in the sky were intensely bright and seemed to me to twinkle very little. Suddenly I noticed that the circular westward outline of the sun had changed; that a concavity, a bay, had appeared in the curve. I saw this grow larger. For a minute perhaps I stared aghast at this blackness that was creeping over the day, and then I realized that an eclipse was beginning. Either the moon or the planet Mercury was passing across the suns disk. Naturally, at first I took it to be the moon, but there is much to incline me to believe that what I really saw was the transit of an inner planet passing very near to the earth. The darkness grew apace; a cold wind began to blow in freshening gusts from the east, and the showering white flakes in the air increased in number. From the edge of the sea came a ripple and whisper. Beyond these lifeless sounds the world was silent. Silent? It would be hard to convey the stillness of it. All the sounds of man, the bleating of sheep, the cries of birds, the hum of insects, the stir that makes the background of our livesall that was over. As the darkness thickened, the eddying flakes grew more abundant, dancing before my eyes; and the cold of the air more intense. At last, one by one, swiftly, one after the other, the white peaks of the distant hill vanished into blackness. The breeze rose to a moaning wind. I saw the black central shadow of the eclipse sweeping towards me. In another moment the pale stars alone were visible. All else was rayless obscurity. The sky was absolutely black. A horror of this great darkness came on me. The cold, that smote to my marrow, and the pain I felt in breathing, overcame me.

Reading Strategy Activate Prior Knowledge Based on your prior reading, or viewing of films about time travel, what might the author be describing here?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: THE EPILOGUE


I determined to go next day and see the Time Traveller again. I was told he was in the laboratory, and being on easy terms in the house, I went up to him. The laboratory, however, was empty. I stared for a minute at the Time Machine and put out my hand and touched the lever. At that the squat substantial-looking mass swayed like a bough shaken by the wind. Its instability startled me extremely, and I had a queer reminiscence of the childish days when I used to be forbidden to meddle. I came back through the corridor. The Time Traveller met me in the smoking room. He was coming from the house. He had a small camera under one arm and a knapsack under the other. He laughed when he saw me, and gave me an elbow to shake. Im frightfully busy, said he, with that thing in there. But is it not some hoax? I said. Do you really travel through time? Really and truly I do. And he looked frankly into my eyes. He hesitated. His eyes wandered about the room. I only want half an hour, he said. I know why you came, and its awfully good of you. Theres some magazines here. If youll stop to lunch Ill prove you this time travelling up to the hilt, specimen and all. If youll forgive my leaving you now? I consented, hardly comprehending the full import of his words, and he nodded and went on down the corridor. I heard the door of the laboratory slam, seated myself in a chair, and took up a daily paper. What was he going to do before lunchtime? Then suddenly I was reminded by an advertisement that I had promised to meet Richardson, the publisher, at two. I looked at my watch, and saw that I could barely save that engagement. I got up and went down the passage to tell the Time Traveller. As I took hold of the handle of the door I heard an exclamation, oddly truncated at the end, and a click and a thud. A gust of air whirred round me as I opened the door, and from within came the sound of broken glass falling on the floor. The Time Traveller was not there.

BIG Question
Why Share Stories? Why do you think the Time Traveller told the story to his colleagues and friends on the evening before his final disappearance? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

TO THE POINT Write a few key ideas.

Recap

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AFTER YOU READ: The Time Machine

Respond and Think Critically


1. What is the Palace of Green Porcelain and why goes the Time Traveller go there? How does the Time Travellers visit to the palace lead to his getting back his time machine and, in turn, his return to the present? [Evaluate]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Introduction to the Novel on page 228. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. What does the Time Traveller see in the future when he leaves the Eloi and the Morlocks? Why might the author have included this description? [Infer]

3. What evidence does the Time Traveller have of his journey? Why do you think most of the men do not believe the Time Travellers tale? [Analyze]

4. What do you think Wells is saying about utopias? Explain whether you think it would be possible to create a utopia today. Why or why not? [Connect]

5. Why Share Stories? Do you think things might have turned out differently if the Time Travellers friends and colleagues had believed his story without question? [Infer]

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AFTER YOU READ: The Time Machine

Literary Element Flashback 1. How would you describe the timeframe of this novel? [Describe]

Vocabulary Practice
Choose the sentence that uses the vocabulary word correctly. 1. A. My mother asked me to help her deliquesce the butter in the pan. B. When subjected to great heat, water will deliquesce into steam. 2. A. Jim isnt plausible very oftenhe wears colors that dont match. B. Janes story wasnt too plausibleshe said she was at the store, but I could see that shed never left the living room. 3. A. Jonathan had the temerity to stick his hand right into the snarling dogs cage! B. My aunt Susan gets very temerity when shes nervous. 4. A. The principal was completely recondite to the studentsthey simply couldnt grasp it. B. Whenever I feel recondite, I try to study harder. 5. A. Grandpa likes to wear clothes from the 1970s, but hes no mere anachronism. B. My anachronism family has strong ties to our past.

2. What surprise is revealed in the very last sentence of the epilogue? [Analyze]

Reading Strategy Activate Prior Knowledge 1. How did your prior knowledge help you to understand the response of the Time Travellers colleagues to his story? [Connect]

Academic Vocabulary According to the Time Traveller, society ceases to function in a productive way when there is nothing left to strive for, because people become lazy and intellectually stunted. In the previous sentence, function means operate or work. Do you agree with this assessment of societys chances of survival in the face of luxury and leisure time? What clues can you find in your own life to support your answer?

2. What other stories or films have you experienced that feature nonhuman characters like Weena or the other Eloi and Morlocks? [Connect]

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AFTER YOU READ: The Time Machine

Writing
Write a New Ending Write a new ending for the novel that describes the Time Travellers last voyage. Does he travel into the future or the past? What does he see, and what does he do? Why does he never return? Jot down some notes here first.

Research and Report


Literary Criticism
Assignment Evaluate literary criticism about H. G. Wellss work and write a short response in which you explain whether or not you believe the criticism applies to The Time Machine. Prepare Read the following quotation about Wellss work from English Literature 1900 to the Present by Arthur H. Bell, Donald Heiney, and Lenthiel H. Downs: Wellss scientific fantasies demonstrate a thorough foundation in physics and biology; they are the work of a gifted novelist who was forced to labor in his youth as a science teacher and writer of scientific textbooks. Think about the novel you have just finished. Would you say that The Time Machine is a good example of a work that displays a thorough foundation in physics and biology? Determine your position. Craft a thesis statement, and gather details from the novel and your own prior knowledge to support your argument. Report When you present your report, make eye contact with your audience, speak loudly and enunciate clearly, and maintain good posture. If there are questions at the end, answer them in a modulated tone of voice and try to avoid becoming defensive or emotional. Remember that questions are simply the audiences way of clarifying the information they are hearing. Evaluate Write a paragraph evaluating your report and your presentation techniques. Accept oral feedback from your classmates.

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BEFORE YOU READ: The War of the Worlds: Book One

Connect to the Literature


Recall a time when you were in a huge crowd of people. How do you think you would have reacted if something had caused the crowd to panic?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. WRITE THE CAPTION Write a caption for the image below using information in Build Background.

Discuss
Share with the class your ideas about mass panic. What kinds of events can cause mass panic? How does mass panic generate more panic? How might mass panic be avoided?

Build Background
The Mystery of Mars
Several events inspired Wells to write The War of the Worlds. First, Germany was beginning to unify and gather its armed forces, causing many people to predict war. Also, a few years earlier Mars had been positioned especially close to Earth, and an Italian astronomer had reported seeing channels on its surface. Because the word for channels in Italian is canali, people mistakenly translated it as canals in English. Consequently, people feared Mars had life forms capable of constructing canals. Finally, another astronomer reported seeing a mysterious light on Mars in 1894.

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BEFORE YOU READ: The War of the Worlds: Book One

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Why Share Stories? Some stories are shared for entertainments sake. Others contain important information or messages about life. In a novel such as The War of the Worlds, both of these aspects of storytelling come into play. As you read the first section of the novel, ask yourself what overall purpose Wells might have had in writing it.

Vocabulary
common [kom n] n. open public land While crossing the village common, a group of tourists stopped to look at a statue of a local hero. complacency [km pla sn se ] n. smugness, a sense that one is above harm My uncles complacency while his house was burning down made me know something was wrong. conflagration [kon fl ra shn] n. huge, destructive fire We looked across at the destroyed building, which was engulfed by the conflagration. Gorgon [ or n] n. in Greek mythology, any of three sisters with snakes for hair Hedys first piano teacher was so strict that everyone called her the Gorgon. indefatigable [in di fat bl] adj. untiring, determined Myron doesnt care if he wins, but when it comes to finishing the race, he is indefatigable.

Literary Element Description Description is writing that seeks to convey the impression of a setting, a person, an animal, an object, or an event by appealing to the senses. Almost all writing, fiction and nonfiction, contains elements of description. H. G. Wells uses vivid description to bring to life a world altered by a strange invasion. Although many of the events and creatures he describes exist only in imagination, Wells grounds these elements in a reality that draws readers in and allows them to invest in the story. As you read Book One of the novel, notice the quality and the quantity of the concrete details, simple, specific details that tell who, what, when, and where, and sensory details that appeal to the five senses. Use the graphic organizer on the next page to help you. Reading Strategy Interpret Authors Meaning When you interpret an authors meaning, you look for clues in the text and use your own knowledge of the world and of literature to form your understanding of the underlying meanings. Interpreting the authors meaning is important because without your own interpretation you lack a primary tool with which to understand the events of the story and the actions of the characters. To interpret the authors meaning in a literary work, you must read interactively and ask yourself questions about the material. For example: Why did this event take place? What is its larger significance to the story? What do I know about this situation or character already? Why did the author choose to tell it in this way? What is the message I can take away from this? You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one at the right.

Event
The Narrator sends his wife to Leatherhead and returns to Maybury.

Question
Why doesnt he stay with her?

My Interpretation

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ACTIVE READING: The War of the Worlds: Book One

In Book One, the narrator slowly reveals details about the Martians. As you read Book One, make notes in the chart below about the concrete and

sensory details in the descriptions of the Martians spacecraft, their physical appearance, weapons, and actions.

Spacecraft

Physical Appearance
large, dark eyes

Weapons

Martians

Actions

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Decription Identify some of the sensory details on this page.

NOVEL EXCERPT: BOOK ONE, CHAPTER 12


I gave a cry of astonishment. I saw and thought nothing of the other four Martian monsters; my attention was riveted upon the nearer incident. Simultaneously two other shells burst in the air near the body as the hood twisted round in time to receive, but not in time to dodge, the fourth shell. The shell burst clean in the face of the Thing. The hood bulged, flashed, and whirled off in a dozen tattered fragments of red flesh and glittering metal. Hit! shouted I, with something between a scream and a cheer. I heard answering shouts from the people in the water about me. I could have leaped out of the water with that momentary exultation. The decapitated colossus reeled like a drunken giant; but it did not fall over. It recovered its balance by a miracle, and, no longer heeding its steps and with the camera that fired the Heat-Ray now rigidly upheld, it reeled swiftly upon Shepperton. The living intelligence, the Martian within the hood, was slain and splashed to the four winds of heaven, and the Thing was now but a mere intricate device of metal whirling to destruction. It drove along in a straight line, incapable of guidance. It struck the tower of Shepperton Church, smashing it down as the impact of a battering ram might have done, swerved aside, blundered on, and collapsed with tremendous force into the river out of my sight. A violent explosion shook the air, and a spout of water, steam, mud, and shattered metal shot far up into the sky. As the camera of the Heat-Ray hit the water, the latter had immediately flashed into steam. In another moment, a huge wave, like a muddy tidal bore but almost scaldingly hot, came sweeping round the bend upstream. I saw people struggling shorewards, and heard their screaming and shouting faintly above the seething and roar of the Martians collapse. For a moment I heeded nothing of the heat, forgot the patent need of self-preservation. I splashed through the

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tumultuous water, pushing aside a man in black to do so, until I could see round the bend. Half a dozen deserted boats pitched aimlessly upon the confusion of the waves. The fallen Martian came into sight downstream, lying across the river, and for the most part, submerged. Thick clouds of steam were pouring off the wreckage, and through the tumultuously whirling wisps I could see, intermittently and vaguely, the gigantic limbs churning the water and flinging a splash and spray of mud and froth into the air. The tentacles swayed and struck like living arms, and, save for the helpless purposelessness of these movements, it was as if some wounded thing were struggling for its life amid the waves. Enormous quantities of a ruddy-brown fluid were spurting up in noisy jets out of the machine. My attention was diverted from this death flurry by a furious yelling, like that of the thing called a siren in our manufacturing towns. A man, knee-deep near the towing path, shouted inaudibly to me and pointed. Looking back, I saw the other Martians advancing with gigantic strides down the riverbank from the direction of Chertsey. The Shepperton guns spoke this time unavailingly. At that I ducked at once under water, and, holding my breath until movement was an agony, blundered painfully ahead under the surface as long as I could. The water was in tumult about me, and rapidly growing hotter. When for a moment I raised my head to take breath and throw the hair and water from my eyes, the steam was rising in a whirling white fog that at first hid the Martians altogether. The noise was deafening. Then I saw them dimly, colossal figures of grey, magnified by the mist. They had passed by me, and two were stooping over the frothing, tumultuous ruins of their comrade. The third and fourth stood beside him in the water, one perhaps two hundred yards from me, the other towards Laleham. The generators of the Heat-Rays waved high, and the hissing beams smote down this way and that.

Literary Element Description What concrete details are included in the excerpt?

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INTERACTIV E READING: Reading Strategy

Reading Strategy Interpret Authors Meaning What do you think the author is saying about human nature in this description?

NOVEL EXCERPT: BOOK ONE, CHAPTER 7


For my own part, I remember nothing of my flight except the stress of blundering against trees and stumbling through the heather. All about me gathered the invisible terrors of the Martians; that pitiless sword of heat seemed whirling to and fro, flourishing overhead before it descended and smote me out of life. I came into the road between the crossroads and Horsell, and ran along this to the crossroads. At last I could go no further; I was exhausted with the violence of my emotion and of my flight, and I staggered and fell by the wayside. That was near the bridge that crosses the canal by the gasworks. I fell and lay still. I must have remained there some time. I sat up, strangely perplexed. For a moment, perhaps, I could not clearly understand how I came there. My terror had fallen from me like a garment. My hat had gone, and my collar had burst away from its fastener. A few minutes before, there had only been three real things before methe immensity of the night and space and nature, my own feebleness and anguish, and the near approach of death. Now it was as if something turned over, and the point of view altered abruptly. There was no sensible transition from one state of mind to the other. I was immediately the self of every day againa decent, ordinary citizen. The silent common, the impulse of my flight, the starting flames, were as if they had been in a dream. I asked myself had these latter things indeed happened? I could not credit it. I rose and walked unsteadily up the steep incline of the bridge. My mind was blank wonder. My muscles and nerves seemed drained of their strength. I dare say I staggered drunkenly. A head rose over the arch, and the figure of a workman carrying a basket appeared. Beside him ran a little boy. He passed me, wishing me good night. I was minded to speak to him, but did not. I answered his greeting with a meaningless mumble and went on over the bridge. . . .

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Strategy

There were two men and a woman at the gate. Eh? said one of the men, turning. What news from the common? I said. Aint yer just been there? asked the man. People seem fair silly about the common, said the woman over the gate. Whats it all abart? Havent you heard of the men from Mars? said I; the creatures from Mars? Quite enough, said the woman over the gate. Thenks; and all three of them laughed. I felt foolish and angry. I tried and found I could not tell them what I had seen. They laughed again at my broken sentences. Youll hear more yet, I said, and went on to my home. I startled my wife at the doorway, so haggard was I. I went into the dining room, sat down, drank some wine, and so soon as I could collect myself sufficiently I told her the things I had seen. The dinner, which was a cold one, had already been served, and remained neglected on the table while I told my story. There is one thing, I said, to allay the fears I had aroused; they are the most sluggish things I ever saw crawl. They may keep the pit and kill people who come near them, but they cannot get out of it. . . . But the horror of them! Dont, dear! said my wife, knitting her brows and putting her hand on mine. Poor Ogilvy! I said. To think he may be lying dead there! My wife at least did not find my experience incredible. When I saw how deadly white her face was, I ceased abruptly. They may come here, she said again and again. I pressed her to take wine, and tried to reassure her. They can scarcely move, I said.

Reading Strategy Interpret Authors Meaning How does the narrator know this about the Martians?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: BOOK ONE, CHAPTER 14


The Martians, alarmed by the approach of a crowd, had killed a number of people with a quickfiring gun, so the story ran. The telegram concluded with the words: Formidable as they seem to be, the Martians have not moved from the pit into which they have fallen, and, indeed, seem incapable of doing so. Probably this is due to the relative strength of the earths gravitational energy. On that last text their leader-writer expanded very comfortingly. Of course all the students in the crammers biology class, to which my brother went that day, were intensely interested, but there were no signs of any unusual excitement in the streets. . . . In London, also, on Saturday night there was a thunderstorm, and my brother reached Waterloo in a cab. On the platform from which the mid-night train usually starts he learned, after some waiting, that an accident prevented trains from reaching Woking that night. The nature of the accident he could not ascertain; indeed, the railway authorities did not clearly know at that time. There was very little excitement in the station, as the officials, failing to realize that anything further than a break-down between Byfleet and Woking junction had occurred, were running the theatre trains which usually passed through Woking round by Virginia Water or Guilford. They were busy making the necessary arrangements to alter the route of the Southampton and Portsmouth Sunday League excursions. A nocturnal newspaper reporter, mistaking my brother for the traffic manager, to whom he bears a slight resemblance, waylaid and tried to interview him. Few people, excepting the railway officials, connected the breakdown with the Martians. I have read, in another account of these events, that on Sunday morning all London was electrified by the news from Woking. As a matter of fact, there was nothing to justify that very extravagant phrase. Plenty of Londoners did not hear of the Martians until the panic of Monday morning. Those who did took some time to realize all that the hastily worked telegrams in the Sunday papers conveyed. The majority of people in London do not read Sunday papers.

BIG Question
Why Share Stories? What does the author seem to be saying about why the story of the war with the Martians did not travel more quickly across England? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

ASK QUESTIONS Write a question about the novel. Can you find the answer in your notes?

Recap

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AFTER YOU REA D: The War of the Worlds: Book One

Respond and Think Critically


1. From whose point of view does the narrator describe the events in London? Why might the author have chosen to present the plot in this manner? [Analyze]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Meet the Author on page 230. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. How do Londoners reactions to the invasion change over time? What does the narrator describe their ultimate reaction as the beginning of the rout of civilization, of the massacre of mankind? [Evaluate]

3. Once the Martians deploy their fighting machines, how do they carry out their invasion? How does this strategy serve to demoralize rather than destroy mankind? [Infer]

4. Why do you think the general population of England was at first so complacent about the Martians? Explain whether you think people in America might have the same attitude toward a similar event today. [Infer]

5. Why Share Stories? Do you think it is important to share stories of violent or terrifying events that occur in places far from our homes? Why or why not? [Connect]

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AFTER YOU READ: The War of the Worlds: Book One

Literary Element Description 1. What, in your opinion, makes the authors physical description of the Martians war machines so effective? [Evaluate]

Vocabulary Practice
On a separate sheet of paper, write the vocabulary word that correctly completes the sentence. common conflagration indefatigable complacency Gorgon

2. Choose a paragraph from Book One that you feel is a good example of description. Explain your choice. [Evaluate]

1. The ____________ is one of the most terrifying creatures in mythology. 2. I have never run a marathon, but I am ____________ when it comes to playing basketball. 3. Gerald feels that Pams continued ____________ about her salary is keeping her from making enough money to live on. 4. The most relaxing spot on the entire campus is a little park known as the student ____________. 5. The blaze started out as a tiny spark in the basement, but it grew to a vast ____________.

Reading Strategy Interpret Authors Meaning 1. At the beginning of the novel, how do you interpret the authors meaning about the humans lack of preparedness for the Martian attack? [Recall]

Academic Vocabulary The humans research about the possibility of life on Mars has clearly been woefully inadequate; the Martians, on the other hand, seem to have found out all the weaknesses of the humans. Using context clues, try to figure out the meaning of the boldfaced word in the sentence above. Check your guess in a dictionary.

2. Would you say that the novel is a cautionary tale? Why or why not? [Evaluate]

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AFTER YOU REA D: The War of the Worlds: Book One

Write with Style


Apply Description
Assignment Description is largely made up of sensory and concrete details. Sensory details appeal to the five senses. Concrete details are simple, specific physical details. Concrete details can make your writing memorable by creating language and images that are familiar to readers. Write a paragraph in which you describe an incident from Book One of The War of the Worlds, using a series of concrete images. Get Ideas Select the part of the novel you wish to write about. It should be a fairly descriptive passage. Reread the passage and take notes about the events. Then close the book and write a few brief sentences that come to your mind to describe the events. Do not try to remember exact wording from the novel. The idea is to come up with concrete images of your own. The river had become a raging torrent. A row of trees burst into flames. People were engulfed by boiling water. Give It Structure Begin your paragraph with a topic sentence stating your main idea, which is in this case, the event you chose from the novel. Follow with sentences that provide key concrete details. End with a sentence that leaves the reader wondering what will happen next. Look at Language Effective concrete details depend on concise word choices. Use a thesaurus to help you find just the right words for your images. Your goal is to make the reader imagine or reexperience the event you are wish to portray.

Connect to Content Areas


Art
Assignment Chapter 4 of the novel explains in detail the appearance of the Martians. What mental images did these passages create for you? Use art supplies or computer art software to create your own rendition of a Martian, based on details from the novel. Investigate First make a list of the physical features of the Martians, as depicted in the novel. Use a chart like the one below.

Facial Features
round head V-shaped drooling mouth enormous eyes no chin or brows oily, brown skin

Movements
clumsy, heavy painful looking difficulty breathing

Now think about what is not mentioned in the text. Fill in the blanks in your imagination. For example, does the Martian have hair? fingernails or claws? a particular facial expression? Make a list of other features you would like to include in your rendering. Create Using art supplies or computer software, recreate the Martian you have envisioned. Take your time and be sure you incorporate details from both the text and your imagination. Label the various features. Report Present your work to the class. Use a pointer to indicate the drawings various features you have created.

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BEFORE YOU READ: The War of the Worlds: Book Two

Connect to the Literature


Recall an occasion when you had to spend time with a person whom you did not like. How did you handle the situation?

NOVEL NOTEBOOK Keep a special notebook to record entries about the novels that you read this year. SUMMARIZE Summarize in one sentence the most important ideas from Build Background.

Write a Journal Entry


In your journal, describe the situation and explain how you treated the person you didnt like. How did you feel about your actions?

Build Background
The first readers of The War of the Worlds knew little or nothing of robotic technology. In fact, the word robot was not invented until over twenty years after the book was published. In 1920, the Czech writer Karel Capek created the term robot based on the Czech word robota, which means forced labor. Today robots are computer-controlled tools that can perform many functions, such as welding automobiles or assembling machine parts. They typically feature some kind of motor system that allows them mobility, a sensor that allows them to interpret certain environmental factors, a power supply (usually battery or electric power), and a computerized brain that controls their various functions. The purpose of these machines is to replicate human behavior.

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BEFORE YOU READ: The War of the Worlds: Book Two

Set Purposes for Reading


BIG Question Why Share Stories? Sharing stories can make people afraid, give them hope, make them laugh, teach them new things, and make them remember what they already know. As you read Book Two of The War of the Worlds, think about how the narrator and the other characters use storytelling to understand what has happened to them.

Vocabulary
circumspection [sur km spek
shn] n. caution; careful

consideration After much circumspection, the guard opened the door and let us enter. entrails [en tralz] n. inner organs, guts We all felt sickened by the sight of the vulture picking at the dead raccoons entrails. fortnight [fort nt] n. two weeks The cruise will take a fortnight thats thirteen days and fourteen nights on the Pacific Ocean! integument [in te y mnt] n. outer covering, shell The cheaply made tent didnt provide much integument against the wind and rain. putrefactive [pu tr fak tiv] adj. rotting and foul-smelling Apparently a mouse had died inside the walls of the old house, because there was a distinctly putrefactive odor.

Literary Element Suspense Suspense is a feeling of curiosity, uncertainty, or even dread about what is going to happen next. Writers increase the level of suspense in a story by giving readers clues about what might happen. This is called foreshadowing. Usually the suspense builds to a final climax, or turning point, before ending in a resolution. In Book Two of The War of the Worlds, suspense builds as the narrator is trapped inside a house next to a Martian encampment. As you read, ask yourself, how does Wells use foreshadowing to build suspense? Use the graphic organizer on the next page to help you see how clues build suspense. Reading Skill Identify Problems and Solutions When you identify problems and solutions in what you read, you look for the various obstacles the characters face and consider the various ways those obstacles might be overcome. Identifying problems and solutions in what you read is important because it is one of the ways you learn about the characters. By identifying how the characters solve their problems, you can gain key insights about the plot and theme as well. To identify problems and solutions and examine how conflicts and obstacles are overcome, look for text clues including such words and phrases as need, attempt, help, aid, and obstruction. Ask yourself what obstacles stand in the characters way. Then predict what the characters will do to overcome the obstacles. You may find it helpful to use a graphic organizer like the one below.

Problem

Solution

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ACTIVE REA DING: The War of the Worlds: Book Two

In Book Two, the narrator slowly reveals details about the Martians that add to the suspense. As you read Book Two, make notes in the chart below

about the Martians spacecraft, their physical appearance, weapons, and actions.

red weed spreads over countryside

Suspense

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INTERACTIVE READING: Literar y Element

Literary Element Suspense What event does the author foreshadow with the narrators growing conflict with the curate? How does this help to build the storys suspense?

NOVEL EXCERPT: BOOK TWO, CHAPTER 4


It was on the sixth day of our imprisonment that I peeped for the last time, and presently found myself alone. Instead of keeping close to me and trying to oust me from the slit, the curate had gone back into the scullery. I was struck by a sudden thought. I went back quickly and quietly into the scullery. In the darkness I heard the curate drinking. I snatched in the darkness, and my fingers caught a bottle of burgundy. For a few minutes there was a tussle. The bottle struck the floor and broke, and I desisted and rose. We stood panting and threatening each other. In the end I planted myself between him and the food, and told him of my determination to begin a discipline. I divided the food in the pantry into rations to last us ten days. I would not let him eat any more that day. In the afternoon he made a feeble effort to get at the food. I had been dozing, but in an instant I was awake. All day and all night we sat face to face, I weary but resolute, and he weeping and complaining of his immediate hunger. It was, I know, a night and a day, but to me it seemedit seems nowan interminable length of time. And so our widened incompatibility ended at last in open conflict. For two days we struggled in undertones and wrestling contests. There were times when I beat and kicked him madly, times when I cajoled and persuaded him, and once I tried to bribe him with the last bottle of burgundy, for there was a rainwater pump from which I could get water. But neither force nor kindness availed; he was indeed beyond reason. He would neither desist from his attacks on the food nor from his noisy babbling to himself. The rudimentary precautions to keep our imprisonment endurable he would not observe. Slowly I began to realize the complete overthrow of his intelligence, to perceive that my sole companion in this close and sickly darkness was a man insane. From certain vague memories I am inclined to think my own mind wandered at times. I had strange and hideous

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INTERACT IVE READING: Literar y Element

dreams whenever I slept. It sounds paradoxical, but I am inclined to think that the weakness and insanity of the curate warned me, braced me, and kept me a sane man. On the eighth day he began to talk aloud instead of whispering, and nothing I could do would moderate his speech. . . . He talked with his voice rising slowly, through the greater part of the eighth and ninth daysthreats, entreaties, mingled with a torrent of half-sane and always frothy repentance for his vacant sham of Gods service, such as made me pity him. Then he slept awhile, and began again with renewed strength, so loudly that I must needs make him desist. Be still! I implored. He rose to his knees, for he had been sitting in the darkness near the copper. I have been still too long, he said, in a tone that must have reached the pit, and now I must bear witness. Woe unto this unfaithful city! Woe! Woe! Woe! Woe! To the inhabitants of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet Shut up! I said, rising to my feet, and in a terror lest the Martians should hear us. For Gods sake Nay, shouted the curate, at the top of his voice, standing likewise and extending his arms. Speak! The word of the Lord is upon me! In three strides he was at the door leading into the kitchen. I must bear my witness! I go! It has already been too long delayed! I put out my hand and felt the meat chopper hanging on the wall. In a flash I was after him. I was fierce with fear. Before he was halfway across the kitchen I had overtaken him. With one last touch of humanity I turned the blade back and struck him with the butt. He went headlong forward and lay stretched on the ground. I stumbled over him and stood panting. He lay still.

Literary Element Suspense How does the authors use of short, choppy sentences add to the suspense?

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INTERACTIVE READING: Reading Skill

Reading Skill Identify Problems and Solutions What immediate problem does the narrator have in this passage? How does he solve this problem?

NOVEL EXCERPT: BOOK TWO, CHAPTER 5


My first act before I went into the pantry was to fasten the door between the kitchen and the scullery. But the pantry was empty; every scrap of food had gone. Apparently, the Martian had taken it all on the previous day. At that discovery I despaired for the first time. I took no food, or no drink either, on the eleventh or the twelfth day. At first my mouth and throat were parched, and my strength ebbed sensibly. I sat about in the darkness of the scullery, in a state of despondent wretchedness. My mind ran on eating. I thought I had become deaf, for the noises of movement I had been accustomed to hear from the pit had ceased absolutely. I did not feel strong enough to crawl noiselessly to the peephole, or I would have gone there. On the twelfth day my throat was so painful that, taking the chance of alarming the Martians, I attacked the creaking rain-water pump that stood by the sink, and got a couple of glassfuls of blackened and tainted rain water. I was greatly refreshed by this, and emboldened by the fact that no enquiring tentacle followed the noise of my pumping. . . . It was early on the fifteenth day that I heard a curious, familiar sequence of sounds in the kitchen, and, listening, identified it as the snuffing and scratching of a dog. Going into the kitchen, I saw a dogs nose peering in through a break among the ruddy fronds. This greatly surprised me. At the scent of me he barked shortly. . . . I crept forward, saying Good dog! very softly; but he suddenly withdrew his head and disappeared. I listenedI was not deafbut certainly the pit was still. I heard a sound like the flutter of a birds wings and a hoarse croaking, but that was all. For a long while I lay close to the peephole, but not daring to move aside the red plants that obscured it. Once or twice I heard a faint pitter-patter like the feet of the dog going hither and thither on the sand far below me, and there were more birdlike sounds, but that was all. At length, encouraged by the silence, I looked out. Except in the corner, where a multitude of crows hopped and fought over the skeletons of the dead the Martians had consumed, there was not a living thing in the pit.

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INTERACT IVE READING: Reading Skill

I stared about me, scarcely believing my eyes. All the machinery had gone. Save for the big mound of greyishblue powder in one corner, certain bars of aluminum in another, the black birds, and the skeletons of the killed, the place was merely an empty circular pit in the sand. Slowly I thrust myself out through the red weed, and stood upon the mound of rubble. I could see in any direction save behind me, to the north, and neither Martians nor signs of Martians were to be seen. The pit dropped sheerly from my feet, but a little way along the rubbish afforded a practicable slope to the summit of the ruins. My chance of escape had come. I began to tremble. I hesitated for some time, and then, in a gust of desperate resolution, and with a heart that throbbed violently, I scrambled to the top of the mound in which I had been buried so long. I looked about again. To the northward, too, no Martian was visible. When I had last seen this part of Sheen in the daylight it had been a straggling street of comfortable white and red houses, interspersed with abundant shady trees. Now I stood on a mound of smashed brickwork, clay, and gravel, over which spread a multitude of red cactus-shaped plants, knee-high, without a solitary terrestrial growth to dispute their footing. The trees near me were dead and brown, but further a network of red thread scaled the still living stems. The neighboring houses all had been wrecked, but none had been burned; their walls stood, sometimes to the second story, with smashed windows and shattered doors. The red weed grew tumultuously in their roofless rooms. Below me was the great pit, with the crows struggling for its refuse. A number of other birds hopped about among the ruins. Far away I saw a gaunt cat slink crouchingly along a wall, but traces of men there were none. The day seemed, by contrast with my recent confinement, dazzlingly bright, the sky a glowing blue. A gentle breeze kept the red weed that covered every scrap of unoccupied ground gently swaying. And oh! the sweetness of the air!

Reading Skill Identify Problems and Solutions Why do you think the narrator feels so elated at the end of this chapter?

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ON-PAGE N OTE-TAKING: BIG Question

MARK IT UP Are you allowed to write in your novel? If so, then mark up the pages as you read, or reread, to help with your note-taking. Develop a shorthand system, including symbols, that works for you. Here are some ideas: Underline = important idea Bracket = text to quote Asterisk = just what you were looking for Checkmark = might be useful Circle = unfamiliar word or phrase to look up

NOVEL EXCERPT: BOOK TWO, CHAPTER 10


The broadening of mens views that has resulted can scarcely be exaggerated. Before the cylinder fell there was a general persuasion that through all the deep of space no life existed beyond the petty surface of our minute sphere. Now we see further. If the Martins can reach Venus, there is no reason to suppose that the thing is impossible for men, and when the slow cooling of the sun makes this earth uninhabitable, as at last it must do, it may be that the thread of life that has begun here will have streamed out and caught our sister planet within its toils. Dim and wonderful is the vision I have conjured up in my mind of life spreading slowly from this little seed bed of the solar system throughout the inanimate vastness of sidereal space. But that is a remote dream. It may be, on the other hand, that the destruction of the Martians is only a reprieve. To them, and not to us, perhaps, is the future ordained. I must confess the stress and danger of the time have left an abiding sense of doubt and insecurity in my mind. I sit in my study writing by lamplight, and suddenly I see again the healing valley below set with writhing flames, and feel the house behind and about me empty and desolate. . . . I go to London and see the busy multitudes in Fleet Street and the Strand, and it comes across my mind that they are but the ghosts of the past, haunting the streets that I have seen silent and wretched, going to and fro, phantasms in a dead city, the mockery of life in a galvanized body. And strange, too, it is to stand on Primrose Hill, as I did but a day before writing this last chapter, to see the great province of houses, dim and blue through the haze of smoke and mist, vanishing at last into the vague lower sky, to see the people walking to and fro among the flower beds on the hill, to see the sight-seers about the Martian machine that stands there still, to hear the tumult of playing children, and to recall the time when I saw it all bright and clear-cut, hard and silent, under the dawn of that last great day. . . . And strangest of all is it to hold my wifes hand again, and to think that I have counted her, and that she has counted me, among the dead.

BIG Question
Why Share Stories? Once the Martian invasion is over, how would you describe its overall affect on the world? In the end, why do you think the narrator had to share this story? Mark up the excerpt, looking for evidence of how it expresses the Big Question.

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CORNELL NOTE-TAKING: BIG Question

Use the Cornell Note-Taking system to take notes on the excerpt at the left. Record your notes, Reduce them, and then Recap (summarize) them.
Record

Reduce

Try the following approach as you reduce your notes.

MY VIEW Comment on what you learned from your own notes.

Recap

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AFTER YOU REA D: The War of the Worlds: Book Two

Respond and Think Critically


1. What is the state of London when the narrator arrives there? What does he see that resolves the suspense of the novel? [Analyze]

APPLY BACKGROUND Reread Build Background on page 255. How did that information help you understand or appreciate what you read in the novel?

2. Why does the narrator know nothing for three days? When he finally locates his house again, what is ironic about the paper he finds on his desk? [Infer]

3. According to the narrator, the Martian invasion did much to bring humankind together. In your opinion, why do disasters often unify humanity? When have you seen evidence of this in todays society? [Connect]

4. What is your opinion of the narrators actions during Book Two? How do you think you might react in a similar situation? [Evaluate]

5. Why Share Stories? Would you say the novel has a happy ending? Why or why not? [Interpret]

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AFTER YOU READ: The War of the Worlds: Book Two

Literary Element Suspense 1. How did the escalation of the bad feelings between the narrator and the curate add to the suspense of the novel? [Evaluate]

Vocabulary Practice
Identify whether the words in each set have the same or opposite meaning. 1. circumspection 2. entrails 3. fortnight caution outer covering two weeks insides fragrant

2. How do the authors descriptions build suspense as the narrator tries to make his way back to his wife after the invasion? [Analyze]

4. integument 5. putrefactive

Academic Vocabulary The Martians technology completely overwhelmed the humans. In the preceding sentence, technology refers to a combination of skills and machinery or equipment. In what ways would you say your own life is influenced by technology?

Reading Skill Identify Problems

and Solutions

1. What is the artillerymans solution for repopulating the world with humans? Do you think this solution would work? Why or why not? [Interpret]

2. At the end of Chapter 7, how did the narrator and the artilleryman pass their time together? What problem did this interaction solve for them? [Infer]

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AFTER YOU READ: The War of the Worlds Book Two

Writing
Write an Incident Report After reviewing your answer from Connect to the Literature on page 255, imagine that you are a police officer who discovered the curates body in the ruined home. You have already interviewed the narrator and heard his version of events. Now, write a police report in which you cite the problem: a murder has been committed. Then consider the possible solutions to this problem. Given the circumstances, should the narrator be arrested for murder? Should he receive a lesser charge? Should he be allowed to go free? Jot down some notes here first.

Research and Report


Visual/Media Presentation
Assignment Use the Internet to find out more about the planet Mars. Write a report that uses research information and computer graphics to explore your speculation about the possibility of life on Mars. Get Ideas What questions do you have about the environment, atmosphere, and history of Mars? Write a list of questions using a chart like the one below.

Question
Why is it referred to as the red planet? Do scientists agree about the possibility of life on Mars?

Answer

Research There are many government and university Web sites that have information on the physical characteristics, environment, and history of Mars, including scientific speculation about the possibility of life there. Use an Internet search engine and the keywords life on Mars to begin your search. Prepare As you check out Web sites, be on the lookout for strong visuals that you can print out and use in your presentations. Photographs, computer simulations, charts, and graphs of atmospheric information, and other graphics can serve as handy visual aids. Present When you present your report, use standard public-speaking techniques, including effective eye contact, modulated tone of voice, and confident, relaxed body language.

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WORK WITH RELATE D READINGS

The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds


The following questions refer to the Related Readings in Glencoes Literature Library edition of these novels. Support your answers with details from the texts. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, but jot down some notes first on the lines provided.

The Disintegration Machine Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Make Connections Professor Challenger sees the dangers involved with the disintegration machine and takes steps to keep the machine from being used. Imagine that in the near future, someone invents a time machine. What dangers might be associated with such a machine? Explain whether you think a time machine would be ethical.

The Night the Martians Came to New Jersey Michelle Green, Andrea Fine, and Susanne Adelson Make Connections H. G. Wellss Martian invasion occurs in Woking, England, while Kochs broadcast is set in Grovers Mill, New Jersey. Why do you think the authors chose these particular locations, and how do you think their choices affected audiences responses?

Rip Van Winkle Washington Irving Make Connections In both The Time Machine and Rip Van Winkle, characters pass from the present into the future. Contrast the Time Travellers and Rip Van Winkles reactions to the future. In what ways are their reactions different?

In Communication with a UFO Helen Chasin Make Connections Contrast the extraterrestrials in this poem with the extraterrestrials in The War of the Worlds. How are they different?

Bringing Life to Mars Christopher P. McKay Make Connections What might be an ethical consideration of terraforming another planet? In ethical terms, how do the goals of Earths scientists differ from the goals of the Martians in The War of the Worlds?

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CO NNECT TO OTHER LITER AT URE

LITERATURE EXCERPT: The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street


[A fist crashes at Steves face, staggering him back out of the frame of the picture. There are several close camera shots suggesting the coming of violence. A hand fires a rifle. A fist clenches. A hand grabs the hammer from Van Horns body, etc. Meanwhile, we hear the following lines.] Don. Charlie has to be the oneWheres my rifle Woman. Yes Goodmans the one. His car started! Lets wreck it. Mrs. Goodman. What about Steves radioHes the one that called them Mr. Goodman. Mash the radio. Get me a hammer. Get me something. Steve. StopStop Charlie. Wheres that kidLets get him. Man One. Get SteveGet Charlie Theyre working together. [The crowd starts to converge around the mother, who grabs the child and starts to run with him. The crowd starts to follow, at first walking fast, and then running after him. We see a full shot of the street as suddenly charlies lights go off and the lights in another house go on. They stay on for a moment, then from across the street other lights go on and then off again.] Man One. [Shouting.] It isnt the kid . . . its Bob Weavers house. Woman. It isnt Bob Weavers house, its
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Don Martins place. Charlie. I tell you its the kid. Don. Its Charlie. Hes the one. [We move into a series of close-ups of various people as they shout, accuse, scream, interspersing these shots with shots of houses as the lights go on and off, and then slowly in the middle of this nightmarish morass of sight and sound the camera starts to pull away, until once again weve reached the opening shot looking at the Maple Street sign from high above. The camera continues to move away until we dissolve to a shot looking toward the metal side of a space craft, which sits shrouded in darkness. An open door throws out a beam of light from the illuminated interior. Two figures silhouetted against the bright lights appear. We get only a vague feeling of form, but nothing more explicit than that.] Figure One. Understand the procedure now? Just stop a few of their machines and radios and telephones and lawn mowers . . . Throw them into darkness for a few hours, and then you just sit back and watch the pattern. Figure Two. And this pattern is always the same? Figure One. With few variations. They pick the most dangerous enemy they can find . . . and its themselves. And all we need do is sit back . . . and watch.

CONNECT TO OTHER LIT ERATURE

Compare the works you have just read with the literature selection at the left, which is excerpted from The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street by Rod Serling in Glencoe Literature. Then answer the questions below.

Compare & Contrast


1. Flashback Works of literature or film often begin with a sense of stasis, or a feeling of what is normal and balanced. Once stasis has been established, the events of the work can shift and the drama of the storytelling begins. Compare this idea in The Time Machine and in The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street.

WRITE ABOUT IT What advice would you give to the characters in both these works about how to think about and tell the stories of what they have experienced?

2. Description Compare and contrast, the peoples reaction to the supposed invasion on Maple Street with those of the people of England during the actual Martian invasion. What do the authors descriptions reveal about human nature?

3. Suspense How would you compare the use of suspense in The War of the Worlds and The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street?

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RES POND THROUGH WRITING

Short Story
Apply Suspense Think about a situation in your own life in which you felt threatened by outside forces. The situation should provide opportunity to include suspense, but it need not be a life-or-death situationit may in fact be humorous. Use this incident as the jumping-off point for work of fiction, and write a short story of at least 1,500 words. Remember to give readers clues to what might happen to increase the level of suspense. Prewrite You might want to look over old journal entries to stimulate your memory of a suspenseful episode in your life. Remember that you are writing a work of fiction, however, not an autobiographical essay. Give yourself the freedom to exaggerate the events and responses. Draft Building suspense in a work of fiction depends on coming up with the right clues and planting them in the story at the right time. Think about what the readers need to know and at what point they need to know it. As you write, use concrete details (who, what, when, and where) as well as sensory details (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures) to describe actions, events, thoughts, and feelings experienced by the characters. Revise When you have completed your draft, exchange papers with a classmate. Review each others work carefully. Does the writer express his or her own viewpoints in a coherent way? Is there a rising sense of suspense about what might happen? Revise your work according to the feedback you receive. Edit and Proofread Edit your writing so that it expresses your thoughts effectively and is well organized. Carefully proofread for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors.

UNDERSTAND THE TASK A short story is a work of fiction that can usually be read in a single session lasting between several minutes and an hour or two.

Grammar Tip
Sentence Fragments Although it is generally considered a mistake to use sentence fragments, there are certain situations in informal writing and fiction in which they can be effective. In these cases, a phrase or exclamation can produce suspense. Note the underlined fragments in the passages below. I crept slowly down the hall on my hands and knees. Kneeling in front of the massive oak door, I reached up and gently turned the knob. Locked! That was the last we saw of poor Martineau. People often ask me when he will come back to our village. My answer? Never again.

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