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Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Module 2 GEARS
Lecture 8 – SPUR GEAR DESIGN
Contents
8.1 Surface durability –basic concepts
8.2 Surface failures
8.3 Buckingham contact stress equation
8.4 Contact stress –AGMA procedure
8.5 Surface fatigue strength – AGMA procedure
8.6 Gear materials
8.1 SURFACE DURABILITY BASIC CONCEPTS
Earlier various types of gear failures have been discussed in detail. Under contact
conditions, gear teeth are subjected to Hertzian contact stresses and elasto
hydrodynamic lubrication. Excessive loading and lubrication breakdown can cause
combinations of abrasion, pitting and scoring.
Fig. 8.1 Single tooth contact
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Fig. 8.1 shows the contact of a gear and pinion tooth at the tip. The instantaneous
contact point velocities of gear and pinion are vectorially denoted by V
g
and V
p
a. The individual velocity can be resolved into two components normal and tangent
to the tooth surface as V
pn
and V
pt
for the pinion and V
gn
and V
gt
for the gear
respectively.
b. When the teeth do not separate or crush together, the components V
pn
and V
gn
normal to the surface must be the same.
c. Hence tangential velocity components of the surface are different.
d. The sliding velocity is the difference between V
pt
and V
gt
Fig. 8.2 Gear tooth contact position during operation.
If the contact is at the pitch point P in Fig. 8.2, the sliding velocity is zero; the tooth
relative motion is of pure rolling.
a) At all the other contact points, the relative motion is one of pure rolling and
sliding.
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
b) The sliding velocity is directly proportional to the distance between the pitch point
and the point of contact
c) The maximum sliding velocity occurs with contacts at the tooth tips.
d) Gear teeth with longer addenda have higher sliding velocities than gears with
shorter addenda.
The relative sliding velocity reverses the direction as a pair of teeth roll through the pitch
point. During approach, the sliding friction forces tend to compress the teeth and during
recess friction forces tend to elongate the teeth to give smoother action.
8.2 SURFACE FAILURES
a. Gear teeth are also subjected to Hertz contact stresses and the lubrication is often
elastohydrodynamic.
b. Excessive loading and lubrication breakdown results in various combinations of
abrasion, pitting and scoring.
1. Abrasive wear is caused
a) by the presence of foreign particles, in gears that are not enclosed,
b) in enclosed gears that were assembled with abrasive particles present,
c) in gears lubricated by an oil supply with inadequate filtration.
2. Scoring:
a) It occurs at high speeds when adequate lubrication is not provided by the
elastohydrodynamic action.
b) Lack of lubrication causes high sliding friction. High tooth loading and high
sliding velocities that produce a high rate of heat in the localized contact
region causes welding and tearing of surfaces apart.
c) Scoring can often be prevented by directing adequate flow of appropriate
lubricant that maintains hydrodynamic lubrication.
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
d) Surface finish is also an important factor for scoring. Surface finish as fine
as 0.5μm cla is desirable to avoid scoring.
3. Pitting or surface fatigue failure:
Complex stresses within the contact zone cause surface and subsurface fatigue
failures. Pitting occurs only after a large a number of repeated loading mainly in the
vicinity of the pitch line where the oil film breaks down because of zero sliding velocity.
8.3 SPUR GEAR – BUCKINGHAM CONTACT STRESS EQUATION
Buckingham adapted the Hertz contact stress equation for a pair of gear teeth shown in
Fig. 8.3. He treated a pair of gear teeth as two cylinders of radii equal to the radii of
curvature of the mating involutes at the pitch point. From basic involute geometry, these
radii are given as,
R
1
= (d
1
sin Ø) / 2 & R
2
= (d
2
sinØ) / 2 (8.1)
Fig. 8.3 Forces acting at the tooth contact
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
'
0.564
H
F E
bR
o =
(8.2)
Where F = F
t
/ cos Ø (8.3)
2 2
1 2
1 2
1 1 1
E E E
µ µ ÷ ÷
= + (8.4)
(8.5)
1 2 1 2
1 1 1 2 2
sin sin R R R d d  
= + = +
Substituting the value of F
t
, E and R from equation (8.3), (8.4) & (8.5) into (8.2) we get
(8.6)
' 1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
2 2
( )
sin sin
0.564
1 1
cos ( )
t
H
F
d d
b
E E
o
 
µ µ

+
=
÷ ÷
+
It is seen from eqn. (8.6) that,
 Since contact area also increases with load, the contact stress increases only as
the square root of load F
t
 Contact area increases with decrease of modulii of elasticity, E
1
and E
2
.
 Larger gears have greater radii of curvature, hence lower stress.
Equation (8.6) can be rewritten by combining terms relating to the elastic properties of
the material into single factor C
p
given by:
p
2 2
1 2
1 2
1
C 0.564
1 1
E E
µ µ
=
÷ ÷
+
(8.7)
The C
p
values are given in Table 8.1.
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Table 8.1 Elastic Coefficient C
p
for Spur Gears, in MPa
0.5
Gear Material Pinion Material
(µ=0.3 in all cases)
Steel Cast iron Al Bronze Tin Bronze
Steel, E=207 GPa 191 166 162 158
Cast iron, E=131 GPa 166 149 149 145
Al Bronze, E=121 GPa 162 149 145 141
Tin Bronze, E= 110
GPa
158 145 141 137
Combining terms relating to tooth shape into second factor, I, known as the geometry
factor:
(8.8)
sin cos i
I
2 i
 
=
+1
Where the speed ratio i = d
2
/d
1
The simplified contact stress equation is:
'
1
t
H p
F
C
bd I
o =
(8.9)
In this equation F
t
is considered as static since the Hertz equation is derived for static
loads. Rearranging the terms,
2
'
1
H
t
p
F bd I
C
o
 
=


\ .
(8.10)
If we substitute σ
H
’ by the permissible stress [σ
H
] for the material, then what we get is
the tooth surface strength of the pinion F
ts
.
2
1
[ ]
H
t s
p
F bd I
C
o
 
=


\ .
(8.11)
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
F
ts
> F
d
(8.12)
For safe operation of the gear from surface fatigue considerations, F
d
which is the
Buckingham dynamic load on gear tooth should be less than the tooth surface strength
of the gear. This approach gives quick results for preliminary design. This is the
Buckingham design approach for wear strength.
8.4 CONTACT STRESS AGMA
Introducing the factors K
v
, K
o
and K
m
used in the bending fatigue analysis into the
contact stress equation, the dynamic contact stress is obtained as σ
H
:
1
t
H p V
F
C K K
bd I
o =
o m
K
(8.13)
K
v
= Velocity or dynamic factor, indicates the severity of impact on successive pairs of
teeth during engagement. This is a function of pitch line velocity and manufacturing
accuracy. It is given by equation (8.14), (8.15) and (8.16).
6
6
v
V
K
+
=
(8.14)
Equation (8.14) is used for cut or milled teeth or for gears not carefully generated.
0.5
50 (200 )
50
v
V
K
+
=
(8.15)
Equation (8.15) is used for hobbed and shaped gears.
0.5
0.5
78 (200 )
78
v
V
K
( +
=
(
¸ ¸
(8.16)
Equation (8.16) is used for highprecision shaved or ground teeth.
K
o
= Overload factor which reflects the degree of nonuniformity of driving and load
torques. It is given in Table 8.2
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Table 8.2 Overload factor K
o
Driven Machinery
Source of power Uniform Moderate Shock Heavy Shock
Uniform 1.00 1.25 1.75
Light shock 1.25 1.50 2.00
Medium shock 1.50 1.75 2.25
K
m
= Load distribution factor which accounts for non uniform spread of the load across
the face width. It depends on the accuracy of mounting, bearings, shaft deflection and
accuracy of gears. Values are given in Table 8.3.
Table 8.3 Load distribution factor K
m
Face width b ( mm)
Characteristics of Support 0  50 150 225 400 up
Accurate mountings, small bearing
clearances, minimum deflection, precision
gears
1.3 1.4 1.5 1.8
Less rigid mountings, less accurate gears,
contact across the full face
1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2
Accuracy and mounting such that less
than fullface contact exists
Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2 Over 2.2
8.5 SURFACE FATIGUE STRENGTH (AGMA)
Surface fatigue strength of the material is given by,
σ
sf
= σ
sf
’ K
L
K
r
K
T
(8.17)
Where
σ
sf
’ = surface fatigue strength of the material given in Table 8.4
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
K
L
= Life factor given in Fig. 8.4
K
R
= Reliability factor, given in Table 8.5
Table 8.4 Surface fatigue strength σ
sf
(MPa) for metallic spur gears (10
7
cycle life 99% reliability and temperature < 120
0
C)
Material σ
sf
( MPa )
Steel 2.8 ( Bhn ) – 69 MPa
Nodular iron 0.95 [ 2.8 (Bhn ) – 69 MPa ]
Cast iron, grade 20 379
Cast iron, grade 30 482
Cast iron, grade 40 551
Tin Bronze, AGMA 2C (11% Sn) 207
Aluminium Bronze ( ASTM B 148 – 52 )
(Alloy 9C – H. T )
448
Fig. 8.4 Life Factor K
L
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Table 8.5 Reliability factor K
R
Reliability (%) K
R
50 1.25
99 1.00
99.9 0.80
K
T
= temperature factor,
= 1 for T≤ 120
o
C based on lubricant temperature.
< 1 for T > 120
o
C based on AGMA standards.
Allowable surface fatigue stress for design is given by
[ σ
H
] = σ
Sf
/ s (8.18)
Factor of safety s = 1.1 to 1.5
Hence Design equation is:
σ
H
≤ [ σ
H
] (8.19)
8.6 GEAR MATERIALS
Gears are commonly made of cast iron, steel, bronze, phenolic resins, acetal, nylon or
other plastics. The selection of material depends on the type of loading and speed of
operation, wear life, reliability and application. Cast iron is the least expensive. ASTM /
AGMA grade 20 is widely used. Grades 30, 40, 50, 60 are progressively stronger and
more expensive. CI gears have greater surface fatigue strength than bending fatigue
strength. Better damping properties enable them to run quietly than steel.
Machine Design II Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Nodular cast iron gears have higher bending strength together with good surface
durability. These gears are now a days used in automobile cam shafts. A good
combination is often a steel pinion mated against cast iron gear. Steel finds many
applications since it combines both high strength and low cost. Plain carbon and alloy
steel usage is quite common.
Through hardened plain carbon steel with 0.35  0.6% C are used when gears need
hardness more than 250 to 350 Bhn. These gears need grinding to overcome heat
treatment distortion. When compactness, high impact strength and durability are
needed as in automotive and mobile applications, alloy steels are used. These gears
are surface or casehardened by flame hardening, induction hardening, nitriding or case
carburizing processes. Steels such as En 353, En36, En24, 17CrNiMo6 widely used for
gears.
Bronzes are used when corrosion resistance, low friction and wear under high sliding
velocity is needed as in wormgear applications. AGMA recommends Tin bronzes
containing small % of Ni, Pb or Zn. The hardness may range from 70 to 85Bhn.Non
metallic gears made of phenolic resin, acetal, nylon and other plastics are used for light
load lubrication free quiet operation at reasonable cost. Mating gear in many such
applications is made with steel. In order to accommodate high thermal expansion,
plastic gears must have higher backlash and undergo stringent prototype testing.

M. the components Vpn and Vgn normal to the surface must be the same. K. the tooth relative motion is of pure rolling. 8.M. b.2. c. 8.Machine Design II Prof. the sliding velocity is zero.Mayuram Fig. Hence tangential velocity components of the surface are different.Gopinath & Prof. d. When the teeth do not separate or crush together. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . If the contact is at the pitch point P in Fig.2 Gear tooth contact position during operation. 8. the relative motion is one of pure rolling and sliding. The individual velocity can be resolved into two components normal and tangent to the tooth surface as Vpn and Vpt for the pinion and Vgn and Vgt for the gear respectively. The instantaneous contact point velocities of gear and pinion are vectorially denoted by Vg and Vp a. The sliding velocity is the difference between Vpt and Vgt Fig. a) At all the other contact points.1 shows the contact of a gear and pinion tooth at the tip.
M.M. Scoring: a) It occurs at high speeds when adequate lubrication is not provided by the elastohydrodynamic action. During approach. c) Scoring can often be prevented by directing adequate flow of appropriate lubricant that maintains hydrodynamic lubrication. K. b. Abrasive wear is caused a) by the presence of foreign particles. 8. 1.Mayuram b) The sliding velocity is directly proportional to the distance between the pitch point and the point of contact c) The maximum sliding velocity occurs with contacts at the tooth tips.2 SURFACE FAILURES a. High tooth loading and high sliding velocities that produce a high rate of heat in the localized contact region causes welding and tearing of surfaces apart. Gear teeth are also subjected to Hertz contact stresses and the lubrication is often elastohydrodynamic. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The relative sliding velocity reverses the direction as a pair of teeth roll through the pitch point.Gopinath & Prof.Machine Design II Prof. 2. c) in gears lubricated by an oil supply with inadequate filtration. b) in enclosed gears that were assembled with abrasive particles present. Excessive loading and lubrication breakdown results in various combinations of abrasion. b) Lack of lubrication causes high sliding friction. in gears that are not enclosed. the sliding friction forces tend to compress the teeth and during recess friction forces tend to elongate the teeth to give smoother action. d) Gear teeth with longer addenda have higher sliding velocities than gears with shorter addenda. pitting and scoring.
From basic involute geometry.Mayuram d) Surface finish is also an important factor for scoring.5μm cla is desirable to avoid scoring. K. Surface finish as fine as 0. these radii are given as.3 Forces acting at the tooth contact Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Pitting occurs only after a large a number of repeated loading mainly in the vicinity of the pitch line where the oil film breaks down because of zero sliding velocity. 8. He treated a pair of gear teeth as two cylinders of radii equal to the radii of curvature of the mating involutes at the pitch point. 3.Machine Design II Prof.3. 8. 8. M.Gopinath & Prof.3 SPUR GEAR – BUCKINGHAM CONTACT STRESS EQUATION Buckingham adapted the Hertz contact stress equation for a pair of gear teeth shown in Fig.M. R1 = (d1sin Ø) / 2 & R2 = (d2 sinØ) / 2 (8.1) Fig. Pitting or surface fatigue failure: Complex stresses within the contact zone cause surface and subsurface fatigue failures.
the contact stress increases only as the square root of load Ft Contact area increases with decrease of modulii of elasticity. E and R from equation (8. hence lower stress.5) into (8.3).1.Gopinath & Prof. Larger gears have greater radii of curvature.3) (8. Since contact area also increases with load. K.6) It is seen from eqn.M.564 FE bR (8. M.2) we get ' H 2 2 ) d1 sin d 2 sin 0.4) 1 1 1 2 2 R R1 R2 d1 sin d 2 sin (8.564 1 2 1 1 2 E1 E2 2 1 (8. Equation (8.Mayuram ' H 0.6) can be rewritten by combining terms relating to the elastic properties of the material into single factor Cp given by: Cp 0. E1and E2. (8.5) Substituting the value of Ft.Machine Design II Prof. (8.2) Where F = Ft / cos Ø 2 1 1 12 1 2 E E1 E2 (8.564 2 1 12 1 2 b cos ( ) E1 E2 Ft ( (8.4) & (8.7) The Cp values are given in Table 8. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .6) that.
Mayuram Table 8.11) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .3 in all cases) Steel. E= 110 GPa Steel 191 166 162 158 Gear Material Cast iron 166 149 149 145 Al Bronze 162 149 145 141 Tin Bronze 158 145 141 137 Combining terms relating to tooth shape into second factor. then what we get is the tooth surface strength of the pinion Fts. [ ] Ft s b d1 I H C p 2 (8. E=121 GPa Tin Bronze. I.8) Where the speed ratio i = d2 /d1 The simplified contact stress equation is: ' H Cp Ft b d1 I (8.Machine Design II Prof.9) In this equation Ft is considered as static since the Hertz equation is derived for static loads.5 Pinion Material (µ=0. M. E=131 GPa Al Bronze. E=207 GPa Cast iron. in MPa0. Rearranging the terms. K. ' Ft b d1 I H C p 2 (8.1 Elastic Coefficient Cp for Spur Gears.Gopinath & Prof. known as the geometry factor: I sin cos i 2 i 1 (8.M.10) If we substitute σH’ by the permissible stress [σH] for the material.
It is given by equation (8. indicates the severity of impact on successive pairs of teeth during engagement.14) is used for cut or milled teeth or for gears not carefully generated. This approach gives quick results for preliminary design.16) is used for highprecision shaved or ground teeth.5 (8. M.5 50 (8. Kv 6 V 6 (8. This is the Buckingham design approach for wear strength. 78 (200V ) 0. Ko = Overload factor which reflects the degree of nonuniformity of driving and load torques.14).13) Kv = Velocity or dynamic factor. Kv 50 (200V )0. This is a function of pitch line velocity and manufacturing accuracy.2 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .15) is used for hobbed and shaped gears.4 CONTACT STRESS AGMA Introducing the factors Kv.Gopinath & Prof.16). (8.5 Kv 78 0.15) and (8.Machine Design II Prof.16) Equation (8. 8.12) For safe operation of the gear from surface fatigue considerations. Fd which is the Buckingham dynamic load on gear tooth should be less than the tooth surface strength of the gear. the dynamic contact stress is obtained as σH: H Cp Ft KV K o K m b d1 I (8. K.15) Equation (8. Ko and Km used in the bending fatigue analysis into the contact stress equation.M.Mayuram Fts > Fd (8.14) Equation (8. It is given in Table 8.
4 225 1.Gopinath & Prof.8 2.75 2. minimum deflection.7 1.17) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .25 1. bearings.Machine Design II Prof.25 1.M. M. precision gears Less rigid mountings. contact across the full face Accuracy and mounting such that less than fullface contact exists Over 2. less accurate gears.3 Load distribution factor Km Face width b ( mm) Characteristics of Support Accurate mountings.Mayuram Table 8.4 (8.2 Over 2. Values are given in Table 8.50 1.8 8.3. shaft deflection and accuracy of gears.3 150 1.75 1. small bearing clearances.2 0 . σsf = σsf’ KL Kr KT Where σsf’ = surface fatigue strength of the material given in Table 8. It depends on the accuracy of mounting.5 400 up 1.5 SURFACE FATIGUE STRENGTH (AGMA) Surface fatigue strength of the material is given by. Table 8.25 Km = Load distribution factor which accounts for non uniform spread of the load across the face width.2 Over 2. K.00 1.2 Overload factor Ko Driven Machinery Source of power Uniform Moderate Shock Heavy Shock Uniform Light shock Medium shock 1.2 1.2 Over 2.00 2.50 1.6 1.50 1.
M. given in Table 8. grade 30 Cast iron. T ) σsf ( MPa ) 2.4 Surface fatigue strength σsf (MPa) for metallic spur gears (107 cycle life 99% reliability and temperature < 1200 C) Material Steel Nodular iron Cast iron.8 ( Bhn ) – 69 MPa 0.Mayuram KL = Life factor given in Fig.95 [ 2. M.4 Life Factor KL Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 8.8 (Bhn ) – 69 MPa ] 379 482 551 207 448 Fig. grade 20 Cast iron.Gopinath & Prof.Machine Design II Prof.4 KR = Reliability factor.5 Table 8. 8. AGMA 2C (11% Sn) Aluminium Bronze ( ASTM B 148 – 52 ) (Alloy 9C – H. grade 40 Tin Bronze. K.
reliability and application.6 GEAR MATERIALS Gears are commonly made of cast iron.Mayuram Table 8. Cast iron is the least expensive.M. M. < 1 for T > 120oC based on AGMA standards. Better damping properties enable them to run quietly than steel.80 KT = temperature factor. K. bronze. Grades 30.18) 8.Machine Design II Prof. The selection of material depends on the type of loading and speed of operation. CI gears have greater surface fatigue strength than bending fatigue strength. steel.25 1. 40.1 to 1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . phenolic resins.5 Reliability factor KR Reliability (%) 50 99 99.9 KR 1.Gopinath & Prof. acetal. Allowable surface fatigue stress for design is given by [ σH ] = σSf / s Factor of safety s = 1. nylon or other plastics. = 1 for T≤ 120oC based on lubricant temperature. wear life. 60 are progressively stronger and more expensive. ASTM / AGMA grade 20 is widely used. 50.5 Hence Design equation is: σH ≤ [ σH ] (8.19) (8.00 0.
In order to accommodate high thermal expansion. En36. Steel finds many applications since it combines both high strength and low cost.0. Bronzes are used when corrosion resistance.35 .6% C are used when gears need hardness more than 250 to 350 Bhn.Machine Design II Prof. A good combination is often a steel pinion mated against cast iron gear.M. nylon and other plastics are used for light load lubrication free quiet operation at reasonable cost. En24. high impact strength and durability are needed as in automotive and mobile applications. 17CrNiMo6 widely used for gears. low friction and wear under high sliding velocity is needed as in wormgear applications. acetal. Pb or Zn. These gears need grinding to overcome heat treatment distortion. induction hardening. Plain carbon and alloy steel usage is quite common. The hardness may range from 70 to 85Bhn.Gopinath & Prof. When compactness.  Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Non metallic gears made of phenolic resin. These gears are surface or casehardened by flame hardening. These gears are now a days used in automobile cam shafts. Through hardened plain carbon steel with 0. Mating gear in many such applications is made with steel. M. K. plastic gears must have higher backlash and undergo stringent prototype testing. Steels such as En 353. nitriding or case carburizing processes. AGMA recommends Tin bronzes containing small % of Ni. alloy steels are used.Mayuram Nodular cast iron gears have higher bending strength together with good surface durability.
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