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Marchisio, L.D’Onofrio, A.De Falco, L.Frediani, F.Guidoni. Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile – Università di Pisa - Italy Abstract:
The Geophysical Section of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile of the University of Pisa has been active in researches on the application of non-pervasive geophysical surveys on the masonry structures of historical buildings for more then ten years. We used mainly micro-seismic methodologies, both with refraction profiling and tomographic techniques. Recently we started using the shear waves besides the pressure waves that we used until now. The aim was to increase the resolution, as the S-waves have smaller wave-lengths, and to allow an estimation of the Poisson modulus by a dynamic method. Several specific new tools have been designed and set-up for the generation and acquisition of the Swaves, that require a more delicate technology with respect to the P-waves. A series of experiments under different conditions gave very interesting results. Also the technique of geoelectrical tomography has been used for several problems: it proved to be effective in showing areas with anomalous humidity and in individuating voids. The use of micro-geophysical techniques offers many advantages with respects to some “classical” techniques under different angles: velocity of execution, non-pervasiveness and costs.
1. INTRODUCTION The Geophysical Section of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile of the University of Pisa has been active in researches on the application of non-pervasive geophysical surveys on the masonry structures of historical buildings for more then ten years. The idea of adapting some of the classical geophysical survey methodologies as Non-DestructiveTesting on masonry structures is not so strange. These methodologies were actually developed to explore the subsoil by means of several kinds of physical measurements performed at the surface of the Earth: in effect they can be seen as “non destructive tests” of the subsoil. The aim originally was to look for natural resources. These various families of methods form the body of Applied Geophysics. As the information on the presence of geological bodies or structures in the subsoil must be inferred by measurements carried out at the surface, the geophysical methods are indirect: the data need to be processed and interpreted to obtain the needed information on the subsoil. The problem of investigating the hidden structures or particularities of a masonry structure from the surface is in principle quite similar. Of course some physical properties are different, and the scale of the experiment is several orders of magnitude smaller. The first decision is to choose which of the Geophysical methods can be transferred and adapted to work in such a different environment. Next, the technological aspects must be faced up. In general the main problem is connected with miniaturisation of the instrumental arrays. In our experiments we investigate parts of the masonry structures of the order of magnitude of some meters: this is for us an optimum size of the specimen: it is a significant part of the masonry of the building, while going down to smaller scales could lead to measure the properties of the single stone or of the mortars.
high frequency signals suffer high attenuation. or actually the main problem. On the other side. One of the problems. The results of several surveys with different technologies will be presented. as they are actual important Middle Age monuments and they present very particular damages. they connect the seismic velocities with the elastic moduli. We obtained good results working with signals in the high sonic range. for the frequency range used for seismic (and micro-seismic) exploration. When we introduce the S-waves tests. It has been shown that no other elastic waves propagate in an indefinite medium. the most appropriate one resulted the Voigt visco-elastic model. 2. The wave velocities depend very little on the frequency and do not differ much from the ones computed by the elastic model.…) and correspond to the sonic waves. P-waves propagate also in fluids (air. the Cathedrals of Lucca (Tuscany) and Nicosia (Enna. also other kind of waves propagate: the Rayleigh and the Love waves. . THE SONIC OR MICRO-SEISMIC TECHNIQUES FOR NDT 2. Their velocity is definitely smaller than the body waves. Sicily). also in High Resolution Shallow Seismics. referred as Swaves. This fact allows us to use the above quoted relations. also if new technology are incrementing their field of application. In presence of discontinuity surfaces. water. We need to measure with accuracy travel times that are much smaller than usual. two buildings.1 The propagation of elastic waves Two kinds of waves propagate in an elastic (homogeneous and anisotropic) body : the pressure (or longitudinal) waves. When working with P-waves (sonic tests) this means to use much higher frequencies. here referred as P-waves. are the small dimensions of the targets. Ultra-sounds usually are completely attenuated at a small depth in the typical masonry of ancient buildings. So it is equivalent to speak of sonic tests or micro-seismic test. This implies the need of working with much smaller wave-lengths. When a viscous component is introduced. the sonic name cannot be anymore used. when we try to transfer the micro-seismic methods to the exploration of masonry structures. Their velocity is given by: Vp = λ + 2µ E 1 −ν = ⋅ δ δ (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) µ E 1 = ⋅ δ δ 2(1 + ν ) Vs = where: λ and µ are the Lame’s constants δ is the density of the medium E is the Young’s modulus ν is the Poisson’s ratio Various visco-elastic models have been tried to the study of the propagation of seismic waves in actual rocks by comparing the model behaviour with the great amount of experimental data coming both from the passive seismology and the active seismic exploration. as this waves do not propagate in fluids. an attenuation of amplitudes occurs and both attenuation and velocities depend on frequency. and the shear (or transversal) ones. Among the different models. turned out to be very interesting. It is very interesting that in this case. the attenuation is small and growths almost linearly with the frequency.Among the other sites where we performed various tests and surveys. several orders of magnitude smaller than the ones in the subsoil.
The arrival times are plotted versus the distance of the geophones from the shots (these graphs are called dromochrones): their slope allows to obtain the velocity of propagation of the waves.1. The result is the sonic tomographical image or tomography. Shots are made at the extremities of the profile. Iterative reconstruction of the seismic raypaths and of the velocities in the cells are performed by various algorithms. They are: • velocity measurements along surface profiles using the experimental methodology of the Seismic Refraction. The graphic representation of the velocity distribution is performed by graphical software by contouring and colour-scales. is the bigger interval between the arrival of two nearby geophones. In this case a series of receivers is fixed along one profile on one side of a masonry structure. This it the only approach for people working with sonic methods and the normal one in geophysics: most of seismic surveys are carried out with P-waves as they are easier to generate and to record. In this case smaller wave-lengths can be obtained thanks to their lower velocity. can be searched in another way: instead of looking for higher frequency signals. SH-waves are used. The same increment applies to the number of "pixels" or cells of the tomographic inversion. . The same can be done to the interval among the shots. The number of the cells must be smaller than the number of the data. The seismic rays “cover” a plane section across the wall. the S-waves polarised in the horizontal plane. On the other side. transducers.a. By measuring the travel time for each ray. 2001) system that has been developed for UHR. Numerous energisations are made along a parallel profile on the other side. the aim of obtaining a higher resolution. See Fig. • transparency bi-dimensional Tomographies.3 The Different Survey Methods We are using different classic field procedures or "seismic methods" for the NDT of masonry structures. 2. We maintain this terminology. to increase the number of receivers on a certain profile length. plasters or other inhomogeneities. In that case. cables. We call them “velocity profiles” as the aim is not the individuation of higher velocity layers under the surface one (an occurrence rather unusual in masonry structures). it is possible to enter a software package for the reconstruction of the distribution of the sonic (or seismic) velocities in the plane. that is to its resolution.2 P-waves and S-waves Until now P-waves have been used for sonic and micro-seismic tests on masonry. that requires to record signals with smaller and smaller wave-length. A string of receivers (typically 6-12) are placed along a straight profile on a masonry surface. This method is more reliable than the typical two-point sonic measurement as from the dromochrones it is possible to control the results and to individuate the effect of discontinuities.The necessity of working in this range requires to adapt all the instrumental chain: energisation systems. We are using horizontal geophones with a disposition similar to the SWYPHONE (see Sambuelli et al. also if our working "horizontal" surface is often vertical. with the experimental disposition of the “crosshole tomography” in the subsoil. it is possible to use the S-waves. Some special energy source must be used to generate mainly SH-waves with enough energy. S-waves are more and more used also in field seismic prospecting to obtain Ultra-High Resolution (UHR). that is. that is to record the vibrations parallel to the wall surface. due to their lower velocities. A lighter device is under development. The receivers must be "horizontal". The visible effect of the use of S-waves. recording system. This is obtained by dividing the section of the survey in rectangular cells (pixels). The result is that the coverage of a tomographic section can be made with a number of rays four times bigger or more. This fact corresponds to the possibility of using smaller spacings among the receivers. 2. that is.
1.• It is worth to note that this method not only is not defective in presence of internal inhomogeneities. higher than the one used in the field: there is a gap in the market in this range. • receivers (at least 6-12 for profiles or TSS. At present we work with very small items that arrive up to 4-5 kHz. It is a useful tool to individuate the different layers or leafs of a masonry.4 The Instrumental Chain Micro-seismic measurements on masonry need an instrumental chain similar in concept to the geophysical survey equipment. The algorithms are similar. min.b. 1. tapes with 12 items. In this case. but it is a powerful to put them in evidence. When possible we perform two or more TSS for each borehole. for instance. As we try to record signals with a high frequency content. we should actually speak of MDT.a Fig. See Fig.b Fig. for instance. borehole tools to fix a number of mini-geophones on one side of a borehole (with Φ = 50-60 mm) . the transducers for P-waves must work in the high sonic frequencies. Tomographic Sounding (TSS) Ri • • • • • • • • Si Fig. has 24bit Delta-Sigma Technology A/D converters). The most common source is some kind of hammer hitting a steel plate. changing the shot profile: in this way it is possible to perform different independent "experiments" in the same spot. The essential specifications must be a very high dynamic range for the acquisition and analogue-to-digital conversion: modern instruments have A/D converters with more than 20 bits (our instrument. 1. A high frequency band-pass is essential to record the very high sonic frequencies (our seismograph has been specially modified to allow a band-pass of 20 kHz).c. 12-48 for tomographies). TSS measurements are made with receivers in the hole and shots along one profile at the surface. but the pixels are no more 2D (rectangular cells) but 1D (mini-layers). There is also the possibility of using some electromagnetic device with a structured signal. but boreholes are often foreseen also for other necessities. • a suitable energy source (with a triggering device). mono-dimensional Tomographic Seismic Soundings (TSS): when it is not possible to reach one of the surfaces of the structure. but adapted to the NDT job: • a high quality recording seismograph. 2. See Fig1. some prototypes of instrumented bars with several receivers. it is possible to obtain information on the internal velocity distribution by using a borehole in the thickness of the masonry. specially when looking for thin low-velocity layers. The travel times can be processed by a special software (that we called TSS) to obtain a profile of the velocities along the hole. This procedure turned out to be able to obtain a very high resolution. 1 The Source-Receivers layouts corresponding to the above mentioned methods are shown. • various kinds of tools are necessary to position the receivers.1.c Fig. We have built. 24 channels.
etc.• shielded cables. Due to the extension of the damage it was not possible to limit the survey to a sampling of some typical elements: measurements were made practically everywhere possible. The internal part of the wall at both sides of a portal was damaged due to water infiltration. Finally we had: more than 600 velocity profiles measured along almost 100 geophone arrays. Due to the age and some works carried out at the end of the last century. from the foundations (where exposed) to the roof. . they showed also some interesting structural details. 3. Some symptoms of an anomalous situation in the left transept of the Cathedral of Lucca were discovered by chance a few years ago. TWO IMPORTANT TEST SITES As we mentioned before. The mortar that gushed back at the surface showed very low resistance. This technique seemed to promise miracles. for a total of almost one thousand seismic recordings.2 The Cathedral of Nicosia Nicosia. Luckily the rest of the building did not show other problems. these walls have been used as a test site for the new technical improvements or for other methods: P-waves tomographies were repeated with new pieces of equipment. It came out one of the most extensive surveys of this kind. Due to the high loads. dilatation phenomena occurred with the formation of ettringites. a small town in central Sicily. georadar was tested with various antennas' arrays (the humid damaged areas were spotted out by the signal attenuation). while later a highresolution test was performed. but. some damages were evident. Our description of the situation has been confirmed by numerous other tests (endoscopies. Also the bell tower was surveyed. due to the presence of sulphur traces in the materials. The result was a real disaster. churches and palaces. spread from the foundations to the roof. No other technique seemed suitable. the Cathedrals of Lucca (Tuscany) and Nicosia (Enna. Sicily) turned out to be very interesting test-sites for our surveys. Due to the very particular situation. We proposed an extensive survey with micro-seismic methods. the feasibility of S-waves tomographies was first tested here. etc. 3. A series of seismic tomographies were performed also across other parts of the church. the static equilibrium conditions appeared extremely dangerous. cornices and mouldings) of the swollen walls were pushed away. special connectors. internally and externally. The Cathedral was built in XV century in Aragonese Gothic style and changed in Baroque two century later. The left transept was closed and the portal was walled up.) and by the historical investigations. The problem was to try to evaluate the stiffness of the internal part of the structures and the extension of the damage. Also the floors were swollen. The stone elements (pilaster strips. Unhappily 25 years ago an important restoration campaign was performed with a technique of high-pressure injection of cement grouting with steel bars. detached and broken. Some seismic tomographies were the first tests to make clear the critical situation.1 The Cathedral of Lucca The Cathedral of Lucca is an important Romanesque church whose construction dates back to the XII-XIV centuries. The tomographies put in evidence that important parts of the internal masonry structures were strongly degraded. our first geoelectrical tomographies too were carried out on the damaged section of the transept. 10 transparency 2D tomographies through the structures and 15 SST tomographic velocity profiles obtained by means of 6 boreholes. is extraordinarily rich in monuments. 3.
The presence of several injected bars near the tomographic sections are spotted out as high velocity anomalies. inhomogeneities.c: Profile in a zone with surface irregularities velocities can be easily evaluated.a: A P-wave tomography across a wall section of the Cathedral Fig. 2. In such case we are well alerted that the answer is not reliable.b: Profile in a zone with deep cracks Fig. . As mentioned before. In Fig.a: Profile in a regular zone Fig. when possible 2 or 3 TSS were performed in each hole. In 3a a case that gave a "bad" response is shown: it was caused by plaster detachments. cracks. In both cases medium-low average velocities are 800-1000 m/s that correspond to E values of 1015000 daN/cm2. 3 two P-waves tomographies from the Cathedral of Nicosia are shown. 2. but the segments before and after are straight: the discontinuity is due to deep cracks that were caused by the installation of a chain but the above and beneath masonry is stiff. In Fig.3. 3.b: A P-wave tomography across a wall section of the Bell Tower. Fig. 2. In 2a two rather regular profiles (direct and reverse) are shown: the dromochrones are straight and the Fig. 3. In 2b each profile has a "jump". A halo of very low velocities appear around each bar. 2 several examples of velocity profiles from the tests performed in Nicosia are shown.3 The results of several surveys In Fig. 4 two cases of TSS are shown.
Fig. Fig. 5b: A recent experiment obtained by using S-waves is shown. In Fig. 5 two tomographies from the Cathedral of Lucca are shown. Fig. In Fig. 5a is a P-wave tomography measured across the damaged wall of the North transept. The two tomographic soundings are very similar. 4a two TSS made in the same hole are shown. While the general trend is similar. They were measured on the damaged wall at the entrance of the North transept. while the third (interesting the upper part) shows the effect of the presence of one of the injected bars near the hole. . 4. They evidence a more rigid external face and a medium low velocity for the internal structure. They were made in the bell tower. One of the soundings is interested by a bar and shows an evident anomaly. Two TSS are regular. Fig. the image has much more detail. Fig.. Some high velocity spots correspond to rigid stone structures connected to the nearby corners and to the structures of the portal.In Fig. The corresponding moduli of Young are under 2-3000 daN/cm2. It shows clearly several areas with very low velocity. 5a: It is a P-wave tomography.a: Two very similar tomographic soundings in a wall of the bell tower. 4.b: Three TSS in the foundation wall under the transept. It shows clearly several areas with very low velocity. 4b the tomographic soundings in a hole in the foundation wall under the transept are reproduced.
Measurements are made with the technique of the so-called resistivity pseudo-sections by connecting 4 electrodes at a time with one of the typical arrays used in geoelectrics. that is.In Fig. Another technique uses only one profile with many electrodes on one face of the structure. In this case 2 series of electrodes are fixed along 2 profiles on the opposite faces of a masonry structure. The total number of measured travel times was 588 (instead of 144 for the P-waves tests). in bricks or in the junction and not in the stones. another kind of geo-electrical tomography. namely the apparent resistivities. This is sometimes referred as the impedance tomography. The presence of low-resistivity zones put in evidence the damage due to the water infiltration. The input impedance was measured at all the electrodes couples: it was in the order of 5-10 kΩ. This allowed to divide the section in much smaller cells (7x20 cm) for the tomographic inversion. 3. Several kinds of special mini-electrodes can be used. The transparency or cross-hole tomographies use an experimental disposition of the electrodes corresponding to the "cross-hole tomography" in the subsoil. Multi-electrode (24. with thicker mortar joints. The general trend of these anomalies is rather similar to the distribution of the low-velocity areas in the seismic tomographies. 6. is a mixed bricks-stone wall. the image has much more detail. 5b it is presented a recent high resolution experiment obtained by using S-waves. The internal face. While the general trend is similar. As the external stone face of the wall is very compact and the contact resistivities should be too high. A good electrical contact with the masonry is necessary. A conductive gel was injected in the holes to ensure a good contact with the wall material. The apparent resistivity pseudo-sections were quantitatively inverted to obtain two electrical tomographies of the wall. In our tests we used an IRIS SYSCAL SWITCH 48-electrode instrument: whose input impedance is 10 MΩ. we decided to perform an impedance tomography from inside only. when possible. Also in this case. on the same damaged wall where we made the seismic tomographies. The results are shown in Fig. can be directly plotted versus some kind of pseudo-depths to build the so called pseudo-sections. . the distribution of true resistivities versus true depth can be obtained. The measured data. GEOELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHIES Some tests were performed to obtain geoelectrical tomographies across masonry. compatible with the instrument input impedance. in fact. In this case in fact the distances between adjacent shots or geophones were reduced to the half or less. These are purely qualitative images. Different methods can be used. First of all. By means of a complex inversion process. without making too invasive operations. The Pole-Dipole and the Dipole-Dipole electrode arrays were used. the first experiments were carried out on the damaged section of the transept of the Duomo of Lucca. Twenty-four small metal electrodes were used in the same small holes made for the seismic receivers: they had been bored. a good number of measurements are obtained (typically several hundreds). By connecting the electrodes in different combinations. and it looked more suitable for this experiment. the instruments must have a very high input impedance. The main difficulty to perform geo-electrical measurements on walls is due to the very high contact resistivity at the electrodes. 48 or more) automatic switching geo-resistivity-meters are necessary.
7 0. The middle-age stone walls were reinforced.5 m.8 2 2. by several towers and more complex gates. not be disturbed by it.8 850 800 750 700 650 600 NICHE 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 Distance (m) Fig 7: A resistive anomaly is well visible: it correspond to a niche on the other face. 6: Two geo-electrical tomographies across the same section of the seismic tomographies shown in Fig.1 -0.3 s e n k -0.6 -0.2 2. but the localisation and the depth of the cavity is quite good. point by point. The internal conductive zones put in evidence the water infiltration in the damaged areas.5 m). The walls about 6.2 1. 5.9 m thick. .6 0. The depth of the foundations can be estimated to about 2-2. 100 Two geoelectrical tomographies carried on the ground near the same wall helped to estimate the depth of the foundations ( Fig.6 2. the second one.8 1 1.4 2.2 0.8): The first one was obtained with a profile near the wall (0. the "undisturbed" values from the first one.4 0. was made more than 5 m away.4 1.4 c i h T -0. The result is shown in Fig 7. Another test was performed on the external face of the walls of Vicopisano. Please note that the Pole-Dipole array is asymmetrical: so the anomaly due to a niche on the back side of the wall is deformed. the third figure was obtained by subtracting.6 1. in the XV century. a small town near Pisa.5 -0. Two tests were made with the electrodes fixed along a horizontal profile on the external face (impedance tomography).5 m high and about 0.Fig.2 ) m ( s -0. The presence of subsurface anomalies is put in evidence. Resistivity Electric tomography PD (ohm*m) 110 105 100 950 900 -0.
while working on the data acquisition for sonic or P-waves (sensors. instrumental and data processing). An interesting aspect of these methodologies is that they combine the capability of pointing out hidden anomalies (layering or leafs. In particular the application of a tomographical approach allows to obtain images of the cross-sections of the masonry that clearly show the presence of eventual anomalies. defects…) with the possibility of deriving from the velocities the values of the dynamic elastic moduli of the materials. the micro-seismic tomographies. the improved tomographic techniques are a powerful and cost-effective tool for the non-destructive testing on masonry structures. energisation tools. that seemed a hostile environment for geoelectrics. Our research is aimed to increase the resolution: as the micro-seismic tomography is a procedure. This is very interesting also due to the velocity of the measurements and of the data processing: this means short times and low costs. In conclusion. we started to test the possibility of using the S-waves: the first tests showed the feasibility. CONCLUSIONS The use of several high-resolution methods derived from the geophysical survey techniques proved to be very effective in the Non-Destructive Testing of masonry structures. variations of the materials. we worked on the different phases of the data acquisition and processing. cavities. better. not a single "instrument".5 m). Some experiments with geoelectrical tomographic techniques gave very interesting results also when working on stone masonry. For the sonic or. A further test in Lucca's Cathedral allowed us to obtain a resolution four times bigger than the sonic tests. . 4.Fig 8: Geoelectrical tomographies performed on the ground near the wall of Vicopisano allow to evaluate the depth of the foundation (2-2.
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