Building Your ICT House

A guide to help Advocacy Project partners incorporate Information and Communication Technologies into their work to make them more effective advocates for social justice

Acknowledgments
The Advocacy Project would like to thank the following individuals for their contributions to this manual: Teresa Crawford for her guidance and expertise, Heather Ratcliff for the hours spent editing, Gillian Cook and Erin Lapham for their help with the computer networking tutorial, Jean Bartholomew for her help with the Skype tutorial, Dana Burns for her research on the topic of acquiring hardware and software, Jessica Warren for contributing to the photo and video tutorials and Brian Lin for creating the house graphics. This work would not have been possible without their help.

Kristina Rosinsky The Advocacy Project © May 2008

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 license.

The Advocacy Project has worked to ensure the accuracy of information contained in this publication. However, The Advocacy Project cannot be held liable for any action (or lack of action) taken by any individual or organization as a result of the information contained herein.

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Table of Contents
Introduction........................................................................................................................... 3 Part 1: Assess and Plan .......................................................................................................... 9 Standard Operating Procedures .................................................................................................. 10 Technology Assessment ............................................................................................................... 24 Information Dissemination Needs Assessment ....................................................................... 35 Enviroscan...................................................................................................................................... 40 ICT Plan ......................................................................................................................................... 46 Part 2: Finance..................................................................................................................... 52 Part 3: Build ......................................................................................................................... 59 Blogs................................................................................................................................................ 61 Computer Networks ..................................................................................................................... 70 Email Lists...................................................................................................................................... 84 Online Petitions............................................................................................................................. 89 Photos ............................................................................................................................................. 92 Skype ............................................................................................................................................... 97 Social Networking ....................................................................................................................... 100 Video............................................................................................................................................. 118 Websites........................................................................................................................................ 123 Part 4: Troubleshoot ...........................................................................................................137

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Introduces the process of building and maintaining your ICT house 3 .

raise awareness and fundraise. Take pictures of an event and post them online within seconds for the entire world to see. it is not the technology that will be stressed. production and dissemination consisted of writing press releases. All of this is possible due to the Internet. Therefore. Instead of helping you plan out how to build a house to live in. That is one way to spread your message. but rather how you can use the technology to support your organization’s dissemination work. you can • • • • • • Post a press release on your website. the first step is to make sure you have the necessary equipment. giving them to media contacts. With the Internet. However. handing out flyers.The Advocacy Project’s mission is to help its partners produce. the purpose of this manual is to help you – an AP partner – become better equipped to use ICT tools to support your mission and advocacy work. Start a blog (online diary) to encourage readers to discuss the work you do and the issues you are addressing. Is it on a hill and thus has to be built a certain way? Are there people next door who can help you build your house? After all these considerations. you have to think about what you need the house to do. These ICT tools will help you disseminate your information more effectively. Traditionally. Approach incorporating ICT into your work the same way you would approach building a house. And more! For advocates. Thus. Does it need to provide room for five people and give them privacy when they want it? The third step is to assess where you are going to build the house. resulting in them becoming a more efficient and successful advocate for social change. in today’s age. nails. the purpose of using these information and communication technology (ICT) tools is to garner widespread attention and support for their work. before you actually build it. send an email directing all your contacts to read it and have them tell their friends about it too. Do you have wood. information production and dissemination has moved to a new level. this manual helps you plan how to build your ICT house. you then plan out exactly how you are going to build the house. but eventually you will have a house that achieves its stated purpose. Join a social networking website where you can expand your contacts exponentially. 4 . Create a petition online that collects virtual signatures from people from every corner of the world. disseminate and use information in order for them to become more effective social justice advocates. When getting ready to build a real house. a level where information can be read and acted upon by millions of people worldwide with a click of a button. hammers and bricks? Second. You may need to raise money to build the house and you may run into problems and have to seek outside help. hanging posters and going door-to-door asking for signatures for a petition.

it helps you assess the environment in which you are building your ICT house. For instance. etc. The manual is organized as follows: 5 . The last section guides you through dealing with problems you encounter during the construction process. tutorials and troubleshooting advice. start at the beginning of this manual no matter the level of your technological sophistication.• The manual begins by helping you assess and plan for your ICT house. Both organizations with poor technological infrastructure and those with vast ICT experience will find it useful. The second half of the manual helps you actually use the ICT tools that you decide to employ in your work by providing fundraising suggestions. but also about maintaining and improving it over time. Therefore. o First. • • • Since AP works with both small and large NGOs and therefore has partners of varying technological sophistication with differing needs. This manual can therefore build houses of varying sizes. you should step back and ask whether your equipment is properly set up and maintained. Likewise. it helps make sure you have the necessary equipment (tools) for an ICT house. if you are a small organization with only one computer and little access to the Internet. depending on what you want it to do for you. you will have a strong ICT house capable of dramatically improving your advocacy. The second part of the manual helps you find money and other support to make building your house possible. use blogs. Do you want to communicate better with a worldwide audience via a website? Do you want to engage a new demographic with a social networking profile? o Third. Is there government censorship that you have to contend with? Are there people nearby that can help you with construction and maintenance? o Then. At the end. planning out each step. shapes and complexity as well as improve ICT houses that already exist. it guides you in creating a plan on constructing your ICT house. this manual is comprehensive. you should focus on strengthening your technological foundation so that you can begin thinking about building the website or email list rooms of your ICT house. The third part presents tutorials about how to build different rooms of your ICT house. The assessments you complete at the beginning can help you pinpoint problems with your technology as well as brainstorm ways to use ICT tools to support your work. while also scaling up your ICT use to a more sophisticated level. For instance. This is because the manual is not just about building your ICT house. how to build a website. if you are a large organization that already has an ICT house. Do you have enough computers? Do your computers run well? Do you have access to the Internet? o It then helps you brainstorm what you want your ICT house to do for you.

etc. Your organization’s technology includes anything to do with computers. The SOPs contain the following sections: • • • • • • • • • • • • Assess and Plan Develop an Eco-network Choose Appropriate Hardware Maintain Hardware Choose Appropriate Software Back up Your Files Use Email Effectively Save Time (and Money) at Internet Cafés Work Effectively on a Slow or Poor Internet Connection Train Staff Create a Tech Binder Be Secure Online Technology Assessment – Now that you have learned what Standard Operating Procedures you should be following. Once the Technology Assessment is complete. you will know what ICT tools to use to better disseminate your information and thus know what you want your ICT house to do for you. After completing the Enviroscan. The Technology Assessment helps you identify problems with the technology you use and how they can be resolved. After completing this assessment. you will know what your organization needs to do to strengthen its computers so that you can avoid problems later on when you are using ICT tools. Information Dissemination Needs Assessment – The second assessment is the Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. Internet connections. you will have brainstormed ways to build your ICT capabilities despite problems such as government restrictions. This is an assessment that helps you assess your local environment for barriers to your ICT work and for potential local support for your work. websites. software. for instance. You first have to make sure this infrastructure is strong because you need to build this foundation before you can move on to the more complex areas of ICT (social networking. it is time to find out if you are actually following the most technical of them. how to work on a slow Internet connection. Enviroscan – After the Technology Assessment and Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. 6 . (SOPs for using specific ICT tools will be included later in the Build section. Just like a real house. and other online tools that help you spread your message). as well as how to create a network of local support to help construct and maintain your ICT house. The SOPs also include tips on how to best use technology. fill out the Enviroscan.) You should start by reading the SOPs and then proceed to incorporating them into your work. The assessments that follow will help you do that. your infrastructure needs to be strong before you can begin building upon it or else your house will crumble.Part 1: Assess and Plan Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) –The SOPs include tips on how to improve your computers and other equipment so that they are strong enough to support your ICT house. It strives to address deficiencies in your information dissemination work and help you brainstorm how ICT tools can help fix them.

this section will show you how.After going through these assessments. They start with the basics and give information about what the ICT topic or tool can do for you. These tutorials help you build the rooms of your house. Part 2: Finance After Part 1: Assess and Plan. what ICT tools you want to use and for what purpose. etc. Each thing you list in your ICT Plan helps you better disseminate information whether indirectly through improving your technology or directly by incorporating ICT tools. inadequate software. 7 . Part 4: Troubleshoot The final part of this manual will explain how you can troubleshoot problems you may encounter when building your ICT house. The point of these tutorials is to pass on knowledge to your organization so that you are capable of constructing the ICT house you mapped out in your ICT Plan. ICT Plan – In an ICT Plan. and more. This section will guide you in creating an ICT Plan. Did you find that you are not incorporating the standard operating procedures in your work? Did you find problems with your infrastructure such as not enough RAM. who is going to do it. Essentially this is your blueprint for building or improving your ICT house. or not enough hard drive space? Did you discover any government restrictions that you need to address? Are you communicating with the people you need to effectively? Did you find examples of how you can use ICT tools in your work? Now is the time to make an ICT Plan. It lists places to get free or discounted hardware and software. social networking. You list how you are going to improve your technology. which provides information about how to acquire the resources you need to successfully incorporate ICT in to your advocacy. This includes how to use an eco-network for support and troubleshooting as well as how to self-help. move on to Part 2: Finance. Look to see if you found any problems with your current technology use. you should take a step back and look at what you have discovered. building a website. grant opportunities for ICT related work and advice on writing proposals to fund your ICT house Part 3: Build Once you know what you want to do and have money to do it. There are several tutorials on ICT related topics such as setting up an office network. how much it will cost and how long it will take. how you are going to do it. as well as show you how to do or use each. how you are going to overcome local obstacles. which are in essence standard operating procedures for each topic or tool. you take what you have learned and move forward. Each tutorial contains tips. which outlines what you want to do. starting a blog.

Every organization needs to know this. consulting only the parts that you need in order to build your unique ICT house. Technology Assessment. The first section containing the Standard Operating Procedures. every organization needs to complete the Assess and Plan section. therefore. Enviroscan and ICT Plan are mandatory if you want to adequately assess your current state and design a plan for the future. then you will consult the tutorial explaining how to do that. Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. 8 . whatever you need to do to make your ICT house help your work. you will have created an ICT Plan and be able to do each thing laid out in it. Decide which ICT tools can strengthen your information dissemination and how to use them. You will know how to: • • • • Strengthen your technology to prevent complications. more successful advocate for social justice and human rights once you are using your ICT house to support your mission. you can pick and choose from the three subsequent sections. Ultimately. After this first section. you will know generally how you are going to incorporate ICT in your work. You may completely disregard the other sections if they are irrelevant to your particular house’s plan. your ICT house will be built and will provide support for your work. and Get money and equipment to do all this as well as how to troubleshoot if you run into problems. Your organization can expand your ICT house in the future. At the end.Your ICT House is Complete! After going through this manual. resize the rooms. Work around barriers and take advantage of opportunities in your local environment. If you decided that you need a website section of your ICT house. you will be a stronger. After you have completed an ICT Plan.

Helps you assess where you stand and plan for where you want to be 9 .

The best way to figure out this information is to do an assessment for each computer in your office and for your organization as a whole. see Part 3: Build. Assess and Plan Before you do anything with ICT. strives to address deficiencies in your work promoting information. the Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. Do you know where your organization stands in terms of its technological capabilities? Are your computers able to connect to the Internet? Can they run sophisticated software programs? How much storage space do they have left? Have you installed anti-virus programs? You will need to know this information before you start working with ICT. To do this. you need to figure out where you stand and where you want to be. as well as search for local technological support you can draw on. Figure out what you need to improve upon with regard to information dissemination and how ICT tools can help. There are tips and suggestions on how to make working with technology easier and more effective. The Technology Assessment helps you fix problems with your technology. You need to • • • Assess your technology to make sure that you have a strong foundation capable of supporting ICT tools. It assesses how you can improve the 10 . The second assessment.Standard Operating Procedures Assess and Plan Develop an Eco-network Choose Appropriate Hardware Maintain Hardware Choose Appropriate Software Back Up Your Files Use Email Effectively Save Time (and Money) at Internet Cafés Work Effectively on a Slow or Poor Internet Connection Create a Tech Binder Be Secure Online Train Staff Additional Resources This section outlines general standard operating procedures to use when incorporating ICT in to your work. Scan your environment for local obstacles that you need to consider when incorporating ICT into your work. It should take less than four hours to complete. Information Dissemination Needs Assessment and Enviroscan. complete the Technology Assessment. For tips and advice concerning specific ICT tools.

Buy a computer powerful enough to do what you want. can run on battery power for hours. It takes what you learned from these assessments and puts them into a plan for action to improve your advocacy work. techies. Who provides Internet in the area? Are there restrictive laws? Are there organizations or groups that could help you with your technology needs? Do an Enviroscan of your location to organize this kind of information and see recommendations on how to work around barriers and take advantage of possibilities. which guides you in finding local partners that can provide technological support. The purpose of an eco-network is to have high-level technological support to make sure that your technology can be maintained and used properly. To build your eco-network. so here is some advice to make your work with technology a better experience. you will need to be familiar with your local environment to make good ICT choices. that you can turn to for ICT support. Note that these are minimums. blogs. Lastly. They can also be carried to other locations that may have a power generator. social networking sites and more. Also. It should take less than an hour and a half to complete. etc. After filling out these assessments. See the Enviroscan and Troubleshoot sections for more details on building and using your econetwork. you need to search the Internet for groups in your city. Laptops. if you work outside of the office often and travel to remote areas. Your eco-network is born when you complete the Enviroscan.dissemination of information you produce with the help of ICT tools such as websites. you will be able to complete the ICT Plan. not desktops. Choose Appropriate Hardware Working in difficult places can be made easier with the right hardware. trainers. country. Laptops may be easier to lose than a desktop so be vigilant when traveling with a laptop. frequent electric outages or inadequate computers can be devastating to an organization’s work. free hardware suppliers. Your eco-network consists of local experts such as NGOs. • 11 . a laptop can be particularly useful. Also. • Invest in laptops. Develop an Eco-network An eco-network is a local group of ICT support and troubleshooting experts that you should cultivate. or region that would be good to work with. an eco-network can help you build your capacity to handle problems on your own. AP and AP Peace Fellows can help your organization with this search. as well as with meeting these groups to set up a relationship. on the other hand. Desktops require a constant source of power to run. the private sector. For example. It should take less than four hours to complete. The computers you decide to buy should have at least these specifications for them to run adequately.

click on the blue Apple in the top left corner and select Software Update. consult your Internet service provider for details. but instead. go to Control Panel. Automatic Updates or see the note below about the Security Center. • Update your operating system. To do this in Windows. or an up to date version of Linux. Inkjets are cheaper than laser printers but they use a lot of ink so costs will accumulate rapidly. CD-ROM drive USB slots Obtain a UPS. This protects you from losing information and protects your computer from damage. A UPS does not allow you to run the computers plugged into it for hours.• • • • • • • • Processor: speed of at least 500 MHz or higher. Ensure that you update your operating system at least once a month. The other benefit of having a UPS is that you can plug a wireless Internet router into the UPS. They are also slower. Operating system: Windows 2000 or later. allows you to save your work and then properly shut the computer down. Storage: 20 GB minimum. Turn Automatic Updates on so that updates will automatically install. Memory: 256 MB RAM or more. Mac OS 8 or later (newer versions are Mac OS X). Buy a printer for your needs. Run virus scans. So a laser printer will be a better choice if you plan on using your printer heavily. It is important to receive updates from your operating system manufacturer since they continually fix problems. To do this on a Mac. Do you print every once in a while? Or do you need to print hundreds of copies of a document all the time? o If you print every once in a while you may want to buy an inkjet printer. and if your Internet service provider has power. To protect your computer from viruses that can damage your system. Modem: Varies. (Source: ICT Hub) • Maintain Hardware It is important to maintain your hardware to keep it running well. Make sure to update your anti-virus software frequently so that it is • 12 . Note that if you want to be able to use desktop computers during power outages. but use less ink and print much faster than an inkjet. you will need a power generator. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a good piece of equipment to have if you already have desktop computers and want to avoid them shutting down suddenly in the event of a power outage. you will continue to be able to access the Internet during a blackout as long as you are using a laptop with battery power and wireless capabilities. you will need to run a virus scan at least once a week. Some new software programs require a 1 GHz (1000 MHz) processor or higher. These scans will search your files for viruses and delete them. o Laser printers are more expensive initially. Consider your printing needs before buying a printer.

System Tools. for instance. Defragment your hard drive. go to Programs. go to Programs. You should do this about once a month on every computer in your office. To run a Disk Cleanup on Windows. you need it to protect your computers from Internet threats or else all your computers are at risk. and click Disk Defragmenter. Some anti-virus software programs are listed below and all require businesses to pay for them. On a Mac. which makes your computer slow. Accessories. There. • • • Norton AntiVirus AVG Avast Antivirus • If you use Windows. the First Aid option and click Repair Disk Permissions. It takes a long time for the defragmenter to complete its work. Running a Disk Cleanup will delete some of these files and compress others to free up space on your hard drive. Protect against spyware. To clean up your computer and make it run faster. Spyware is an unwanted program that is installed on your computer without your knowledge. In addition to these measures meant to protect your computer from security threats. go to the Applications Folder. System Tools. To make sure these features are enabled on a computer running Windows. Over time. If you cannot afford to purchase anti-virus software. You can make sure that your computer is receiving updates and is running up to date anti-virus software by enabling the Security Center. then Disk Utility. you should also clean up your computer to keep your system running well. • • Ad-Aware (discounted version available for nonprofits) Spybot (discounted version available for nonprofits) Spyware Doctor (free version available for organizations) • • • Run a Disk Cleanup. This includes enabling updates for the operating system. It is not necessary to run a disk cleanup on a Mac because they do so automatically. Utilities. at night. Therefore. go to Programs. To get rid of spyware. Your computer is now protected and Windows will automatically alert you when there are updates ready to be installed on your computer if the computer is connected to the Internet. defragmenting your hard drive is a way to fix it. run the Disk Defragmenter every couple of months on every computer in your office. your computer collects a lot of junk. see the Finance section to find out how you can get it for free or at a discounted rate. Accessories.searching for the most recent viruses. you should install anti-spyware software and run a spyware scan at least once a week. and click Security Center. temporary Internet files and old files. as well as more harmful things such as change your computer’s settings. Click on your hard disk. turning on the Firewall. Over time. enable the Security Center. Accessories. take personal data. so it is a good idea to run it when the office is closed. files become fragmented. Its purpose is to track your use of the Internet. and checking the status of your anti-virus software on your computer. 13 • . To run the Disk Defragmenter on Windows. This can be in the form of contents of your recycle bin. automatic updates and your virus software are turned on. make sure that the Firewall. Spyware is also bad because it really slows down a computer. System Tools and click Disk Cleanup. While anti-virus software is expensive.

Microsoft viewers – If you just want to be able to view. Example of operating systems are Windows and Mac OS. Even though one of these may come preinstalled on a new computer. You should note that it takes longer to start up and uses up more memory than Internet Explorer but loads webpages at the same speed. free option. Free Internet browser Internet browsers are software that allow you to search the Internet. there are plenty of free. It can read old Microsoft Word documents and save your files as Word files so that you can send your file to people using Word. a Linux based program. consider the free option below. Internet Explorer is the browser that comes standard on computers running Windows. Ubuntu. Excel and PowerPoint files (not create them). offers free downloads and CDs of the operating system at its website. Free office suite software Word processors are software that allow you to create text documents. Most of the software listed comes in languages other than English. Free operating system Operating systems are the software that provide the necessary interface allowing you to use your computer. For example. quality options that can prevent you from paying hundreds of dollars for programs. Linux operating systems are different from Windows and Mac OS. The operating system includes necessary programs such as a word processor. print and copy Word. • Linux – Linux is an alternate operating system that you can install on your computer instead of or in addition to Microsoft Windows or Mac OS. it has been shown that Linux is user-friendly. For Open Office in languages other than English. visit Open Office’s language page. This is important if you want your non-English speaking staff to be able to use these programs effectively and efficiently. consider the following: • Open Office – This is one of the most popular free office suite programs. a program to create spreadsheets (like Excel) and a program to create presentations (like PowerPoint). and an Internet browser. It includes a word processor (like Microsoft Word). • Mozilla Firefox – This is a popular Internet browser that is very easy to use. but overall. The most popular example of a word processor is Microsoft Word. Instead of purchasing Windows or Mac OS. which is quite expensive to purchase and does not always come standard on new computers. so it may take a bit of time to get used to. things will run more smoothly when everyone is using the same operating system or Word processor.Choose Appropriate Software If your computer did not come preinstalled with all the software that you need or want. there may be instances where you have to acquire a new operating system. If you want free alternatives. Note that it is important to try to standardize the software you use. It has a stronger reputation on security and allows for more customization than Internet Explorer. If you want a different. among other useful programs. consider the following. then download the o Word Viewer o Excel Viewer o PowerPoint Viewer • 14 . spreadsheet tool.

Free instant messengers and telephony software Instant messengers allow you to chat (type messages) in real time over the Internet with anyone else using the same instant messenger software as you. A similar tool is telephony software that allows you to speak to others using the same telephony software. You use your Internet connection, headphones and a microphone to communicate. Most instant messengers and telephony software are free, but here are two good ones. • • Pidgin (formerly GAIM) – Pidgin is an instant messenger that allows you to use various instant messenger accounts at once (including AIM, MSN, Google Talk, ICQ, etc). Skype – Skype allows you to make calls from your computer to anyone else in the world who also has Skype – for free. It also allows you to call landlines and cell phones at a cheap rate. See the Build section for more on how to use Skype.

Back Up Your Files
Backing up the files on your computer is essential. Imagine working on a spreadsheet for a week and having your computer crash and you will understand why saving your files in a place other than your hard drive is important. • • You can back up files on a flash drive (a small device that connects to a USB port on your computer), saving each file as you work on it. You can also save to an external hard drive that is larger and thus can hold more files than a standard flash drive.

It is not recommended to use floppy disks to save your work as they can break easily and have limited storage space. CDs are an option but they take a long time to create. If you have nothing with you to back up your files at the time, you can always email them to yourself and save them later to your computer or back up device.

Use Email Effectively
This section contains tips on how to best manage what you probably spend the most time doing online – sending email. • Use Gmail. Gmail has a ton of features that makes it a very popular email service. There is virtually unlimited storage, a great search feature, the ability to categorize emails, star important emails, chat with other Gmail users, and many other useful features that will make receiving and responding to email a more pleasant and efficient task. You can even forward multiple email addresses to your Gmail account so that all your email is viewed in one place. This will improve communications and streamline dealing with email. Note that if you live in a country with a repressive government, you should use Hushmail, a secure email provider that has privacy at its heart, instead of Gmail or any other online email service. Have an organizational email address domain. This makes your organization more professional and makes it easier to remember your co-worker’s emails. If you have a

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standard, such as firstname.lastname@yourorganization.org, then it will also be easier for people who want to send emails to others working in the organization. To do this, you will need to purchase a domain name if you do not currently have one. If you have a domain name (for instance, www.yourorganization.org) then you should be able to get email addresses that end in that domain name through the domain registrar or your website host. Once you have an email address that ends in your domain, you can have that address forward to a more convenient email host like Gmail. • Include all your contact information so people know how to reach you. A good way to do this is to create a signature file that automatically places your contact information at the bottom of every email you send. How to do this varies depending on the email provider you use. Searching the Settings or My Account section of your email is a good place to look to create a signature. Learn the benefits of the BCC field. When sending an email to multiple people, you can type their email addresses in the To: or CC: field. Doing this allows every recipient of the email to view the email addresses of the other recipients. However, if you are sending out an email to many people who may not want strangers knowing their email addresses (for instance, when sending out a newsletter), you would want to use the BCC field. This stands for blind carbon copy and protects the privacy of your email recipients. Only the addresses in the To: and CC: fields will be visible to a recipient listed in the BCC field. Other BCC recipients will not be visible. This also prevents recipients of your email from having to scroll through a long list of addresses to get to the body of the email. Email Etiquette o Proofread. In many cases, people know you only through email and it is best to project yourself in the best manner possible. o Create a meaningful subject line. o Do not write in all CAPS as your email can very easily be treated as junk mail and the recipient will never see it. Also, it gives the impression that you are yelling. o Respond to emails in a timely fashion. If you cannot respond quickly, at least acknowledge that you received the email and that you will respond as soon as you can.

Save Time (and Money) at Internet Cafés
• Compose emails and documents before you go to the Internet café. If you have a computer but not an Internet connection, you should consider composing emails before you go to the Internet café. If you know that you need to send an email, write it, save it to a flash drive and then when you get to the Internet café, download your document from your flash drive and copy and paste it in an email. Even if you do not have a computer, writing or at least outlining an email you want to write will save you time and money at the Internet café. Go in one large session, not multiple small sessions. If you use the Internet daily, go once a day for a long period instead of two or three short sessions. Each time you use the Internet, you may get distracted by news, videos, photos and interesting sites. You are less likely to waste a lot of time being distracted if you set an hour or two a day to spend in the 16

Internet café. If you go for multiple short sessions, you may find yourself checking news sites and other websites you frequent more often than if you tried to consolidate your time spent in Internet cafés. • Make a To Do List. Before you go to the Internet café, know exactly what you need to do there. Having a clear list will prevent you from getting distracted and wasting time. See the next section for other tips that can also help you save time at Internet cafés.

Work Effectively on a Slow or Poor Internet Connection
A lightning fast Internet connection is simply not a reality in many areas. This can make ICT-related work difficult, frustrating and time consuming. Luckily, there are several ways that you can cope in order to make using a slow connection easier to work with. • Don’t depend on the Internet for email. Using a POP (Post Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) email client will allow you to view your email and compose responses to it even if you are offline. It works by downloading your email from the Internet (from a provider like Gmail or Yahoo) to a program on your computer. When you disconnect from the Internet, your email remains on your computer. This allows you to view and compose responses to email even if the Internet connection is very slow or down. The most popular program that allows you to do this is Microsoft Outlook, which comes with most computers that run Windows. Note that downloading your email to your computer will take up hard drive space and will allow anyone on your computer to see your email. If you are concerned about privacy issues, you can set up a password for your POP or IMAP email client or for your entire computer. Reduce photo sizes for fast upload. Some cameras take high resolution photographs that are great for making poster size prints, but not necessary for sending via email or posting on the Internet. Keep photos to about 640 x 480 pixels and 100KB for good Internet quality but easy to upload photos. Use a program like Paint or Picnik to reduce photo size. Google Alerts save you from searching for the same terms over and over. Google Alerts allow you to receive emails from Google whenever a search term you specify has new results. This saves you from manually going to Google and searching for a particular term, news item, blog, etc. For instance, if you find yourself searching for a particular topic all the time, such as your organization’s name, Google Alerts will save you time. You can tell Google to send you these updates as they happen, once per day, or once per week. Visit the Google Alert website to set this up. Save webpages to your computer so that you can view them offline. If you find yourself using the same website over and over, you may want to save it to your computer so that you can access it even if your Internet connection won’t cooperate. To do this, go to the website, go to the File Menu on your browser and click Save As. Note that it will save the page as it currently looks and if the page is updated, your saved version will not be. Also, if you click on the links while your Internet connection is not working, the links will not work

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You might think that you or someone else in your office can remember all of the organization’s tech information. If the menu that appears says. or you can not access the Internet. and that’s good: that way. If you find that Gmail takes too long to load on your connection. o In Firefox. there is a lot of stuff to remember. the more service providers. Content. every time tech information 18 . click Tools. passwords. click it. To get rid of them when using Internet Explorer. go to Tools. or the computers are all broken. Use the basic version of Gmail. If you’ve ever spent hours typing in every imaginable username and password combination with no success. or rifling through piles of bills trying to figure out who your domain registrar is. • • Create a Tech Binder When it comes to your organization’s technology. Turn ON Pop Up Blocker. go to Tools.either. Your tech binder should be kept well organized and divided up into sections with tabs to help you quickly find what you’re looking for. Use a pop up blocker. or is simply unavailable when the next technology crisis comes up? To help you avoid those kinds of problems. Internet Options. then click the Advanced tab. Options. A tech binder is exactly what it sounds like – a binder that has your tech information written down and consolidated in one central and easily accessible location. Options. Advertisements that pop up on your screen while you are using the Internet can slow down your connection. and other information you’re going to have to keep in order. create a tech binder that contains all of the necessary technology information and documentation for your organization. usernames. but what happens if that person leaves the organization. Note that turning off images can cause some websites to not display correctly. It should also be kept up to date. you’ll know how painful and time-consuming it can be when some of that information is lost or forgotten. Note that this will take up space on your hard drive and sometimes graphics like videos may not display properly when saved. unclick the appropriate boxes and click Apply. Pop Up Blocker. you can access your information even if the network’s down. Content and unclick the box next to Load Images Automatically. In the multimedia section. If it says Turn OFF Pop Up Blocker. go to Tools. Since pictures. you may want to turn them off to make browsing the Internet quicker. o To do this in Internet Explorer. You will only be able to view the individual page you save. videos and sound in your browser. To turn off pop ups on Firefox. A tech binder is a decidedly low-tech approach to keeping your important tech information in order. leave it — pop ups are already being blocked. access your Gmail account in a basic version. and click Block Pop Up Windows. • Turn off graphics. The more useful technology you incorporate into your organization’s work. audio and animations take a long time to load.

but there is a lot more that can and should go into a tech binder. phone number and email address). most importantly the completed assessments and ICT Plan. and what operating systems are they running? What are the printers called. • Who is your Internet service provider? Write down their name. record who is responsible for maintaining it (name. so if anything goes wrong with either your website or email. We also recommend that you think about recording the following in yours: • Login information for your database. try to gather this information.changes. and your login information for the domain name website. and how do you access them? This manual. What company do you use for web hosting? Your web host is also often your email host. and manuals on hardware and software used in your organization. what is it called and what is the login information? What software is your server running? What are the names of the other computers on your network. It should be kept in a safe and secure place in your office where people will know to look when they need it. contact information. etc. Write down the web host’s name. There might be more that you want to store in yours. contact information (support website. License and registration information. contact information. • • 19 . What is the URL (web address) and login information for your modem (cable or DSL) and router? If you have wireless access in your office. and any tools or services that you access on the web. Any technology plans or assessments. and your login information for the web hosting site or control panel. you should update your tech binder immediately. Write down the domain name registrar’s name. • • • • • That is the bare minimum. Who is your domain name registrar? You’ll need to know this so you can keep track of when to renew your domain name and in case you need to switch from one web host to another. warranties. individual workstations. What should you put in your tech binder? Below is a list of the things that we think everyone should keep track of in their tech binders. Write down specifics of your organization’s internal network. and specific information about the plan or Internet service you’ve signed up for. but at the minimum.). what is the name and login information for your wireless network and your wireless router? What is the name of your network? Do you have a file server running? If so. they’re someone you’ll want to contact. If your organization has a website. contact information.

some hackers can find your email address and send you a clever email with an attachment that has a malicious virus hidden in it. the Internet can give your organization incredible headaches. However. One is to use a standard organization-wide password. Also. This is incredibly beneficial. you do not know whether the computers you use have a virus that can ruin your data or steal your passwords.• Consider keeping troubleshooting notes in your binder that record what the problem was and how you dealt with it. See the maintain hardware section above for more general advice on running a virus scan. credit card information. • Do not open email attachments from people you do not trust. don’t choose “remember my password” at Internet cafés. known by multiple people in your organization for all logins and accounts that you create. If that’s a risk you’d rather not take. like inserting a random character into the password that you’ll remember to remove when actually using it. etc. If you let the computer • • 20 . like bank accounts. so writing them down in your tech binder can be a security risk. While most email providers have built in virus scanners for email. advocacy and success. Don’t fall for these clever scams! They steal your bank information and your money. instead of trying to figure it out again. An important security note on writing down passwords: Passwords are probably the most commonly forgotten pieces of tech information. To see that a site is secure check to make sure that the URL (web address) begins with https:// not just http:// Be careful at Internet cafés. if the problem occurs again. Just be sure that you remember whatever system you do set up! You could consider programs that allow you to safely store your passwords online for free like KeyPass. updating your computer. You should only enter this data online if you are at a credible website like your bank’s page or an online merchant. However. So don’t do your accounting or any other sensitive activity at an Internet café if you can help it! More generally. through Western Union or other such institutions. you can refer back to the tech binder. etc. Then. there are other alternatives. Especially suspicious are file names ending in . You can add attachments to emails to share files. There are email scams that ask for your help transferring money through your bank account. turning on your firewall. In addition to regularly running a virus scan on your computer and updating your anti-virus software. check to make sure any site is credible and secure before you enter any sensitive information such as bank data. follow these guidelines to ensure that your experience with the Internet is only a positive one.exe. Do not give out sensitive personal data. If you do choose to write down passwords. passwords are also supposed to be secure. it is still a good idea to be smart and only open files you are expecting or those from someone you trust. Remember that you should never write down passwords for sensitive or confidential information or accounts. However. if you do not take routine security precautions. you could figure out a memorable system for scrambling or altering passwords before you write them. Be Secure Online Using the Internet has incredible benefits for your organization’s productivity. Since Internet cafes are public. since then anyone who picks up the binder can easily read your passwords.

The tips below are presented in order of tips that are least effective to the most effective and in the order you should do them. if you work in a country with a repressive government. If you leave it insecure. • • In addition to these tips. Put a password on your wireless network. By installing and using Tor. Many programs and software out there are safe and legitimate. To prevent this.remember you then the next person who uses that computer will be able to access your account. Create good passwords. don’t use a blog or website that you have to pay for as your payment details can be used to identify you. Also. However. go to Tools and then click Clear Private Data. For more detailed steps 21 • • . Internet Options. Use Tor. (Ideas below from “How to Blog Anonymously” by Ethan Zuckerman. secure it by using a password. do a quick Google search to find information about it or ask someone else who may know if the program is legitimate. • Do not download programs that you have never heard of before. go to the General tab and click Delete under Browsing History. and delete cookies. For instance. While nothing is 100 percent anonymous. To get more protection. To do this in Firefox. following this advice will make it less likely that you will be discovered. website and email address are anonymous can protect you. but is worth it if you want to remain anonymous. erase the browser’s history. don’t use an email provider like Outlook but instead use web-based email like Hotmail or Yahoo. If someone can easily guess your password. people could access your wireless network and disrupt your system with malicious software. This slows down your Internet connection. If you are unsure about the safety of a particular program. Use public computers. To do this in Internet Explorer. then it is not doing its job. don’t just do the last tip because if you do and then neglect the first tip of not using your real name. To learn how to do this. all information sent to and from the Internet from or to your computer is encrypted and your identity is constantly changed so that authorities cannot track you. Microsoft has a piece online describing how to create a secure password. If you use wireless technology to connect to the Internet or create an office network at your office. If you need to be very careful. This is obviously something you don’t want to happen. Set up an email address that is anonymous and use that email to set up your blog or website. Fortunately.) • Don’t use your real name or information. When you sign up for a blog account. but some are disguised as viruses. that you clear the cache. Seems a bit obvious. Don’t use the same computer every time you connect to the Internet since the address that the computer uses to connect to the Internet can be identified and then traced to you. see your router’s user guide. don’t use an email address that is connected to your real name. there are precautions you can take that make it harder for the government to know who is writing the material online. Don’t use common words or numbers or letters in sequence. you will need to be careful of what you do online and strive toward anonymity online. then you will not be secure. Also consider Hushmail. use different computers at an Internet café or other public place. a secure email provider that has privacy at its heart. but ensuring that your blog. do all the suggested recommendations and seek help from an IT expert for more advice. go to Tools. make sure you do not save passwords. a program that hides your computer’s identity.

running the appropriate software. This would include training staff on how to use email effectively. the things that they should be trained in should be things that will help them in their everyday work. After the initial setup required to use ICT in your work. Train Staff To accomplish your ICT goals. it is not enough for only one person in your organization to know how to use this technology. However.” This person is the one that everyone seems to go to for help with their technical problems. creating online petitions. and ways for them to incorporate ICT in their daily work. instead of having staff make expensive phone calls. for instance. your organization should identify an “accidental techie. run virus scans. and who knows how to troubleshoot or at least knows who to call for help. Also. Explaining this to staff can help them more easily accept technology and will ultimately make your organization run more efficiently. however. they do not need to be an expert. etc. just comfortable with the basics. connecting to the Internet. Also.on how to download and use Tor. This is the preliminary person in charge of ICTrelated work in your organization who will be responsible for getting your computers working. He or she should eventually have a team that works together to accomplish ICT projects. read “Anonymous Blogging with Wordpress and Tor” by Ethan Zuckerman. connecting to an office network. the accidental techie can train them to use Skype or an instant messenger. starting a website. For instance. This training should be done in an incremental manner as to not overwhelm less tech savvy employees. They should be someone with the best knowledge of computers and the Internet. as well as other tips. not technology just for technology’s sake. the accidental techie should help the rest of your staff incorporate technology into their work to make them more effective. This is the beginning of an ICT department. 22 . this person should take the lead with ICT-related projects.

virus protection and more. Includes a lot of links to useful tools.techsoup. Tips for Sharing Computers with Non-Staff http://www.onenw. NGO in a Box. how to prevent an infection and how to apply these tips to large office networks.ngoinabox. Avoiding the Dark Side of Email http://www.onenw.icthub.org/toolkit/avoiding-the-dark-side/ This article gives you advice on how to avoid problems with email. The True Costs of Free and Low Cost Software http://www.cfm Registering a Domain Name http://www.org Idealware is a nonprofit organization that writes reports and articles on software that other nonprofits would be interested in. including how to incorporate it into fundraising.ngoinabox.org/learningcenter/ctc/page7756.pdf Why Use ICT? How do you budget for it? How do you keep things running smoothly? This publication answers these questions and provides tons of advice.html Idealware www.cfm This article discusses the drawbacks of free software and helps you decide if it is worth it.kabissa.onenw. http://security.Additional Resources Guide to Managing ICT in the Voluntary and Community Sector http://www.org/toolkit/domain-names/ An article outlining the benefits of having a domain name and how to get one.uk/publications/managing_ict_guide.geek. but the advice they provide is universal.onenw. Glossary of Technical Terms http://www. Putting Email to Work http://www.org/toolkit/protecting-your-computers-from-viruses-and-spyware/ Answers questions such as what are viruses and spyware.org.org/learningcenter/software/page7940.techsoup.html Information about making good passwords.idealware. Protecting your Computers from Viruses and Spyware http://www.org/html/en/references.org/ A website offering many ICT resources for NGOs working mainly in Africa.Security Edition http://security.com/technical-glossary/ This is a great glossary that defines technical terms. backing up files.org/html/en/index. Kabissa http://www. using a Firewall. 23 .org/toolkit/putting-email-to-work/ A blog entry about why email is beneficial. focusing on using standard email etiquette. Consult this website if you need advice about anything software related.

Technology Assessment
After you have read the Standard Operating Procedures, it is time to start incorporating them into your work. The first standard operating procedure is to do a Technology Assessment to evaluate your organization’s hardware and software setup. This assessment will help pinpoint problems with your computers and make sure that you are following several other standard operating procedures that relate to your hardware and software. Exposing and fixing problems with your technology will make working with ICT tools such as websites and blogs much easier, more efficient and ultimately more successful. This assessment has two parts:

This assessment is for everyone!
• • The first part is an assessment for each of your computers. The second part is an assessment for the entire office. If you don’t have computers, skip directly to number 11 of the entire office assessment. • For those who are just beginning to use ICT – Use this form to collect information about your current situation if you are just starting to incorporate technology into your work, such as networking computers, accessing the Internet, using email, using software programs like Word, etc. For those who have experience with ICT tools – You will also want to complete this assessment if you have progressed past the beginning stage and find that you have problems with your technology. Filling out this assessment can help pinpoint the problem and thus help you go about fixing it.

See the Glossary at the end of this document for help finding the specifications manually and through a program called WinAudit, which will find the specifications for you. Later on, this assessment will be instrumental in helping your organization develop an ICT Plan, which will help plan how you are going to improve your technology so that you can use ICT tools to promote your organization’s advocacy.

For each question below, fill in your answer, look at the recommendations and check the Action Needed box if the recommendation suggests an action for you. Even if you don’t have the funds to take a particular action, still check the box if an action is recommended. The purpose of this is to see where there is room for improvement. Checking these boxes will make coming up with an ICT Plan much easier. When completed, place the forms in your Tech Binder (your binder where you keep all your technology-related information such as passwords, your website host, etc. For more information about what a Tech Binder is, see the Standard Operating Procedures). If you already have a Tech Binder, check it for this information. If you have previously filled out a Technology Assessment, simply update it with the new version

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For Each Computer
General
Question 1. Assign this computer a name or describe it so that it can be identified in the future. If it already has a name for login or networking purposes, use that. 2. How old is this computer? 3. What is the processor’s speed (in MHz or GHz)? 4. How large is the hard drive (in GB)? 5. How much free space is left on the hard drive? 6. How much memory (RAM) does the computer have (in MB or GB)? 7. Is there a USB slot that is not being used? 8. Is there a CD-ROM drive? 9. Is there a floppy drive? Yes No Yes No Yes No If older than five years, consider getting a new computer. If the processor’s speed is less than 500 MHz (1000 MHz = 1 GHz), consider upgrading for the best performance. If less than 20 GB, consider buying additional hard drive space. If there is less than 5 GB remaining on your hard drive, run a disk cleanup, delete old files, and/or buy additional hard drive space. If there is less than 256 MB of RAM (1000MB is approximately 1 GB), consider upgrading for the best performance. If your computer does not have a free USB slot, use CDs to back up your work. If you don’t have a USB slot or CD-ROM drive, consider purchasing an external CD-ROM drive or use floppy disks to back up your work. Answer Recommendation Action Needed?

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Networks and Internet
10. Is this computer connected to the Internet? Does the computer access the Internet through a cable or wirelessly? Yes No If the computer is not connected to the Internet but you want it to be, see the Computer Networks tutorial. If you have wireless Internet, make sure to put a password on the connection.

External Devices
11. Can this computer print from a printer on the network? 12. Is this computer connected to an uninterruptible power supply (UPS)? 13. Is this computer connected to a surge protector? Yes No Yes No Yes No If the computer cannot print from a printer on the network and you want it to, see the Computer Networks tutorial. If you have a desktop computer and it is not connected to a UPS, consider connecting it to one to protect your computer from power outages. Every computer should be connected to a surge protector to protect the computer from surges in electricity.

Software
14. What operating system does the computer use? What version/edition? Do you update your operating system regularly? If your operating system is a version earlier than Windows 2000 or Mac OS 8, consider upgrading. Also, if you do not update your operating system, you are at a security risk. See the Standard Operating Procedures for how to update your operating system. If not, turn the Firewall on.

15. Are security measures turned on such as Windows Firewall? (see the Standard Operating Procedures for information about security measures).

Yes No

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If you do not run virus scans often. 17. make a list of needed software and install it. What anti-virus software is installed? What version/edition? Are virus scans run regularly? If your anti-virus software is out of date. Run a scan at least once a week. you are not protected from today’s viruses. If the computer does not have all the software it needs. what is it missing? Yes No 27 . Update your software. your computer may be infected.16. Does this computer have all the software needed installed? If not.

Do staff members have to share computers? Yes No How many share each computer? If too many staff members have to share computers. and running a virus scan daily. Does your organization use more than one operating system? Which operating systems? Yes No Which?: You should try to use only one operating system in your office to avoid difficulties. make sure your files are protected by creating multiple users (one named Guest for non-staff. Do you offer your clients/users/members access to computers in your office? Yes No Explain: If non-staff are using your computers.For the Entire Office General Hardware/Software/Networking 1. which has limited access to important files). Look into getting more computers. 2. Are some or all of your computers networked together? Is it a wired or wireless network? Yes No 5. How many computers do you have in the organization? If zero. 4. make sure to take the necessary security precautions detailed in the Computer Networks tutorial. 3. keep these differences in mind when setting up a computer network and when you are sending files to one another as you may not have the same software. they are probably not being as productive as they could be. If your computers are not networked and you want them to be. 28 . see the Computer Networks tutorial. password protecting files. If you can’t avoid it. skip to question 11. If the office network is connected wirelessly.

6. Does your organization use only one type of software for each task? If there are any conflicts, list them.

Yes, all computers have the same software and versions. No, our computers do not have the same software and versions. Conflicts:

Make an effort to standardize the software used in your office or ensure that the software can work with files that other software creates.

7. Is any “housekeeping” carried out on your computers? (e.g. running a disk cleanup, defragmenting the hard drive, etc.) How often?

Yes No What housekeeping?

If you do not do these tasks or do them irregularly, create a maintenance schedule for them. They should be completed to ensure that your computers run well.

How often:

On each computer?

8. Is there a reliable source of electricity? If not, how often do you experience electrical outages?

Yes No

If no: • Buy an uninterruptible power supply to protect your equipment against power outages (for desktops). • Buy a surge protector to protect against power surges (for all computers). • Use laptops (which have battery power).

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Internet Connection
9. If your organization has an Internet connection, is it a connection that is adequate in terms of speed to fit your needs? 10. If your organization has an Internet connection, is it a wireless connection? 11. If you do not have Internet in your office, are there Internet cafés that you could work at? On average, how much does it cost to use the Internet café? Yes No If not, consider upgrading to a broadband connection.

Yes No Yes No How much?

If yes, make sure that it is secure by putting a password on the connection. If no, look in neighboring towns for Internet cafés. If yes, check around to make sure that you are not paying too much for Internet café access. If yes: • Buy a laptop capable of connecting to the Internet wirelessly if you do not have an Internet connection in your office. If no: • Use traditional Internet cafés if you don’t have Internet in your office.

12. If you do not have Internet in your office, are there wireless access points where you can take your laptop and connect to a wireless Internet connection? Where? Is it free?

Yes No

Backing up Data
13. Do you perform regular backups of your important data? How? How often? Yes No How? How often? If you do not currently backup your data or do not have a system to do so, create one.

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14. Do staff members know how to make and store backup copies?

Yes No Comments:

If not, train staff on how to backup their data.

15. Do you test your backup copies on a monthly basis to ensure you can recover your data?

Yes No Comments:

If not, make this part of your backup procedure.

16. Do you store your backup copies at an offsite location?

Yes No

If not, consider doing so to prevent complete data loss in the event of a disaster such as a fire, flood, etc.

Technology Use / Staff
17. What technology is not working well in the organization? (any notable problems or challenges?) Prioritize what you want fixed now and what can wait until later. Work with your Fellow to think of solutions.

18. Do you have a current record of staff members' computer skills? Yes No If yes, attach it to this document. If no, fill out this chart (on the next page) noting the specific skills of each staff member or make your own chart in a separate document. Rate each staff member as No Experience (N), Beginner (B), Intermediate (I) or Advanced (A). If you find that your staff is lacking skills that could make them more productive, check the Action Needed box on the right to signify that you need to hold staff trainings. When developing your ICT Plan, you will figure out exactly what staff trainings you need to have.

Action Needed?

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Name of staff member General Computer Skills Internet Word Processing Databases Email Networking Troubleshooting Pictures Video Other 19. create an ICT budget once you are finished all assessments and your ICT Plan. 32 . make a list of them and brainstorm with coworkers and your Peace Fellow ways to overcome them. 20. what does it cover? Yes No Describe: If not. Is there a separate ICT budget? If so. What do you think are the biggest barriers to using technology in your work? If there are barriers.

the more information you can store. 2000. the amount of hard drive space. Note that if you are not receiving a Fellow. or Hz. the faster the processor runs. you can download WinAudit yourself from the website above. much like a file cabinet.Glossary Some of the terms used in the assessment forms may be unfamiliar to you and you may not know where to find the information requested. To find the computer name manually. the computer name is found under System Overview. Computer processors are measured in either mega. click Properties. and click the Network Settings tab (Windows 2000) or Computer Name tab (Windows XP). and then click the Identification tab. Note that this only works on PCs running Windows. As computer programs grow more and more powerful. Once you have run an audit using WinAudit. 98. follow these steps: • • On machines running Windows 95. • • • On PCs running Windows 95 and 98 – Click Start. In older versions. the amount of memory and more. Hertz is a measure of cycles per second. Programs and the files they create both need hard drive space. Processor speed is measured in hertz. go to the Sharing section of System Preferences. Once you have run an audit using WinAudit. Click the General tab. Each Peace Fellow will have a flash drive with WinAudit installed on it.(million) or giga. Select Properties and a window will open displaying information about your hard drive. The type and speed of this chip play a large part in determining your computer’s performance. 33 . On a Mac –You can identify the processor by selecting About this Mac or About your Macintosh from the Apple Menu (the Apple Icon at the top right hand corner of your screen is known as the Apple Menu). Processor The “brain” of your computer is a chip known as the processor. go to the file sharing control panel. Computer Name This is the name given to the computer so that other computers on a network can identify it. Hard Drive The hard drive is your computer’s permanent storage space. MHz and GHz. To find the speed of your processor manually. You may want to run WinAudit on each computer so that collecting this information is a much faster process.(billion) hertz. To find out how big your hard drive is and how much free space remains manually: • On PCs with Windows 95 and above – Double click on My Computer and then right click on your C: drive. The more hard drive space you have. They will save it to your computer from the flash drive and double click it to run an audit on your computer. On a Mac – In versions OSX and higher. they require more and more hard drive space. WinAudit compiles a detailed report of your computer’s specifications automatically. It will tell you what processor you have and its speed. the processor speed is found under System Overview. The following is a brief glossary of terms (organized in the order they appear in the assessment) that will give a brief definition of each term as well as where to find information about the term on your computer. including its total size and amount of space left. Network. On PCs running Windows 2000 and XP – Right click My Computer. This speed is often called the clock speed – the higher the MHz. Settings. or XP – Right click on My Computer and select Properties. including the operating system. Under each term there will be a way to find the information asked in the assessment manually as well as through a program called WinAudit.

click Properties and go to the General tab. next to the processor. • • On machines running Windows 95. There you will see the amount of RAM listed next to Memory. Once you have run an audit using WinAudit. On a newer Mac. or XP – Right click on the My Computer icon and select Properties. Once you have run an audit using WinAudit. On a Mac – You can identify the operating system version you use by selecting About this Mac or About your Macintosh from the Apple Menu (the Apple Icon at the top right hand corner of your screen is known as the Apple Menu). Add the two numbers (which are the amount of space used and the amount free) to get the total size of your hard drive. Operating System The operating system is the software you use to access files and programs on your computer. is like a desk.• On Macs – Look at the top of an open window in the Finder. There are many versions of operating systems so to find your version.. MB or megabytes (~1 million bytes) and GB or gigabytes (~ 1 billion bytes) to describe memory and storage space. There. and it is easy and quite cheap to add more. the operating system is found under System Overview. 98. though an actual byte is so tiny that we use KB or kilobytes (~1000 bytes). Once you have run an audit using WinAudit. the hard drive size is found under System Overview. Memory and storage (see above. you may also be able to choose More Info. you will see how much RAM you have. where you’ll see two numbers. Click the General tab. Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM. which will tell you how large your hard drive is. Find drive C (which is often your main drive) and WinAudit will tell you how much free space is left.. often called memory. An example of an operating system is Microsoft Windows or Macintosh OS. the amount of RAM is found under System Overview under Total Memory. from About This Mac and launch the System Profiler. • • On a PC running a Windows operating system – Right click on My Computer. 34 . Having adequate RAM is vital to your computer’s performance. On a Mac – You can identify the amount of RAM you have by selecting About this Mac or About your Macintosh from the Apple Menu (the Apple Icon at the top right hand corner of your screen is known as the Apple Menu). 2000. It determines how much information you can have in front of you at any one time and how many different tasks you can juggle at once. The amount of hard drive space left is found under Physical Disks. under hard drive) are measured in bytes.

website Email list. it is key to be in contact with those who you want to hear your message. social networking. email list. you will want to create a website or other online presence. blog Contact database Blog. blog. website. This assessment helps you figure out how you can use these tools to reach the people you are not.Information Dissemination Needs Assessment After filling out the Technology Assessment and exposing any problems with your technology. regionally and/or internationally. Your AP Peace Fellow can propose ways you can reach people you currently are not through the use of ICT tools. but currently are only getting your information out to a local audience. social networking. social networking. video and photos. blog Website. social networking. website. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools can greatly help you reach mass numbers of people nationally. For instance. if you want to reach an international audience. What you want to do Widen the reach of text information you produce Widen the reach of your photos and video Organize contacts to streamline sending information Increase communications with targeted groups Gain support for a fundraiser or campaign ICT tool(s) that can help Email list. Consult the chart below when filling out this assessment. To be an effective advocate. fill out this form to pinpoint any problems you have promoting your information and brainstorm how ICT tools can improve it. It helps you see which ICT tools can help you do what you need to. online petition 35 . This assessment helps you recognize gaps like this and explains how to overcome them.

important for you to communicate with? 2. 2. 6. 3. Answer 2. 36 . What are the main ways you communicate with them? How and how often? 1. 3. 5. 4. Who are the groups or beneficiaries it is most 1.Question 1.

develop stronger relationships. How would you like to improve communications? For instance. reach more people. Types of Media Brochures/ Flyers Newsletters/ Press Releases Printed. 3.3. Please use the chart below to tell us about how you disseminate the information you produce. where? Who does it reach? Who do you want it to reach but it is not? 37 . 6. etc. online. 2. 4. Who do you need to be communicating with more? 5. What are the three things you communicate most about? 1. or both? If online.

) to No disseminate information? How can your use Explain: of them be improved? 38 . Yes blogs. your econetwork)? How many? Which? 8. other NGOs. posting video or photos online. clients. Do you use any ICT tools (like a website. Does your organization have a spreadsheet(s) Yes or database(s) to collect information about all No of your constituents (donors.Action Alerts Reports/ Publications Radio Video Photographs Other: 7. volunteers. How many and which: members. etc.

How could joining online social networking communities like Facebook and MySpace help your organization disseminate information? 14. see the corresponding tutorial in the Build section. How could a website or other web presence help your organization disseminate information? 10. To learn more about each tool. that is what AP and your Fellow is here to help you with! 9. Refer to the chart at the beginning of this section detailing things you may want to do and what ICT tool can help you do it. Do not worry if you don’t have many answers to these questions. How could creating a database of contacts help your organization disseminate information? 39 .Brainstorm how your organization could use ICT tools Use this section to think of ways ICT tools can help you disseminate information to those you want to target. How could creating and posting pictures/video to the Internet help your organization disseminate information? 13. How could sending out an email newsletter help your organization disseminate information? 11. How could starting a blog help your organization disseminate information? 12.

the private sector. software. The second part. etc. if work in a post-conflict zone. You will need to take this into account when you work with ICT just as you do with your other work. training. etc. trainers. Also. or circle of local technological support. It helps you assess what NGOs. you can build relationships with other NGOs to share in-house support. if another NGO used a particular consultant to build their website and loved their work. schools.Enviroscan After you fill out the Technology Assessment and the Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. you have to be sensitive to certain topics. The seven main categories of partners that can be part of your eco-network are: • NGOs: Look for other NGOs in your area (not necessarily technology-focused ones) to collaborate with and tap for advice. etc. The purpose of an eco-network is to have high-level technical support to make sure that your technology can be maintained and used properly. Technology-focused NGOs: There are a lot of nonprofit organizations whose mission it is to help other organizations with technology. The General Environment section of this Enviroscan will raise these issues and help you begin thinking of ways to work around them. get group discounts and otherwise work together so you both get the most out of ICT. An eco-network is a local group of ICT support and troubleshooting experts. private companies. for instance. that you can turn to for support. The Enviroscan is broken up into two parts: • General Environment – This section of the Enviroscan asks questions about Internet access. techies. Also. The purpose of an Enviroscan is to consider what role your locale will play in your ICT work. free hardware suppliers. the Environment of Local Support. The eco-network can help you when you face a problem. are in your area that can help your organization work with ICT effectively. Environment of Local Support – This section helps you build your eco-network. as well as help you build your capacity to handle problems on your own. helps you locate potential sources of local technological support for your work. For instance. The groups you identify through this assessment will be your starting point for creating your eco-network. The same thing for particular hardware. government restrictions and local considerations. These organizations sometimes build • 40 . It is unlikely that you will incorporate all the ICT tools you want into your work on your own. Your eco-network consists of local experts such as NGOs. • Doing this scan of your local environment is absolutely critical since large issues such as government censorship can impede all ICT related work you do. you should do an Enviroscan of your local environment. so scanning the environment for these helpful groups to network with and tap for support will be incredibly beneficial. knowing that would be helpful. all of which can affect your work with ICT.

Use this chart below to evaluate your general environment and your environment of local support. Tech Consultants and Firms: Find local technology consultants and eRiders (traveling consultants) that can provide your organization with specialized services such as web design. Use links with schools and universities to tap into training programs as well as their tech savvy students who may want to volunteer with your organization. Do not contact these partners until you know exactly how you want them to help you. Refurbishers: Check with local companies that specialize in selling discounted new and used hardware and software. Computer Societies and Groups: There are computer and Internet societies all over the world that aim to increase the use of computers and the Internet for individuals through access. This assessment will guide you in locating possibilities for your eco-network in each of these seven categories. trainings and more. think of how these possible eco-network partners can help you do the things you laid out in your Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. They may be able to provide you nonprofit discounts or free troubleshooting advice for your equipment. Examples of such companies are Microsoft. They may also be direct service providers. Private Sector: Contact local companies in the technology industry. Especially target companies with community service agendas. If you cannot find many possibilities through your stored knowledge or an Internet search. start with the organizations or groups that you do know about. local computer sellers and local software suppliers. Search the Internet or ask around to see if any of these organizations work in your locale. For instance. 41 . offer cheap consultants. Check the Action Needed box if the recommendation column suggests an action and use the box to specify the action you need to take. provide training and more. trainings. Schools: Some schools provide free technology classes and have a lot of students that are looking to improve their resumes.• • • • • websites. troubleshooting and more. You will want to do general research about these groups as a first step and then talk to them about specific things they can help you with. see the Troubleshoot section of this manual. They will likely be able to point you in the direction of other possible eco-network partners. For more detailed tips on using your eco-network for support and troubleshooting.

you may be paying too much. 42 . If yes: • Look at different Internet service providers to make sure you get the best price. 1. Some Internet service providers may give discounts to nonprofits so look into that as well. Work with your Peace Fellow and eco-network to find ways around restrictions. public libraries. • Ask other people in your building if they have an Internet connection and if it would it be possible to share a fast connection with them. If yes: • See the Standard Operating Procedures on how to be anonymous online. Is it possible to get an Internet connection in your building or do you already have Internet in your office? If yes. 2. 3. If you currently have Internet access in your office. Is there governmental censorship of information you may produce? Explain. 3. Are there any laws that could restrict your use of ICT in addition to censorship? Explain. Depends upon what restrictions you list.General Environment Question 1. list the different companies you can get Internet access from and their fee. Answer Recommendation If no: • Find Internet cafés. or other places with Internet access. Action Needed? 2.

If yes: • Contact them and set up a meeting if you need their advice on anything. if they have in-house support (and if you can share it). 3. who they use as a consultant.4. For instance.? If yes: • Take the same precautions with your ICT work as you would with the rest of your work. Environment of Local Support 5. religion. 2. etc. you could ask them what Internet provider they use. etc. 1. Are there sensitive issues to take into account when working in your area such as conflict. Are there other NGOs working in your area that you can ask for technologicalrelated advice? Which ones? What is their contact information? They have probably gone through similar problems as you and are good resources for various kinds of help. where they get their software and hardware. who designed their website. 43 . 4. ethnicity.

2. 44 . 8. Are there NGOs in your area that work 1. 7. 3. 2. 2. Are there computer/Internet societies or groups in your area that promote technology access. provide trainings or more? Which ones? What is their contact information? 1. Are there local refurbishers (businesses that fix old computers and re-sell them) that provide discounted hardware or technical support? What is their contact information? 1. specifically in the field of ICT? Which ones? What is their contact information? They might be able to provide you with free or discounted support.6. If yes: • Contact them to set up a meeting if they can help your organization’s work with ICT. If yes: • Contact these groups and see how they can help your organization and how to become a member. If yes: • Contact the refurbisher to see what equipment they have and their pricing for nonprofits if you are interested in getting new hardware.

If yes: • Contact these companies to see if they provide discounts. 11. training or other support to nonprofits. They may also be direct service providers. 3. • Ask other NGOs if they have worked with these consultants and if they liked their work. 10. Are there any consultants or eRiders (traveling consultants) that can provide your organization with specialized services such as web design. Examples of such companies are Microsoft. 3. Are there any universities or computer academies in your area where you can recruit support or that could provide trainings for your staff? If yes: • Contact them to see if they provide trainings for nonprofits. local computer sellers and local software suppliers. Are there any private companies that you can contact for support? They may be able to provide you nonprofit discounts or free troubleshooting advice for your equipment. If yes: • Schedule a meeting with the consultant to discuss the particular project you need help with. • Use links with schools and universities to tap into their tech-savvy students who may want to volunteer with your organization. trainings. troubleshooting and more? 1. 2. Especially target companies with community service agendas. 1.9. 2. 45 .

the Information Dissemination Needs Assessment and the Enviroscan. you protect ICT aspects of projects when other costs arise as there is a pool of money specifically for ICT. your costs column will include numerical costs such as $500 worth of staff time and $200 of equipment. etc. Note on costs: The costs column is the most difficult to calculate. Also. With a line item. • Steps: Go back to the three assessments and the Standard Operating Procedures and pull everything you learned together so that you can fill in the following ICT Plan. who is going to do it. filled out the Technology Assessment. The Standard Operating Procedures and the assessments that you filled out are key to this process as each one helps you lay the groundwork for using ICT tools to improve your advocacy work. The Technology Assessment helped you figure out how you can strengthen your technology so that you have a strong foundation capable of supporting ICT tools. • • • The Standard Operating Procedures laid out best practices for working with ICT in order to help you see which ones you are not currently following. you will have to take money out of your general budget. This is not necessary but is strongly recommended so that you can strive for the integration of ICT tools into your work. It also helped you look for local support in your area. 46 . Purpose: The purpose of an ICT Plan is to compile in one place what you want to do to and how you are going to do it. you should create a line item in your budget for ICT-related costs. training costs. The Enviroscan helped you scan your environment for local obstacles that you will need to consider when incorporating ICT into your work. there are example costs (including staff time. Also note that ideally. Fill out what you want to do. Now is the part where you put everything together into an ICT Plan. The goal is to have an organized list of tasks that your organization needs to do to make working with ICT tools as problem free as possible. In the sample charts below.) but note that there are additional costs such as electricity. The other 70 percent of costs are human costs. ICT costs will be competing with other costs for funding. For detailed information about calculating costs for ICT work. Internet connection costs. The Information Dissemination Needs Assessment helped you figure out what you need to improve upon in regard to dissemination and how ICT tools can help you do that. how much it will cost and when it will be completed by. you will have read the Standard Operating Procedures. Without a line item for ICT costs.ICT Plan At this point. so don’t forget the costs of your staff’s time and training. equipment costs. This will strengthen your foundation and see how you are going to use ICT tools to improve your advocacy work. see the excellent resource “How to Cost and Fund ICT” as well as an Excel spreadsheet made by the ICT Hub that helps you figure out the costs of working with technology. how you are going to do it. and more. Therefore. Remember the general rule that actual hardware and software usually accounts for only 30 percent of your technology costs.

How we are going to do it Start a blog. Look at the Action Needed column and make a list of all the actions that you need to do to improve your technology in order of priority. look to see if any of your answers are disappointing. look for your responses to questions about improving communications and disseminating information. Who Employee X Costs 10 hours staff time (depends on number of computers) 5 hours staff time plus cost of Ethernet cables Deadline September 3 May 31 Employee Y Step 2: From the Information Dissemination Needs Assessment. For instance. Employee Y Send our press releases to major newspapers. News department Employee X 8 hours/week staff time plus cost of email list tool 30 minutes staff time per press release to post online 20 hours staff time (varies depending on number of contacts) June 1 47 . for instance. do you reach the people you want to? With this information. For instance. Who Costs Deadline Set up by November 1 and then ongoing Set up by October 1 and then ongoing Ongoing Employee Z 8 hours/week staff time Start a diaspora-focused newsletter. who is going to do it. Use the brainstorming section of the Assessment to extract ideas on how you can use ICT tools to help. We will publish press releases on our website to make them more visible to news outlets.Step 1: Look at your responses to the Technology Assessment. We will also make a contact database of media contacts. how much it will cost and by when it will be done. make a document that details what you want to improve upon and how you plan on doing it. the beginning of your document could look like this: GOAL: Improve information dissemination What we want to do Communicate better with diaspora groups. Set up a peer-topeer network. Use the Computer Networks tutorial. For instance: GOAL: Improve technology so that using ICT to disseminate information is possible and problem free Action needed Upgrade operating systems. Then make another column on how you are going to achieve these improvements. How we are going to do it Look online for discounted or free operating system software and install it on all computers.

look at your responses to the Enviroscan. Hire a volunteer to focus on video production. Get the best price for an Internet connection. Research Internet service providers to get the best price and change service if necessary. They did not cover procedural issues such as working better on a slow Internet connection or using email etiquette. Therefore. For instance: GOAL: Overcome obstacles in your area that affect work with ICT tools and tap local groups for technological support Action needed Learn to be anonymous online to work around government censorship. Is there any advice that your organization does not currently follow? Make a chart with what you need to improve and how you are going to do it. Even though the assessments measured whether you were following a lot of the Standard Operating Procedures. ICT 2 weeks staff Department time (much longer for advanced websites) plus domain name cost. they did not address all of them. This is because the assessments only addressed the technical issues. Look at the Action Needed column and make a list of all the actions that you need to do to improve your work in order of priority. and web host costs 15 hours per video volunteer time plus video camera costs December 1 Create videos and post them online. How we are going to do it Will consult Standard Operating Procedures and seek help from a consultant to ensure we cannot be tracked. look back at the Standard Operating Procedures to find advice on improving HOW you use technology. Contact local ICT-focused NGOs for help building our website. Tap eco-network for help building our website. go back to the Standard Operating Procedures. Employee X to hire a volunteer Hire video volunteer by May 31 Step 3: Third. Build a simple website.Promote our message online. not advice on improving the technology itself. Who Employee X Costs 10 hours staff time Deadline September 3 Employee Z Employee Y 6 hours staff time 3 hours staff time November 1 October 20 Step 4: Finally. For example: 48 .

See the next page for a blank chart to use to create your Plan. What problems you face in your local environment and how to overcome them. 1 hour for training 10 hours staff time plus domain costs Deadline June 30 Create an email address domain for all staff. so work together with him or her to get your projects underway. starting a blog and more! Troubleshooting guidance in case you run in to problems. What you want to do and how you are going to do it with ICT tools (from the Information Dissemination Needs Assessment). while this seems like extra work. Once you fill in the chart. How you are going to incorporate all the Standard Operating Procedures into your work. including advice on building a website. Who Employee X Costs 5 hours hours staff time for preparation. Employee Y June 20 It is now your turn to create an ICT Plan. your ICT Plan is complete! You know: • • • • How to improve your technology to enable you to work with ICT tools (from the Technology Assessment). Now it is time to actually do it! Remember. everything listed above helps you do the work you are already doing better. 49 . How we are going to do it Hold one training to review Internet risks and how to be secure online. Note that you can create your own chart in a separate document or in a spreadsheet like Excel. You will be able to disseminate information more widely and thereby become a more effective advocate! See the subsequent sections for useful information on how to do all the things you laid out. as well as how to build your eco-network of local support (from the Enviroscan). Train staff on how to forward the email to the email provider they prefer. Tutorials on how to use various ICT tools.GOAL: Effectively and efficiently use ICT Standard Operating Procedure to include in our work Train staff on how to be secure online. There are: • • • Tips on how to raise money and get the hardware and software you need to undertake your new ICT goals. Register the domain name and set up email accounts for all staff. Your Peace Fellow is meant to work shoulder-to-shoulder with you on this.

Blank Chart for an ICT Plan GOAL: Improve technology so that using ICT to disseminate information is possible and problem free Action needed How we are going to do it Who Costs Deadline GOAL: Improve information dissemination What we want to do How we are going to do it Who Costs Deadline 50 .

GOAL: Overcome obstacles in your area that affect work with ICT tools and tap local groups for technological support Action needed How we are going to do it Who Costs Deadline GOAL: Effectively and efficiently use ICT SOP to include in our work How we are going to do it Who Costs Deadline 51 .

Helps you get the money and equipment to finance your ICT work 52 .

it often takes a great deal of staff time and sometimes requires new or updated equipment to use them. Note that these kinds of grants are rare.osisa. acquire new equipment. but rather reinforce the work you are already doing. improve access to education and increase economic opportunity.org/TechnologyGrantForYouthDevelopment The Salesforce. for technology projects or solutions that advance their organization's core mission.com Foundation has a Technology Grant for Youth Development for between $5. and Swaziland can apply. For this reason. Namibia. Malawi. Because of this you may find that you need to hire new people. ICT Focused Grants The mission of some foundations is to help organizations improve their work through ICT tools.com Foundation http://www.This part of the manual helps you acquire the resources you need to make working with ICT possible. Sponsoring ICT Work Through Project Proposals One way to get the money and equipment you need to undertake ICT work is by writing ICTrelated costs into general grant submissions. hold trainings. The tools are there to support your mission.000 and $15. this document gives tips for supporting ICT work. You could include staff costs. these tools do not stand alone. Only organizations or individuals in Angola. and perhaps a computer and Internet connection to help fund this aspect of the larger project.salesforcefoundation. you can also seek out grants that are designed specifically to fund ICT initiatives. Mozambique. Zambia. While many ICT tools are available for free.org OSISA supports organizations that use ICT tools to promote social change.000. but rather incorporate ICT costs in general grant submissions. Lesotho.com/web/about/ac48/cash_grants. in addition to including ICT costs in general grant submissions. According to Salesforce’s website: “The Technology Grants for Youth Development will be awarded to visionary nonprofit organizations. For instance. You should not wait for technology specific grants to appear. including raising money as well as acquiring the hardware and software you need. Therefore. Salesforce. which focus on youth development. a part of that project could be to start a blog to get people educated about and involved in the issue. A few examples are below: Cisco Cash Grant Program http://www.cisco. Botswana.” 53 .html Cisco provides cash grants to organizations that use ICT tools to address basic human needs. Remember. such as those giving money to organizations that want to use a particular tool in their work. Democratic Republic of the Congo. so including ICT costs in your proposals is encouraged. or more. This is the primary method for getting funds to support your work with ICT tools. if you are submitting a grant to help children get an education in Peru. See its website for more details about applying for a cash grant. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa http://www.

Stress to donors the importance of funding staff and training costs.globalknowledge. Monitor and evaluate the success of an ICT initiative just as you would any other part of a project.cfm?menuid=507&parentid=630 The SGSIP Fund supports small ICT projects that strive to end poverty. or displaced persons. increase global awareness. For instance. indigenous people. Make sure to include in the proposal how you plan to evaluate the success of the website (through website statistics. The other 70 percent are human costs. In a proposal. Tech Museum Awards http://www.org/gkps_portal/index. you could write in the costs of creating a website. hardware and software costs are generally only 30 percent of your total technology costs. empower women. mobilize supporters.000 awards each year for organizations or individuals using technology in an innovative way to solve the problems facing humanity. etc.).Seed Grant and Small Innovative Projects Fund http://www. As stated in the ICT Plan section. General Tips for Seeking Funding for ICT Costs • Focus on what the technology will help you achieve. increased knowledge about the issue you work on. not the technology itself. There are five award categories. For instance.org/about/ The Tech Museum Awards give out five $50. as you need people to use and maintain the technology. Calculate costs correctly. if you are applying to a grant so that you can better advocate on an international scale. Environment. Economic Development and Equality. with one winner in each: Health. Then you may say that you plan on using social networking tools to accomplish this. if you want funding to support your social networking initiatives. The fund is currently closed for evaluation but keep it in mind for the future. etc. Include how you plan on sustaining the technology once funding runs out. Funders like to see progress and that you know how you are going to measure it.techawards. • • • Source: How to Cost and Fund ICT by the ICT Hub 54 . They want sustainability over time so it is your job to tell them how you plan to ensure that the ICT needs they cover are met in the future. Even though donors may not know this you need to include these costs because without it you may find yourself with funding for a website but no one to actually maintain it. you should stress the fact that you are looking to expand your contacts. you should not stress the technology you are planning to use. increased visibility of your organization. or encourage participation by marginalized communities such as youth. but rather what you want to achieve with the technology. Education. Funders do not want to fund something that will only last as long as the funds do.

the equipment may not be adequate for your needs. make sure you know what you need (see the Standard Operating Procedures) and keep these needs in mind when choosing your equipment.uk/acatalog/index. you are building your eco-network at the same time! Charity Technology Exchange (UK-based) http://www. you can also fund your ICT work by seeking out free or discounted hardware and software. consider how long the equipment is likely to last. Cisco. make sure you ask about warranties and if there are any refunds for faulty equipment. Citnexus Online http://www.org/pages/frontend/Home. staff. Below are some groups that provide hardware and software. A used computer may cost $200 and last one year. money for training. available on its website by clicking the Submit a Project Proposal button.html This site sells discounted software from many leading companies such as Microsoft. Consider this when purchasing or accepting used equipment.aspx?menuitem=18 Close The Gap is a nonprofit organization that collects used hardware from businesses and donates them to organizations in developing countries. They offer discounts to charities and nonprofit organizations. Note that by contacting these groups and seeking their help.). Third. you should ensure that you have the resources to actually use the equipment (for instance. Adobe and AVG (an anti-virus software provider). you need to consider three things: • First. while a brand new computer can cost $600 and last five years. etc. there are many ways for you to get it. equipment you are likely to get for cheap or free are usually not new machines and software. 55 . While they might work.Acquiring Free or Cheap Hardware and Software In addition to writing equipment costs into proposals and applying for ICT specific grants. Some NGOs specialize in donations and other providers are computer companies or refurbishers that sell hardware and software at a discounted rate. Second.org/ Charity Technology Exchange offers UK-based groups discounted software from Microsoft. To receive a donation. you have to apply with Close The Gap and request specific equipment from its Order Form. • • If you decide that you will pursue free or discounted hardware or software. They charge a small administrative fee but the prices are still much lower than in stores.close-the-gap. Also. Therefore.citnexus.ctxchange. Do not seek out hardware and software if you cannot actually use it.co. Symantec and others. Close The Gap http://www. While getting free or cheap hardware or software sounds like a great idea. fortunately. You don’t want to buy a computer from a refurbisher for $250 just to find out that it does not work and that you cannot return it. but rather years old.

asp?id=5384 NCVO gives discounted software and hardware to its member organizations.com/MARDirectoryByDest. Once you are accepted as a member.mar. Microsoft Community Authorized Refurbishers http://www.org/ For an annual $50 fee.Computer Aid International http://www.com Foundation http://www.microsoft.giftsinkind.aspx?RegionCode=NA&L ocaleId=EN-GB&Country=USA Microsoft has a list of refurbishers it has authorized to sell computers with Microsoft software installed on them. Microsoft http://www. Visit the website above. National Council for Voluntary Organisations (for UK-based organizations only) http://www.salesforcefoundation.com/worldwide/ To obtain licensed software from Microsoft for free. You just pay $50 a year and small shipping and administrative costs. Not all offices will grant software.extranet. volunteer opportunities. Salesforce. You have to sign up with Digital Pipeline to become one of their beneficiaries.microsoft. you can be a member of this organization that partners with big businesses who donate products and equipment to NGOs.partners. program delivery.” 56 . InterConnection http://www. health and nonprofit groups in developing countries. You must be based in the UK to become an NCVO member. you need to contact the local Microsoft office in the country or region where you work. education and/or community development in a developing country.computeraid. and search for refurbishers that ship to your country. and much more. The recipient organization must work in the area of health.uk/index. you can request products you need.org Digital Pipeline donates computers to nonprofit organizations all around the world for a small fee. Digital Pipeline http://www.org/index.org InterConnection works to make information technology accessible to communities around the world by providing free website design and refurbished computers at a low cost. fund raising campaigns. Gifts in Kind International http://www.org/donation The Salesforce Foundation gives donations of its Customer Relation Management tools to help nonprofits “manage a wide range of organizational needs including managing constituent relationships.digitalpipeline.interconnection.org.htm Computer Aid International provides refurbished computers to education.ncvo-vol.

that have the goal of connecting youth to the Internet.techsoup-global. orphanages.com Throwplace is an organization that allows people to donate their computer equipment to nonprofits located all over the world. libraries. youth centers. Throwplace http://www. You have to sign up with Throwplace to receive donations. etc. UK IT Recycling Limited www. World Computer Exchange http://www.org/ This organization donates computers to schools. 57 .throwplace.org TechSoup Global helps nonprofit organizations working outside the US and Canada get free and discounted hardware and software.TechSoup Global www.com This is a UK-based organization that sends used computer equipment to needy organizations in developing countries.enviro-pc.worldcomputerexchange.

com/FREE_STUFF/How_to_Cost_and_Fund_ICT.blogs.pdf Excellent resource that helps you figure out the costs of your ICT initiative and how to find funding for it. usefulness and more.techsoup.org/learningcenter/hardware/page4811.Additional Resources Donated Computers for Nonprofits: Consider that donated computer carefully http://www. 58 .cfm Article about what you should consider when receiving a used computer. such as upgrade costs. How to Cost and Fund ICT http://sc.

Gives you the skills to build your ICT house 59 .

wires and more. which are in essence standard operating procedures for each topic or tool. getting involved in social networking. such as setting up a computer network.Once you know what you want to do and have the money to do it. this section provides tutorials on ICT-related topics. These tutorials essentially help you build the rooms of your house as well as connect all the rooms together. starting a blog. they do not stand in isolation but rather are linked by doors. Each tutorial contains tips. These tutorials will address this by pointing out ways to use ICT tools together. For instance if you have a website and a blog. • • • • • • • • • Blogs Computer Networks Email Lists Online Petitions Photos Skype Social Networking Video Websites 60 . The point of these tutorials is to pass on knowledge to your organization so that you are capable of constructing the ICT house you mapped out in your ICT Plan. When you build a room for a particular ICT tool in your ICT house. it does not stand alone either. as well as show you how to do or use each. you will want to connect them by promoting your blog on your website and vice versa. These tutorials will start with the basics and give information about what the ICT topic or tool can do for you. building a website. Like rooms in a normal house. and more.

a blog might be right for your organization. gaining new supporters. once the material is on the website. such as Google Reader. by using a blog’s RSS feature. people can view it. Telling the stories of the people you work for. It is quick and easy to get this started. Some ways your organization could benefit from creating a blog are by: • • • • • • • • Informing supporters what your organization is currently up to. For an example of a website created with a Wordpress blog. but that is all. If you have a website. and a Contact page and let it grow from there. Blogging Tips • Be factual. a blog can even be used as your website until you can find the time and money for a more sophisticated web presence.Blogs Do you want to communicate better and form a stronger relationship with your supporters that use the Internet? If so. My Yahoo! or Bloglines. There are web-based readers. Therefore. which is preferable since people do not have visit your website to see updates. Services. Wordpress makes this especially easy due to its feature that allows you to add multiple pages. encouraging them to give more). professional or anonymous. a blog allows a person with little web experience to post material in minutes and also allows the viewers of the material to voice their opinion and start a discussion. but you may have to work with the techie in your organization to actually post the material. in a sense an online journal. Don’t fabricate numbers. Or more! The benefit of a blog is the interactivity and the ease of it. you could dedicate a page to updates from your organization or commentary on real world events. people get all your new blog entries sent directly to them. In addition. On the other hand. This interactivity can induce people to come back to your blog and stay more involved with your organization. Also. as well as. Raising money. There are also navigator-based Readers such as Live Bookmarks for Firefox. If you want people to refer to your blog and view it as a 61 . blogs are equipped with RSS (Really Simple Syndication). stories or other information in your blog as it will reflect badly on you and your organization. see the Yorkshire and Humber ICT Champion blog. A Reader is software that monitors the blogs a person selects for updates and then compiles the updates in one place for them to read. Creating a website. For instance. Commenting on real news events and how they relate to or affect your work. Disseminating news. If you don’t have a website.yourorganization. your blog material could be the homepage and then you could add an About Us. which allows people to subscribe to your blog and get updates sent directly to them using a blog Reader. Profiling and thanking donors (thus. depending upon your needs. You can also buy a domain name such as www. It can be personal.org and use it with your blog. A blog is.

Instead. Be unique. properly cite it by including a link to the information. don’t disappoint them by providing false information. they may write a blog specifically about your organization. but make sure that something is different. Make people seek out what you are blogging about because no one else is doing it. Build a relationship with your readers and other bloggers. Also. When blogging. Add photos and even video. To enhance your blog and make them more interesting. 62 . Doing so enhances your blog and makes it more credible. When you build a relationship with someone who blogs. Update your blog regularly. It does not have to be 100 percent original. various templates and add-ons to customize your blog (such as photos and calendars). Somehow bring something different to the blog world. free! See below for three of the most popular blog platforms. link to that organization’s website. do not try to jam multiple topics into one post. • Write as if you are talking to someone. you need to make your readers feel as if they are welcome and encouraged to participate. thereby increasing your visibility. If you talk about a topic but don’t expand upon it. Spell check and edit! • • • • • • • Free Blog Software A blog is very easy to create. Sometimes you may have to do some research for the blog entry and ensure that your sources are credible. As Mark Glaser says “a few weeks off can kill a blog’s audience” (From the “Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber Dissidents” by Reporters Without Borders). If you discuss another organization. Use links in your blog. respond to it. If you are taking information from another website. This is completely acceptable and often expected from a blog entry. Keep to one topic per blog entry. separate the topics so they each have their own entry. Make sure you have a blogging schedule and stick to it so that you maintain readers. find other bloggers and send trackbacks (see below) to them to build relationships. the ability to add multiple pages to your blog. Wordpress http://wordpress.good resource. To get people to return to your blog. you also don’t want your blog to be boring. link to a site that does (preferably on your own website). be casual and use illustrative words to convey a point. Search a blog search engine like Technorati to see what others are blogging about. and best of all. While you want to maintain professionalism and credibility. protection from Spam. add photos and video to your posts. Encourage readers to post comments and when someone comments with a question or a particularly good comment. It has many features including stats for your blog. Therefore.com/ Wordpress is a very popular platform for free blog hosting that is available in many languages.

see below for promotion tips related specifically to blogs. which allows people to compare blogs and compete for recognition. To finance your free blog. Also. Note that Blogger does not have a built in way to collect statistics for your blog. you will need to be careful of what you blog about or post online more generally.blogger. Blog.com is a free blogging site that is available in many languages and has a photo album feature. people won’t visit your blog if you don’t promote it. Registering your blog on Technorati means that your blog will be more easily searchable by millions of people. Blogger also has a feature that allows you to send photos and text from your cell phone to your blog when you are not near a computer. Tagging your blog with descriptive key words helps Technorati users find it.com Blog. A blog on Blogger does not have ads. You should follow the promotion advice listed in the Creating and Maintaining a Website tutorial such as promoting your blog address and monitoring visitor statistics. Blogger http://www. Promoting your Blog Just as with websites. there are precautions you can take that make it harder for the government to know who is posting the material online.blog. Fortunately. Wordpress will very rarely put unobtrusive text ads on your blog. but you are able to install other statistics software such as Google Analytics. While nothing is 100 percent anonymous. you can ‘claim’ (or register) your blog so that it will show up when people search for certain words. Technorati Technorati is a leading search engine for blogs. following the advice found in the Standard Operating Procedures for being anonymous online will make it less likely that you will be discovered.and more. you need a premium account (one you need to pay for) to view stats for your blog. Once you have signed up with Technorati. The feature allowing you to add multiple pages is especially useful if you want your blog to act as your organization’s website. While Google Blog Search (a Google feature) also allows people to search blogs. One downside is that advertisements will appear on your free blog and you cannot remove them. indexing more than 100 million blogs. After you consult those general tips for increasing the visibility of your blog. It allows you to customize your blog with templates and colors.com www. 63 .com/ Blogger is free blogging software that is owned by Google and available in many languages. Blogging Anonymously If you work in a country with a repressive government. Technorati has the added feature of authority (see below). although you can add optional AdSense ads to make money from your blog.

How do you claim a blog? 1.technorati. scroll all the way to the bottom. writing the description and choosing the language. click Claim your Blog. 7. go to the Technorati homepage and scroll all the way to the bottom. follow these instructions: 1. An explanation about how to do this automatically is available on the ‘Ping Us’ page. Sign in to Technorati using your username and password. Click on Ping and then Technorati will be notified so they can include that blog in the search engine. Nepal. and discrimination. There you will see a ‘Ping Us’ link. they are not the same number. 2.Descriptions of some Technorati features Favorites Technorati allows users to compile a list of Favorites so that their favorite blogs are easily accessible. you will need to Ping (send an alert to) Technorati. There are often several ways you can claim your blog depending on who hosts it. Under Technorati Tools. To do this. After you have successfully claimed your blog. For example if one person writes five different blog entries and links to you each time. 64 . Whenever you update your blog. Read the description of each on the page that appears and pick your preferred method. this is called a blog reaction. Even though blog reactions and Authority are linked. The green Authority button that appears with each blog listing allows people to view your Authority as well as click on the link to view the different blog reactions. When you are done tagging. When the next page loads. Once you are registered you can claim your blog. Each time this happens your “Authority” rises and your blog gets more attention since people see that others have thought it was important. Type the web address of your blog into the box. Your Authority number is only the number of different blogs that have linked to you. Go to www. you need to tell Technorati a little bit about it in order for people to find it when they search.com 2. create a username and password and enter your email address. The blogs that have been listed as a favorite the most times are listed on Technorati’s Popular page. 5. For instance. When someone links to your blog because they are responding to what your wrote or are simply expanding on the issue your blog addressed. scroll to the bottom and click Save Blog Info. 4. The number of blog reactions you have are the number of individual blog entries that have linked to your blog. Click on it and then you should see the name of your blog followed by a Ping link. At the top of the page click Join. Click Begin Claim. your number of blog reactions is five but your authority is one. 3. if it is about discrimination of Dalit in Nepal. 3. suitable tags could be Dalit. This is the page where you come up with Tags for your blog. Also consider devoting one tag to the name of your organization. To get an account with Technorati and claim your blog so that people can easily search for it. Authority This records the number of times your blog has been linked to by others. Now your blog will appear when people search for terms related to your blog. 6.

which is usually accompanied by the RSS image (above). Paste the URL in the box that asks for your feed URL.com 3. My Yahoo! or Bloglines. You must use the link of your RSS feed. and how many people are visiting the blog itself. Feedburner helps you publicize not your blog site but your blog’s feed. you should promote your RSS feed to get as many subscribers as possible. • Reader – A Reader is software that monitors the websites a person selects for updates and then compiles the updates for them to read. Live Bookmarks – There are also navigator-based Readers such as Live Bookmarks for Firefox. What is Really Simple Syndication (RSS)? The great feature of blogs is that most come equipped with RSS feeds. Fill in the information requested on the next page. which analyzes the number of times people clickthrough to links from your feed. it will not work. How does Feedburner promote a RSS feed? Signing up for Feedburner helps you promote your RSS feed. This encourages people to sign up for updates of your blog to arrive in their feed reader like Google Reader or in their inbox. Go to www. To sign up with Feedburner: 1. an email subscription feature that allows people to receive your feed via email. Click next. NOTE: If you paste the link of your blog. optimize. the popularity of each post. Once someone has a Reader (or if you are using Live Bookmarks). what people are clicking on in your blog. Updates are delivered right to them. Check Clickthrough if you want that feature. 65 . 2.feedburner. There are web-based readers. Therefore. This allows people to easily keep up with updates.Feedburner Feedburner is an online tool that allows you to publicize. whether it is through a Reader or through Live Bookmarks. and analyze the RSS feed feature on your blog. The next page will describe the statistics features. and several other useful promotional features. they simply click on the subscribe button on a blog. Copy the URL of this page. 4. It allows you to see how many people are subscribing to your feed. Go to your blog and find the RSS feed button. RSS feeds allow someone to keep up with their favorite blogs all in one place. Other features include an automatic Ping system that will automatically send alerts to blog search engines such as Technorati when you write a new post. You should be taken to a page that allows you to subscribe to your blog. RSS feeds can help you promote your blog by sending each post you write to your subscriber’s blog reader. including creating an account. such as Google Reader. 5. • Both save a person time since they do not have to check each individual blog they like to read.

There you will find the number of people that are subscribed to your blog’s feed and the number of hits your feed has received. To use this feature click Site Stats on the left hand side and click the box that says Item Link Clicks. Then click save. Track: and Click Save. The Spring Widget carries more information. Feedburner can do this for you if your blogging site does not. This is good for you and the other blog as it helps you network with other bloggers and thus expand your reach and promote your blog. The trackback then appears on their blog as a comment and people on your blog can view the other blog by viewing your blog’s trackbacks. Choose the services you want to ping and then click Activate. go to the blog entry you want to reference. information about what people are clicking on your blog will be available. You will be prompted to sign in and you will then be taken to your “Dashboard” where you can view stats on your feed as well as begin promoting it. Go to the Publicize tab at the top of the page. The headline animator is a banner that displays your Blog’s name. Follow the instructions. After you click Save. A day after you sign up with Feedburner. Find the permalink of the post. then scroll down and click Ping Shot. To view stats. scroll down and click the site you use under Get the HTML Code. Click on Feedburner Stats on the left hand side and click on the box under For my Site. Ping Shot: Blog promotion websites such as Technorati require you to ping them (alert them) when you write a new post so they can include it in their search engine.6. After clicking on the permalink. You will need to put HTML code on the site for this to work. It is a small box that you can place on the web that allows you to scroll the first few sentences of your most recent blogs. such as your website. scroll to the bottom of that page to find the trackback URL. not just the number of people clicking on your RSS feed. Headline Animator and Spring Widgets Skin: These features allow you to create a box to place on your website or your email signature that publicizes your feed in a visually appealing way. you should send a trackback to them. To use trackbacks. 66 . stats will begin to appear. click on your feed’s name once you sign into Feedburner. The permalink is usually found by clicking on the blog post’s title or by scrolling to the end of the blog post. Then when you click on the Item Use tab. Site Visits: If you want to track the number of people visiting your website. Both are HTML so you can place them anywhere on the web that accepts HTML code. Click next. use the Site Stats feature. the date and scrolls the titles of the five most recent blog posts. and even ask other people to place them on their blogs for you. For instance. your Myspace page. if you saw someone blog about a particular human rights violation and you want to expand upon what they said or blog about something similar. Trackbacks Trackbacks are used when you want to refer to another person’s blog in your blog entry. There are many more features of Feedburner that you may want to use: Item Use: There is an Item Use feature that allows you to monitor what people click on in your blog. which is the URL for that one blog entry.

Send Trackbacks. 67 .After finding the trackback URL of the blog you want to reference. Then. go to your blog and write it as usual. You may want to add a direct link within the text to the blog you are referencing. there should be a box that says Send Trackbacks To. usually at the bottom of the page where you write your blog. Search for trackbacks. or Trackback URLs. go to the help section of the website you use to blog. Your trackback will show up as a comment on the other person’s blog and your readers will be able to see that you referenced the other blog. Wordpress’ Help section. Copy and paste the trackback URL of the blog you are referencing in this box and then publish your blog. for instance. For more information on how to create trackbacks.

Introduction to Citizen Media http://rising.edu/%7Ezuiker/blogging101/index. promote your blog.Additional Resources Blogging 101 http://www. the benefits of blogging. The main purpose of the document is to digitize stories in the form of video. 10 Ways Nonprofits can Use Blogs and Bloggers to Support their Cause http://havefundogood. 5 Tips for Starting a Nonprofit Blog http://havefundogood. 68 .org/cookbook. Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber Dissidents http://www. Blog for a Cause: The Global Voices Guide to Blog Advocacy http://advocacy. Gotta Blog – Why Blogs Matter for your Nonprofit http://www. Digital Storytelling Cookbook http://www. It also has some great tips on how to be a good advocate in general.org/wp-content/downloads/gv_blog_advocacy2.storycenter.globalvoicesonline. this blog gives you five tips on getting started. It is a couple of years old but has a lot of good advice.html Article outlining the benefits of a blog for a nonprofit group as well as tips on how to use other bloggers to your advantage. write a good blog.unc.blogspot.com/2007/01/5-tips-to-start-nonprofit-blog. how to blog anonymously and how to overcome government censorship.org/library/Introduction-to-Citizen-Media-EN. the parts of blogs.rsf. Nonprofit Marketing – Blogging in 5 Sensible Steps http://www.html If you decide to start a blog.pdf This document details what makes a good story and how to write one. how to best influence your government using a blog and also how to blog anonymously.nancyschwartz.pdf An excellent resource about how to set up a blog.html Gives a history of blogs.pdf This excellent resource introduces what an advocacy blog is.html An article to help you decide if a blog is right for your organization and how to ease yourself into the blogosphere.com/value_nonprofit_blog.org/IMG/pdf/handbook_bloggers_cyberdissidents-GB. how to find blogs and how to create blogs.html An article about why blogs matter and how to know when it is the right time to launch a blog for your nonprofit.org/my_weblog/2007/08/your-nonprofit-.com/2007/03/10-ways-nonprofit-can-use-blogs-and.blogspot.gettingattention.pdf Covers the basics of blogging.globalvoicesonline. but the advice they give can be applied to telling the story of people through blogs. how to successfully advocate through a blog.

globalvoicesonline. 69 . Why Nonprofit Managers Must Use RSS – and How to Start http://www.Essential Posts that Every Blogger Should Know http://www.techsoup. Anonymous Blogging with Wordpress and Tor http://advocacy.cfm It is very important to post regularly but sometimes you may not have anything to say.cfm An article not related specifically to blogs. This article gives you ideas for posts when this situation arrises. but rather the value of RSS feeds and how to use them.org/learningcenter/webbuilding/page7391.org/learningcenter/internet/page7325. Very detailed and comprehensive.org/tools/guide/ Explains step by step how to blog anonymously using Wordpress and Tor.techsoup.

which allows everyone you invite can edit and view the document. A computer network can help your organization: • • Collaborate on projects more efficiently. you could use an online tool like Google Docs (http://docs. follow the instructions under “Setting up a Wired Network” or “Setting up a Wireless Network” as well as “Sharing Files. use a firewall. If all you want to do is share a printer. however. you will have to follow the instructions under “Setting up a Wired Network” or “Setting up a Wireless Network” as well as “Sharing a Printer.google.” If you just need to share files between a few people. you should always be certain to secure it. you only have to consult certain sections depending upon the purpose of your network. If the only thing you want to do is share an Internet connection in your office. Also. More information on each of these security measures is available at the end of the document. If everyone you need to share files with is connected to the Internet.” You do not have to worry about the sections dealing with file or printer sharing.Computer Networks Can only one computer in your office connect to the Internet or print? Do you have multiple versions of a document because staff cannot collaborate on one central file? Do you find yourself relying on email to share files back and forth? Does working around these problems cause you to run out of time for more important tasks? If so. your organization should consider creating a computer network. Share resources such as printers and an Internet connection to increase productivity and efficiency. you have to have a reliable Internet connection or else you won’t be able to access the file at all times. or floppy disk to save the files to and pass around the office. Using this Tutorial There are many sections in this tutorial.” Regardless of the purpose of your network. Information about backing up files is available in the Sharing Files section. If you need to share files. install the security updates for all software on your computer and backup your data. • • You could use an external device such as an external hard drive. To use an online tool like this. flash drive. Establishing a computer network is something your organization should do if you have more than one computer and want to share an Internet connection. there are other ways to do so without having to go through the trouble of setting up a network. files or a printer.com). 70 . You will need to run current anti-virus and anti-spyware software. it can result in having multiple versions of the file on each person’s computer. This can become unmanageable with more than a few people needing access to the file. A computer network physically connects the computers together so that they can communicate with each other and share resources. all you have to do is follow the instructions under “Setting up a Wired Network” or “Setting up a Wireless Network.

There are Ethernet adapters that plug directly into your computer’s USB port. or buy a wall-plug network extender kit. Look at the slots on your computer. Ethernet networks are the most popular networks used to connect computers. cheap and are compatible with wireless technology. See your computer’s user manual to find these ports and slots. and ones that fit into a laptop’s mini PCI slot (see right). You could also set up a wireless network. Using Ethernet is the preferred way to set up a wired network. LAN adapter. This will use the power lines in your building to transmit the Internet signal to other rooms in the building. To set up a network using Ethernet cables. it means that all computers on the network are physically connected to the router through cables. ones that have to be installed in the interior of your computer. you will need the following hardware: • Ethernet ready computers. Once the appropriate device is installed. you can buy an Ethernet adapter and install it on your computer. network adapter. Wired networks are also faster than wireless networks. your computer is Ethernet ready. Ethernet cable and Ethernet ports on a computer. If there is not. you could run extremely long Ethernet cables. Then you will be able to run an Ethernet cable from a plug in the room where the computer is to the computer’s Ethernet port.Wired Networks When a network is wired. Is there an Ethernet port? If there is. enabling you to connect wired and wireless computers on the same network. 71 . NOTE: Ethernet adapters can also be called network cards. This is because they are easy to set up. your computer is Ethernet ready. or network interface card. These kinds of networks are the most secure since to access the network your computer needs to be physically attached to the router. NOTE: If you have computers in multiple rooms and want to connect them using a wired network.

Internet modem (if you want the computers to share an Internet connection). • • • Internet source Modem Plug Surge Strip or UPS Ethernet cable Router Setting Up a Wired Network Step 1 Step 2 Turn off the router. modem and all computers. You will need one port for each computer you want to connect to the network as well as one port for the Internet connection.• Ethernet router. Note that some modems have routers built in so if your network will be connected to the Internet. thus enabling them all to communicate. so make sure to buy a cable of the appropriate length for the distance between the computer and the router. Ethernet cables. The modem will connect directly to your Internet provider and the Internet. Ethernet cables come in different lengths. This is the piece of equipment where all the computers and the Internet connection are plugged in to. An Internet modem is a piece of equipment usually supplied by your Internet provider that allows your computers to connect to the Internet (see right). You will need to purchase one Ethernet cable for each computer you want to connect to the router and one if you want to connect an Internet modem to the router. Configuration information is typically provided by the Internet provider. 72 . A surge strip and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) help prevent hardware damage due to electrical spikes and power outages. Physically connect the computers to the router by plugging in one end of the Ethernet cable to the Ethernet port on the computer and the other end to the port on the router. Routers have different numbers of ports (places you can plug in Ethernet cables). Surge strip or uninterruptible power supply. check your modem to see if it is also a router. Note that some modems have routers built in so you will not need to buy a separate router if your modem has this feature.

Also.1.1. which often looks something like http://192. (See instructions that come with router to find the right port).100.168. select Assist Me.1 or http://192. wireless networks have some drawbacks. WAN or WLAN. but you should consider this disadvantage when deciding whether to create a wired or wireless computer network. Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Configure the router. Use an Ethernet cable to connect the modem to the router. Look in the router’s instructions for specific details on how to do this.Step 3 Connect the Internet modem to the appropriate port on the router. Turn the modem on. Mac: Go to System Preferences and the Network icon. Internet Explorer) and type the router’s LAN address. Turn on each computer connected to the router one at a time. (See the instructions that came with your router for this password). open the web browser (for instance. which will guide you through step-by-step setup and troubleshooting procedures. Plug in the router’s power cable into a surge strip or uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and then plug the UPS or surge strip into the wall. While this prevents you from having to buy wires and deal with the mess of many cables. You do not have to complete this step on a Mac if you used the Assist Me setup. This password protects someone from reconfiguring the setup of your router. Step 8 Step 9 Wireless Networks In contrast to networking computers through physical cables. Each drawback can be addressed but it does make the network a bit more complex. Turn the router on. There are security measures you can take (described below). They should automatically detect the network connection. wireless networks have slower connectivity and connections can drop due to interference. Verify that the network connection is working: Windows: Go to the Control Panel and then click on Network Connections. You should see a connection called Local Area Connection and its status as Connected. you can instead set up a network that transmits data wirelessly. Wireless networks are much less secure because practically anyone can tap into your wireless network if they are close enough to your office. On one of the connected computers. See the instructions that came with your router for your router’s LAN address. 73 . Change your default password so that your router configuration is secure. If there is no connection. labeled Internet. Type the default password for your router if one is necessary.168.

Note that you will need another Ethernet cable to connect the Internet modem to the router if you want to share an Internet connection. you will need to buy a Wi-Fi adapter and install it on your computer. NOTE: The easiest type of wireless adapter to install is a USB wireless adapter. Note that some modems have wireless routers built in so you will not need to buy a separate router if you have a modem with this feature. your Mac is wireless ready. This will simply plug into a USB port on your computer. To determine if your computer running Windows is wireless ready. go to the Control Panel. If not. Wireless router. your computer is wireless ready.To set up a network using wireless technology called Wi-Fi (the most popular). Configuration information is typically provided by the Internet provider. Ethernet cables to connect one computer to the wireless router. This allows for wired and wireless devices to share the same network. If so. Double click on Network Adapters and see if one of them says it is wireless. Show. (Follow the instructions from the manufacturer for setup). click on the Apple menu. Note that most wireless routers have multiple ports that enable you to connect computers physically to the router by way of an Ethernet cable if they are not wireless ready. An Internet modem is a piece of equipment usually supplied by your Internet provider that allows your computers to connect to the Internet. Surge strip or UPS. A wireless router is a piece of equipment that transmits wireless signals to all wireless enable computers (see right). Click on the Hardware tab and then click Device Manager. System Preferences. Ethernet cable Modem Plug Surge Strip or UPS Wireless signal 74 Wireless Router • • • • Internet source . and Network Port Configurations. Note that some modems have wireless routers built in so you will not need to buy a separate router if your modem has this feature. Network. you will need the following hardware: • Wireless ready computers. and click on System. On a Mac. The modem will connect directly to your Internet provider and the Internet. If AirPort is listed under Port Configurations and is checked. Internet modem (if you want the computers to share an Internet connection).

but instead protects someone from reconfiguring the setup of your router.168.1 or http://192. This password does not protect the data that is sent over the wireless network. Plug the wireless router’s power cable into a surge protector or uninterruptible power supply and then plug the surge protector or UPS into the power outlet. Internet Explorer) and then move on to Step 6. Look at your router’s instructions for how to create the name of your wireless network. Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 75 .Setting up a Wireless Network Consult your router’s user manual while completing these steps. There may be specific steps not listed here that you need to do for your particular router. Click on Airport Setup Assistant and follow the setup instructions. They should automatically detect the wireless network and ask for the wireless network key or password. Step 1 Choose a location for the wireless router. which is usually http://192. (See the instructions that came with your router for this password). Step 6 Step 7 Type the default password for your router if one is necessary. Connect one computer to the router using an Ethernet cable. multiple floors. Turn on the other wireless enabled computers. A good name is the name of your organization. can weaken the signal strength.100. If the connected computer is a Mac. etc.168. so choose a central location and consider buying a signal booster if you have a large building that one wireless router cannot cover.1. it won’t make sense to them.1. This ensures that data sent wirelessly to and from computers is encrypted so that if a hacker intercepts data. Note that physical barriers such as thick walls. Change your default password so that your wireless network’s configuration is secure. Your Mac will then be connected to the network and you are finished. To do this. Look in the router’s instructions for specific details on how to do this. If the connected computer is a PC running Windows. Type this address in your Internet browser (for example. Encrypt your wireless network so that hackers cannot access and steal your files. Turn on the wireless computers and they should detect the wireless signal. Connect the router to the Internet modem using an Ethernet cable. look in the instructions that came with your wireless router for your router’s LAN address. Set up the name of your wireless network so that people can identify it and connect to it. The name is often called the SSID (service set identifier). access your router’s configuration screen like you did in Step 5 and then follow your router’s instructions for creating a wireless network key. click the Applications folder and select Utilities.

The other computers access the files or folders from that computer only. Before getting started. For instance. Sue could share eight files and John could share all his files. The computers do not share files with each other. When each user goes to access shared files. Client-server network Files are stored on one computer and are accessible by each computer. This is meant for large networks because with more computers. Bob could share one file. either through a peer-to-peer network or a client-server network. you have to decide how you want to share files. 76 . Peer-to-Peer Network Files stored on each computer and accessible by each computer. A peer-to-peer network is one where all computers on the network share files with one another. a peer-to-peer network will become unmanageable with files spread out all over the place. When you have more computers or simply want a very organized system. they see the one folder where all shared documents are stored. you should consider a client-server network so that all files reside in one place on one computer. A client-server network is a type of network where one computer acts as the storage center for all shared files. you can then share files between the computers. For instance. This is only recommended for a network of less than 10 computers as it can quickly get unorganized. When each user goes to access shared files.Sharing Files Once you have set up a network. John has a folder on his computer called Our Organization’s Files and every computer can access every file in that folder. they see the files that each computer is sharing.

If only one computer is sharing files (the server computer in a client-server network) then only that computer needs to run the Network Setup Wizard. find the Network Sharing and Security section. Give the folder a name such as Our Organization’s Files. choose the files and folders you want to share. right click the file or folder you want to share and then click Sharing and Security. you will not need such an advanced network but if you require advanced security and the ability to set specific permission levels for particular users and files. To open shared files or folders from another computer. On a peer-to-peer network. one asking you if you want to share the particular file or folder with the network and another asking if you want to allow other people to be able to edit the file or folder. they will place the file in this folder once they are able to access it. there should now be two boxes. etc. On a client-server network this will be the folder you created that will host all shared files. See the Microsoft links in the Additional Resources section for step-by-step instructions on setting up a network.If you will set up a client-server network. To share a particular file or folder on a system running Windows that is networked with other computers running Windows: Step 1 Go to My Computer and then My Network Places on the server computer (in a clientserver network) or on the computer that wants to share a file or folder with other computers (in a peer-to-peer network). printers and an Internet connection with one another. Follow the instructions. seek help from a consultant. Click the first box to share the file or folder and click the second if you want other people to be able to change your file or folder (edit the file. Click Set up a Home or Small Office Network to run the Network Setup Wizard. In most cases. Use the same workgroup name for each computer you want to be able to share files.). If a client computer wants to share a file with the rest of the network. That is the folder that will be shared with all the other computers on the network. choose the server computer and create a folder where the files will be stored. delete or add files to a folder. Under the Sharing tab. NOTE: This document does not cover how to set up an Active Directory domain using a true server operating system like Windows Server 2003. Run the Network Setup Wizard on every computer if all computers will be sharing files (peer-to-peer). Step 3 After you run the Network Setup Wizard. go to My Computer and then Step 2 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 77 . In that section.

Now you can access the shared files on that computer’s hard drive. If a shared file or folder is not listed there. which will appear on your desktop. Select the Workgroup that the Mac you are connecting to belongs. What this does is make the other computer’s shared file or folder appear under My Network Places. To access files that are shared from another Mac. To share files on your Mac. select what you would like to share from the pull down menu and click the OK button. (The Workgroup information can be found on the computer you are connecting to). *Note that these instructions are specific to Windows XP. Create a username and password then the OK button. Click browse to find the other computer you are trying to get a shared file or folder from. If your network is already set up and you want to be able to share files between Macs.to My Network Places. All you have to do is connect your Macs though a firewire cable and share files through the Public folder located in the finder on the left hand panel. The shared files will appear in a window and an icon to the share will appear on the desktop. Then assign it a letter. Under the Services tab of the Sharing window. click on that Mac’s icon. after entering your username and password. Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 To share files on a mixed network of Macs and PCs Connecting to a PC from a Mac Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Click the System Preferences icon in your Dock. Expect variations when sharing files on other versions of Windows. select the option Windows File Sharing. Step 1 In Menu at the top of the screen select Go and then Connect to Server (click this if you are indeed connecting to a server computer or if you are simply connecting to another computer on a peer-to-peer network). where shared files and folders will be listed. 78 . To share files on networked Macs: There exists a simple way to share files (not an Internet connection or printer) on Macs. Browse for the correct computer and click Connect or type in the computer name and click Connect. Click the Sharing icon. Remember this information since you will need it to share files and access other shared files in the future. then go to the Tool menu at the top of the screen and click on Map Network Drive. following these instructions.

On the PC select the My Network Places icon located in the My Computer folder on the Desktop. natural disaster such as a fire at your office. the PC’s icon will be shown. click the Properties button and then select the Computer Name tab. Remember this information since you will need it to share files and access other shared files in the future. Select the Workgroup that the PC you are connecting to belongs. The Mac will appear as an icon. o Select the Services tab of the Sharing window select the option Windows File Sharing. every Friday before the close of 79 . Select the icon and the files that are shared on the Mac will appear. Step 7 Step 8 Connecting to a Mac from a PC Step 1 Ensure the Mac has Windows File Sharing On. or other unforeseen event. To share files on your computer.Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 In Menu at the top of the screen select Go and then Connect to Server. To access shared files that are on the PC. (The Workgroup information can be found by right clicking on the My Computer desktop icon on the PC. and on the left side. The shared files will appear in a window and an icon to the share will appear on the desktop. The workgroup name is shown in the window. This entails saving all your information to an external source such as an external hard drive. For example. Browse for the correct computer and click Connect or type in the computer name and click Connect. you need to make sure that the files exist in more than one location in case of a hard drive failure. go to the Finder menu. o Click the Sharing icon. if you have a client-server network.) Create a username and password then the OK button. select what you would like to share from the pulldown menu and click the OK button. In My Network Places click on the View Workgroup Computers icon. • On the Mac o Click the System Preferences icon in your Dock. There are two main ways to backup your files: • One is to manually save files to an external device on a regular schedule. Step 2 Step 3 Step 4: Backing up Files If you share files.

For this reason. On computers on the network running Windows: Step 1 Step 2 Go to each computer’s Control Panel and click Printers and Faxes. you could require that staff members save their files to a flash drive every evening. every week. Choose the shared printer and then press print. Excel. connect the printer to the server computer. you should store a backup copy off site. etc. do so and then return to the Sharing box of the printer you want to share. it should appear when you click print in a program like Word. On that computer: Step 1 Step 2 Go to the Control Panel and click Printers and Faxes. If you have a client-server network. Store a backup copy off site.• business. For example. If you set up a client-server network. Either way you choose to backup your files. everything will be destroyed. • Sharing a Printer To share a printer. Click Share this Printer and name the printer. Right click on the printer that you want to share and click Sharing. If you have a peer-to-peer network. you should backup at least once a week. having a backup from last year is probably not going to do you much good. you can make the computer backup files automatically using software like the Windows Backup Utility (if using a Professional version of Windows – not a Home Edition). they will need to install the printer driver on their computer. If you are prompted to run the Network Setup Wizard. you assign one staff member to save all files on the server computer to an external hard drive. Click Add a Printer and follow the Add a Printer Wizard. you must keep the following tips in mind: • Backup often and regularly. Make a backup plan and stick to it. It will print from the shared printer. If your computer crashes and all your files are gone. 80 . Step 3 In order for other computers to send jobs to the printer. If you have a fire or other disaster at your office where you store your computers and backup copies. preferably a computer running Windows. Once the printer is added. connect the printer to one computer that is on the network. consider buying two external hard drives and rotating them every other week (one on site and one off site). For this reason.

Use anti-spyware software. Click Set Up Printers. builtin firewall.. but they can also share viruses if they can get through your network’s security. click on Windows printer via SAMBA. The name of the printer will appear in the window. Use anti-virus software. type in smb:// followed by the share name of the printer. Most routers and some modems also come with a firewall. Running anti-spyware will help keep your computer secure and operational. From the drop down list. For this reason. you should make sure that each computer on a network runs a virus scan daily to protect all computers from becoming infected. Step 8 General Network Tips • Keep your network as simple and organized as possible. backing up data is essential. The printer is now added and you should be able to print from it by pressing print in any application.For a Mac to send jobs to the printer. Spyware and other malware can get installed on your computer simply by visiting an unknown infected website. choose the name that most closely matches the printer. Hold the ALT key and click the Add button. create a clientserver network). A firewall is something that protects your computer from unauthorized access through the Internet. right clicking on the printer you wish to use and clicking on the Sharing tab. printers and an Internet connection. they not only can share files. consider having one central location for all files to be stored (in other words. When multiple computers are connected to a network. You should use both (a • • • • 81 . follow these instructions: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Select the System Preferences icon in your dock. Select the Print and Fax icon. Create a name for the printer. In the device URI space. If you have many computers.) From the Printer Model list. It acts a barrier between your computer and everyone else connected to the Internet. (The share name is found on the PC by going to Printers and Faxes. Use a Firewall to protect against threats from the Internet. If sharing files. Windows comes with a basic.

You can set your computer to automatically install the Microsoft security updates. Windows XP Home Edition doesn’t let you do this. or between your modem and your computer). right click on a folder and click Sharing and Security to share the file. • • • 82 . If you want to password protect folders you share on the network. most importantly the Microsoft critical security updates. There are differences between versions of Windows XP (Professional. It is best to use a single operating system on all of your computers to avoid complexity. There will be a Permissions option where you can identify which users can access the file and create a password for them. Tablet and Media editions) and Vista versions (Business. To share files. the computer where the file is stored must be turned on. you will need to be using an operating system like Windows 2000 Professional. When the user tries to access the file or folder from their computer they will be prompted for their username and a password. Home. Home Premium. which allow you to specify which users can access a particular file or folder. See the Standard Operating Procedures for instructions on how to make sure that your computer receives these updates. It is recommended to use XP Professional or Vista Business when networking computers. Home Basic and Enterprise) as well as major differences between Windows and Mac operating systems. or Windows Vista. Password protect folders. To do this in the other Windows operating systems. Ultimate.firewall on your computer and a firewall on your router or modem. • Install the security updates for all software on your computer. Password protecting folders adds an extra layer of security. if possible. Windows XP Professional.

com/windowsxp/using/networking/security/default. wireless network. Windows XP: Securing your Network http://www. Edition 10. Much information from: Parsons.mspx Article about how to start and stop sharing files. 83 . or any.microsoft.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/networking/setup/default.org A website with tips on how to stay safe while using computers and the Internet.com/windows/products/windowsvista/editions/default. search for the term online using a site like Wikipedia. Chapter 5. Backing up your Mac http://maczealots.mspx How to guide on setting up a wired network. Network and Computer Security www.microsoft.mspx Microsoft’s website explains the differences between each edition of the new Windows operating system. The web will provide you with an explanation. how to add a computer to an existing network and more.com/windowsxp/using/networking/maintain/default.org If you do not understand a particular term used in this. Computer Concepts. Thomson Course Technology: United States.microsoft. Versions of Microsoft Vista OS Explained http://www.wikipedia. Technical Definitions Online Resources www.staysafeonline. how to share printers. Windows XP: Using and Maintaining your Network http://www. June Jamrich and Dan Oja. document. how to troubleshoot problems and more. Vista. 2008.Additional Resources Windows XP: Setting up your Network http://www.com/articles/backup/ Reviews of some software you can use on a Mac to backup files.mspx This is a piece on how to make sure your network is not vulnerable to viruses and other security threats.

newsletters and upcoming events to thousands of people. HTML emails have colors. it can cause your email to be marked as Spam. 84 . For these reasons. Conduct a fundraiser by sending out appeals to your contact list. The alternative to setting up a list is to type in each recipient’s email address for an email you want to send out. However. Start a discussion around a particular topic. In this section. newsletter specific tips and descriptions of some free/cheap email list providers. An email list can help your organization: • • • • • Send information such as press releases. An email list allows you to send information to a large number of people by sending the message to just one address. being able to post messages to the list for everyone else to see and respond to. Not only is this time consuming. can have fancy fonts and generally just look better.Email Lists If you find that your organization is struggling to get your news or information out to the people who are interested in hearing it in an efficient and professional way. one-way and discussions lists. Build a closer relationship with constituents and supporters. which will send a message to everyone that has subscribed. the message goes to the recipients Spam Folder and may never get seen. but do not allow subscribers to send messages. Recruit support for a campaign you are working on by asking your list to volunteer or take an action. There are clear benefits and disadvantages of both options. • • One-way lists are lists that allow the list owner to send out messages to a group. You invite people to subscribe to the email list by publicizing it on your website or other web presence. Also. General Tips • Carefully consider whether you want to use HTML or plain text. research has shown that HTML emails are more successful in getting people to click on links in the email. are formatted.org. Once people have subscribed to the list all you have to do is type in the list address such as newsletter@yourorganization. When an email is marked as Spam. you may want to consider creating an email list. There are two main types of lists. You can also send a personal email to some of your contacts to ask them to subscribe and to tell their friends. HTML emails take longer to load and some people may not be able to view HTML emails due to their email service provider. with everyone. you should consider setting up a list if you find yourself sending email with more than a couple dozen recipients regularly. In addition. A discussion list allows for interaction. your email could be shut down temporarily. some email hosts only allow a certain number of emails per hour so if you exceed your limit. both owner and subscribers. find general email list tips.

present them with a privacy statement that ensures that you will not use their email for any other purpose other than the list. To prevent this. Consider these advantages and disadvantages when choosing to send your email in HTML or plain text. Make it clear to subscribers how they can remove their email address from the list so that they can stop receiving messages if they want. Also. • • • • 85 . Encourage recipients to forward the email to a friend. Don’t subscribe people to your list without their permission. you should consider moderating your list. Respect subscriber’s privacy.Also. Often. Subscribing people without their permission makes you a spammer. When people sign up for your email list. it is simply bad etiquette and can create negative feelings toward your organization if you send out unsolicited emails. Moderate your list. they can easily find out how to do so. The downside of plain text is that it is not as fancy looking. Let people opt-out easily. getting permission is accomplished by sending an email inviting someone to join your list. This can be done as simply as typing “Click Forward to send this to a friend!” Related. (Source: “Putting Email to Work”) • Limit each line in your email to 59 characters. some email clients will break up the lines resulting in a mess (see below for an example). You could always have the best of both worlds by asking subscribers whether they want to receive the email in HTML or plain text when they sign up. This will give people confidence that they will not be spammed if they sign up for your list. encourage your addressees to send the email to a friend. limit all lines of text to 59 characters (including spaces). the more likely it is to get marked as Spam. it is possible that your list can be abused and Spam could be sent out on it. This means that messages come to you for approval before the message gets sent out. If you have long lines of text.” • Run your list on an opt-in basis. plain text is very quick to load and everybody can view it. This will help build your readership. On the other hand. This is not only a courtesy but will save you headaches and time since people will be able to manage their subscription on their own. you should have a “How to Subscribe” message in each email so that when it is forwarded to someone who is not subscribed. which means that the recipient will never see it. If you have a discussion list that enables all members or the broad public to post messages. the more HTML that is in an email. Without this. This is more work for you though. At the end of all emails sent out on a list. “The Women in Black Network from Serbia and other Serbian civil society groups successfully organized a large peace march in Belgrade on March 15 to celebrate 100 years of struggle for women’s rights.

users with permission can post files to the group page so that all group members can access them. contact information and more. If so. calls to action.• Publicize your email list. What you decide to place in your newsletter depends upon what information you want to convey to your readers. there is an archive feature that lists all past messages sent to the group so that users can easily browse previous messages. If you are concerned about your organization’s ability to send out a newsletter often. If your host already has Mailman. long and short. Newsletter Tips The most useful thing you can do with an email list is send out your organization’s newsletter. Be consistent. start off with a quarterly newsletter (every three months) and work your way toward a more frequent publication. Shop around. they won’t subscribe. it is a good idea to post the long. profiles of staff or constituents. consider it but do not use it just because it is there. In the email. links. read “What Should Go in Your Newsletter?” on the Tech Soup website. Here are some technical tips related to sending out a newsletter on an email list.google. Have one person in charge of the newsletter to maintain this consistency. provide a link to the full version so that those who are interested in reading more can do so. For more ideas about what to include in your newsletter. 86 . tips. You can also set up the list so that all members can send messages to the group. • • Providers Below are some free and cheap email list providers. • Maintain a schedule. Choose a template for all of your newsletters and maintain it. social networking page. You can alter the settings so that it is an announcement only group where only the owner can post messages to the group. This tip only applies if your organization has a website.com/ Google Groups is a free service that allows you to start a group online and have people sign up to receive group updates via email. Additionally. Newsletters vary significantly and can contain a variety of information such as news. These are in addition to the general email list tips presented above. Have two versions. abridged version to your list. if you decide to create a newsletter. events. Do not change the format of your newsletter every time you send one out as this makes your publication look unprofessional. check its features because it may have an email list provider like Mailman already included. Unlike sending out news about events and other sporadic information. if you have a website host. tell people how to subscribe to the email list on your website. make sure that you create a schedule and adhere by it. If no one knows your list exists. In addition. blog. Therefore. Also. Google Groups http://groups. full version of the newsletter on your website and send a shorter. background information. or any other web presence you have to build your list. editorials. accomplishments.

If you want more than 10 lists or more than 2500 subscribers. It is very reasonably priced. This is useful if you are moving a list to Topica and already have the permission from people to use their email for your list. Topica http://lists. 87 . For $25/month you can get an upgraded version so that you can have your list domain be customized to match your organization’s domain name. you pay a small fee to upgrade. like Google Groups. like Google Groups. NPO Groups (project of Electric Embers) http://npogroups. It too has an archive feature that lists all past messages sent to the group so that users can easily browse previous messages. Additionally. You can alter the settings so that it is an announcement only group where only the owner can post messages to the group.topica.html This is a free list provider like Yahoo Groups and Google Groups. there is an archive feature that lists all past messages sent to the group so that users can easily browse previous messages.com/ Yahoo Groups.com/create/index2. users with permission can post files and photos. Also. Google and MSN is that Topica allows you to import a large list of contacts without permission from those people. MSN Groups http://groups.com/ MSN Groups is a free email list provider like Google Groups and Yahoo Groups.php This is the list software that AP uses for our mailing lists.net/services.yahoo. The main feature distinguishing it from Yahoo. starting at $10/month for an account with up to 10 lists and 2500 subscribers.org/lists/ http://electricembers.msn. or set it so that all members can send messages to the group.Yahoo Groups http://groups. is a free service that allows you to start a group online and have people sign up to receive group updates via email.

Mailing Lists – General Introduction http://advocacylists. and how to measure its success.Additional Resources About Email Lists http://www. how to design it. how to send it out. What Should Go in Your Newsletter? http://www.techsoup. 88 .org/learningcenter/internet/page5281.org/lists/help/introduction This resource gives an overview of the two types of mailing lists and their features. Email Newsletters and Electronic Mailing Lists http://www.lsoft.com/mailtools.cfm An article with ideas for information to include in your newsletter. including more sophisticated and expensive programs.html This is a website with a lot of information on different mailing list software.asp This website gives an overview of what mailing lists are and the difference between one-way and discussion lists.com/products/about_emaillists.summitcollaborative.

Some e-petition services try to overcome this by making signatories confirm their email address before their signature is posted. Send this press release out to everyone on your email list. Since people are not actually signing their name but rather typing their name and email address. the validity of the signature is sometimes in doubt. a little background information and then link to more information if necessary. Get signatures from people from all over the world rather than just in one region. 89 . In the past. Here are some ideas to get your petition attention (all of which involve using your other ICT tools to promote the use of this one): • Write a press release about the initiative your petition is about and urge people to sign the petition. Who will you send the petition to once signatures are collected? Make sure this person has the power to do what your petition advocates for. Be concise. This results in a limited number of signatures since you can only reach people in your vicinity. This is especially an issue when the petition allows people to sign their name as Anonymous. An e-petition is a petition that exists online and allows supporters to go a website to add their signature. Tips for Writing a Petition (from “How to Write a Petition” by GoPetition) • Know your target. You have to promote it. Tailor it to that audience. Be realistic. you should consider creating a petition. they have some drawbacks that you may want to consider. While you should not abandon the traditional petition for some constituencies (like people who don’t have access to computers). An online petition can help you: • • Demonstrate mass support for a particular action quickly and easily. Keep this in mind when writing the petition. Write a petition for something that you can achieve. but be realistic! Spell check! • • • Promote your Petition You cannot create a petition and expect it to attract thousands of signatures by itself. petitions were created by a person going door to door asking for signatures on a piece of paper. Clearly state the goal of the petition. a move to an epetition can broaden your reach and thus get you more signatures. Aim high. While e-petitions are very easy to use. Now there is a much more efficient way of collecting signatures – e-petitions. Make sure you explain what the problem is and why the solution you propose is needed.Online Petitions To demonstrate that you have broad support for a cause.

thepetitionsite. 90 . Part of their robust website includes a petition site where users can create petitions related to social change issues. Promote your petition on Facebook. health and more. It creates a webpage for your cause that contains your template letter.petitiononline. they fill out their personal information. Myspace and any other social networks you’re on. While the latter doesn’t sound like a feature. Care2 Petition Site http://www.ipetitions.com/ Care2 is a website dedicated to activism and change on a variety of issues including the environment. iPetitions www.citizenspeak. This adds authority to your petition. but you may not get as many signatures this way than if you created a petition at an outside website and just notified your Facebook friends of its location. Then you send out the URL of the page to your supporters. human rights. It has features such as the ability to customize your petition page’s look. CitizenSpeak helps you manage a campaign of getting your supporters to send emails directly to officials. This is a great place to put your petition as the people who use Care2 are the type of people who will identify with your cause. One downside to iPetitions is that the author of the petition can edit the text of the petition after people have signed it CitizenSpeak http://www. Below is a sample of some of them: Petition Online http://www.facebook. Two of its main features are that you can choose what information you want signatories to give and that the petition text cannot be edited after it is submitted. Petition Providers There are several websites that will host your petition for free.com This is another free petition site. add a personal statement if they like and then they can send the email to the official with the click of a button.com/iconcur/ If your organization uses Facebook. This is an innovative idea.org/ CitizenSpeak is not quite a petition but has a similar effect. adding the iConcur application to your profile can help you tap your Facebook network for signatures to a petition.com/ This is a petition site that allows you to create free online petitions. and more.• • • Promote your petition on your website. Instead of gathering signatures and then presenting them to an official. it makes the petition more significant since you cannot change the text after people have already signed it. Find a popular blogger that is interested in the issue your petition is about and ask him or her to blog about the petition and urge his or her readers to sign it. add additional questions to ask your signatories. iConcur http://apps. iConcur is an application that allows you to create a petition on Facebook and invite your friends to sign it. One downside is that the author of the petition can edit the text of the petition after people have signed it.

ipetitions. How to Write a Petition http://www.com/how-to-write-petition.gopetition.php Tips on writing and promoting your petition.com/howtowriteapetition.html Tips on how to write a petition that will garner many signatures.Additional Resources How to Write a Successful Petition http://www. 91 .

they can take better pictures and do not require film. If the picture will be printed smaller. make sure the resolution is at least 575 x 805 pixels for a picture that would cover about half of a page. Make your website. Otherwise you will have to scan pictures in. If you are trying to take a picture of a person standing in front of a window. Low resolution photos cannot be enlarged or reprinted without becoming blurry. Instead. especially if you become the leading source of photos on a particular issue. like Flickr. Raise awareness about your campaigns.Photos A good way to disseminate your message is through photography. the person will likely be too dark and the window will be way too bright. See your camera’s user manual for information on adjusting the resolution of photos. in newsletters and more. Do not shoot into the sun or other bright light. If you plan on posting the pictures on the Internet or in documents you produce on the computer. Also. While digital cameras can be more expensive. Tips for Taking Good Photos • Use a digital camera if possible. you need a higher resolution. • • 92 . check the resolution on your digital camera. blog or newsletter more interesting. They also allow you to view the photos you have taken and retake shots if you want to. Also. If you want to use photos for reports and publications. Producing and disseminating photos can help you: • • • • Personalize your work. A photo catches people’s attention and can say more than the most compelling text. Use photos in reports (when appropriate) and on your website to break up text. Gain credibility. join social networking sites focused around photography. This section will introduce the process of getting photos from your camera to the Internet for the world to see. the resolution can be smaller. If the picture will be printed larger. which reduces their quality. a digital camera will make it much easier to get the pictures on the computer. Related. to tap an audience you may not otherwise reach. take pictures with the sun or light behind you. if your organization tries to advocate against a certain human rights abuse. documenting that abuse through photography can be a particularly compelling thing to put on your website. The best photos that your organization can produce are most likely pictures of the people you try to help.

It could be too dark. New and paste the cropped image in a new Paint window. All Programs. Editing Digital Photos Often times. and more. • Click and drag the mouse to form a box around the part of the photo that you want to crop. right. 93 . However. sometimes your digital photos are not quite perfect and you want to fix them up before you post them online. increase or decrease the size of the photo. add lines and shapes. you will just have to plug the camera into the computer using a wire (most commonly a wire with a USB connection on one end and the other end fitting into a port on your camera. On others this does not happen so you should go to My Computer and then click on your camera that should be listed there as an external device. • Click the rectangular dotted box button on the menu at the left. Click through the files to find your photos and copy and paste them to a folder. There is editing software that can help you solve some of these problems. you will have to install that first and then use the instructions that came with the software to find out how to upload the photos to your computer. etc.• Get close to your subject and convey their personality because long shots often do not work online or in small images. Think of the composition and framing of the photo. crop. Be creative. To open Paint go to the Start menu. • Right click the selected area and press Copy or press CTRL+C • Go to File. These wires come with digital cameras. On some computers a screen will automatically pop up asking you if you want to download the photos from the camera. and choose Paint. If no software came with the camera. have colors that are too strong. have colors that are too weak. Most features are self-explanatory. To crop a photo in Paint: • Open the photo by going to File. • • Uploading Pictures to a Computer Uploading from your camera to the computer is different depending on your camera. and crawl on the floor to get the shot you want. could be too big. too small. but cropping and resizing photos require a little explanation. Paint Paint is a photo-editing program that comes preinstalled on computers running Microsoft Windows. It allows you to add text to pictures. You want your photos to stand out so be willing to try new angles. Accessories. you will go straight from uploading the pictures to your computer to uploading them to the Internet. If your camera came with a CD with software on it. do extreme close-ups.). but the process is generally the same. “paint” on pictures. Reduce clutter in the background of the photo and strategically pick the location of your subject in the photo (at the left. or center). Open. too light.

change the contrast. Additionally. sharpness and more. then Stretch/Skew • To make the photo bigger. It is very easy to use and is completely free. see this Paint tutorial from Lakewood Public Library. The newer versions allow you to organize and rename your photos. To make the photo smaller. Picnik has many more features than Paint. it requires you to be connected to the Internet. Dissemination of Photos Once you have your photos uploaded to your computer and have edited them (if necessary). add borders. change the exposure. and apply many effects. • Click Image. When you open it. You can place photos directly on your website. • Click OK For tutorials on the other features of Paint. it will scan your computer for all image files and organize them by date. rotating. If you enter two different numbers. 94 . It also allows you to add text to the photo. blog and any other web presence. black and white and more. You should promote this link in the same way you promote your website. For a product tour of all the features of Picasa visit its Feature page. Doing so will create your very own photo gallery on the Internet. changing the tone of the picture to sepia. so it may not be the most practical tool if your Internet connection is poor.To resize photos in Paint: • Open the photo by going to File. You will be provided a web address to send to all your contacts so that they can view all your photos in one central location. rename them as well as edit them using a variety of effects. crop. however. For video tutorials on how to use iPhoto. easy resizing. visit the iPhoto section of the Apple website. enter a percentage higher than 100 in both the horizontal and vertical Stretch boxes. Picnik Picnik is a free online photo-editing tool that enables you to edit photos on your computer in your Internet browser. you can upload photos to sites devoted to photo sharing such as Flickr and Picasa. Open. enter a percentage less than 100. the photo will be distorted. Picasa Picasa is a free program that helps you manage your photos on your computer and allows you to post pictures on the Internet. It allows you to group them into albums. hue. Picnik’s features include cropping. iPhoto iPhoto is the photo editing software that comes pre-installed on most new Macintosh computers. blog or social networking site by uploading according to that tool’s upload procedures. Depending upon the version you have on your computer. it is time to upload them to the Internet. iPhoto is capable of different features. contrast.

the immediacy of being able to report from an event is very beneficial.com/ and then click Upload Photos on the right. If you have a Yahoo ID. Flickr will walk you through how to use it. people can comment on your photos and you can join groups of people with similar interests. After that. you will see a link that says Upload Photos. two of the most popular photo sharing tools. Also. Photos are compressed to save space if you have a free account. You can add people as a contact. From there. This is usually enough but if it isn’t you will have to upgrade to a Pro account for $25 per year. first you need to sign up.google. You can find links to Fellow’s Flickr accounts by going to the AP page and clicking Profile at the top of the page and then scrolling all the way down to view AP’s contacts (which are all Fellows — past and present). Visit Flickr’s home page to do so. Choose the photos you want to upload (you can choose more than one) and then sit back while they transfer to Flickr. you will be prompted to create one.See below on more information about Flickr and Picasa. This is a great feature if you are covering an event and are away from the computer yet want photos up immediately. When you sign in. You can only store 1GB of photos on Picasa. go to http://picasaweb. For more information on how to do this. While the quality of photos taken on a camera phone is usually poor. If you do not have a Yahoo ID. To use Flickr. It is a great way to get your photos noticed. AP Peace Fellows have their own Flickr accounts where they post their own pictures from their work as a Fellow. however you can upgrade your storage for a fee. with a free account. Flickr At AP. Flickr is a great place to upload your photos. take the Flickr tour. you can only upload 100MB of photos each month. follow the instructions that Picasa provides. Picasa Picasa is a program that helps you manage your photos on your computer and allows you to post pictures on the Internet. 95 . After they are uploaded you will be asked to give them a title and write a caption for them. To learn all the features of Flickr and how to use them. we use an online photo site named Flickr to disseminate our photos. This is where you will begin. You can find AP’s Flickr page by visiting our website or by viewing our Flickr page. To use the online version to post pictures on the Internet. consider upgrading. visit the Upload by Email page on the Flickr website. You should also consider upgrading if you need your high-quality original photos displayed on Flickr. Another useful feature of Flickr is the ability to take a picture on your camera phone and email it to a special Flickr email address to have it uploaded to your account immediately. It is a mix between a pure photo storage site and a social networking forum. You should give them a title and caption immediately while the information is fresh in your mind. only your most recent 200 photos will be displayed so if you plan on uploading more than that. Note that if you have the free account. you don’t need to sign up and you can use your Yahoo ID to log in.

org/learningcenter/internet/page8291.Additional Resources GIMP http://www. 96 . how you upload. How Nonprofits Can Get the Most out of Flickr http://www.org/ Advanced. how you organize and how you share your photos that you put on Flickr. free PhotoShop-like software that allows you to edit photos.gimp.techsoup.cfm An article about how Flickr can help your organization.

you can set up voicemail on Skype for $3/month or $20/year. Text messaging – You can use Skype to send text messages to any cell phone in the world. This enables you to see the person you are talking to and for them to see you too. • • • • • • 97 . Conference calls – You and 24 other people can engage in a conference call using Skype. before the file transfer can begin. Voicemail – If you want people to be able to leave you voice messages while you are on another call or offline. Your organization can use Skype to: • • Keep in touch with people (including other organizations.skype.com and use to make free calls to other Skype users and cheap calls to actual phones. You use your computer. Receiving calls from phones doesn’t cost you anything but will charge the caller the same rate as if they were calling a real phone. Features of Skype • • SkypeOut– You can call a real phone number from Skype. SkypeIn – For people to be able to call your Skype account from a phone. there is an ICT tool that allows you to easily make phone calls through your computer and Internet connection for free or at a reduced cost. Fortunately.Skype To better communicate with people. Instant messaging – In addition to talking with your Skype contacts. you need a SkypeIn number to give to them. your Internet connection and headphones (with a microphone) to make these calls. you likely have to make phone calls often enough that the costs add up especially if you make a lot of international calls. This is not free like Skype to Skype calls but is cheaper than what the call would normally cost. File Sharing – You can easily send files over Skype to any of your Skype contacts. funders. For security reasons. thus the person has to be online for the file transfer to take place. Skype. There are no size limits for the file. See below for the features of Skype and how to make calls using the tool. the recipient has to approve the transfer. Video calls – You can make video calls for free using Skype. and more) via phone for cheap or free. Skype is software that you can download from www. This makes having group discussions with staff that are located in various parts of the world much easier. Develop a closer relationship with your supporters by encouraging them to chat with you on Skype. constituents. which is a benefit over email restrictions. you can type messages to them while you are having a voice conversation or if you cannot talk to them at a particular moment. The rates vary but are generally cheaper than what a text message usually costs.

or using other features that do not require you to speak. Click Contacts to make a call to another Skype user. state.skype. You do not need to purchase a headset if you are only using Skype to send instant messages. You can search for your friend by typing in their Skype Name. When you open Skype there are four tabs: Contacts. 98 . 4. open Skype and click on the Call Phones tab. and SkypeFind. full name. How to call another Skype user 1. How to call a phone from Skype 1. Call Phones. city. text messages. language. 3. or email address. Go to www. If you do not know your friend’s Skype Name. All you have to do is return to www. 3.skype. or age range to narrow your search.com to add more credit to your account. 2. Enter a phone number and click on the green call button on the bottom of the window. Skype will let you know when you run low on your credit. • • If you click on Add Contacts. you can log in and add money to your account.skype.com and click the Account heading. You can also search by country/region. After you have found the person you want to call. Once you have money on your account. 2. click on the Search for Skype Users icon.What you need • • A computer with an Internet connection. gender.com and create a Skype name. click on their name under the Contacts tab (when they are online) and then select the green call button at the bottom of the window with the picture of a telephone receiver. There. A headset with a microphone – You will need to purchase a headset with a microphone (most cost less than $15) that will plug into the microphone plug on your computer. Live. When you click on Contacts two icons drop down: Add Contacts and Search for Skype Users. Download Skype from www. type your friend’s Skype Name into the window and click Search.

99 . This website also includes links to the rate charts for services that are not free.com/allfeatures/ A list of all of Skype’s features and how to use each.Additional Resources Skype Features http://skype.

The aspect of social networking that makes it so powerful is that it has a viral effect. Therefore. There are millions of people on these social networking sites that you can reach out to for support. Disseminating information like news. in most cases you will find that networking with those on social networking sites will benefit your organization by promoting your mission. then everyone who visits Bob’s profile will be able to see that he is friends with your organization. Raising money. others have a more targeted goal. The way social networking sites work is that you create a page about your organization and add friends. Reaching out to the wide public is a way to raise awareness. for instance creating a community around activism. In the last few years. If you add Bob as a friend. There is no common interest or goal shared by all members. This is why some social networking sites are often called friend of a friend sites. However. Some are general social networking sites for meeting friends. Some of your friends are the ones you have in real life. There are several social networking sites that can help your organization build its network. Social networking through the Internet can help your organization by: • • • • • Raising awareness about your organization and your work. General social networking sites – These websites are used to connect individuals and groups directly with others who share common interests and goals. However. photos and video. Recruiting volunteers by empowering and mobilizing supporters. but rather the social network is a place for people 100 . You should not join a social network just for the sake of it. with the advent of the Internet. presentations and phone calls.Social Networking Most organizations appreciate the value of networking with like-minded organizations and reaching out to potential supporters. video sharing or an actual community that exists outside the Internet. other ones are just people you find online that you have common interests with. This may cause some of Bob’s friends to add your organization as a friend. Three major types of social networking sites are: 1. However. It may not if the people you need to reach do not use social networking sites. networking has moved to the virtual realm. The traditional ways these relationships are built are through meetings. people are using the Internet not only to find information but to interact with others. instead you should figure out if social networking can fit in with your organization’s core mission. mobilize support and even raise money. Sites like MySpace and Facebook have prospered in this environment and can be a wonderful resource for your organization’s networking goals. Fostering a sense of community around your organization and the causes you work for. you can reach many more people than you would otherwise.

• 3. YouTube – YouTube is a video sharing site that has a strong social networking component. You can create one for a particular group. • • 2. These types of sites are not particularly good for meeting new people but instead for building stronger relationships with people you already know. Hi5 – Most of Hi5’s users are under 30. 101 . Most of these sites are dominated by people younger than 35. • • Collective X Ning Some of the sites listed above are more popular only in certain parts of the world. Facebook – Facebook has a slightly different constituency than MySpace. focusing on college students and young professionals. Orkut – A profile on Orkut has three aspects. One of the sites above may have appealed to you. It is a website with one of the largest audiences on the Internet. there are sites that allow you to create your own social networking portal. Flickr – Flickr is a photo sharing site that has a strong social networking component as well. and join groups to share photos and discuss a particular topic. The visitors of this website are therefore interested in human rights and social justice. For instance. Purpose driven social networking sites – There are several social networking sites with a specific purpose. but if the people you want to network with do not use that site. See the chart below to find the primary geographic audience of each of the five general social networking sites listed above. a certain issue. post video responses. then you will have to consider another. Friendster – Most of Friendster’s users are older than 25. Examples of general social networking sites are: • • • MySpace – A site with a varied constituency (from high school students to middle aged adults) and many features. therefore Orkut is meant to be not only a place for friends but also for professional networking. Some tailored social networking sites are: • • Change. Custom social networking sites – In addition to general social networking sites and purpose driven ones. but very unpopular for Latin American users. MySpace and Facebook are especially popular for North American users. It allows you to choose favorite photos from other users.org is a social networking site that focuses on activism. etc. add contacts to get updates when they add photos.org – Change. Keep this in mind if you are hoping to target a specific demographic with your social networking strategy. They are not a place where people go to generally make friends but rather go there to undertake a particular activity. comment on photos. social.with various interests. an event. predominately young adults. choose favorite videos and subscribe to a user’s new videos. professional and personal. The social networking aspect of YouTube is that people can comment on videos.

The most popular social networking site in Peru. Source: LeMonde. Integrate your social networking presence with your other online presences. you can use the social networking site to repost your newsletters. and quite popular in the south Asia and Pacific region. it was suggested that you repost your newsletter so that your social networking contacts can view it. Instead. This does not necessarily mean that you copy and paste the newsletter to send out on Facebook. promote your website. politicians and even other organizations. Social Networking Tips • Aim for consistency when joining multiple social networking sites since consistency helps people easily find you. you should not use your full organization name on your Change. actors. Mostly used by North American. advertise your social networking presence there. but turning these contacts into supporters and • • • 102 . Widely used in the south east Asia and Pacific regions. Try to aim for integration between all your ICT tools to strengthen and reinforce each of them. Knowing your audience is very important for the effective use of social networking sites. Similarly. Second. This often entails communicating in a more casual way than you otherwise would. read on for more detailed information about what these websites can do for you and how to use them. Gain a lot of contacts and build relationships. If you have an email list. make sure all accounts have the same username because often they are displayed in your profile’s URL. Most popular social networking site in Latin America (mainly Brazil). For instance. Middle Eastern and African users. Ecuador and Central America. you should tailor the newsletter or other material to your audience. First. Very unpopular in other parts of the world. but not used much in other parts of the world. including high profile people such as musicians. make sure that you use the same logo as your primary picture on each social networking site as this is the image that identifies you. Know your audience. Send friend requests to a lot of people to get thousands of friends.Social Networking Site MySpace Facebook Orkut Friendster Hi5 Primary Geographic Audience Mostly used by North American and European users. Note that only the most popular sites will be explained in detail. Colombia. Put links to your social networking page on your website. in the above tip. Don’t let your social networking profiles stand alone. European. “Réseaux sociaux : des audiences différentes selon les continents” If you decide that social networking can benefit your organization. invite people to events and more. But it is also important to develop a relationship with these friends. who are often young adults.org page and only your acronym on your MySpace page. For instance. Having thousands of friends is one thing. Note that your username cannot usually be changed.

and more. or otherwise ruining your professionalism. There are a variety of ways you can turn contacts into supporters. but rather step in only if a “friend” is participating in an unconstructive or inappropriate way.potentially donors takes more effort. Encourage them to feature your organization in their profile. Be patient. invite friends and that is all. you just have to devote time to doing it. ask your social networking contacts to contribute. You need to be prepared for some loss of control when entering the social networking world. • Keep your social networking page active. post pictures. so do not censor. thus serving as a constant reminder to people about what your organization does and what they can do to get involved. Turn your contacts into activists. Directly appealing to your contacts through an Action section on your profile can motivate your contacts to do a little extra to promote your work. Monitor your social networking pages. Doing so makes your presence on the social networking site more useful as you will be more visible to other users that are not your contacts (yet). Join groups. Use social networking to raise money. You can also hold mini contests via your page. If you have a way for people to send you money (either through the Internet or by sending a check). In order to engage your contacts. • • • • • 103 . Instead. link to your website. Don’t build a profile on a social networking site. to send a message to all of their friends asking them to join your page. Ask your contacts to advocate for you. that people aren’t posting inappropriate pictures. if your profile has a discussion board. Check your pages frequently to ensure that you are not getting inappropriate comments. Gaining friends and making good use of your social networking presence takes time and dedication. write comments on other people’s pages and customize your page. This will encourage more people to give in the future since they will see donors featured on your organization’s page and want to be there too. This keeps people coming back. Encourage them to give by recognizing them on your profile. such as the person who writes the best comment on your page will be your supporter of the month. they are more likely to get involved. use the networking site the same way that other users do. Become a member of the community.000 friends. you have to ensure that your profile is constantly updated with new material. For instance. You can foster a relationship with your contacts by sending a message to everyone who wants to be your friend. Do not expect to create an account on a social networking site one day and the next day have 5. When people continue to come back to your page. create groups or discussion topics about your organization. post a comment or topic if you find that no one else is.

be an active member of the groups you join to increase your visibility.com and click the orange Sign Up button. Photos can give a face to your organization and personalize your work. MySpace MySpace is a general friend of a friend social networking site with users of varying ages located primarily in North America and Europe. a week or a month. Then on your profile page. your beneficiaries. One way to get the most out of the friends feature is to friend a popular organization in your field and ask them to list you as a Top Friend for a day. The Nonprofit Organizations page rotates their tops friends frequently so become friends with them! Comments – You can post a comment on your friend’s profile and pictures. • Friends list and Top Friends – To build your organization’s network on MySpace. there are many general social networking sites for meeting new contacts to strengthen your networking. People can also click on the box to view all of your friends. Your comment appears for everyone to see so this helps improve your visibility and relationship with your supporters. It is a good idea to join groups related to issues you work on so that other members of the group can find you. Events section and Calendar function – You can post information under the MySpace Event section to publicize an event you are hosting. your staff. MySpace and Facebook. Groups – MySpace has a large group section that you can use to increase your visibility with people with similar interests.myspace. view their friends and then invite their friends to be your friends as well. there will be a box where people can view your Top Friends (you can change how many Top Friends are listed and who you feature there). • • • • 104 . to see. To get started. Then start exploring the following features of MySpace. Photos – You can upload photos to appear on your profile to highlight your work. or only your friends. you have a calendar that allows you to add events directly on your profile for everyone. To facilitate this. go to www.General Social Networking Sites As stated above. so if the group allows you. Also. Most events that are posted are ones taking place in North America and Europe. In addition. etc. you can invite members of the group to be friends of your organization (some groups explicitly ban sending friend requests to members). you can search for friends and add them to your friend’s list. There is a section devoted to nonprofit organizations that hosts thousands of nonprofit related groups. Below is more information on two of the most popular. This will increase your visibility and get you a lot of friend requests. groups pull together people with similar interests. you need to fill out your profile with the necessary information such as About Me. To create an account on MySpace. This is a great networking tool since you can visit the MySpace page of like-minded nonprofits. so the event feature is more relevant for outreach events in these locales rather than local events.

There are many websites that provide you with HTML code to insert in your profile to customize your page. Right now. Forums allow you to increase your visibility and start a discussion about an issue relevant to your organization. This can help you disseminate your videos but should probably not be the only place you post your video. or anything else you want to communicate to all of your MySpace friends.” See Oxfam America’s MySpace page for an example of a customized profile. MySpace has a feature that allows you to add a song to your profile. It distracts visitors and lessens your message. but using the MySpace blog to repost other. Bulletins – MySpace has a feature that allows you to send a bulletin to all your MySpace friends at once. the bulletin feature is more effective in reaching all of your MySpace friends who may not view your profile often or subscribe to your blogs. Blog – MySpace has a blog feature that allows you to post blogs on your profile and send updates to those who subscribe to your blog on MySpace. Forums – MySpace has a forum section that encourages people to post questions or topics in order to start a discussion with other MySpace users. especially on a slow Internet connection. there is no nonprofit focused forum. but there are topics that could be relevant to nonprofits such as News & Politics. Customizable profile. you can visit MySpace to learn more and sign up your organization to be part of Impact once it is open to all. designed specifically with nonprofits in mind. Nonprofit focused section for fundraising and advocacy – MySpace has recently created a section of their website called Impact. Unfortunately. which allows you to be creative and insert objects like slideshows.• Videos – You can upload your videos using the MySpace TV section. This has the potential to be a great fundraising tool. Note that adding images and graphics will make your page load very slowly. While this is a nice feature for your personal page. it is not professional and thus should not be on your organization’s page. news from your organization. However. only a few organizations can use this feature since it has not been opened to the public. • • • • • MySpace Tips • Do not add music. important blog entries or update your MySpace friends with information is useful. It is not suggested that you use a MySpace blog as your primary blog since it has limited features and capabilities. This is a great dissemination tool and can be used for sending out your press releases. HTML friendly – You can change the look of your profile to match your organization’s “brand. You can do this by inserting HTML code into parts of your page. However. It works similarly to how YouTube works and allows other MySpace users to put the video on their profile. The main feature of this section is the ability to have MySpace users fundraise on your organization’s behalf via PayPal. 105 . You can allow people to comment on your bulletin if you want to encourage a discussion.

Think of designing your MySpace page as if it is your website – be professional. you can adjust your account settings to require that you approve all comments before they are posted. For more MySpace advice. Follow the rest of the instructions to create your page. Once you have an account. etc. but do not go to the extreme. create a profile of someone in your organization. so does your Facebook login. On the next screen. Note that you will need to sign into this account to administer your Facebook page. Then click on Facebook Pages and click the button at the upper right that says Create a Facebook page.com and sign up for an account.• Don’t overdo your page’s customization. • • • For two examples of good organization MySpace pages. see the MySpace Best Practices website. If this turns into a large problem. Avoid animations and distracting colors that steal attention away from your organization. Thus. Organizations. you can send people who are not Facebook users to your Facebook page. someone does need to be signed into Facebook to become a fan and use the features on the page. Pages are tailored for organizations. which include their picture. It could be the person managing the Facebook page or you can create a pseudo profile of your Director. However. 106 . Individuals join Facebook and make personal profiles. It is good to customize your page to look more professional and exciting. see • Oxfam • Grassroots International Facebook Facebook is a general friend of a friend social networking site. however. information about their interests and links to their friends. To create your organization’s Facebook page. gender. Keep an eye on the comments you receive. Make sure you pay attention to the comments you receive on your profile and on your pictures. Use your logo as your profile picture. Thus there are no unnecessary sections like birthday. pages are public. You have the ability to delete such comments if they appear.facebook. do not make profiles but instead make pages and their “friends” are called fans. Do this by going to www. Also. login and scroll to the bottom of any Facebook page and click on Businesses. meaning that someone does not need to be signed into Facebook to view your page. not individuals. Consult “The Proper Way for Your Organization to be on Facebook” for step-by-step instructions on how to create a Facebook page. so try to avoid using the personal account (and personal password) of someone in your organization because once that person leaves the organization. The comment feature is fun but there is a lot of spamming and inappropriate material that can end up on your page. something you cannot do with an individual profile. click Brand or Product as the category and then click Nonprofit in the pull down box.

Updates – Facebook Pages allow you to send an update to all of your fans about anything you want to inform them of. Some of them will become your fan as a result and it will snowball from there. This actually happens a lot easier than you might expect due to the viral nature of Facebook. he or she can contribute to your page by starting a discussion topic. Updates are sent to all fans. on Facebook you have fans of your organization. it is important to get a lot of fans and to engage them to spread the word about your page. all of that fan’s friends will be notified via the news feed. People can leave comments on them and you can attach photos to a note. that person’s profile will not be seen by your eventual fans. Also. not your organization. For instance. not the individual. your Facebook page comes with a Wall. Discussion Boards – Your Facebook page comes with a feature that allows you to start interactive discussion topics. For instance. Whenever a fan does anything on your page. When every Facebook user signs into Facebook the first page they see is their news feed. If one person becomes a fan of your organization. This is great for encouraging people to come back to your page and actively participate in the issues relevant to your organization. only fans receive Updates. Photos – You can upload photos to your organization’s page on Facebook. You may want to disseminate some breaking news. like write on your wall. Wall – Like Facebook profiles. This is what makes Facebook so powerful. Everything that person does in relation to the page will be marked as an action by the organization. the message Bob receives will be from Sue. people have to find your page and become your fan by themselves. Notes – In addition to updates. Features of Facebook Pages • Fans – Instead of having friends of your organization like on MySpace. you can write notes. or anything else. which are displayed on your page for everyone to see. For instance. all of that person’s friends will see that they did that. which are sent to all of your fans. Once someone becomes your fan. Facebook has a feature called a news feed. a new addition to your page.Note that while the personal profile was used to create the page. you cannot do so as your organization. which is described below. Therefore. if you are friends with Bob and Bob joins a group or becomes a fan of an organization. and writing on your wall. Therefore. which provides updates on what their friends have done recently on Facebook. it alerts all of their friends through the news feed. When someone becomes a fan of your organization. then your news feed will tell you so. adding photos and videos. While you can add friends and send messages to people as an individual on Facebook. The Wall is the part of your page where fans can leave comments for everyone to see. if you used Sue’s account to create your organization’s Facebook page and you want to send a message to Bob. Also. both things you cannot do with an update. your fans can 107 • • • • • . The page administrator (you) and all of your fans can create a topic and all Facebook users can reply to a topic.

YouTube Box – Allows you to post your YouTube videos easily on your Facebook page without having to upload them individually to Facebook. adding video can make your page more interesting and also foster involvement with your fans. Each cause page has a wall people can write on. Events – You can post information about upcoming events on your Facebook page and update all of your fans about them. however AP partners can contact AP and we can discuss hosting a cause on your behalf. the top recruiters and donors listed and can also have links. this application makes a bridge between your Facebook and Change. Profile HTML – This application allows you to copy and paste HTML on your Facebook page. These events are posted on your page so in addition to your fans. and more. Simply RSS – This application allows you to run updates from your RSS feed on your Facebook page. Like photos.org presence. Unlike a page.add their own pictures to the page. This can help make your page more interesting and also foster involvement with your fans. but you have the right to delete any that you find inappropriate. Change. only US and Canadian based nonprofits can be listed as beneficiaries. only individuals with profiles can. • • In addition to your Facebook Page. a presentation. There are a variety of applications that you can add to your page. You can post this application on your page to ask your fans to donate and take actions that you have created. Currently. Some useful ones are below: Facebook Causes – There is a Causes application that allows people with Facebook profiles or pages to create a cause page such as “Help Educate Girls” in order to raise money for that cause.org). Your fans can also upload their videos to the page. You can make a group on Facebook by logging in and clicking on Groups on the left hand side of the screen. you should use your individual profile to take advantage of Facebook Groups. Organizations with pages cannot make groups. the 108 . or even a cause you work on. Other Applications – You can expand your Facebook page by adding features called applications. and videos. all visitors to your page will be able to view them. Therefore. you can browse hundreds of these Facebook applications.org – The Change. The creator can then invite his or her friends to join the cause and donate money.org page (see below for more on Change. • Videos – You can upload videos to enhance the appeal of your page.org application allows you to tap your Facebook network for support on your Change. and any other HTML you want on your page including your newsletter subscription box if you have one. show where you have been around the world. This feature can help you publicize an outreach event. and more. such as ones to show your YouTube videos. It is a good idea to make a group for your organization. but you have the right to delete any photos fans add. photos. This lets you post YouTube videos. Then you can add the cause to your organization’s page to promote it. widgets (charity badges). in addition to your page in order to reach out to more Facebook users. By going to your page manager and scrolling down to the More Applications section. The cause creator chooses an organization that the cause benefits such as UNICEF and all money will go to that organization.

activism or multimedia sharing. and raise money for their favorite groups and causes. while it is a good idea to have a Facebook group for your organization and/or cause. this only applies to groups with fewer than 1.org is a purpose driven social networking site. Change. • Purpose Driven Social Networking Sites The social networking sites listed below bring people together for a particular purpose. so this is a very large network you should join. Groups are different from pages because groups can be closed. it will not show your organization as the creator of the group but rather the individual who created your organization’s page. US-based nonprofits can join Change. mobilize people who are committed to social change. AP partners can use AP as their 501c3 sponsor. It is important to note that all donations given through Change. This is a particularly powerful social networking site for promoting your organization’s work. this is not recommended).creator of a group is listed for all Facebook users to see. Change. but they need a US-based 501c3 organization as a sponsor. while you can send a message to all group members. Therefore.org can help you raise awareness about an issue. There are many applications on Facebook that you can add to your page. Also. for instance. Consider this when using 109 . like the ones mentioned above. Only send updates about important things. raise money and publicize your news. This contrasts with general social networking sites that have members with all sorts of interests. if someone donates $100 to you.org Change. this should not replace your Facebook page. network with likeminded people and organizations. leaving the less important ones for people to view on your page. Therefore. If you have any more than that. this feature is disabled. Therefore.org to raise money and mobilize people to take actions related to their work. you receive $95. Another difference is that groups cannot be expanded with applications like pages can.200 members. your fans may disable updates from you.75 percent fee. International groups can join as well.org are subject to a 4. while some are inappropriate and unprofessional. Therefore. meaning that it is restricted to people who are invited (however. create Actions for others to do. Some are useful for an organization’s page.org users are interested in social justice issues.25. Facebook Tips • Do not add inappropriate applications to your page. Individuals can join to participate in Actions. It is a site for nonprofits and individuals who want to change the world for the better. If you send too many updates. send updates about the things that matter most. There are over a million nonprofits on the site. which should be viewed as your primary and official Facebook presence. gathering support and raising money since all Change.

you can click on the People tab at the top of the screen and search for people that may be interested in the issue you work for. members of the Change. Therefore. Once you have a profile. a discussion forum.org with a free account. Enter your website if you have one. Do not type The Advocacy Project.org offers. nonprofits that are working for the Change. To gain supporters. you should add information to your profile.org and find the Sign Up button on the left-hand side in the middle of the screen. Since you will be signing up as a sub-organization of AP.Change.org can become a supporter of the nonprofits they like. description. news. Send those who are a member of the Change or have taken a particular Action a message. go to www.org. The premium service gives you added features such as a customized page but remember that you can raise money on Change. which hosts the Change’s mission. you need to choose United States even though you are based in another country. Another good way to find supporters is to search for Changes and Actions (described below) that relate to your work. Step 5: Type the address of The Advocacy Project and the contact information from someone at your organization. Step 4: Choose Yes in response to the sub-organization question. Choose the appropriate category that describes your organization’s work. follow these steps: Step 1: Click on United States. Step 6: Click Submit. When a donor clicks on donate. the Change page is where people go to donate to the Change. Making a Change creates a page for the Change. you should explore the features that Change. they will be able to choose which nonprofit they want to donate to. Step 2: Type the name of your organization. Your supporter will select which nonprofits can receive money from the Change when creating it. including: • Supporters – Every individual that signs up for Change. Changes – If someone asked you “What do you want to change in the world?” what would your answer be? If it is “Empower women in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The next page gives you a choice between signing up for a free nonprofit account or the premium service that costs $20/month. Step 3: Email AP for our Tax Identification Number (EIN). Being recommended for a Change means that you will show up on the Change’s page and all members of the Change will be able to easily find your page and donate to your organization. and the nonprofits the person supports shows up on their personal profile page.” then you should try to become a recommended nonprofit of that Change. • 110 . videos. Once you choose your account type. photos and a comment board. The supporters of an organization show up on the organization’s page. Most organizations end up deciding that the benefits of the social network far outweigh the 4. click on the person’s name and click Send Supporter Request. To do this.75 percent fee taken out of donations. Also. Nonprofits do not click on the Sign Up button but rather the link directly underneath.change. encourage your supporters to make a Change and list you as a recommended nonprofit. To sign up. Once you are signed up. Enter the number we give you in the EIN field.

one of your supporters can make a Change and then recommend your nonprofit as a good instance of an organization working for the Change. If you are targeting US officials.org page and ask visitors to donate. For instance. but all money raised will go Amnesty International. so think creatively! • Fundraising Projects – To raise money on Change. the tool takes into account where the user lives and sends the letter to his or her own representative.org. You create a template letter to send to officials and you encourage other Change. Events and volunteering – Another type of Action that you can post is an event or volunteer opportunity. These types of Actions are very easy for environmental groups to create. This is powerful. You can also target non-US politicians by typing in their names and email addresses. you can add a button to the Action that allows users to easily call their representatives. Actions can be created through the Change page to support a Change. • 111 . Also. multiple Actions can be added to support that Change. or Actions can be made separate of any Change. the Change page hosts all Actions related to the Change.org users to personalize it. such as “Use Reusable Bags” or “Unplug Appliances When not in Use. creating a fundraising project allows your supporters to create a fundraising page of their own to support your project. rather Change. people can add that Action to any Change. “Hold a movie night for Congolese women.Additionally. For an example of a fundraising project with many fundraising pages. your organization should create a fundraising project. see AP’s “Help Sponsor an AP Peace Fellow” fundraising project.org users can create Actions to encourage people to DO something about an issue. For instance. The fundraising project will show up on your Change.” “Email representatives about the state of Congolese women. someone could go to Amnesty International’s Change. • Actions – In addition to making Changes to raise awareness about an issue and garner donations for their favorite nonprofit. There are three types of Actions you can create: Email campaigns – Change. fill out their information and send it.” etc.” Personal commitments – The third kind of Action is a personal commitment Action. Both individuals and nonprofits can make Changes. Change. when you make an email campaign. For every Change that is created. Note that nonprofits cannot make Changes themselves. See below for more details on fundraising pages. so encourage your supporters to create fundraising pages to support one of your fundraising projects.org users make a Change and then recommend nonprofits that are working for that Change. See below for more on Actions. Also. After an Action is created. for instance.org allows you to create an email campaign to support a Change.” It may be more difficult to come up with personal commitments if you are a human rights group.org can go to their favorite nonprofit’s page and create a fundraising page on their own to support a fundraising project that the organization is undertaking. The individual could then recruit people to donate to their fundraising page.org page and start a fundraising page called Support Human Rights to support Amnesty International’s general fundraising project. Examples of these kinds of Actions are “Support Women’s Day” or “Attend a Save Darfur Rally. Fundraising Pages – Individuals on Change.

• • • • Change. When sending the request. and communicate with your supporters since there is a comment feature where others can respond to your blog entry. but instead ask members Why do you Support This Change? Compliments – Change. you should click the news tab and paste the URL of the news story.• Fundraising Widgets – Every fundraising project or page that is created comes with a widget (also known as a badge) that allows you to post a nice graphic on other websites and social networks. which nonprofits cannot be. ask for Actions. or more. Encourage your supporters to do the same when they are creating fundraising pages for your projects. and generally raise awareness. This helps strengthen relationships since you can tell your supporters that they “make the world a better place. Give the story a description and tags (descriptive keywords).org users to read. You can create a widget for your own fundraising project as well. to recruit potential supporters. This is a great way to thank supporters for adding you.org users can send compliments to one another. Search Changes before asking supporters to create a Change.” that they had a great idea. For instance. Changes have something similar. tell them about the work you are doing to support the Change. they can get a fundraising widget to post on their own website. If you have a press release that you want to promote. It is necessary that your news exists on an external website since “posting” your news on Change. The widget gives information about the fundraising project or page and asks people to donate. While it is okay to have a general fundraising project to support your work. or leave a personalized compliment. their blog.org Tips • Encourage supporters to make a Change related to your organization. their Facebook or MySpace page. Blog – There is a blog feature on nonprofit pages that allows you to write notes for all visitors to your page to read. you should also create fundraising projects with very clear goals. 112 • . If the Change you want a supporter to create already exists. have a specific campaign. Note that while Changes allow the Change’s members to post news about the Change. if one of your supporters makes a fundraising page to support your organization. When creating fundraising projects. Comment Wall – Every individual and nonprofit page comes with a comment wall where visitors can leave a comment. you can post news on the Change. but do not encourage the creation of a Change that already exists. you cannot post news on a particular Change because to do so you have to be a member of the Change. News – As a nonprofit.org entails linking to an external website and writing a short description of the news. This is a good way to disseminate news.org News page for other Change. An example would be to Give $50 to Send a Girl to School for a Month. instead try to become a recommended nonprofit on that Change by sending supporter requests to members of the Change.

the home page will list new videos from channels the user is subscribed to. from one to five stars. each video “lives” on an individual page. One of the YouTube browse options is to view the highest rated videos. ratings and video responses. your friends and subscriptions. the more likely you will appear under the Most Responded YouTube section. 113 • • • . In addition to emails. These email updates are sent out once a week. you appear in their friend section of their channel so all people viewing their page will see that they are friends with you.com and click Sign Up at the top of the page. it is a good idea to have your username be the name of your organization. Friends – You can add other YouTube users as friends in order to send them bulletins and easily share videos with them by clicking the Share Video link under a video you want to share. which hosts the one video. but to upload videos and interact with the YouTube community. Try to build up your subscriber list so that your video gets disseminated widely when it is posted.youtube.• View the Change. There.com/user/username. Being featured in either of these sections will raise awareness about your work and your video. and one of the most popular websites in general. Therefore. its comments. Your channel is the page that hosts your profile as well as lists all your videos. While using YouTube as a place to host your video is a good enough reason to create an account. To view videos on YouTube. Choose your username wisely as it will appear as your channel’s URL like www. when the user visits YouTube. At the bottom of their video. Also. Also. Therefore. there will be a box underneath the video with all the video responses to that video. It is the page that you will direct people to go to in order to see a list of all your YouTube videos. the more likely you will appear under the Most Discussed YouTube section. The more comments you get. Rate Videos – YouTube allows all users to rate the videos they watch.youtube. If someone adds you as a friend. While your channel indexes all your videos. On the page where your video is. users can post video responses to a video that you post. you do not need an account. there will be a note saying that the video is a response to yours. YouTube YouTube is the most popular video sharing site. The more video responses you get. you can upload videos that you have created and share them with the entire world. it acts like a bookmark so they can easily refer to your channel if they want to see your new videos. there are several other features of YouTube that make it a social networking community: • Comments and Video Comments – Every YouTube member can write a comment on videos posted on YouTube. Subscriptions – YouTube users can subscribe to your channel to receive email updates when you post a new video. Actions and fundraising projects. To sign up go to www.org Best Practices for more tips including how to promote your Changes. you need to sign up. the higher your video is rated. the more likely it will appear under the Top Rated section of YouTube. This can help your organization start a discussion around a particular issue with your video acting as the catalyst.

Go to your channel.” 114 . For more on the topic of creating a Flickr account and group for your organization. Flickr works by having its members upload their photos to the site. the more likely you will appear under the Top Favorites YouTube section. that is only for paid advertisers. If you have a lot of staff in your organization shooting video. you can create a YouTube group for your organization where all the videos can come together and be discussed. join groups. For instance you can ask YouTube users to compete to create a video about a certain issue. Also. choose favorite photos and more. or more. • • Flickr Flickr is a photo-sharing site with a social networking component. To join Flickr. Note that it has to be clear that the account you make is an individual account. have the others create their own account and then have them add their photos to the group. you want people to mark your video as a favorite so that it is more visible. tagging them with keywords and allowing other users to search those keywords to find photos. tell people about a group you made. Marking a video as a favorite also allows everyone who visits that user’s channel to view that user’s favorites. If you have a great deal of photos that you want to share. If you have many people wanting to add photos to your organization’s account.• Favorites – When YouTube users view a video they like. add notes to photos. you can search for or create a group about an issue you support in order to bring together your and other’s videos about the topic. Groups – Users can join groups on YouTube to post videos related to a topic and have discussions about them. draw attention to a discussion forming around a video. name it your organization and upload your logo as the icon picture. Therefore. You can use this to announce a new video you posted (if your friends are not also subscribers). Bulletins – You can send bulletins out to all of your YouTube friends with the click of a button. People or groups that are not paid advertisers are allowed to create a contest for free using YouTube groups. Also. not an account that is shared by everyone in the organization. forming around the goal of posting and sharing photography. they can add it as one of their favorites. Flickr is a site with users from all over the world and is available in eight languages. This makes you a more active in the YouTube community and will drive more traffic to your videos. the more people that add your video as a favorite. scroll down and click Broadcast a Message. create a group for your organization. This essentially bookmarks it so they can refer to it later. It is acceptable to create an account. Note that while there is a specific Contest section on YouTube. read “How Nonprofits Can Get the Most out of Flickr. Thus it is a purpose driven social networking site. You will be able to send a message to all your friend’s YouTube inboxes. you will need to make an account for your organization. Additionally. allowing people to comment on photos. you can use a group to host a video contest for your organization. Flickr just wants to make sure it is an individual account to prevent accidents occurring from an account with multiple users. this is a great site for your organization to be part of. The social networking aspect comes in by the multitude of Flickr features.

then you might want to create or join a group about women’s rights. comment or leave notes on them and hope that those users add you as a contact. you can post some of your photos and start a discussion with other group members. • • • • • 115 . they will be able to read the note. Below is a description of the social networking features of Flickr. All users can see who has added them as a contact. consider commenting on the photos that you like. • Contacts – Like friends on other social networking sites. FlickrMail – You can send messages to other Flickr users using the FlickrMail feature. Favorites – You can browse other people’s photos on Flickr and add them as your favorites. Groups – The most exciting feature of Flickr is its groups.For more on Flickr as a place to upload and store photos. You can do the same. if your organization takes a lot of photos of women’s rights activists. Therefore. Notes – Flickr allows users to post notes on other user’s photos. For instance. if someone adds you as a contact. For instance. hover over a user’s icon. see the Photo tutorial in this manual. Use this to network with other users and foster a relationship with them. Users can create and join groups to share their photos with other members of that group. Therefore. Flickr has a feature that allows you to add contacts so that you can stay up-to-date with other Flickr users. you should try to get a lot of people to favorite your photos so that their contacts see your pictures and potentially add you as a contact if they like what they see. if you think a part of the photo is particularly interesting you post a note on that part of the photo. Creating and joining groups is a good way to increase the number of people who add you as a contact. a user can view the contacts of his or her contacts. Also. consider commenting on photos that do not belong to your contacts to encourage people to add you as a contact. Do not use this feature to spam users with “Add me as a contact” mail. When other users scroll over the picture with a note on it. When they scroll over the square. which allows people to create a network and become contacts with their friend’s contacts. then they are updated whenever you post new photos. Then all people who view your profile on Flickr can view your favorites. Comments – Other Flickr users can view your photos and leave comments about them. To send mail to a user. you should try to encourage people to add you as a contact so that your photos reach a large number of people. Also. In the group. Posting notes has a similar effect as posting comments (building a relationship and increasing your visibility so that others add you as a contact). A note is different from a comment because a note shows up directly on the photo. When you add someone as a contact. A good way to do this is to join groups and to search for photos similar to your own. you can see on your Flickr homepage when they post new photos. To build a relationship with your Contacts. click on the arrow and click Send FlickrMail. they will see a transparent square where the note was placed. There is more on comments and notes below. In reverse.

If you have more basic and important tasks to do.idealware. the article then addresses the advantages that social networking can bring to your organization.org/learningcenter/internet/page5504. Eight Secrets of Effective Online Networking http://www. Using Social Networking to Stop Genocide http://www. What Can Social Networking do for Your Organization? http://www.gettingattention. social networking may not be right for your group. some useful social networking sites.techsoup.techsoup.cfm Intorductory article covering what is social networking. 116 .frogloop. including limiting the amount of fundraising you do on the site and letting your participants take control.html A profile of how the Humane Society has used MySpace to promote its cause. Should Your Nonprofit Use Social Networking Sites? http://www. or simply can’t devote time to it.php A great resource that helps you figure out if social networking is right for your organization. 7 Tips for Successful Social Networking Campaigns http://www.org/learningcenter/internet/page7430.html A few tips for using MySpace.idealware.Additional Resources Social Networking http://www.org/articles/social_networking_genocide.cfm This article consists of an interview with three organizations that provide insights into how they are using MySpace. Sunny the Seal Melts Hearts on MySpace http://www.php A case study on how the Genocide Intervention Network has used social networking to promote its cause.org/learningcenter/internet/page6016. It was written before the time of Facebook pages so disregard the part about making a profile for your organization.net/2007/04/7_tips_for_succ.cfm Eight great tips on how to get the most out of social networking. Nonprofit Do’s for MySpace Success http://www.fundraising123.com/care2blog/2007/5/7/sunny-the-seal-melts-hearts-on-myspace.org/articles/should_you_social_network.org/social-networking NTEN has an entire section of their website devoted to social networking tips for nonprofits. A Beginner’s Guide to Facebook http://www.html A few tips on how to best use social networking websites. Explore the website for a variety of articles and tips.org/my_weblog/2006/12/nonprofit_dos_f.christine. How to Use MySpace to Raise Awareness http://www.techsoup.cfm An article going over the main features of Facebook.techsoup. If you find that it is.org/learningcenter/internet/page8075. challenges of social networking and how to get noticed.

as well as how to use it like an expert. How Nonprofits Can Get the Most out of Flickr http://www. 117 .techsoup.typepad. Includes information and tips on how to use Flickr in compliance with its community rules and how to take advantage of its many features. How to Promote your Non-profit’s Cause on Facebook in Five Easy Steps http://www.Using Facebook in Your Nonprofit http://michelemartin.cfm A great article about Flickr and what it can do for your organization.com/thebambooprojectblog/2007/04/some_resources_. covering how to create a cause and how to promote it.wildapricot.aspx A guide about the Facebook Causes application.org/learningcenter/internet/page8291.html A blog entry about the basics of Facebook.com/blogs/newsblog/archive/2007/06/05/six-simple-ways-to-promote-yourcause-on-facebook.

Depending on what your particular video camera uses. A camcorder is the best option as it has the best video quality and can record for an extended period of time. These are in addition to informational videos that you will most likely want to produce. It allows people to see and hear information rather than just read it.” There are many genres of video meant for the Internet. Other video cameras use memory cards to record. how to videos. particularly if it is widely distributed Help diversify the face of an issue Be used in segments of varying lengths for different purposes. Vlogs (or video blogs) are essentially video blog entries with one person talking to the camera in the same way he or she would write a blog. while others use mini DVDs. the struggles your beneficiaries face. for instance a radio show through the Internet (podcasts can be just audio or have a video component as well). two of which are vlogs and podcasts. bringing testimonial voices to new audiences Help illustrate stark visual contrasts Provide direct visual evidence of abuses Help build coalitions with other groups in the campaign Reach a wide range of people as it does not require literacy to convey information Help counter stereotypes Help a campaign to reach new. The possibilities for video are endless. Equipment Needed • Camera – You can use a camcorder. You can create a short documentary about what your organization does. you will need a supply of the storage media. They are of varying quality. editing and dissemination can seem like a task that is out of your reach. Video creation. interviews with staff members. Storage Media – You will need tapes or discs to record the video using a camcorder. Some cameras use tapes in the form of mini cassettes. “Video as advocacy can: • • • • • • • • • • Elicit a powerful emotional response from audiences Connect viewers to personal stories. From the Human Rights Video Project. digital camera with a video function or a camera phone with a video function. Video allows you to be creative. but all will be capable of shooting video. A digital camera or camera phone with a video function is beneficial as it is small and discreet. A podcast on the other hand is a form of a broadcast. • 118 .Video Video is an unbelievably powerful tool that can improve your advocacy dramatically. but you may run into complications with image quality and if you want to edit the footage. edit and disseminate video on the Internet. This document will walk you through how to create. different and multiple audiences. Watching something is also more fun and easier than reading a report about it. and more. a fundraising video appealing for money. but it is very easy as long as you have the time and patience to dedicate to it.

if you have a microphone. Enunciate. leave room around the subject so that you do not cut off the top of their head. make sure it is as close to the subject as possible to keep out unwanted noise (but try to keep the microphone out of the shot). Inside make sure it’s bright and there are not shadows. Only zoom in to focus on a specific detail in the shot and even consider walking closer to what you want to focus on instead of zooming in. When filming outside. you may also need lights to achieve an appropriate lighting level. but if you want to conduct an interview outdoors in a noisy area. computers. Computer with editing software. Tripod (optional) – A tripod is recommended so that you can avoid camera shake.• • • • Fire Wire – This is the wire that you use to connect your camera to your computer. however. Tips for Shooting Good Video • Make sure you have good lighting. Speak as if you are teaching someone something. External microphone (optional) – Camcorders come with a built-in microphone that is usually sufficient for taping sound in a quiet place. Note that not all digital cameras and camera phones come with a built-in microphone and may not have a port to use an external one. For basic videos. When filming inside make sure to stay away from all unnecessary noises such as fans. It should come with the camera. The image is best when you stay zoomed out. and open windows. This allows you to capture the sound that you want without it being drowned out by background noise. Most camcorders have a port that allows you to plug in the external microphone. Don’t mumble. Avoid using the zoom as it often takes away from the video. especially if you are moving. • • • • • • • 119 . all you will need is a camera. When shooting video. Outside this usually isn’t a problem. the wire to connect it to your computer and a computer to edit it. If the camera will be actively moving make sure to move slowly and concentrate on holding the camera steady so that the viewer does not become distracted. for instance. you will need an external microphone. Begin recording slightly before needed and stop recording slightly after needed so there is room for editing. a backdrop to set behind an interviewee or other things. Depending on your needs.

There is no central theme but instead videos uploaded to You Tube cover various topics. Disseminating Video Online You Tube is the most popular place to upload videos. you might be able to capture attention for a longer period of time. 120 . then you have to ask permission to use it. For more on compression. you should definitely upload to You Tube as posting on You Tube makes it much easier to embed the video on other websites such as MySpace. and how to save and share movies. Here are links to and brief descriptions of major places you can upload video. Note that everything in your video must be your own work. Facebook. File sizes are limited to 10 minutes and 100MB. When you are done editing.com This is the most popular video-uploading site. you will need editing software. It will also download faster for viewers of your video. Computers running Windows come with Windows Movie Maker. make sure to stay on topic. This is because viewers on sites like You Tube have a short attention span. transitions. effects. This is just a recommendation and is not a set rule as some topics simply cannot be covered in two minutes. You Tube www. read the article “How to Compress Your Movie” on the Cambodian Bloggers Summit website. A useful tutorial on this program can be found at the Apple website. Compressing it makes the file size smaller and therefore your video will upload quicker to a site like You Tube. When you open Windows Movie Maker a bar comes up on the left side of your screen. New Macs come with iMovie preinstalled on the machine. A good way to find a lot of photos and music that are not copyrighted. but not the only place. For a great tutorial on how to use Windows Movie Maker. how to add titles. If you want to use other people’s clips. If it is. Windows Movie Maker allows you to make slide shows with pictures and add music and most importantly edit video clips. photos or music. if your audience will be those who are passionate about the topic rather than casual viewers. However. When you are done editing your video and click to save it. it is a good idea to compress your video file when saving it to your computer.youtube. visit the Make Internet TV website. how to edit clips. your blog and your website. search the Creative Commons website. We recommend uploading to various websites as different video sites have different audiences.Editing Video To edit video footage. Use your discretion but either way. The last option lists Movie Making Tips including how to capture video. Choose a mid-range size and continue saving. Many places suggest that you keep your video to one to two minutes in length. there should be options asking you if you want to compress. then you have to make sure that it is not copyrighted. Also. This is important because you should strive to embed the video on every web presence you have to promote it.

For instance. copy and paste the code there and paste it on your page as HTML code. Also. For more information on putting a video on iTunes visit the Make Internet TV website. Every video is given a page where people can view the video and where the organization can place links to more information on the topic of the video and how to donate to support the cause that the video covers. possible tags could be women. Each upload can only be 100MB. which are descriptive words to describe the content of your video.org/ This is a website that is meant for videos documenting human rights abuses. Be descriptive when giving your video a title so people can find it easily.witness. Offline You may not be able to reach your target audience only by posting your video on the Internet. DoGooderTV http://www.Witness http://hub. if your video is about discrimination against women in Afghanistan. This enables people to search for terms and find related videos. Also. There is also an application called Posted Items that allows Facebook users to place a You Tube video on their profile without linking to a new page (to post an item. On Facebook videos can be uploaded onto member profiles or group pages. To get around this you could hold public screenings of the video with a question and discussion session afterwards. sign into Facebook and find the Posted Items link on the left). go to your video. once videos are uploaded to a website like You Tube. iTunes is a popular program that allows you to download audio and video to your computer or iPod.dogooder. they are given a RSS feed which enables you to post your videos on iTunes. find the field that says Embed. Once a video is uploaded to one of these sites. Facebook or your own website. 121 .tv/ DoGooderTV is a portal where nonprofits can post their videos. When you upload your video to these kinds of sites you can give it Tags. discrimination and Afghanistan. it is easy to put it on MySpace. you can give your video a title. To place the video on your website or on MySpace. This is especially effective for local audiences and those affected by the issue you cover in the video.

Internet Video Publishing http://www. How to Make a Podcast in 5 Easy Steps http://www.cfm An article about how to make a video with an effective advocacy message. your audience and how to use your production. editing and dissemination.org/ This is an excellent resource that covers everything you need to know about basic video creation.Additional Resources Make Internet TV http://makeinternettv.techsoup.org/library/Introduction-to-Citizen-Media-EN. 122 .html An article with tips for shooting good video.com/content/view/9277/1/ This site covers what you need to make a podcast and how to do it. publishing.apple.php?sec=essay&sub=moving How video can be used for advocacy with tips on how to identify your goal. to how to shoot video (including lighting and sound tips). Eight Tips for Telling your Story Digitally http://www.htm This site has information on creating a video. how to edit video using popular programs and how to publish and promote it.cfm This website gives advice on how to tell your story through video clips.globalvoicesonline.youtube.com/how_2185685_shoot-better-video-web.masternewmedia. and promoting it.com/itunes/store/podcastsfaq.bloggingtips. YouTube Video Toolbox http://www.com/video_toolbox See this section of the YouTube website to view how-to videos about lighting.humanrightsproject.org/learningcenter/training/page6738.html Information about podcasts including how to create and access them using iTunes.techsoup. It starts with the equipment you need.org/video_internet_television/internet-video-publishing-making/beginnersguide-to-web-video-20071226. photographs and voice. editing. Make an Impact with Advocacy Videos http://www. making money off your video. 5 Vlogging Basics http://www. and other shooting and editing tips. How to Shoot Better Video for the Web http://www.pdf A publication that contains basic video creation tips. Introduction to Citizen Media http://rising. Moving Pictures.ehow.org/content. Moving Mountains: A Primer on Using Video in Advocacy Campaigns http://www.cyberneur.org/learningcenter/internet/page5280. FAQs for Podcast Fans http://www. sound. licensing it.com/2007/09/07/5-vlogging-basics/ Tips for making a good video blog.

think about what this audience will want to find on your website. After that. advice on writing text for the web. Most organizations want a website and even need one to be more successful. Some organizations can use a free website or even a blog to create their web presence. outline them as well. And more! Websites come in all shapes and sizes. there are web design tips. Also. you should consider creating a website. Below are some suggested brainstorming ideas from “Guide to Managing ICT in the Voluntary and Community Sector” by the ICT Hub. Post press releases and news (thus save money on printing and mailing). Engage supporters and raise money. For instance. This document walks you through the process of creating and maintaining a website. Know how you want to organize the site. what technical requirements you need and what kind of website would be appropriate for your needs.Websites If you want to broaden the reach and increase the visibility of your organization. Here are some sample section headings to help you begin to brainstorm: • About Us • Services/Projects • News 123 • • . Make a list of the main headings you want to include on the website and what kind of information will go under each. It begins by helping you figure out what you want your website to do. Planning Your Website The first thing you have to do is brainstorm what you want to accomplish with your web presence. How do you want to use a website to achieve your organization’s goals? Do you want the site to be a static. if your target audience is people in your own country where connection speeds are slow. If you plan to have subsections under the main headings. Increase awareness about your organization and your work. A website can help you: • • • • • • Provide information about your organization to the entire world. Not every organization needs an expensive website and a dedicated web team to support it. all you have to do is find what is right for your organization. Who do you want to visit your site? Keep this in mind when designing the site as well as producing content. • Know your objective. you don’t want to include a lot of graphics on your website that take a long time to load. tips on updating and maintaining your website and advice on how to promote your site after it is up and running. brochure site or will it be a website that is constantly updated with new information? Know your audience. Let people know how to get involved with your organization through volunteering or employment.

the more graphics you have on your website. If the person responsible for editing your website is familiar with HTML and updating a website using FTP (file transfer protocol) it is not necessary to have a WYSIWYG editor or CMS. As a rule. If you plan on having a very small website with just a few pages you will only need about 5MB of disk space. it is time to address the technical specifications you require. they take up some 124 . Every time someone visits your website. you will able to make an informed choice about what to use to create your website and then be able to start creating it! The following technical issues MUST be addressed: Ease of use You should consider the ease of creating and editing your website when deciding how to build it. it is recommended to use these tools to make updating a quicker and more efficient process. Disk Space You need to consider how large your website will be so you know how much disk space you will require from your host. you will need about 20MB of disk space. A CMS is software that is installed on your website so that it is very easy to create and edit content on your pages through a WYSIWYG editor. However. if you have some money to dedicate to the website. If you think that one day your website will grow to be over a thousand pages (like the AP website). Some web hosts have a feature called WYSIWYG editing (What You See Is What You Get). which allows people to edit a webpage as easily as they would edit a Word document. you could choose some more advanced options that allow you to create fancier websites with many more features and individual customization. get much more space than you think you will need so that you have room to expand your website in the future. On the other hand. the more disk space you will need (the AP website uses about 1GB of disk space because the site has a lot of graphics).• • • • • • Multimedia Resources Donate Get Involved Take Action Contact Us Now that you have brainstormed what you want your website to accomplish. If you require an advanced website. wiki or free website program. then you will need a website that can be edited without such knowledge. If you have no money to build your website. ask your web host to install something called a Content Management System (CMS). If the person responsible for editing and maintaining the website does not know HTML. Wordpress has this feature. for websites that will be updated frequently. Budget How much money you can dedicate to your website will determine what you use to build it. who it will target and how it will be organized. If you want a medium size website with about 100 pages. Also. you will have to use a blog. Once you know what you need. Bandwidth How many visitors to your website do you expect? If you expect a lot then you have to make sure that your website has a lot of bandwidth. you will need more than 50MB. Bandwidth can be explained as “the amount of traffic that is allowed to occur” on your website. as do most wikis and free websites.

Wikis are meant for collaboration. free and easy to get this started. You will most likely need more than 1 GB of bandwidth unless you expect very little traffic. For instance.com Free Wordpress blogs come with about 3GB of storage space for file and image uploads. See the blogging section of this manual and the Wordpress website for more information on this blog provider. Wiki A wiki is a type of web page that allows multiple users to edit it easily.wordpress. Wikipedia is a type of wiki. the more people can drive on the highway. If this is not want your organization wants. Look and Feel Do you need a website that looks a certain way? Do you require a very professional. They were introduced in the above discussion of technical specifications but this section will describe them in more detail and provide links to specific providers. a free website or an advanced website. Therefore. some of these free options require you to have ads on your site. it is always better to get much more bandwidth than you think you will need. Blog Believe it or not. but you could use a wiki to make your website and 125 . Wordpress makes this especially easy due to its feature that allows you to add multiple pages. your website can become slow to load or even shut down. a wiki. Then the page that has the blog posts can be used for the news or updates section. A good analogy that FindMyHosting. you may need to use a particular kind of website. Note that if you do not get enough bandwidth and then exceed your limit.bandwidth. If too many cars come. wikis and free websites do not allow for advanced customization but instead allow only for the use of pre-made templates. If your website has a lot of bandwidth (lanes). For instance. and Contact pages. Also.000 page views and used approximately 16GB of bandwidth. you will need to consider an advanced website. Wordpress www. It is quick. read the Bandwidth article on the Find My Hosting website). a blog can be used as your website until you can find the time and money for a more sophisticated web presence.yourorganization. The same thing happens to a website. your website may go down or your host may charge you extra fees. The more lanes. the highway slows down and may come to a standstill. For instance. If you don’t have enough bandwidth and a lot of people come to your website. You can also buy a domain name such as www. through a blog.com uses is to think of the amount of bandwidth you have as lanes on a highway. Ways to Create a Website There are several ways you can create your web presence online. Anyone familiar with Microsoft Word is capable of creating a basic blog on Wordpress.org for under $10 and use it with your blog. For instance. many people can visit it without shutting the website down. most free blogs. sleek look? Or can your website use generic templates or even have advertisements on it? Depending upon the answers to these questions. you can create a page for your homepage and add About Us. and unlimited bandwidth. the AP website received around 40. in March. Services. (For more information on figuring out how much bandwidth you need.

10 email accounts.25MB. PBwiki www.freeservers. you are able to use your own domain name.com/ With Microsoft Live you can get a free website.95/year after that. There 126 . Also. Free Servers www. Microsoft Live http://smallbusiness. Additionally. they often have limitations on how much storage and bandwidth you can have.doteasy. However. Dot Easy has plans with more features that you have to pay for. If you have your own domain name. It allows for unlimited disk storage and bandwidth. It gives you three email accounts and allows you to use your own domain. your website will have ads. some wikis are free and some are very expensive. 24/7 email support and has no ads. For more details about each kind of wiki software available and to compare different ones. see the WikiMatrix website. It does not run ads on your page. you may be able to use someone in your current staff to create the wiki. 1GB of bandwidth per month. unless you upgrade. all of which are free and easy to use. Wikispaces www. Since the web hosting is free. Free website There are many website hosts that allow you to create a website for free. Google maps. and more. If you need more. Dot Easy www. Also. Below are just three options. except a PBwiki logo at the very bottom.only allow people with passwords to edit it.officelive. This amount of disk space will allow for a lot of graphics. Ads will be featured on your wiki but they can be removed for $5/month. you can use it with your Wetpaint blog. Downsides of a Wetpaint wiki is that it contains advertisements and is not as professional looking as other wikis. Some wikis are very easy to edit. and limits the size of each file you upload to . The amount of disk space available is limited to 2GB and there is no bandwidth limit. Therefore.wetpaint. your own domain and email addresses – all free for the first year and then $14.wikispaces. chat rooms.com The free Dot Easy hosting plan includes 100MB of storage. they will likely be able to create a nice looking free website. More complex wikis will likely require outside help.com Wikispaces is a free wiki host. while others are as complicated as advanced websites. If you have someone on staff that is comfortable with the basics of computers and the Internet. These websites often restrict the customization level of your site and may also place ads on your website. This means that you will not be able to have a lot of pictures on your site. It restricts disk space to 10MB but has unlimited bandwidth.com Free Servers’ free option includes 50MB of disk space. Wetpaint http://www. is extremely simple to use and comes with Google Analytics tools to monitor your statistics. 1GB bandwidth a month.pbwiki. It gives you 500MB of storage and 10GB of bandwidth a month. It comes with a variety of features allowing you to easily embed videos.com/ Wetpaint is free wiki host. they are free and are often very easy to use.com PBwiki is a free wiki host.

3. Also. If you exceed 500MB of bandwidth per month.95/month. and it allows you to use your own domain name if you like. there are no ads besides a link to the SiteKreator website at the bottom of your page.tripod.lycos.com This is the web host AP uses. 1. Also. you can create a website from scratch with complete customization. 15. It comes with a built-in feature to track your website’s statistics. unlimited email accounts. This requires strong computer skills. Otherwise. Geocities http://geocities. Tripod www. you will need to hire a web designer. A CMS makes designing your website as easy as downloading and installing a template and updating your website as easy as editing a Word document – no HTML or FTP knowledge required.com For $4. and the ability to add a CMS to make your website easy to create and edit.lunarpages. It is not possible to use your own domain name with Tripod and there will be ads on your site. make sure that your web host supports a CMS (such as Joomla or Drupal).freewebs. unlimited email accounts and a number of other great features such as the ability to add blogs and great 24/7 support.yahoo.000GB of bandwidth a month.500GB of storage.000GB of bandwidth a month. It is unclear how much bandwidth you receive but it seems as though there is no limit. ads will appear on your website.com/ Tripod’s free hosting service provides you with 20MB of disk space and 1GB of monthly bandwidth. If the last sentence does not make sense to you or the person who will be responsible for updating your website. it allows you to use your own domain name. LunarPages www. you will have to create each webpage in a program like Dreamweaver and then upload the HTML file to your website using FTP.95/month plan comes with a CMS like Joomla that you can use to edit your website.com/ Freewebs’ free option gives you 40MB of disk space and 500MB of bandwidth per month.95/month you get a free domain name. You can design your website and make it easily editable by ensuring that your web host allows you to use a content management system (CMS).com SiteKreator’s free website package gives you 10MB of disk space. you can opt to put advertisements on your website to pay for it. a lot of bandwidth and storage space.com The free Geocities plan has 15MB of disk space and 3GB of monthly bandwidth. SiteKreator www. Advanced websites The other alternative is to pay for an advanced website.hostgator. For completely original and customized sites. Depending on how much money you have. you get 300GB of disk space. For $6. Hostgator www.are no ads on the site except a small graphic at the bottom of the website with the Microsoft Live logo. Freewebs http://members. Geocities does not provide you with email accounts and is not compatible with your own domain. but does not require that someone be a website expert. Note that a credit card is required to sign up for the free first year. The $6.sitekreator. 127 .

500GB of monthly bandwidth. 10 email accounts and a number of other features. 2.95/month.BlueHost www.95/month plan. you will need the $9.com Netfirms’ cheapest package is $4.com For $6. What type of website is right for your organization? Ease of use Blog Extremely easy (only basic computer and Internet skills needed) Very easy (can be done by someone comfortable with computers and the Internet) Very easy (can be done by someone comfortable with computers and the Internet) If your website has a CMS. The $4. so to ensure that your website is easy to create and edit.95/month and has 10GB of storage. 6. BlueHost gives you 1. and the ability to add a CMS. there are excellent cheap. limited customization Wiki Often free Generally enough for a medium size site Generally enough for a medium size site As much as you need and enough to ensure that you can expand without worry Usually unlimited but varies Limited Free Website Free Often places ads. limited customization Often places ads. a free domain name.netfirms. Budget Free Disk space Wordpress has 3GB Bandwidth Wordpress is unlimited Look and Feel Wordpress rarely places ads. someone with advanced knowledge in web design will be needed.95/month plan does not include the Joomla CMS.500GB of disk space. creating and editing is relatively easy for someone very comfortable with computers and the Internet.000GB of bandwidth.bluehost. but powerful options available Enough bandwidth for most heavily visited sites Does not have ads and are fully customizable 128 .500 email accounts. 24/7 support. Netfirms www. If you don’t use a CMS. limited customization Advanced Website Varies.

copy and paste all material into Notepad. where would I look for it? Use a simple font. While it is good to add pictures and other graphics to break up text and add flavor to your website. don’t try to be overly creative or innovative in a way that makes people confused when they come to your site. Have a search option. Do not write the text of your pages in a font that is hard to read. here are some suggestions to get you started: • Make your website easy to navigate. this will only confuse and aggravate your visitors. Don’t try to be creative and put it on the bottom of the page or make your headings unclear. Use graphics only when there is a purpose for them. These animations are distracting and make your site look very unprofessional. Choose an appropriate background. as well as the things they have done that are effective. Avoid animations. For instance. Do not use unnecessary animations on your website. Do not choose a background color that is distracting and that clashes with the text on the page. it is not a good idea to overload your website with them. But. Stick to what has worked for other websites and try to make your site look (in general) like the majority of other sites out on the web. You just lost a visitor. Also. your font should be consistent throughout your website. Use headings that aptly describe the information they contain. scrolling titles. Make sure each page you create goes in a particular section for a reason. have the menu along the top of the page or on one of the sides. To ensure that all font is consistent. make sure that the menu bar is easy to find and is clear. If they come to your site and don’t immediately see where to find the information they are looking for. but don’t overuse them. they may not make the effort to click on each of your pages to find it. Ask yourself. Use white or a color that complements the rest of your website. etc. Make sure it is well-organized. Use a simple font so that people can read the information on the page without having to struggle. Also.Design Tips The best way to understand good web design is to surf the web and see for yourself the mistakes other people have made. Use graphics. • • • • • • 129 . do not make your text too tiny or too large. If there is no search option. Also. they may search for it. they take a long time to load. if I was a visitor to this site and wanted to find the information contained on this page. Moreover. Doing so will make your website ineffective and look unprofessional. This especially applies to flashing text. Text Edit or another plain text editor to remove all formatting from the text before pasting it on your website. Having a feature that allows people to search your website for a particular term can help them navigate your site better. When thinking about how your site will look and be used.

write in short paragraphs so that people can scan a page easily. It is a good idea to have people outside your organization look at your website before you invite the whole world to look at it. how you spell words that have multiple spellings. 130 . The purpose of a style guide is to ensure consistency. Do not use long sentences or long paragraphs. • • Writing for the Web Online. you have to write in a particular way for the web. add bullets and try to write more concisely. Approve and finalize design at the beginning of the process. See below for some tips on writing text for the Internet. etc. in a style guide. Regardless. they don’t read. Also. visit EWRITE. people scan. To help make your page easier to scan use bullet points and lists when appropriate. but definitely keep it to less than five. bold section titles and bold important points. add section headings. Here are some tips for doing so effectively. Use bold type. Create a style guide. you decide whether you write out numbers (like nine children) or not (like 9 children). do not over use lists since a long bulleted list is just as hard to read as a list in paragraph form. you can make changes before it goes live or is widely promoted. Write in clear and concise sentences so that people can scan a paragraph easily. A style guide should be created if there is a lot of content on your website. • • • • Tips for Updating and Maintaining Websites You may have a site that you need to update very often or you may have a static site that isn’t meant to be updated regularly. Be sure that you like the design because often custom designs cannot be changed or tweaked once the site is published. For more information. Break the text up with graphics. Test your site before it goes live or before you promote it. an organization devoted to providing advice on writing for the web. Because of this. Use bullets and lists. so keep the number of clicks required to find material at a minimum. you need to maintain your website. You lose visitors on each click that is required.” Do not create text that results in paragraphs that take up an entire screen. tell them exactly what you want and approve the design early on. if people don’t understand how to navigate the website or don’t like certain parts of it. • Write clearly and concisely. To help people scan your page. For instance. Don’t create a “wall of words. If you have a web designer building your website. Making sure that your text is consistent will make your website look more professional.• All content should be within three clicks from the homepage. Three clicks is the suggestion. However. This way.

• • • Website Promotion Tips Now that your website is live and is being maintained. It is very easy to purchase a domain name. This will make it easier to train other people to make updates to the site and will also prevent confusion if the person in charge of the website leaves the organization. It would also be helpful to have a website design specialist in your eco-network to turn to for design related help. If you chose an advanced website. make sure you do so. regardless of whether this is a daily or monthly task. 1. If you did not hire someone to build the site. so here are several ways to get more people visiting your site.yourorganization. Depending upon the ease of editing your site. Also. Make sure to include all contact information for your domain registrar in your Tech Binder because you will have to renew your domain name yearly. 131 . Either way. but do not allow everyone in the organization to post content to your website without passing it through the person in charge of the website’s look and style. you purchase it. If you plan to update your site regularly. Create a website tutorial. Just because your website exists does not mean that people will find it.• Clarify how long you will have website support. You don’t want to be in a situation where you face a website problem and have no one to call for help.org. you will be required to purchase a domain of your own either through the web host or through another domain registrar. Don’t update your homepage five times and then never update again. simply make sure you write down the contact information for your web host (like Wordpress customer service. a wiki or free website to host your website. You have to visit a domain registrar. It is a good idea to purchase your own domain name to use instead like www.com. It is ok to have a web maintenance team. you should make all content pass through this person before it is posted online. This will disappoint visitors and make you look unprofessional.wordpress. If you are unsure whether you will be able to update your website often. you should think about promoting it. You will need a person in-house who is able to update the website. start off updating once a month and then move to more frequent updates once you are capable. Make this clear in writing. Once the website is up and a person has been designated to oversee it. make sure it is clear how long they will be available to help you troubleshoot problems and provide general assistance with the site. Designate one person to be in charge of maintaining the website.yourorganization. If you use a blog. there should be one person in charge of editing the website in order to ensure that the content posted is well organized and consistent. it simply looks more professional. create a tutorial on how to maintain the website. you are most likely going to be given a long domain name like www. Get your own domain name. If you hired someone to build your website. This way it is easier for someone to remember or guess your web address. For these reasons. this person could very well be the “accidental techie” or you may have to hire someone knowledgeable in web design and HTML. and if not. check to see if your domain has been taken. or Lunar Pages support) in your Tech Binder in case you run in to technical problems.

Make sure your web address appears everywhere. More advanced things can be done to improve your placement in search engines. • • • • 132 .” Link to it by hyperlinking the title of the press release or what it is about. The more websites that link to your website. make sure your website is indexed by search engines. but they will not be discussed here. in your email signature. Put these words or phrases in prominent places such as in titles and headers and near the top of the page to help search engines find them. Search engines search the web for text so they won’t be able to read text that has been put into an image. you need it to be before you can worry about your placement in search results. don’t link to it by hyperlinking “Click here. advocacy group. Some websites do this through a Links page. To do this. don’t “hide” your mission or other important information in a graphic. • First. or any other term you think people may search for you as.yoursite. To do this.Here are some popular domain registrars if you are not required to buy the domain through your web host: www. If you are a human rights organization working for women’s rights in Uganda. So contact like-minded groups and ask them to link to your content and offer to do the same for them. Ensure that your website appears on search engines. you want your site to be the first result. Uganda. Do not use “Click Here” to link to other pages on your website. Promote your website at every opportunity! 3.com www. Therefore.com” If nothing comes up in the results. search the search engine for “site:www. Think of words or phrases that people use to search for your organization and use them on your website. perhaps even repeated two or three times. which are discussed below. and on your blog.com 2.net www. Ask a tech consultant for help if you want more advanced.networksolutions. This includes on print documents like reports and brochures. the higher your ranking in search engines. You may also want to include terms such as non-governmental organization. If your site is not already indexed. When people search for terms related to your website on search engines like Google or Yahoo. support group. technical suggestions.namecheap. you should make sure to have the terms “human rights” and “women’s rights” on your homepage and other key pages. submit your site to the search engine (often by going to the search engine and following a link at the bottom of the page) and follow the next tip. Therefore. social networking site or other online presence. it means that your website has not been indexed by the search engine. but you can also mix in links throughout your website where relevant. If you want to link to a press release from your homepage.com www.godaddy. Ask other websites to link to your website. Don’t put key information in a graphic. Publicize your website address. There are some simple tips to help this happen.gkg.

then you know that people are coming to your site but once they are there. Be careful with this statistic because it can count the same person multiple times over a given time frame. For instance. it may say that you got 1. If this number is low. Time spent per visit – This statistic shows you how long each visitor spends on your website. you know you need to promote your website better. If each visitor spends only a short amount of time. As a result. It also allows you to see if your website places within the first three pages of search results when a particular keyword is searched for. 4. If this rate is high (over 50%).when a search engine comes across that link and sees that it links to the particular press release. and more. you will need to look to see how many unique visitors you have.000 visitors but half of those visits could be from the same person. not simply the number of visitors. This can help you with the task of placing keywords on your website in order to improve your placement. if everyone who visits your website views 10 pages. Keeping an eye on this data can help you improve the design and content of your website as well as your promotion strategy. not 10. There is a lot of powerful software available that allows you to view detailed reports about how many visitors come to your website. your average page views per visit is 10. If this number is low. • • • 133 . If you want to know how many individuals visited your site in a given time frame. The tool allows you to type in your web address and see how many websites link to your site in order to analyze the popularity of your website. where your visitors live. if someone visits your website and views 10 pages. For instance if you are looking to see how many visitors you received in May. The more page views per visit. it will learn more about what that press release is about and improve the press release’s placement in the search engine. There is a useful tool that can help you promote yourself on search engines. you should monitor your website’s statistics. it shows that your website is not effective in retaining visitors. The tool can be found at Market Leap’s website. you may need to provide better content or improve navigation. You may need to write better content or improve navigation. Monitor your site’s statistics To see whether your web promotion strategy is working. what pages they are viewing the most. then you may need to improve your navigation and make people want to explore different parts of your website. Consider using it as part of your search engine optimization strategy. For instance. the better as it shows that your website encourages people to explore multiple pages. what search engines are referring people to your site. they leave it rather quickly. Bounce rate – This statistic is a rate that measures how many visitors come to your website and then leave it within a short time without visiting other pages. Page views per visit – This statistic counts how many pages were viewed in an individual visit. you have one visitor. Some common statistics that are collected are: • Visitors – This statistics monitors how many visits your site received.

you can use Google Analytics to see how many people do so and if they do not. Also. then you should probably not worry. Google Analytics http://www.google. If you find that people are searching for appropriate keywords and are successfully finding your website. This is a key statistic to monitor in your search engine optimization strategy. 134 . If visitors tend to leave your website from obscure pages. two of which are below. Search engine referrals – This statistic shows how many visitors come to your site from major search engines like Google or Yahoo. Like Google Analytics. it can help you decide whether it would be a good idea to have your website in multiple languages so that your visitors from other countries can better understand your content. you need to figure out why they leave your website from that page and alter the content or navigation appropriately. if you find that strange keywords are directing to your website. where they go instead. It is a powerful piece of software that monitors all the statistics listed above as well as tracks specific goals you set and if they are accomplished. if you want visitors to view a particular page. To set up Google Analytics on your website. Visitor Location – This statistic lets you see where your visitors are located. • • • There are a lot of free website statistic tools available.com/analytics/indexu. their screen resolution and more.com Another popular and free website analytic tool is Stat Counter. Stat Counter www. It monitors all the common statistics listed above as well as detailed information on each visitor including what browser they use.html Google Analytics is the website statistic tool that AP uses. you may need to rework your content so that it better reflects the keywords you want people to find you under. For instance. you need a Google account and will need to be able to copy and paste code on every page of your website. then the keyword placement part of your search engine optimization strategy is working well.statcounter.• Exit pages – This statistic shows you what pages visitors tend to leave your site from. Keywords – This statistic shows you what keywords people type in search engines to find your website. However. you will have to be able to copy and paste code on every page of your website. However. If you see that no traffic is coming from Google. if visitors are leaving your website from high profile pages like your homepage. This can be useful if you are trying to target populations in a particular country or city. that means that your website has not been found by Google or it is buried in the thousands of search results.

php To see what a basic CMS is and how it works. how to plan for a website.fundraising123. Guide to Managing ICT in the Voluntary and Community Sector http://www.uk/publications/managing_ict_guide.com/html/ A website devoted to teaching people HTML. including not relying on popup windows.com/index. Nonprofit Website Tips http://www. software to use to build a website and a ton of other information.lunarfun. Lunarpages Quicksite CMS Demo http://quicksite-demo. HTML Tutorial http://www. There. including how to work with a web designer.org.org/wiki/ttgo/4/start This website walks you through planning your website.smashingmagazine. Branding your Nonprofit Through your Website http://www. 135 . Eight Ways a CMS Can Help with Search Engine Optimization http://www.Additional Resources Establishing Your Web Presence http://www. see Lunarpages’ Quicksite demo.kabissa.org/learningcenter/webbuilding/page8520. font choices.techsoup.html An excellent resource with detailed information on website design. Web Style Guide http://www. developing it. your text and graphics.cfm This article discusses how using a content management system can help your website get found by search engines.alderconsulting. and more. this resource will help. editorial guidelines for the web. how to create an effective Contact Us page. 10 Usability Nightmares You Should be Aware of http://www. using graphics and using multimedia on the web.com/2007/09/27/10-usability-nightmares-you-should-be-aware-of/ This website gives you 10 things that you should not do when designing a website.w3schools. individual page design.pdf Pages 42-49 discuss websites. You will most likely not need to know HTML to make your website.org/web-site-101 This is Network for Good’s website tip section that gives advice on how to use your website to fundraise.html Interesting article on how to create a brand for your organization through your website design.webstyleguide.icthub.com/branding. not making your links blend in with the rest of the text and not overloading the page with information. starting with the basics. how to design your website. but in case you do or just want to learn.com/login. and maintaining and improving your website. you can design a test website using a CMS by simply entering your email address and trying out each feature available.

etc.alaskainternettoday.grassroots. entry pages.org/learningcenter/internet/page8319.techsoup.) mean. 136 . Website Statistics – Tracking your Site Investment http://www.org/guide Easy to follow guide for getting your site on the first page of search results. 10 Steps to Being Found on Search Engines http://www.Introduction to Search Engine Optimization http://seo.com/experts/connor_website_statistics. page views. including the easy ones you can do yourself and the more complicated ones you make need your webmaster to do for you.cfm Includes 10 tips on search engine optimization.php Excellent article that highlights the importance of tracking website statistics and what common stat language (such as hits.

Helps you find ways to solve problems you encounter when building and maintaining your ICT house 137 .

You can consult the tutorials in this manual. Consult User Guides If the manual does not answer your question. When these scenarios present themselves. • • You can self-help to solve the problem. Simply knowing where to look and what to search for can help you troubleshoot some of your most frustrating problems. Not only is this usually the quicker and less costly approach. You can consult your eco-network for support. Below are some suggested ways you can approach troubleshooting. attend trainings about creating a website conducted by computer groups. Troubleshooting is often thought of in terms of specific and very technical computer problems. Below are more detailed tips for each method. If you cannot solve the problem on your own. It does not cover everything you will have problems with. but this is often not true. post questions online and simply use trial and error. when you have problems and need their help. search the Internet. you will encounter problems or come across technology that is too advanced for anyone in your organization to figure out on their own. Contact other NGOs that have websites to talk to them about their experience choosing a web host. etc. you will never know how to deal with problems on your own. turn to your eco-network.At some point while building your ICT house. looking online for web host comparisons and posting questions on email listservs to ask for other’s opinions. printers. you have two options to solve them. including how to approach self-help and how to best use your eco-network to solve the problems you encounter when building your ICT house. However. How to Self-Help The first thing you should do when faced with a problem is to try to solve it on your own. If this self-help approach doesn’t answer your question. when you are planning your website. This is where the importance of your econetwork comes in. you should contact people and groups in your eco-network for help. you may be confused about what web host to choose. For instance. etc. Additionally. software or ICT tool you have questions about. it also helps build your troubleshooting knowledge. but the Standard Operating Procedures and tutorials have information and tips that can help you if you encounter a problem with computers or ICT tools. user guides. it may 138 . There are so many options that you may feel overwhelmed. Sometimes you may believe that you have nothing to consult for answers. If you always call others to fix your technical problems. You should start by checking the Website tutorial. talk to groups that specialize in creating websites. the user guide often comes as a written booklet in the box with the equipment. you should then consult the user guides that came along with the equipment. Consult Manual Your first step when encountering a problem is to consult this manual. troubleshooting can also encompass more general questions about using particular ICT tools effectively and appropriately. User guides not only tell you how to use the technology but often help you with common problems in the frequently asked questions or troubleshooting sections. routers. With equipment such as computers.

but it is also a good idea to look at technology-focused websites to generally get an idea of what resources they have. Most discussion groups have archives where you can access old messages (if you delete them from your inbox). Some good discussion lists you should consider signing up for are: • The Nonprofit Technology Network hosts over a 100 discussion groups about particular ICT related topics. this will get you an answer. how to get more friends on Facebook. 139 . try altering your search terms to specify exactly what you need an answer for. You will most likely be able to find something related to your question quite easily as there are a lot of websites that are devoted to providing technology help and tips for nonprofits. for example. you can post a question in the morning and get a great answer by the evening. If in the future you experience the same problem. Go to NTEN’s website to browse a list of their groups. thus enhancing your knowledge. type in your question in a search engine to find other people’s suggestions. you should then search the Internet for the answer to your problem. type in your problem and search. You will probably find these by searching for your problem on a search engine. Search the Internet If the user guide isn’t helpful either (or if there is no user guide). With many. With software or ICT tools. If your problem is that you are receiving an error message and you don’t know what it means or how to fix it. you will know how to fix it or at least know that the question has already been answered. Go to a search engine like Google or Yahoo. The following websites have great technology resources: • • • • • • • Tech Soup Npower Compass Point I Train Online Nonprofit Technology Network Global E-riders Kabissa Post a Question on a Discussion List There are many discussion groups that exist to help nonprofit professionals find answers to their technology-related questions. Often. If nothing comes up.come installed on your computer as a Help file. Usually someone else has had the problem and has found a way to fix it. If you have a more general question. the user guide is usually found by opening the software or tool and clicking on Help. What is particularly great about these discussion groups is that when you subscribe you can see questions and answers to other people’s problems. copy and paste the message into a search engine.

How to Use Your Eco-network Some problems are easier to fix on your own than others. trainings conducted by computer societies. If someone else sends a question to the listserv and you know the answer. etc. respond! This is not only nice. but no one in the office is capable of putting together a training. That assessment asked you to look for groups in your area that can help you with various technology issues. such as ICT focused NGOs. below are some tips for getting the most out of your econetwork. or even hiring a consultant to train your staff for a few hours. you may be able to figure out how to upload a video to YouTube through self-help. you may want to contact a consultant or ICT-focused NGO in your area to help you with your problem. or roaming technology consultants.• Progressive Exchange’s discussion list covers all sorts of questions related to ICT tools. computer societies. For instance. now is the time to actually start contacting them. For instance. • Go to an eco-network partner with a specific need. consultants. you should look into classes at universities. Information Systems Forum is a discussion group for nonprofit staff to ask questions about using technology in their work. You began the formation of your eco-network when you completed the Enviroscan. but publicizes your organization’s name for free. There are three discussion lists meant for questions and discussion by eRiders. if you find that you need staff training in using Microsoft Excel. Even though you may have put together a list of possible groups to form your eco-network after the Enviroscan. 140 . Join the lists to ask your questions to a pool of tech consultants: Riders Talk Riders Tech Global eRiders • • Remember that a discussion list only works if people participate and answer questions. When your problem is too complex for anyone in your organization to figure out. universities. While this is a straightforward process. Likewise. Being as specific as possible with your problem or request will ensure that you get exactly what you want from them. but perhaps not be able to figure out complex video editing techniques. if you have a technical problem with your office network and no one in your office can figure it out. turn to your eco-network.

• Use your eco-network to build your own knowledge. You may go to an organization for help one day and the next day. work with the person or group so that you learn alongside them. When consulting outside help with a problem. You will get the most out of your eco-network if you offer something to your partners. they may need your help. • 141 . Don’t simply hand over your problem to someone and let them figure it out. Instead use your eco-network as essentially pools of knowledge that you can draw upon so you have more institutional knowledge after consulting them. Become an eco-network partner for other organizations. Building a reciprocal relationship will strengthen your ties with your partners.