4.

First Law of Thermodynamics: Open systems In the preceding section we discussed the application of the first law to closed systems or non-flow processes. In most engineering applications, however we come across equipments through which there is a continuous flow of material in and out. Such processes are called flow processes and systems are termed open systems - such as flow of fluid through nozzle, turbine, compressor, combustion chamber and so on. The flow processes may also involve heat and work interactions. Control volume Instead of fixing attention upon a fixed mass of the flowing fluid, we focus attention on a fixed region in space through which the fluid flow takes place. This fixed region in space is called the control volume and its surface defining the boundary of the control volume is called control surface. A control volume can be fixed in size and shape as in most cases or it may involve a moving boundary. The method of analysis is to consider the control volume and account for all quantities of energy entering and leaving it. The advantage resulting from the control volume concept is as follows: For example, consider a steam turbine. The average change of state of steam from entrance to exit can be related to the shaft work delivered by the turbine and the heat transfer from the turbine across the control volume boundary. Thus, we need not bother about the numerous changes of state and heat and work interactions experienced by the fluid during its passages through the different sections of the turbine. Conservation of mass In the previous section we defined a closed system as one having a fixed quantity of mass that remains unchanged even as the energy change takes place. But according to the relativistic consideration mass can be converted into energy and vice versa as given by the well known equation E = mc2 where E = energy, m = mass, and c = velocity of light = 2.9979 x 108 m/sec This equation suggests that the mass of a system will change when its energy changes. However, for all energy interactions encountered in practice, with the exception of nuclear reactions, the change in the mass is extremely small and even cannot be detected by the most accurate chemical balance. Thus, for closed systems, the conservation of mass principle requiring that mass of the system remains constant during a process is valid. For an open system, since mass can cross the control surfaces, keeping track of the amount of the mass entering and leaving the control volume (CV), the conservation of mass principle is expressed using time rate of mass flow as
(Rate of mass entering CV) - (Rate of mass leaving CV) = (Rate of mass change in CV)

Σ (dme /dt) = Δ (dmcv /dt) where subscripts i.or Σ (dmi /dt) . and A = cross section area of the duct through which the fluid flows. exit. the total energy of unit mass of flowing fluid is now given by θ = Pv + e or θ = P v + u + V2/ 2 + gz Since by definition h = u + Pv. Flow work or flow energy Since control volume involves flow of mass across the boundary. we have the total energy accompanying unit mass of flowing fluid is θ = h + V2/ 2 + gz The enthalpy automatically takes care of the flow work and hence using enthalpy. This work is called Flow work or flow energy and is necessary to maintain a continuous flow. one does not need to be concerned about the flow work. and control volume respectively and the mass flow rate can be obtained as & m = ρ V A = VA/v where ρ = density = 1/v and V = velocity of the fluid. . some work is required to push the mass into and out of the control volume. and cv stand for inlet. The relation for the flow work per unit mass flow can be obtained as wflow = P v kJ/kg Total energy of a flowing fluid We know that the energy of unit mass of a system for a non-flow process is given by e = u + V2/ 2 + gz Since a flowing fluid possesses an additional form of energy – the flow energy Pv. e.

3.Steady flow process A steady flow process is one in which the conditions within the control volume as well as at the entrance and exit of the control volume do not vary with time. since properties within a control volume do not change with time. A large number of engineering devices such as turbines. there is no accumulation of energy or change of total energy within it or ΔEcv = 0. v = 1/ρ = specific volume.Conservation of mass for a steady-flow system or process For a steady-flow process. and ρ = density. m/s A = area of cross section normal to the flow. m3/kg V = average flow velocity in flow direction. compressors. This requires that the net rate of mass flow entering the control volume must be equal to the net rate of mass flow leaving the control volume. they are time-invariant during the entire process.Conservation of energy for a steady-flow system Since no properties within the control volume change with time. the subscripts i and e refer to inlet and exit respectively. This requires that conservation of energy principle is fulfilled as follows: total rate of flow of all forms of energy entering the CV = total rate of flow of all forms of energy leaving the CV . boilers. condensers and nozzles operate for long periods of time under the same conditions and hence are termed steady flow devices. but at any given point within the control volume and also at the entrance and exit. m2 Energy balance . The mass flow rates at the entrance and exit of the control volume are equal and do not vary with time. The properties and energy of the fluid can change from point to point within the control volume. The rates of heat and work transfer across the control surface are also time-invariant or do not vary with time. Mass balance . kg/m3 . A steady flow process must satisfy the following requirements: 1. 2. there is no accumulation of mass and the total amount of mass contained within the control volume does not change with time. & & mi = m e or ρi Vi Ai = ρe Ve Ae (1/v i) Vi Ai = (1/ve) Ve Ae where.

mi (h1 + V12/ 2 + gz1) or & & & Q .w = Δh + Δ (V2/ 2) + Δ (gz) ` q .h1) + (V22/ 2 .V12/ 2) + g(z2 .W = m [(h2 .w = Δh + Δ (V2/ 2g) 778 . we obtain first law relation on a unit mass basis as q .rate of total energy crossing the boundary as heat and work + rate of total energy transported into CV with the mass = rate of total energy transported out of CV with the mass & & & & ( Q . Hence the principle of conservation of energy or the first law for an open system (a steady flow device) can be written as: & & & & Q . The constant mass flow & & & rate through the device (in and out) being m1 = m 2 can be replaced by m .W = m [ Δh + Δ (V2/ 2) + Δ (gz) ] or & & Q .w = Δh + Δ (V2/ 2000) + Δ (gz/1000) kJ/kg where V is in m/s2 and z is in meters 1 + Δ (gz/778) Btu/lb In English system of units q . the summation.W ) + Σ mi θi = Σ me θe & & & & Q .W = Σ me θe .W = m 2 (h2 + V22/ 2 + gz2) .w = Δ h + Δ ke + Δ pe In SI system of units q .W = Δ H + Δ KE + Δ PE & Dividing this equations by m . Σ drops out and the inlet and exit states are denoted by subscripts 1 and 2.Σ mi θi where θ = h + V2/ 2 + gz is the total energy accompanying unit mass of the flowing fluid. For a single inlet and single exit devices.z1)] or & & & Q .

The cross-sectional area of a nozzle decreases in the flow direction for subsonic flow and increases for supersonic flow and the reverse for a diffuser.h2 = Cp (T1 – T2) It is evident from this equation that the enthalpy or the temperature drops as the velocity increases in a nozzle and vice versa in a diffuser Compressors. Work is supplied to the compressor from an external source through a rotating shaft and hence represents power input. ΔPE = 0. Δ KE = 0. & From first law. Thus. & W = .ve. as well as pumps.m Cp(T2 – T1) or we write . does not get enough time for the heat transfer to take place. rockets.ΔH from which we obtain V22/ 2 . No form of work transfer is present in these devices. The fluid velocities involved with these devices are usually too low to cause any significant change in the kinetic energy. and fans. The fluid having high velocities. The fluid usually experiences no change in its elevation as it flows through these devices. The potential energy change that a fluid experiences as it flows through the device is usually very small and may be neglected. First law reduces to 0 = ΔH + ΔKE or ΔKE = . The heat transfer across the surfaces of these devices is generally small unless there is intentional cooling of the fluid. The rate of heat transfer across the nozzle or diffuser surface is usually very small. & W = 0. A nozzle is a device used to increase the velocity of a fluid as a result of drop in fluid pressure. turbines and compressors and even garden hoses.Δ H & & W = .V12/ 2 = h1 . & Q = 0. ΔPE = 0. we can write the energy equation as W = . are devices used to increase the pressure of a fluid. A diffuser is a device used to decrease the velocity of a fluid as a result of increase in the fluid pressure. even when not insulated. spacecrafts. & Q = 0.Energy Equations or First Law for some Steady-flow Engineering Devices Nozzles and Diffusers are commonly used in jet engines. the flow through nozzles and diffusers may be assumed to be adiabatic.

These devices drive electric generators in power plants. and the change in the potential energy. or u1 + P1v1 = u2 + P2v2 If the flow energy (Pv) increases during the process (P2v2 > P1v1) . since there is neither sufficient time nor large enough area for significant heat transfer to take place. is very small (Δ pe = 0). Turbines are devices that deliver or produce shaft work as a result of drop in the kinetic energy of the fluid passing through them. ΔPE = 0. & From first law. and on account of drop in the kinetic energy in the case of hydraulic turbines in which the temperature of water does not change. & Q = 0. internal energy decreases accompanied by a drop in temperature. like steam in a steam turbine. or h2 = h1 meaning enthalpy during a throttling process is constant. combustion gases in a gas turbine or water in a hydraulic turbine. it is done at the expense of internal energy. we can write the energy equation as W = . The work or power is transferred from this device in the form of shaft work and hence represents power output. The flow through these small & devices may be assumed to be adiabatic ( q = 0). the energy equation from first law is given as Δh = 0. Also. The potential energy change that a fluid experiences as it flows through the device is usually very small and may be neglected. if any. As a result. The heat transfer is usually small (steam and gas turbines are insulted externally) and hence may be neglected & W = + ve. Then.(Δ H + ΔKE) or we write & & W = m [ Cp (T1 – T2) + (V12/ 2 – V22/ 2) ] Work out put from a turbine is on account of drop in the enthalpy and the kinetic energy in the case of steam and gas turbines. Throttling Valves are devices used to cause a large pressure drop in a fluid by means of a constriction in the flow passage.Work input to the compressor increases the enthalpy of the fluid. . This phenomenon is used in refrigeration. The change in the kinetic energy is also insignificant (Δ ke = 0). there & is no work transfer ( w = 0).

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