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2. LITERATURE SURVEY
To select the natural ingredient to be extracted, comprehensive literature survey has been carried out. For the extraction, different processes are used i.e, Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), Microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) etc, as shown in table 1. Table 1:-Extraction techniques for natural ingredient.
Sr No. Plant Source Ingredient Extraction Technique Solute to solvent ratio, Solvent 1 Apple pomace xyloglucan UAE concentration, extraction time C. Fu et al. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 13 (2006) 511–516 Extraction Solvent , Penggan Peel 2 (Citrus Retriculata) Hesperidin UAE Solvent volume, Extraction temperature, Extraction time, Ultrasonic Power, Ultrasonic Frequency D-limonene, 3 Celery seed selinene, sedanolide SFE Extraction Temparature, Extraction Pressure, Particle Size of Celery seed, Flow rate of CO2 I. Papamichail et al./ J. of Supercritical Fluids 18 (2000) 213–226 Extraction Temperature, triterpenoids SFE Extraction Pressure, Flow rate of CO2 L.M.A.S. Campos et al. / J. of Supercritical Fluids 34 (2005) 163–170 Extraction Time, Solvent 5 Licorice Root Glycyrrhizic acid MAE concentration, Material to solvent ratio X. Pan et al. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 5 (2000) 173–177 Y. Ma et al. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 15 (2008) 227–232 Parameters Studied Reference
Marigold 4 (Calendula ofﬁcinalis)
Extraction of natural ingredient.
Glycyrrhizic acid is selected for the present work which can be extracted from the licorice root.Literature review. stirring rate. ethanol concentrations of. number of stages. temperature and solvent to licorice ratio Parameters studied technology for the extraction extraction of glycyrrhizic acid(GA) from licorice (MCE) 3 J.Y. Some research work has already been carried out to extract it from licorice using different techniques. ﬁve stages extracting time for every stage. Panja / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 63 (2008) 539–545 2 Q. pressure. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 21 (2004) 285–292 Development of multi-stage countercurrent extraction Multi-stage countercurrent extraction of natural sweetener from licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra) roots Author and Journal Title of Paper Techniques used Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) Temperature. This literature review is tabulated below in table 2. Baek et al. water to feed ratio. temperature Microwave-assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root Microwaveassisted extraction extraction times. extraction time. ammonia concentration. Mukhopadhyay and A novel process for P. Wang et al. 1 M. ammonia concentrations and liquid/solid ratio Extraction of natural ingredient. Page 11 . Sr No. / Separation and Puriﬁcation Technology 63 (2008) 661–664 4 X. / Biochemical Engineering Journal 5 (2000) 173–177 Extraction of nutraceutical compounds from licorice roots with subcritical water subcritical water Extraction Time. Table 2:-Extraction techniques for licorice root. Pan et al.
Page 12 . 5 Chen S. temperature ./ Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. Extraction of natural ingredient.Literature review. 15(4) 474-477 (2007) Microwave-assisted Micellar Extraction and Determination of Glycyrrhizic Acid and Liquiritin in Licorice Root by HPLC Microwaveassisted Micellar Extraction Triton X-100 loading. et al. extraction time.