11th BU/CS IAP Research Open House – Posters

Theory and Algorithms
T-1 T-2 T-3 T-4 What Could Be Done by Minsky Machines Under Noise? The Filter-Placement Problem and its Application to Content De-Duplication Computational complexity of the sticks problem Clustering with Limited Distance Information

Formal Methods and Languages
L-1 L-2 L-3 Building Reliable Low Level Software Systems in ATS Programming Language Security Safe Compositional Network Sketches: NetSketch Tool Implementation

Operating Systems
O-1 O-2 O-3 Virtual-CPU Scheduling in the Quest Operating System MetroSim: A Simulator for Large-Scale Urban Traffic Networks The CONSCIOUS Virtual Machine Model

Networking Systems
N-1 N-2 N-3 N-4 N-5 N-6 N-7 Pricing Algorithms For a Two-Sided Internet Advertisement Market A Multiple Service Level Agreement Stackelberg Game for RINA Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA): A Prototype On Supporting Mobility and Multihoming in Recursive Internet Architectures XIA: eXpressive Internet Architecture Economic Incentive of Caching in Content-based Networks Understanding Communication Strategies for Ad hoc Networks

Distributed and Cloud Computing
C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 MorphoSys: Efficient Colocation of QoS-Constrained Workloads in the Cloud Scalable Elastic Systems Architecture Towards Geo-Presence as a Service The Zenith Attack: Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures Managing Home and Network Storage of Television Recordings Resource Market

Security and Cryptography
S-1 S-2 Sequential Aggregate Signatures with Lazy Verification for S-BGP Cryptography with Leaky and Tamperable Memory

Databases and Data Mining
D-1 D-2 D-3 A Month in the Life of Groupon Dynamic Verifiable Access-Control Mechanisms for Outsourced Databases Content-based Search in a Query by Humming System

Image and Video Computing
V-1 V-2 V-3 V-4 V-5 V-6 V-7 V-8 Discriminating the leader for a robot follower Camera Canvas: Image Editing Software for People with Disabilities Extract Human Action Tracks in YouTube Videos Based on Action Model Adaptive Mappings for Mouse-Replacement Interfaces Human Tracking and Body Pose Estimation in the Classroom Environment Customizable Keyboard Exploiting phonological constraints for handshape recognition in sign language video Efficient Track Linking Methods for Track Graphs Using Network-flow and Set-cover Techniques

We also provide the characterization of the problem and some variants as linear programming problems for use by general linear programming solvers. We also show how a Minsky machine with $n$ registers can save ``almost'' $n$ bits. Andrei Lapets Supervised By: Azer Bestavros. sensor networks.Theory and Algorithms What Could Be Done by Minsky Machines Under Noise? (T-1) Ilir Capuni Supervised By: Peter Gacs Minsky machines are simple computers with a fixed number of registers. Minsky machines can perform either simple computations or they will diverge. We also present polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the problem. allowing overlaps where tiles have matching colors? This problem is motivated by the study of natural language. RSS feeds. Bursts are separated by a constant amount of noise-free steps. and study its computational complexity for different types of graphs. . The Filter-Placement Problem and its Application to Content De-Duplication (T-2) Dora Erdos. what is the shortest linear layout of the tiles. communication and processing overheads and reduce the utility of the network. We formally define the Filter Placement problem as a combinatorial optimization problem. We consider operation of register machines under a noise that causes bursts of faults. We refer to such nodes as filters. ad-hoc networks) nodes blindly relay information they receive to neighbors.g. Our experimental results indicate that less than a handful of filters are enough to alleviate more than 95% of the redundant information. (e. Though we have not yet proven the exact complexity of the linear matching systems problem.. Each register stores a onnegative integer and transition from one state to another is guided by its program. we propose that a subset of nodes (selected at key positions in the network) carry out additional information de-duplication functionality. specifically the way sentences are composed from words using relationships between each word and its possible neighbors. This uncoordinated data dissemination often results in significant. To alleviate the negative impacts of information multiplicity. Computational complexity of the sticks problem (T-3) Jeffrey Finkelstein Supervised By: Steve Homer In this poster we consider the computational complexity of the ''linear matching systems'' problem: given a set of tiles. yet unnecessary. Noise can make the machine to perform faulty transitions: the changes are not done according to the program. blogs. We prove that for $n=2$. Evimaria Terzi In many networks. we can show the NP-completeness of certain variants. Vatche Ishakian. each with three colored cells.

and must be queried during the execution of the algorithm. Pattern matching is based on matching incoming malware against a set of signatures.the type system of ATS to model the management of lower level resources in the system to ensure that they are handled correctly to eliminate certain classes of program errors such as buffer overflow. We assume that the distances between the points are not given in advance. Our task is to find an accurate clustering using few queries. Formal Methods and Languages Building Reliable Low Level Software Systems in ATS (L-1) Zhiqiang Ren Supervised By: Hongwei Xi This research focuses on identifying an effective approach to implementing reliable low level software systems. we implement a FAT file system in the form of Linux kernel module. The idea is to use ATS as a specification language to specify important functionalities of the system. Then the type checker of ATS can enforce that the implementation actually meets the requirement of the specification. memory leak and etc. where k is the number of clusters in the data. memory leak and etc. We show that if the clustering instance has a certain structure. Both approaches are easy to evade for a moderately sophisticated attacker. In particular. Motivated by this observation. then O(k) and O(k log k) queries suffices to produce an accurate clustering. we develop clustering algorithms that operate with limited distance information. Yu Xia Clustering from pairwise distance information is an important problem with many applications. The work . To illustrate the method. we also use the type system of ATS to model the management of low level resources in the system to ensure that they are handled correctly to eliminate certain classes of programming errors such as buffer overflow. In addition. anomaly detection is based on developing a classifier with a bimodal output distribution. To illustrate the method. we can unify the specification and implementation in the development process. Programming Language Security (L-2) Mark Reynolds Supervised By: Assaf Kfoury Standard malware detection and prevention systems typically rely on two types of approach: pattern matching and anomaly detection. The implementation is done in ATS which is a programming language with a highly expressive type system. we assume that we have access to one versus all queries that return the distances between a specified point and all other points in the data set. In practice computing all pairwise distances between the points may take orders of magnitude more time than computing the actual clustering. we implement a FAT file system in the form of Linux kernel module.Clustering with Limited Distance Information (T-4) Konstantin Voevodski Supervised By: Shang-Hua Teng. With ATS. We analyze the accuracy of our algorithms under assumptions about the approximation stability of the kmedian and min-sum objective functions for clustering.

The three main goals of Quest are to ensure safety. Ye Li Supervised By: Richard West. Andrei Lapets (post-doc) Supervised By: Assaf Kfoury. Any piece of suspect software is then converted in a set of model initializers. When the model template and the model initializers are combined. one based on the formal modeling and specification language Alloy. For this paper. Quest's scheduling infrastructure is based around the concept of a virtual CPU (VCPU). The NetSketch formalism introduces a lightweight verification framework that allows for greater scalability than traditional analysis methods. In this approach the security specification for a language (Java bytecodes. The development of this tool resulted in a number of discoveries and creations beyond the implementation itself. Flash SWF files or JavaScript source) is converted in a model template in Alloy. and hence a vulnerability. and by combining traditional whole-system analysis with a more flexible compositional analysis approach based on a strongly typed. we focus on one aspect of predictability. predictability and efficiency of software execution. Using both Main and I/O VCPUs. Operating Systems Virtual-CPU Scheduling in the Quest Operating System (O-1) Matthew Danish. We introduce a priority- . Alloy's constraint solver can be run over the existing complete model. involving the integrated management of tasks and I/O events such as interrupts. the elegance and expressiveness of Haskell for representation and manipulation of the networks and constraints. we are able to separate the CPU bandwidth consumed by tasks from that used to complete I/O processing. Results for Java and JavaScript are described. no-setup delivery mechanism. and cloud based resource distribution. analysis and certification of the safety invariants becomes increasingly costly. The NetSketch tool was developed to provide the power of this formalism in an easy to use and intuitive user interface. Azer Bestavros Numerous problems exist that can be modeled as traffic through a network in which constraints exist to regulate flow. This tool was implemented by combining three key layers: a web based JavaScript platform to provide the graphical user interface in a no-download. among others all have natural representations in this manner. In this system there are no false positives. computer networks. This is accomplished by exposing trade-offs between exactness of analysis and scalability. Vehicular road travel. Domain-Specific Language (DSL). demonstrating the NetSketch formalism's suitability to being expressed in a web environment. As these networks grow in size and/or complexity. so a counterexample will always represent a violation of the security specification.proposes a third approach. Key among these were enabling easy access to methods for vertex enumeration and projection from the Haskell language. and preexisting C++ based libraries for the computationally intensive mathematical operations. Safe Compositional Network Sketches: NetSketch Tool Implementation (Demo) (L-3) Nate Soule. Hongwei Xi This poster describes the scheduling framework for a new operating system called ``Quest''. This poster surveys the high levels of the formalism and details the development and implementation of the NetSketch tool. and defining methods for incorporating user input to uniquely determine a maximally enclosed hyper-rectangle within an n-dimensional convex polytope.

vehicle dynamics. as many traffic lights are simple.3% when VCPU budget is managed in 1ms units.and many-core systems supporting large numbers of threads. as many drivers with similar destinations are routed through the same roads. We have also developed the foundation for future expansion of the simulator to include a user’s preference for particular vehicle types. meaning they stay green for an allotted time before switching to red. Shortest-path routing often forces drivers to rely on their own intuition to avoid traffic. For example. and traffic architecture. and PIBS for I/O VCPUs. real-world traffic network. by reducing overall traffic congestion or implementing routing schemes that re-route traffic through less vehicle-dense areas. . MetroSim is used to model a closed. using the average vehicle density of a major city such as Boston. For a system of 24 VCPUs.inheritance bandwidth-preserving server policy for I/O management. this may not be optimal in a large. or a more complex dynamic routing scheme based on traffic at major intersections. roads. The goal of the simulator was to model real-world vehicles.scale traffic network. and Joseph Zatkovich Supervised By: Ibrahim Matta. a computer-based simulation environment. we can effectively help the environment by controlling emissions from idling vehicles. we have created a simulator that can be customized to analyze attempts to improve traffic networks. These traffic lights do nothing to minimize idle time. and this results in increased carbon emissions. MetroSim: A Simulator for Large-Scale Urban Traffic Networks (O-2) Prakash Lalwani. Modern GPS systems simply generate a shortest-path route between a specific starting and ending point. However. It will be possible to build a device that processes data as a time-varying signal and learn patterns in the data. We can then tailor our strategies to maximize whichever statistics we would like and gain valuable insight on their use in the real world. Current traffic infrastructure also delays travel time. called PIBS. We show how PIBS operates with lower cost and higher throughput than a comparable Sporadic Server for managing I/O transfers that require small bursts of CPU time. MetroSim also includes data logging capabilities. we can compare whether vehicles were idle for longer using a shortest path routing scheme. we observe a CPU scheduling overhead of approximately 0. and traffic synchronization policies. or the time a vehicle is stopped waiting for a light to turn green. On a smaller scale. we show how to maintain temporal isolation between multiple tasks and I/O transfers from different devices. routing methods. we aim to reduce the length of the daily commute. MetroSim’s customizability provides us many ways to compare various ways to improve traffic congestion. The CONSCIOUS Virtual Machine Model (O-3) The PMSL group Supervised By: Jonathan Appavoo Very efficient scalable hardware for pattern recognition and predication are on the horizon. Christopher Gomes. On a larger scale. Using a hybrid system of Sporadic Servers for Main VCPUs. We believe Quest's VCPU scheduling infrastructure is scalable enough to operate on future multi. Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Richard West Traffic congestion is quickly becoming a serious issue among urban planners. To test our solutions. we can also gather information as to whether we maximized the amount of green time per traffic light. We also aim to improve vehicle safety by implementing vehicle-tovehicle communication in real-time so that a driver may change course due to an approaching accident or hazardous air quality levels. In addition. Here we present MetroSim. which often route vehicles to their destination can often cause major congestion on busy roads.

respectively. An experimental framework has already been developed that allows full rate capture of instruction traces for the x86 architecture. . and develop a novel unified model (Stackelberg game) to capture interaction and competition among these players. This model introduces a VMM that uses both standard processors and probabilistic coprocessors to implement and optimize VM instances. GAP is APX hard. Flavio Esposito Supervised By: Ibrahim Matta This work presents a new economic approach for studying competition in a complex and interactive system of service providers with multiple SLA requirements. Following previous modeling efforts. We show a reduction from the Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP) to the problem of computing revenue-maximizing allocation and prices of publisher slots in our two-sided market under a first-price auction model. Advertisers have budgets and bid on ad slots while publishers set reserve prices for the ad slots on their websites. We extend our model for incentive-compatibility and study the pareto set representing the trade-off between the auctioneer's profit and the advertisers' social-welfare (conflicting goals).These patterns will be at multiple time scales and will consistently provide predictions about what the signal will do in the future. we model this system as a two-sided market and define fairness and optimality solution concepts. it is not clear how to apply this technology to improve general purpose systems. We study conditions for a Nash Equilibrium and show initial results on how to provide incentives for service and network innovation. We employ Cournot and Bertrand games to model competition among the upper. We show that the auctioneer's revenue is within (1-1/e) secondprice optimal. The CONSCIOUS Virtual Machine Model exploits probability processors to transparently accelerate general purpose computation. While this type of device will revolutionize machine learning and search applications. Networking Systems Pricing Algorithms For a Two-Sided Internet Advertisement Market (N-1) Joseph Akinwumi Supervised By: John Byers. We consider a two-level system in our service-oriented clean-slate Recursive Inter-Network Architecture (RINA): an upper and a lower level of service providers.and lower-level service providers. Evimaria Terzi The Google AdSense Program is a successful internet advertisement program where Google places contextual advertisements on third party websites and shares the resulting revenue with the website publishers. A Multiple Service Level Agreement Stackelberg Game for Recursive Inter-Network Architecture (RINA) (N-2) Joseph Akinwumi. but a (1-1/e)-approximation algorithm is known. one can then construe these traces as the input signal to the probability processors. Our second-price mechanism selects an incentive-compatible (truthful in expectation) solution point which maximizes the auctioneer's profit and the advertisers' social welfare.

much like the host-centric IP design. an architecture with native . we present a specification of the process of ROuting in Recursive Architectures (RORA). John Day The Internet has been facing significant challenges due to shortcomings in its core architecture. and thus can inherently support mobility.e. Our first prototype is based on TINOS. has been problematic because of a deficient addressing structure that identifies a node with a particular network connection. In this work. it unsubscribes from one network and subscribes to another. The Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA) was recently proposed as a clean-slate solution to the current problems of the Internet. services. i.. We also perform an average-case cost analysis to compare the multihoming / mobility support of RINA. which is akin to one interface becoming inactive and another active. For example. that change their network connection as they move. Mobility can be viewed as a special case of multihoming—as a node moves. Our work presents the eXpressive Internet Architecture (XIA).Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA): A Prototype (N-3) Flavio Esposito. or users. We present our Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA). Joseph Akinwumi. elevating one principal type above others hinders communication between other principals and inhibits the network’s capability to evolve. On Supporting Mobility and Multihoming in Recursive Internet Architectures (N-4) Vatche Ishakian. Flavio Esposito Supervised By: Ibrahim Matta As the Internet has evolved and grown. The current Internet architecture has been facing significant challenges in effectively dealing with multihoming (and consequently mobility). which has led to the emergence of several custom pointsolutions. Extensive experimental results confirm the premise that the RINA architecture and its RORA routing approach are inherently better suited for supporting mobility and multihoming. However. a node is connected to more than one network. and (3) Treating the whole Internet as a single homogeneous network that exposes a rudimentary "best-effort" delivery service makes it impossible to fully exploit advanced capabilities of new network technologies. RINA is built upon an operating systems perspective where application processes communicate using the services of a Distributed Inter-process communication Facility (DIF). The structure of RINA is policy-managed and dynamic. and can offer market driven better-than-best-effort services. a recently released protocol development framework that leverages the OSGi modular component-based platform. is more secure. recent studies have proposed clean-slate network architectures centered around alternate first-class principals. such as content. XIA: eXpressive Internet Architecture (N-5) Michel Machado Supervised By: John Byers Motivated by limitations in today’s host-based IP network architecture. a clean-slate solution to the current problems of the Internet. The DIF is a service building block that can be repeated and composed in layers to build wider scoped services that meet user requirements. (2) Distinguishing applications with public identifiers make them exposed and vulnerable to attacks. against that of other approaches such as LISP and Mobile-IP. (1) supporting mobile devices (nodes). Yuefeng Wang Supervised By: Ibrahim Matta . an increasing number of nodes (hosts or autonomous systems) have become multihomed.

and compare the performance under this cache placement policy with traditional selfish cache placement policies. At a basic level. we introduce a framework for organizing the decision space for deciding when a communication strategy should maintain state. and what type of state should be maintained. include content-based communication in its core. show that if the "utility" is distributed by Shapley value. and value of. and (2) identify the need for. or XIA). a new strategy for network communication. In this work. we demonstrate the analytic power of the framework by using it to (1) uncover surprising aspects of well-known data traces. a new internetwork protocol. and is not well studied by the community. . Using the framework. i. We outline key design requirements relating to expressiveness. and native support for multiple communicating principals. the incentive for ISPs to cache contents is an important issue. Finally. as yet unforeseen. Second. the global optimal placement is a Nash Equilibrium. we illustrate the framework by showing an instantiation in terms of specific measures that can be used to describe a network setting. simple and efficient. Understanding Communication Strategies for Ad hoc Networks (N-7) Victoria Manfredi Supervised By: Mark Crovella and Jim Kurose Structural change and uncertainty are fundamental properties of an ad hoc network. First. and more novel ones. notably packet processing. network-level approaches that transport data from sender to receiver. our evaluation of an XIA prototype demonstrates that XIA’s advantages can be realized on today’s hardware. while keeping core network functions.support for multiple principals and the ability to evolve its functionality to accommodate new. intrinsic security. we make three contributions. Some new Internet architectures (such as eXpressive Internet Architecture. we focus on core architectural issues and protocols in the XIA data plane. and so influence the trade-offs made to collect that state. making it difficult to develop communication strategies. We demonstrate how rich addressing and forwarding semantics of XIP facilitate evolvability and flexibility.e. change and uncertainty affect how long any state maintained by a communication strategy remains useful.. unpredictability. such as secure service migration. Finally. and then describe how we realize them in XIP. We model the placement of caches by ISPs as a game. To deploy this architecture globally. The framework is based on our observation that three network properties (connectivity. Economic Incentive of Caching in Content-based Networks (N-6) Chong Wang Supervised By: John Byers A major benefit of content-based network is the ability to deploy caching to improve performance and availability. XIA also provides intrinsic security: communicating entities validate that their underlying intent was satisfied correctly without relying on external databases or configuration. in an ad hoc network. Case studies demonstrate how XIA benefits both existing applications. principals over time. In this poster. we validate the framework by showing it correctly and consistently organizes the decision space for different communication strategies. and resource contention) determine when state is useful.

we present MORPHOSYS: a framework for a service that allows the manipulation of SLAs to enable efficient colocation of arbitrary workloads in a dynamic setting. In our proposed framework.. Towards that goal.. microphones. Geo-Presence capabilities are typically supported through the use of dedicated.g. Scalable Elastic Systems Architecture (C-2) Dan Schatzberg Supervised By: Jonathan Appavoo Systems in the past were designed to efficiently share fixed resources among a mix of different applications.Distributed and Cloud Computing MorphoSys: Efficient colocation of QoS-constrained workloads the Cloud (C-1) Vatche Ishakian Supervised By: Azer Bestavros In hosting environments such as IaaS clouds. Towards Geo-Presence as a Service (C-3) Christine Bassem Supervised By: Azer Bestavros We define “Geo-Presence” to be the capability of an application to access devices at particular geographical locations. climate sensors and controls) or input and output devices (e. we propose a fundamentally different Geo-Presence framework. Our proposed SLA model has the salient feature that it exposes flexibilities that enable the infrastructure provider to safely transform SLAs from one form to another for the purpose of achieving more efficient colocation. such as embedded sensors and actuators (e. We argue that elasticity is an important area of research and hypothesize that research in this area will lead to more efficient systems with less hoarding. These results show that potentially-significant reduction in wasted resources (by as much as 60%) are possible using MORPHOSYS. desirable application performance is usually guaranteed through the use of Service Level Agreements (SLAs). wherein access to devices at particular locations and at given times is viewed as a “service” acquired on-the-fly in a pay-as-you-go fashion. speakers. Arbitrary colocation of applications with different SLAs on a single host may result in inefficient utilization of the host’s resources. new applications that exploit massive cloud resources elastically. but also . We present results from extensive trace-driven simulations of colocated Videoon-Demand servers in a cloud setting. which specify minimal fractions of resource capacities that must be allocated for unencumbered use for proper operation. we propose that periodic resource allocation and consumption models – often used to characterize real-time workloads – be used for a more granular expression of SLAs. In this paper.g. We are currently building our clouds and elastic cloud applications using the HW and SW systems that arose from this legacy. video capture and displays) that are mounted in physical spaces. Geo-Presence as a Service (GPaaS) is supported not only through the use of dedicated infrastructures. proprietary cyber-physical infrastructures. We propose a new research agenda focused on elasticity. In this project. The significant capital investments needed to develop such dedicated infrastructures makes the deployment of a number of highly-useful applications impractical. and system software and libraries that will simplify the task of developing elastic applications.

as most users use their DVR during prime time resulting in congesting the already strained network with unicast streams. Thus. The Zenith Attack: Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures (C-4) Richard Skowyra Supervised By: Azer Bestavros. Identifying such items enables an adversary to perform follow up adversarial actions targeting these items.through crowd sourcing – by leveraging the capabilities of increasingly powerful smart mobile devices. including mounting denial of service attacks. a new class of attacks on content-distribution systems. deploying censorship mechanisms. Sharon Goldberg In this work we identify and define Zenith attacks. Crypsis provides provable security guarentees for concealment of lookup frequency while maintaining logarithmic routing and state bounds. we view the combination of dedicated embedded devices and of ad-hoc mobile devices as constituting a “spatio-temporal cloud” within which applications requiring Geo-Presence capabilities could be deployed. which seek to expose the popularity (i. and eavesdropping on or prosecution of the host or recipient. Our verification. including resource allocation and management optimization problems. As the access pattern to most real-world content exhibits Zipf-like characteristics. In essence. Managing Home and Network Storage of Television Recordings (C-5) Ray Sweha Supervised By: Azer Bestavros. We instantiate a Zenith attack on the Kademlia and Chord structured overlay networks and quantify the cost of such an attack. and Jim Drew In this poster we study the recording and watching patterns of DVR users using real traces. We develop a simple caching technique that captures the dominant factors of user behavior. Offering GPaaS requires solutions to a number of challenging problems. Storing content in the network would create a new challenge. using real traces.e. while requiring only a small state to be maintained. Don Smith. Many DVR users complain about running out of space. As a countermeasure to these attacks we propose Crypsis. there is a small set of dominating items which account for the majority of accesses. We develop statistical models that learn the behavior of users and are most likely to make watched programs readily available for users each day. we examine a number of these problems. The areas that are mostly focused on are scalability and the economics behind this all. shows that this technique performs as efficiently as more advanced statistical models. access frequency) of individual items of content. This project is split into two parts. In this poster. a system to conceal the lookup frequency of individual keys through aggregation over ranges of the keyspace. Resource Market (C-6) Elias Yannakeas Supervised By: Azer Bestavros and George Kollios The purpose of this project is to aggregate idling computer resources like storage and then rent out portions of these resources to entities that seek them. One part is responsible for allowing access to these resources while the second part allows entities to purchase the portion that they will be given access to. . we propose the idea of adding extra storage on the network. and marketplace mechanism design problems.

to sign a message each. and can lead to devastating attacks. We report a technical analysis of the scheme (which is provably secure in the random oracle model). we construct cryptographic schemes that are secure even if the adversary continually tampers with the secret key in an arbitrary manner and continually obtains arbitrary partial information about the secret key. and implementation results based on RSA and OpenSSL. Previously. However. unlike prior such proposals. although ECDSA has shorter signature lengths when the number of signers is small. in the regime of tamper-resilient cryptography. postponing verification until load permits or the necessary public keys are obtained. Our scheme is especially designed for Secure BGP (S-BGP). all previous work either required some non-tamperable memory or considered only very limited tampering attacks. in order. indeed. Sharon Goldberg Sequential aggregate signature schemes allow n signers. many prior schemes do not allow for lazy verification.Security and Cryptography Sequential Aggregate Signatures with Lazy Verification for S-BGP (S-1) Kyle Brogle Supervised By: Leo Reyzin. . routers digitally sign the routing announcements they forward to other routers. Our scheme explicitly allows for lazy verification. adding a signature to an unverified aggregate breaks the security guarantees. Our scheme has much shorter signatures than nonaggregate RSA (with the same sign and verify times) and an order of magnitude faster verification than nonaggregate ECDSA. We present a sequential aggregate signature scheme based on trapdoor permutations (such as RSA) that. there has been a long line of work on leakage-resilient cryptography. With S-BGP. does not require a signer to verify the received aggregate before adding a signature on a new message to it. a detailed implementation-level specification. However. In fact. at a lower total cost than the cost of n individual signatures. Practical implementations of S-BGP must offer routers the option of performing ``lazy verification'': that is. a signer need not even know the public keys of the other signers. a protocol designed for securing the global Internet routing system. whereas we allow the attacker to tamper with the secret key arbitrarily. Cryptography with Leaky and Tamperable Memory (S-2) Bhavana Kanukurthi Supervised By: Leonid Reyzin Motivated by real-world physical attacks. aggregating multiple signatures to reduce the total signature length is a natural way to reduce communication costs. Because routing announcements are sent in a chain along a route. to add their own signature to an unverified aggregate and forward it immediately.

we use its access control list to identify the users that have access to this record. and what days of the week the deal is available. ticketed events. appliances. providing daily deals to customers in the form of discount offers for restaurants. We study a number of different server models that range from Honest-But-Curious (HBC) to malicious server. Each music piece is converted from audio to a midi format and then is represented a set of time series data. An initial experimental evaluation using both synthetic and real datasets verifies the efficiency and effectiveness of our techniques. and can give insight into the underlying social mechanisms that lead to deal purchases. or the number of customers that purchase that deal. The query is also represented as a small time series in a similar way. We undertake a study of Groupon deal purchases. only the users that are allowed to access the record can recover the basic key. we use reference sequences and adopt distance-based hashing as indexing. for each record. the length of time the deal is available. In this project. we consider dynamic access control mechanisms in outsourced databases. we assign to each user a small number of keys (logarithmic to the number of users) at the initialization time. Michael Mitzenmacher Groupon has become the latest Internet sensation. Such analysis both informs how one might optimize deal sites like Groupon. and encrypt the record with a basic key that subsequently encrypted with another set of keys. . To accelerate querying. Georgios Zervas Supervised By: John Byers. services. and other items. Then. Content-based Search in a Query by Humming System (D-3) Haohan Zhu Supervised By: George Kollios Content-based search in large multimedia databases is a challenging and difficult task. we develop a simple prototype for a query by humming system for a music database. With this scheme. whether the deal is limited capacity or unrestricted. which also needs to authenticate the results returned to a user query. In addition. Our approach is to view each record as a message in a broadcast encryption scheme.Databases and Data Mining A Month in the Life of Groupon (D-1) Michalis Potamias. using time series sub-sequence matching based on Dynamic Time Warping and other robust distance functions. based on a data set derived from monitoring Groupon webpages over several months. Not that. whether the deal is given special placement as the deal of the day. the input to our system can be recorded either using a virtual keyboard or a microphone. Dynamic Verifiable Access-Control Mechanisms for Outsourced Databases (D-2) Xuan Zhang. The most important characteristic of individual deals is the size. Nikos Triantopoulos In this work. Our focus in this preliminary report is mining our dataset to examine the effects of "soft incentives" on the final deal size: for example. Michalis Potamias Supervised By: George Kollios. Using an efficient broadcast encryption scheme. we find the music segments that are most similar. we consider updates to the database and access control policies and show how to address them with our schemes. Given a query.

Extract Human Action Tracks in Youtube Videos Based on Action Model (V-3) Shugao Ma Supervised By: Nazli Ikizler-cinbis and Stan Sclaroff We propose a method that automatically extracts human action tracks from unconstrained videos. and in successive frames. Our role in this project is to develop algorithms that can dynamically learn what features are useful for differentiating between individuals with similar appearance. It is therefore important to develop computer vision algorithms that will enable robust detection and tracking of the “leader” person. despite temporary occlusions in the scene. these discriminative features are updated in each frame by both positive example (the detected leader) and the closest runner up. and the other is pair-wise . Charles River Analytics (CRA) to develop robots that can reliably follow a person to assist that person. We are now using a multi-block major HSV color histogram as the main feature to represent each individual. Camille Monnier (Charles River Analytics) This is an ongoing collaborative project with an industrial partner.Image and Video Computing Discriminating the leader for a robot follower (V-1) Qinxun Bai Supervised By: Stan Sclaroff. e. Camera Canvas: Image Editing Software for People with Disabilities (Demo) (V-2) Christopher Kwan Supervised By: Margrit Betke We developed Camera Canvas. Ongoing work includes conducting additional user studies and improving the software based on feedback. The research group at CRA has developed a human tracker for video taken from the robot’s camera. We test our method on video with raw detection results provided by CRA. The studies showed that Camera Canvas is easy to understand and use. we designed its user interface so that it can be extensively tailored to meet individual user needs. The autonomous follower robot is expected to use passive sensing technology. for instance YouTube. even for participants without prior experience with the Camera Mouse. a digital video camera. We conducted studies with users without disabilities. and despite possible ambiguity as to who is the “leader” when there are multiple people within the camera’s field of view.g. To make Camera Canvas accessible to as wide of a range of movement abilities as possible. Camera Canvas is designed for use with camera-based mouse-replacement interfaces that allow a user with severe motion impairments to control the mouse pointer by moving his or her head in front of a web camera.. An experiment with a participant with severe cerebral palsy and quadriplegia showed that he was able to use some but not all of the functionality of Camera Canvas. we first build an action model using a small set of manually labeled human action tracks. who used Camera Canvas with the mouse-replacement input system Camera Mouse. This action model consists of two parts: one is a point-wise model that represents typical appearances of that action in individual video frames. photo editing and picture drawing software for individuals who cannot use their hands to operate a computer mouse. For a specific action. Only ground truth labels of the first frame are required to initialize the leader’s model.

Traditional approaches to assistive technology are often inflexible. Adaptive Mappings for Mouse-Replacement Interfaces (Demo) (V-4) John Magee Supervised By: Margrit Betke People with severe motor disabilities face many challenges with assistive technology. We present observations of an individual with severe cerebral palsy using our system. In the interest of speed we are using linear SVM as a baseline classifier throughout the project. The approach produces nearly perfect results on MIT pedestrian database. conditioned on the particular action class. Customizable Keyboard also allows the user to select from a . etc.model that models the transition probabilities between two video frames of that action. however because the dataset does not depict the environment of the classroom perfectly. we developed our own more challenging dataset that includes images from INRIA dataset by Dalal and Triggs as well as images from the lectures on TED. For an incoming video that has been labeled as containing that action. Customizable Keyboard (V-6) Eric Missimer Supervised By: Margrit Betke Customizable Keyboard is an on-screen keyboard designed to be flexible and expandable. rather than making the user adapt to the technology. calibrated video cameras. Such systems may have static or difficult-to-change configurations that make it challenging for multiple users at a care facility to share the same system or for users whose motion abilities slowly degenerate. and finally apply a dynamic programming technique to select the best bounding box on each frame to form the human action track.com depicting people in a greater variety of poses. they may experience more limited motion ability or additional unintended motions. we first apply tracking-by-detection to get an initial track by running a person detector on each frame. As users fatigue while using a system. We propose to use grids of Histograms of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors for human detection. requiring users to adapt their limited motions to the requirements of the system. These functions can be changed to adapt the technology to the needs of the user. We then generate candidate bounding boxes on each frame based on this initial track. Current technology also does not address short-term changes in motion abilities that can occur in the same computer session. To address these challenges. This is an ongoing project and we expect our method to be superior to methods that ignore the action label of the video such as methods that employ naïve tracking-bydetection. The classroom presents a complex environment to perform tracking due to the occlusions. lighting variations. Instead of giving the user a keyboard layout Customizable Keyboard allows the user to create a layout that is accommodating to the user's needs. Human Tracking and Body Pose Estimation in the Classroom Environment (V-5) Rufat Mammadyarov Supervised By: Stan Sclaroff Human tracking has been one of the core problems in computer vision for a long time. We want to find and track the lecturer’s position in the classroom and estimate his/her body pose as viewed through moving. noise. we propose adaptive mouse-control functions to be used in our mouse-replacement system.

Stan Sclaroff Handshape is a key articulatory parameter in sign language. The video have been annotated using SignStream® [Neidle et al. such transitions normally involve either closing or opening of the hand (i. Exploiting phonological constraints for handshape recognition in sign language video (V-7) Ashwin Thangali Supervised By: Carol Neidle. we show that our proposed linear and integer optimization techniques make the track graph a particularly useful tool for tracking large groups of individuals in images.] with labels for linguistic information such as glosses. also utilizing information about allophonic variations to aid in handshape recognition. the process links trajectory segments through a series of optimal bipartite-graph matches.. to exclusively use either folding or unfolding of the palm and one or more fingers). the linking process computes a logarithmic approximation solution to the set cover problem.and intra. morphological properties and variations. As part of the overall project.signer variations in the production of specific handshapes are observed. when global information is needed to characterize objects. we are collecting and preparing for dissemination a large corpus (three thousand signs from three native signers) of American Sign Language (ASL) video. Handshape transitions within monomorphemic lexical signs (the largest class of signs in signed languages) are governed by phonological rules. and thus handshape recognition from signing video is essential for sign recognition and retrieval. We designed a track-linking framework for reasoning about short-term and long-term occlusions. akin to allophonic variations in spoken languages. and start/end handshapes associated with each ASL sign. . We evaluate our handshape recognition approach on a large dataset of monomorphemic lexical signs. We propose a fast non-rigid image alignment method to gain improved robustness to handshape appearance variations during computation of observation likelihoods in the Bayesian network. moving objects in single or multiple views. If multiple views are available.e. We demonstrate that leveraging linguistic constraints on handshapes results in improved handshape recognition accuracy. Customizable Keyboard provides more functionality than a typical onscreen keyboard including the ability to control infrared devices such as TVs and send Twitter(R) Tweets. our method builds a track graph. We introduce a two-stage network-flow process to automatically construct a ``track graph'' that describes the track merging and splitting events caused by occlusion. and then simultaneously links track segments from each graph. both inter. To resolve long-term occlusions. To explain short-term occlusions. Efficient Track Linking Methods for Track Graphs Using Network-flow and Set-cover Techniques (V-8) Zheng Wu Supervised By: Margrit Betke We propose novel algorithms that use network-flow and set-cover techniques to perform occlusion reasoning for a large number of small. For example. when local information is sufficient to distinguish objects. Through experiments on different datasets.variety of ways to interact with the keyboard including but not limited to using the mouse pointer to select keys and different types of scan based systems. Furthermore. independently for each view. solving a joint set cover problem for which a logarithmic approximation also exists. We propose a Bayesian network formulation to exploit handshape co-occurrence constraints.

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