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# EXERCISES GROUP 8

1. A supervisor records the number of employees absent over a 30- day period. Test the claim that the number of employees absent occur at random, at = 0.05. 27 6 19 24 18 12 15 17 18 20 0 9 4 12 3 2 7 7 0 5 32 16 38 31 27 15 5 9 4 10

2. Table below shows the actual daily occurrence of sunshine in Atlanta during November 1974, as a percentage of the possible time the sun could have shone if it had not been for cloudy skies. Dichotomize the observation according to whether the amount of sunshine was more than 50% of possible or 50% less, and test the null hypotheses that the pattern of occurrences of the two types of day is random. Percentage of day during which sunshine occurred in Atlanta, November 1974. Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Day 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Percentage 85 85 99 70 17 74 100 28 100 100 31 86 100 0 100 Percentage 100 46 7 12 54 87 100 100 88

25 26 27 28 29 30

## 50 100 100 100 48 0

3. In an article on quality control, Puecell(E30) gives the set of typical data shown in table below. Categorize each observation according to whether it falls above or below 1435, and test the claim that the pattern of occurrences is at random. Typical data for life of incandescent lamps in hours, before establishment of control. Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sample 17 18 19 20 21 Median 1100 1280 1460 1350 1060 1250 1440 1230 1630 2100 1210 1760 2410 2080 1500 1550 Median 1210 1620 1560 730 1260

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

1560 1770 1160 1300 1500 1270 1560 1150 1940 840 1140

4. Columns 1 and 2 of table below show, for 15 normal fetuses, the gestational age and mean QA0 (a measurement of the cardiac cycle) values, as reported by Murata and Martin (E29). If we perform a regression analysis on the data using gestational age as the residuals by subtracting X and mean Q A0 as the dependent variable Y, we obtain the residuals by subtracting the fitted from the observed value Y (shown in column 3). Dichotomize the residuals according to whether they are negative or positive, and test the claim that their pattern of occurrences is random. Observed age, mean Q A0 values, and residuals obtained by fitting a regression line to the data. Gestational age Mean Q A0 Residual Gestational age Mean Q A0 Residual 40 71.5 -1.4 38 69.5 +4.6 39 71.5 +2.8 39 69.5 +0.6 40 72.5 -0.4 40 71.8 -1.1 38 64.4 -0.5 38 68.3 +3.4 40 69.3 -3.6 36 57.5 +0.6 40 72.7 -0.2 39 70.7 +5.9 39 67.7 -1.2 36 51.6 -6.5 37 61.1 +0.2

EXERCISES GROUP 8 1. A supervisor records the number of employees absent over a 30- day period. Test the claim that the number of employees absent occur at random, at = 0.05. 27 6 19 24 18 12 15 17 18 20 0 9 4 12 3 2 7 7 0 5 32 16 38 31 27 15 5 9 4 10

Solution. Hypotheses: H0 : The pattern of occurrences of number of employees absent occur at random.(claim) H1: The pattern of occurrences of number of employees absent is not random. Test statistics:

## Critical value: Lower critical value = 9 Upper critical value = 21

Decision: Since Conclusion: Enough evidence to reject the claim that the pattern of occurrences of number of employee absent occur at random. , we reject H0

2. Table below shows the actual daily occurrence of sunshine in Atlanta during November 1974, as a percentage of the possible time the sun could have shone if it had not been for cloudy skies. Dichotomize the observation according to whether the amount of sunshine was more than 50% of possible or 50% less, and test the null hypotheses that the pattern of occurrences of the two types of day is random. Percentage of day during which sunshine occurred in Atlanta, November 1974.

Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Day 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Percentage 85 85 99 70 17 74 100 28 100 100 31 86 100 0 100 Percentage 100 46 7 12 54 87 100 100 88 50 100 100 100 48 0

Solution Hypotheses: H0: The pattern of occurrences of the two types of day is random.(claim) H1: The pattern of occurrences of the two types of day is not random. Test statistics:

## Critical value: Lower critical value = 9 Upper critical value = 20

Decision: Since Conclusion: Not enough evidence to reject the claim that the pattern of occurrences of the two types of day is random. , do not reject H0 .

3. In an article on quality control, Puecell (E30) gives the set of typical data shown in table below. Categorize each observation according to whether it falls above or below 1435, and test the claim that the pattern of occurrences is at random. Typical data for life of incandescent lamps in hours, before establishment of control. Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sample 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Solution Median 1100 1280 1460 1350 1060 1250 1440 1230 1630 2100 1210 1760 2410 2080 1500 1550 Median 1210 1620 1560 730 1260 1560 1770 1160 1300 1500 1270 1560 1150 1940 840 1140

Hypotheses: H0: The pattern of occurrences is at random.(claim) H1: The pattern of occurrences is not random.

Test statistics:

## Critical value: Lower critical value = 11 Upper critical value = 23

Decision: Since Conclusion: Not enough evidence to reject the claim that the pattern of occurrences is at random. , do not reject H0.

4. Columns 1 and 2 of table below show, for 15 normal fetuses, the gestational age and mean QA0 (a measurement of the cardiac cycle) values, as reported by Murata and Martin (E29). If we perform a regression analysis on the data using gestational age as the residuals by subtracting X and mean Q A0 as the dependent variable Y, we obtain the residuals by subtracting the fitted from the observed value Y (shown in column 3). Dichotomize the residuals according to whether they are negative or positive, and test the claim that their pattern of occurrences is random. Observed age, mean Q A0 values, and residuals obtained by fitting a regression line to the data. Gestational age Mean Q A0 Residual 40 71.5 -1.4 39 71.5 +2.8 40 72.5 -0.4 38 64.4 -0.5 40 69.3 -3.6 40 72.7 -0.2 39 67.7 -1.2 37 61.1 +0.2

## Gestational age Mean Q A0 Residual

38 69.5 +4.6

39 69.5 +0.6

40 71.8 -1.1

38 68.3 +3.4

36 57.5 +0.6

39 70.7 +5.9

36 51.6 -6.5

Solution Hypotheses: H0: The pattern of occurrences is random. (claim) H1: The pattern of occurrences is not random. Test statistics:

Run, r = 7, n1 = 8, n2 = 7

## Critical value: Lower critical value = 4 Upper critical value = 13

Decision: Since Conclusion: There is not enough evidence to reject the claim that the pattern of occurrences is at random. , do not reject H0.