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1. What are the routes of entry (into the host) for viruses? 2.

Which route of entry is the most common? Why? 3. In reference to question 1, provide examples of viruses that use each route of entry. 4. What are 4 basic types or patterns of viral infection? Provide an example of each. 5. Once viruses gain access into the host, how do they spread throughout the body? 6. What is viremia? 7. How long can viruses survive in the environment? Provide examples. 8. What parameters affect virus stability in the environment? 9. What are the important target organs for virus infection? Provide examples of viruses that prefer each target. 10. What is the complement system? How does it work? 11. Describe specific cell types that contribute to your nonspecific immune defense. 12. How does a mammalian host mount a specific immune response? What are the key players? 13. What is apoptosis? What function does it serve? Why do some viruses PROMOTE apoptosis? 14. List host conditions that impact susceptibility to viral infection. Describe how these conditions contribute to susceptibility. 15. How is IFN part of our innate immune response? 16. What are cytokines and how do they work? 17. Draw and label a typical IgG antibody

18. How do viruses evade the host immune response? Provide specific examples. 19. What are the 4 types of acquired immunity? Provide an example of each type. 20. What are antitoxins? 21. Define the word attenuated. Provide specific examples of vaccines that consist of attentuated strains of viruses. Provide specific examples of vaccines that consist of inactivated viruses. What are the advantages/disadvantages of each type of vaccine? 22. How are vaccines produced? 23. Describe current approaches to vaccine development. Provide examples where appropriate. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches? 24. What types of additives may be present in vaccine preparations? 25. List the different classes of antibodies. 26. What role do T-cells play in the host immune response? 27. What role do B-cells play in the host immune response? 28. What type of virus is the polio virus? (i.e. what is the virus family?) 29. What are the clinical features of poliomylitis? 30. Briefly outline the replication strategy of polio virus. You should anticipate questions about polio (history, development of an effective vaccine etc) from the assigned chapter and the 31. Describe the features of the influenza virus and briefly outline the replication strategy of influenza virus. 32. How does influenza exploit the host cell machinery to make additional virus particles? Describe specific molecular events.

33. Define the role of each of the following in influenza virus infection: Hemaglutinin, Neurominidase, M1 protein, M2 protein, endosome, pH, conformational change, membrane fusion. 34. Why has SIRS been proposed as an explanation for the devastating nature of the 1918 flu virus? 35. How is the influenza vaccine produced? What are the components of the vaccine? 36. What are the mechanisms by which influenza virus diversity is generated? 37. Why was the 1918 flu so deadly? 38. List the current drugs used to treat influenza infection and describe their mode of action. Which drug is a sialic acid analog? 39. How has reverse genetics been used to generate unique virus strains that carry surface antigens from avian influenza? 40. Your book states that the current flu antivirals will be effective in lowering the dangers of a reemergent 1918 or 1918-like virus. Should we be comfortable with this assessment? Why or why not? 41. Whats the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic? 42. How is influenza diagnosed in a doctors office? What types of tests are available? What are the underlying principles behind these tests? 43. What was unusual about the epidemiology of the 1918 flu outbreak? 44. List possible targets for antiviral chemotherapy. Provide examples of each. 45. How does AZT work? 46. Why are combination therapies used to treat virus diseases such as HIV? 47. There are 5 fundamental concepts in Biology: Energy, Information, Responsiveness, Structure and Chance (Probability). Use examples to explain how these concepts apply to Virology. 48. Know the definitions in Chapter 10 (bold faced terms: oncogene, viral oncogene, proto-oncogene etc.)

49. What is cancer? Explain how viruses can cause cancer. What are the molecular mechanisms? 50. What are the characteristics of cancer cells? 51. Why did David Baltimore and Howard Temin receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 1975? 52. Why did Harold Varmus receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1989? 53. Name viruses that can cause cancer. Several of these have been topics of a number of student presentations. 54. What are some differences between Retroviruses that cause cancer and DNA viruses that can cause cancer. 55. What are HERVs? 56. Student presentations since the midterm.