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using computer simulations (performed with Mat lab/simulink) and experimental results. Fuzzy logic is mainly used in industrial automation for relatively slow process. These techniques are especially appropriate whenever the system model is non-linear and/or difficult to obtain. In doing so. but only recently its use has spread over a large range of Engineering applications. 1.as well as for household & entertainment electronics. In this paper we use a slip control scheme for a three phase induction motor fed by a voltage source PWM inverter as an example. most fuzzy logic based control applications were limited to the management of user interfaces.ABSTRACT logic controller and to produce C-code for an Intel 80C196KC microcontroller. It is viable to use fuzzy logic is faster “real time”applications? It is interesting to use these techniques even when the system is known (including linear cases)? We are trying to answer some of these questions applying fuzzy logic to control electrical machines. IINTRODUCTION Fuzzy logic has emerged as a profitable tool for the controlling of complex industrial process. Fuzzy logic attempt to simulate human thought process.diagnosis system & other expert system. reducing engineering time & cost. the fuzzy logic approach allows the designer to handle efficiently very complex closedloop control problems. even in technical environments. A 1KW three phase induction motor Until not long ago.It is a superset of conventional(Boolean)logic that has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth(truth values between “completely true & completely false”)Fuzzy logic was introduced by Dr. The evaluation of the fuzzy logic controller behavior is made through the comparison with a traditional technique (PI controller with ant windup mechanism). corresponding to a slow software operation.Lofti zadeh of UC/Berkely in 1960’s as a mean to model the uncertainity of natural language. sensors and actuators. Fuzzy controls supports non-linear . Implementation was made using the fuzzy technique software tool to design the fuzzy fed by a voltage source IGBT power module was used in the experiments.
linguistic variables and rules definition and interactive combines numeric computation. in a slip control scheme for an induction motor fed by a voltage source inverter. SIMULATION & DESIGN TOOLS Matlab/simulink was emerged as a simulation tool. It is a full graphical tool that supports all design steps for fuzzy system engineering. This tool provides a time-domain based optimization approach to control design. As an example fuzzy logic is compared with a PI controller with anti windup mechanism. An example includes the ability to disturb gain over a range of inputs in order to not saturate the control capability.design techniques that are now being exploited in motor control applications. environment for It is a natural algorithm analysis. In this paper we try to show. Moreover. technical Matlab is an integrated environment thjat computing controller parameters. prototyping & application development. The Matlab non-linear control design block set was used to optimize the PI 2. block library. Simulink is built on top of Matlab and is an interactive environment for modeling. this tool provides an extensive . advanced graphics and visualization & a high level programming language. The Fuzzy TECH MUC_96 edition was used to design the fuzzy logic controller. It is designed for use with simulink block diagrams and automatically tunes system parameters based on user defined time –domain performance constraints. debugging. this tool generates C-code with optimized assembly functions to the Intel MCS-96 microcontroller family. simulation and experimental results. Together with a graphic interface. even in case classical control is used and perform well. It structure design. that the use of fuzzy logic techniques can be advantageous. analyzing and simulating wide variety pf dynamics systems. several integration algorithms and allows the user to select the simulation parameters.
PI CONTROLLER Note that because of slip limitation. which introduces a non-linearity at the according to a pre-defined nominal value. The zero order Hold Block is used to set the law (block B). The PI controller was first designed through a classical control approach (root locus). a PI with anti windup mechanism must be used. first using PI 3.also produces M-code file. slip frequency is almost proportional to torque and must be limited. Then the non-linear design block set (NCD) was used to optimize its response to a speed reference step and to minimize the speed variation when a torque disturbances is applied. Fig.2 presents the system block diagram used to perform the PI controller simulations in the simulink environment. inverter (block c). representing the fuzzy logic controller developed with fuzzy TECH. A. constant controller output.stator frequency ( is obtained by adding slip frequency to rotor frequency speed ( and stator voltage ( is set 4. was imported by the Matlab/simulink to perform the fuzzy logic simulations. Assuming that fast response is not required a linear approximation of the induction motor steady state model can be used. so the motor flux is kept at its Voltage and frequency values are then input to the voltage source (block A) that sets the motor slip frequency ( . In order to evaluate the merits of the fuzzy logic techniques compared to a classical approach the induction motor slip controller was implemented. SLIP CONTROL A conventional slip control scheme for an inverter fed induction motor which is used for low performance variable speed drives is presented. setting(indirectly)a limit to both peak torque and stator current. CONTROLLER DESIGN . Traditionally the speed error ( is input to a PI or PID controller control and then fuzzy logic.
2 is replaced by the Fuzzy controller block. duty to the relatively controller is presented in Fig.5. slip_Inc uses 7 M.1ms. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER To simulate the fuzzy logic control the PI controller in block in Fig. the speed error (speed error) and the speed error variation (error Var) and one output. Therefore negative (N). The use of a PID controller was considered. positive small (PS).Ther output B. positive (P). The defuzzification method applied was the COM (center of maximum). the improvement However.which is the value used in the practical implementation. 5 (NL).The M-File block. commonly used because the output value represents the best compromise of all inferred results with high computational efficiency.F. positive medium (PM). :the slip increment (slip_Inc). seen in this figure.It has two inputs. simulation results showed that.simulation sampling time equal to The structure of fuzzy logic 5. COM is In most achieved was minimal and would not compensate the increase in computational efforts.F .4. The membership functions for the inputs and the output are showed in the Fig. zeros (ZE). positive small (P) and positive large (PL). Therefore negative large negative small (NS). the output was represented by singleton membership function(which can be considered as a special case of triangular M.Therefore negative large (NL). negative medium (NM). zero (ZE).Each rule output . control applications. zero (ZE). slow sampling rate used. positive large (PL).The inputs and the outputs are related through 11 rules(table 1). negative small (NS).6. Error Var is described with M. once COM considers just the maximum output values. was produced by the fuzzy TECH software tool and represents the same fuzzy logic controller implemented in the real time environment. which is expanded in Fig.F).
Fig.was determined by ”MIN-MAX” interference. 7 presents the simulations results with J=2. SIMULATION RESULTS The computational simulations normalization respectively through block P1 and block P3. Then the inertia value was modified in order to evaluate the controller’s sensitivity to system parameters changes.8 shows simulations results with J=10. showing their speed and slip values during motor starts-up and then in response to a sudden load change from zero to nominal motor torque value. In this case the fuzzy logic . which is the same value of the experimental implementation. after saturation.after saturation and and 5 . which is the motor slip control output. The response for both controllers is almost identical. the slip value.10-2kgm2. First simulations were performed with the motor-load inertia value for which the PI controller parameters were optimized.5 shoes that the input speed error and error var are obtained from . Fig.the slip_Inc value is normalized through block P4 and then added to its previous value to give.10-2kgm2. Fig. compare the behavior of PI and fuzzy logic controllers.
The hardware used to accomplish the system is minimum. and therefore the development times are shortened. As an example. The implemented fuzzy logic controller presented a slightly superior dynamic performance when compared with a more conventional scheme (PI controller with anti windup mechanism). These indexes show that the fuzzy logic controller performance better than the PI controller when the motor-load inertia is changed to J=10. . at least for this type of application. The controller’s behavior can be better compared using standard performances indexes. Matlab/simulink and fuzzy TECH software tools were used for respectively simulation and controller design.10-2kgm2 term of insensitivity to changes in model parameters and to speed noise. during start-up and load application conditions. Simulation results confirmed that the fuzzy logic approach is feasible and can be an interesting alternative to conventional control. Some authors claim the fuzzy logic controller is easier to tune than conventional ones. From our experience we cannot support this statement. CONCLUSION An evaluation of fuzzy logic techniques applied to the control of electric machines was presented. even when the system model is known a linear. which can be an important requirement in speed/position control schemes using electrical machines.response is better the overshoot value are smaller and its response is faster. namely in robotics. No fuzzy processors or any other specific hardware was used. a slip control scheme for an induction motor fed by a voltage source inverter was presented. namely in 80C196KC microcontroller performs the control algorithms and generates the PWM waveforms for the IGBT motor drive inverter. TableII shows the value of IAE ( integral of absolute error) and ITSE (integral of time squared error) for the PI and fuzzy controllers. A standard Intel 6.
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