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Department of Transport PO Box 20 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates
Phase 3 Report STMP Implementation
2009 April 2009
Mott MacDonald PO Box 47094 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates T 971 2 626 2966 F 971 2 445 7490
Mott MacDonald accepts no responsibility or liability for this document to any party other than the person by whom it was commissioned. . stemming from any conclusions based on data supplied by parties other than Mott MacDonald and used by Mott MacDonald in preparing this report.Phase 3 Report STMP Implementation Issue and revision record Rev 1 2 Date 14/3/09 6/4/09 Originator HA HA ABC ABC Checker Approver Description Initial draft of chapters 37 Final report This document has been prepared for the titled project or named part thereof and should not be relied upon or used for any other project without an independent check being carried out as to its suitability and prior written authority of Mott MacDonald being obtained. To the extent that this report is based on information supplied by other parties. Mott MacDonald accepts no liability for any loss or damage suffered by the client. Any person using or relying on the document for such other purpose agrees. and will by such use or reliance be taken to confirm his agreement to indemnify Mott MacDonald for all loss or damage resulting therefrom. whether contractual or tortious. Mott MacDonald accepts no responsibility or liability for the consequence of this document being used for a purpose other than the purposes for which it was commissioned.
The challenge is to bring into operation a 110km Metro system. This process is underpinned by sustainable development principles. Following on from this. supported by a set of strategies which will support public transport use and create a safer and more sustainable transport sector in the future. Phase 2 of the STMP evaluated alternative scenarios and identified the preferred transport scenario for the Emirate. This Phase 3 Report sets out how the STMP should be delivered in the face of this challenge which has a number of facets: • to put in place the institutional capacity to implement an integrated program of capital works and policy initiatives that is almost unparalleled in scale and scope anywhere in the world to mobilise and deliver a programme of construction unprecedented in the Emirate to finance the very large capital requirement to convince people to change behaviour and travel by public transport • • • S-1 . • The institutional framework for transport in the Emirate is comparatively new and is currently under-resourced for the task ahead. procure and monitor multi-modal services in that city of 3. The Department of Transport only obtained statutory powers for its role in surface transport in 2008 and it has recruited intensively to build its staff complement in that area to around 50 professional staff outside operational activities. This was a public transport based scenario which provides a world class public transport infrastructure as well as expanded highway capacity.4 million people. the first step of which was to review and identify issues and options for the future transport system in the Emirate. This amounts to potentially AED 125 billion of capital projects between 2011 and 2015. The transport master plan for Abu Dhabi has been developed through a consultative process. The Phase 2 Report also set out an implementation timescale that is extremely challenging in order to meet the needs of Vision 2030 and its development aspirations.Executive Summary The Surface Transport Master Plan (STMP) was commissioned in February 2008 to develop the conceptual transportation strategy outlined in Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 into a detailed Master Plan and implementation programme for Abu Dhabi. The scale of the challenge can be illustrated by a number of examples: • • • The Singapore and Hong Kong systems took approximately 30 years to extend to 100km length. around 50 km of tramway and nearly 1000 km of new or expanded highway in a six-year period. from practically a standing start. The Dublin-based procurement agency for metro and tram has a staff complement of 200 to deliver a network less than 100km in total: The planned railway under London has been planned for many years and has a procurement agency that will soon be expanding its staff from 200 today to 600 when the project is under construction Berlin has a passenger transport authority with 450 staff to plan.
• to retain flexibility to react to a changing environment Gearing up for delivery The STMP will need to be endorsed at the highest level within the Emirate and given a high priority in the deployment of management and financial resources in order for these challenges to be met. This will require three key elements to be pout into place: • • • It will need full support from other government agencies It will need to set up new executive agencies to implement its strategy and plans It will need to engage private sector skills to supplement its resources while these agencies develop. DoT will need to work closely with a number of Government agencies including: • The Urban Planning Council. to ensure that the STMP policies are carried through to the street level. All institutional barriers will need to be surmounted. with whom an integrated national rail network will need to be planned. Building an equivalent level of resources in Abu Dhabi within the public sector will not be feasible in the limited period of time required to mobilise the procurement of the huge infrastructure and strategy programme envisaged. It will therefore need to have clear authority to get things done and put in place the arrangements to implement the plan. • • • S-2 . For example. private sector skills and capability will need to be leveraged to the maximum in the short term to give the public sector institutions time to develop and grow in to their new responsibilities. and that the transfer of responsibilities and staff to the DoT and its agencies happens smoothly The National Transport Authority. to ensure a close coordination of land development and transport infrastructure provision and the implementation of planning guidance and controls which embody the philosophy and strategies of the STMP The Municipalities. The DoT will have responsibility for STMP implementation and will be accountable for its delivery. However authorities undertaking comparable roles in other countries are considerably better resources. Proposed institutional structure The DoT will have full responsibility for delivering the STMP. Accordingly. vehicle and operator regulation have the potential to support Emirate policies and magnify their effectiveness Union Rail. cities of comparable size to Abu Dhabi in 2030 have agencies responsible for public transport planning and contracting (but not delivery) with staff complements of 400-500 and those responsibly for highway and street construction and maintenance are equivalent in size. This staffing excludes those required to oversee a major procurement programme. when it is created with its Federal passenger and rail freight responsibilities. processes of procurement streamlined and resources harnessed from both the private and public sector to the maximum effect. whose actions at a Federal level on aspects of driver.
patronage and traffic forecasts. and effective management. and between them and the DoT. and the selection of contractors. land acquisition and legislative requirements. In addition. As projects are completed. the DoT and the PMCs will need the support of other advisers across the whole STMP programme. and the third to take on a strategic role overseeing the whole programme.The DoT will require two new statutory implementation agencies to implement the STMP action plan. A public transport agency (‘ADTCo’) is needed to deliver bus. suppliers and operators to deliver the projects and services. The Strategic PMC’s role would be to ensure that cross-cutting aspects such as funding. Processes must be put in place to ensure the necessary flow of information to allow speedy decision-making. one to over see its public transport projects. S-3 . To design and develop projects and strategies. build. They would be managed by the Strategic PMC reporting to the DoT. processes and systems will be needed within and between these new agencies. TransAD. we recommend that the PMCs coordinate the selection and appointment of consultants who can take on the feasibility design of STMP project components. maintain and operate infrastructure and to procure. maintain and operate rolling stock. procure the construction and operation of the new tram. These new agencies will work in parallel with DoT’s successful taxi agency. The Highway and Public Transport PMCs’ remit would be to coordinate the procurement of the necessary preliminary design consultants and coordinate procurement and STMP strategy development in their respective areas. and transport modelling and policy advisers. In particular the private sector will need to play a role in the following areas: • • • • To coordinate and ensure delivery of the wide range of STMP projects and strategies To design and develop projects and strategies from concept to feasibility level To design. maintenance and operation of the strategic highway and local road network. capacity and resources of the private sector will need to be used to the maximum to be able to achieve the challenging timescales demanded by the STMP. A roads agency (‘RoadCo’) is needed to procure the construction. a financial adviser. vessels or vehicles to provided the transport services To finance selected projects or the procurement of moveable assets The role of the private sector during procurement To coordinate and ensure delivery of the wide range of STMP projects and strategies. and to retain the flexibility to adapt the STMP and its strategies to respond to external change. we recommend that the DoT engages three Programme Management Consultants (PMCs): one to oversee the STMP’s highway projects. they would be handed over to ADTCo or RoadCo that will by then have developed their capacity to take on their management and operation. and the development of STMP’s complementary policies across a wide range of areas. the legal framework and the overall procurement strategy are optimal for the Emirate and do not create any obstacles. The skills. including a legal adviser. The skills and capacity of the DoT and agencies will be need to be expanded substantially though recruitment and training to deliver their respective roles. ferry and car park services. Strong leadership. The PMCs will strengthen the capacity of the DoT and the agencies to achieve the tight delivery timescales required to meet the growth in travel and traffic demand anticipated in Abu Dhabi over the Plan period. metro and regional rail network and ensure a seamless passenger experience across all modes. They will advise on cross-cutting issues such as funding (including private sector financing).
systems and public transport operations. we recommend that the private sector is engaged to deliver the bulk of the STMP programme in partnership with ADTCo and RoadCo. however they are unlikely to generate surplus funds for the replacement of assets in the future or to contribute to the costs of financing. with the possible supply of systems and/or rolling stock on an availability basis and operating concessions thereafter. A variety of models for delivery has been considered and will be further developed during preliminary design. build. In the longer term. The annual operating costs of the new infrastructure and services is expected to be around AED 13 billion. commensurate with the scale of incremental transport capacity that it provides. manufacturers and operators to design. in order to deliver the capacity needed by 2015. cost and performance risk to the private sector and giving the contractor. or its agencies. has specified. also in 2008 prices and include a 30% contingency.The role of the private sector in delivery To deliver infrastructure. supplier and operator as much freedom as practicable to develop the detailed solutions to deliver a service specification defined by the DoT. Extensions may be procured on a turnkey basis For the tram – turnkey procurement of sub-networks may be attractive. The programme will need to be funded from a balanced mix of sources. A variety of partnership arrangements will be adopted to tap the capability and capacity of global and local contractors. Probable business models include: • • • For highways – design. They vary by mode but all take the form of transferring delivery. For the regional rail system – this is farther into the future and options are wide open depending on the developing concepts for inter-Emirate and international services. with options for how rolling stock and operations are procured. S-4 . These contractual arrangements should ensure that the contractors and service providers have strong incentives to deliver the operational specifications and performance that the DoT. including vehicle purchase in the future For the Metro – traditional procurement of the civils infrastructure of the initial system. The peak spending requirement is expected to be around AED 24 billion annually over the period 2011-2015. The operating and maintenance costs of the public transport system will be met through a combination of public transport fares and demand management surcharges on public parking and taxi fares. congestion charges and other fees on car users will promote mode shift and the use of low emission vehicles. The total cost is expected to be around AED 320 billion in 2008 prices with a 30% contingency included. operate and transfer solutions and a variety of performance based maintenance contracts For buses – franchising defined services. These charges will ensure that the transport system is sustainable in the long term. and will also generate revenue to offset the maintenance costs of the extra highway capacity provided. build and operate major Plan components. • • Funding the STMP The capital cost of the STMP is very large. because of its magnitude.
In many countries. could also be sold to generate capital funding for the Plan. S-5 . This is not the cases in Abu Dhabi. and we recommend that selected projects should be project financed using private sector capital. Alternatively it can provide guarantees to loans made to RoadCo and ADTCo to fund projects or asset purchases. If the development proposed by 2015 is to be accommodated. but the terms and volume of such funding are much less favourable at present due to the credit shortage in the financial markets. or where some other strategic purpose is served. In addition. and this should be priority of the transport agency which needs to be constituted with its own law as a matter of urgency. This method of funding could be applied to many of the projects proposed. The cost of private sector capital is higher that that of public sector borrowing and therefore it should only be used where it gives value for money through the performance incentives it generates. The balance will vary depending on the prevailing economic environment. private finance. other demands on the Government’s resources and the availability and cost of credit for privately funded elements of the programme. In the period to 2015.Developers will benefit greatly from the increased accessibility afforded to their developments by the transport systems in the STMP. government grant and government-backed borrowing. The Abu Dhabi Government wished to broaden the sources of funding available to it and it has recently successfully issued Government bonds. such as the deferral of Government funding. The appropriate balance of these sources of funds should be determined by the Government nearer the time that a decision is required. The transfer of staff and operations from the Municipalities to the DoT should also be achieved as soon as possible to allow the development of a powerful team to take forward the integrated development of highway construction. the rights to develop station sites or adjacent land purchased to allow construction to take place and subsequently owned by the transport agencies. However this situation is likely to improve over the next few years. We recommend that capital expenditure be funded by a combination of developer cost-sharing contributions. but we recommend that a cost-sharing approach is given priority consideration.or cost-sharing mechanisms. traffic management and development of the streetscape and the pedestrian realm. Private sector project finance is used increasingly by the governments the world over to bring forward capital expenditure that would not other wise be affordable. Government funding will have to be used for the balance. This is a significant challenge and means that the procurement of the PMCs and of the consultants to carry out the feasibility design work should be accelerated. as well as substantial new highway capacity. the main Metro loop and two tram sub-networks will need to be constructed and in operation. Immediate actions The development of the Capital District and expansion in the CBD on Abu Dhabi Island set out in Vision 2030 will lead to a substantial increase in demand on the CBD-Capital District-Airport axis. developers contribute to the cost of infrastructure provision through value. increased bus-based capacity should be provided and a ferry service developed to serve the new island developments.
so should the Plan keep pace and anticipate the Emirate’s next demands to deliver the quality of life to which it aspires for all its citizens and residents. Monitoring arrangements and the appropriate demand modelling tools will be put in place to ensure that it is kept up-to-date and relevant. S-6 . as the international and domestic economic and development environments change. As Abu Dhabi stretches and grows.The STMP is intended to be a dynamic plan.
1 5.3 2 2.3 5.6 5.2 4.1 2.3 4.1 6.4 The Executive Agencies Required for STMP Implementation Interface with Federal Transport Institutions The Role of Programme Management Consultants Introduction Potential PPP Approach for the Buses and Ferries System Potential PPP Approach for the Metro System Potential PPP Approach for the Tram System Potential PPP Approach for the Regional Rail System Potential PPP Approach for Highways Summary of PPP Strategy Conclusions 5 THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN DELIVERY PRIVATE DELIVERY 5.1 3.Contents Page 1 INTRODUCTION 1.3 Introduction Transport Sector Objectives Policy Principles 11 11 12 19 20 26 27 31 31 32 34 35 37 38 40 43 43 43 49 4 IMPLEMENTATION FUTURE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE FOR STMP IMPLEMENTATION 4.4 2.5 2.4 5.7 2.1 1.9 3 Background STMP Process Report Structure Introduction The National Transport Authority (NTA) Department of Transport Road Safety Bus Office TransAD Union Railway Department of Municipal Affairs Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 7 7 8 INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE AND CAPABILITY PRINCIPLES RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES GOVERNING RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS 11 3.5 5.2 2.6 2.2 1.8 2.2 6.2 5.3 2.7 6 STMP FUNDING OPTIONS 6.2 3.3 Introduction Sources of Operational Funding Sources of Capital Funding i .
2 7.8 7.5 9.5 7 7.10 8 8.9 7.4 9.6.5 7.3 9.1 7.6 7.2 9.3 7.5 9 9.6 Illustrative Funding Options Conclusions – STMP Financing Introduction Public Transport Infrastructure Components Highway Infrastructure Components Congestion Management Strategy Freight Management Strategy Accessibility Strategy Pedestrian Realm Strategy Low Carbon Strategy – Action Plan Environmental Enhancement Strategy Safety & Security Strategy Introduction Overview of the Institutional Approach Department of Transport Abu Dhabi Transport Corporation The Roads Agency Introduction Performance Monitoring Management and Organisational Arrangements External Dissemination and Stakeholder Engagement Maintenance of the STMP Model Action Plan 53 59 61 61 61 68 70 77 80 84 85 91 97 105 105 106 108 113 115 117 117 117 126 130 132 134 A-1 IMPLEMENTATION HIGH LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAMME INSTITUTIONAL ACTION PLANS MONITORING PERFORMANCE MONITORING SYSTEM APPENDIX A ii .1 9.2 8.3 8.4 6.7 7.4 7.1 8.4 8.
From this evaluation. Phase 1 report – Issues Options and Work Plans was issued in June 2008. 2020. 1. 2015. and 2025. and international transport.1 1. It also set out action plans for delivering the major infrastructure components. This study has focussed on delivering a framework which will guide the sustainable development of the transport network for the Emirate up to and beyond the year 2030. a preferred scenario was developed in more detail and evaluated further. the study has developed a co-ordinated set of policies and a detailed comprehensive multi modal transport plan for the Abu Dhabi metropolitan region for the year 2030. policies and plans which identified the key issues and options to be addressed and the additional information required to evaluate future policy/planning scenarios. This involved the formulation of a range of alternative policy and planning scenarios. The STMP has also developed policies and plans for the rest of the Emirate. the role of the private sector in Plan delivery and the funding options available. addressing the strategic urban transport needs of each region as well as the requirements for inter-regional. each of which is summarised by a major report.2 STMP Process The STMP has been completed in three phases. 1. These scenarios were assessed against the objectives of the STMP using a wide range of sustainability-led criteria to quantify impacts. Phase 2: Evaluation This phase included a comprehensive analysis of all the likely impacts of alternative scenarios for the management and development of the transport system. Phase 3: Implementation Plan This final stage describes the institutional arrangements that will be required for delivery.1 INTRODUCTION Background Mott MacDonald with Steer Davies Gleave were appointed in February 2008 by the Abu Dhabi Department of Transport (DoT) to prepare the Surface Transport Master Plan (STMP) for the Emirate. inputs to the development of the STMP are guided by the three basic elements of sustainability: economic. Phase 1: Assessment This involved a comprehensive review of existing conditions. With the elements of sustainable development as guiding principles. The Phase 2 report was issued in March 2009. the key strategies and the development of the core institutions necessary for the plan delivery. environmental and social objectives.3 Report Structure This Phase 3 Report is divided into nine chapters as follows: • Chapter 2 describes the current institutional structure 1 . As detailed in Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. with a staging approach for 2010. inter-Emirate. supported by the development of working papers.
• • • • • • • Chapter 3 sets out the objectives and principles we have used to develop recommended implementation arrangements Chapter 4 describes the future institutional structure for STMP implementation Chapter 5 outlines the role of the private sector in delivery Chapter 6 describes STMP funding options Chapter 7 describes the high-level implementation programme for infrastructure and the STMP strategies Chapter 8 sets out institutional action plans Chapter 9 describes the performance monitoring system required to ensure the Plan is kept alive and relevant Please note that all financial figures referred to in this report relate are expressed in 2008 prices. 2 .
implementing the emirate’s air. In general. and setting minimum standards for road vehicle and driver regulations. It describes the foundation from which changes will need to be made to create the institutions. 3 . it is responsible for relations with international bodies and governments where UAE as a whole needs to be represented.2 2. this chapter of the Phase 3 Report provides an overview of the current institutional structure and the capability of the current institutions. The STMP will provide a significant further challenge to refine. Through Law 5/2008. strategic planning. In this context.2 The National Transport Authority (NTA) The NTA is responsible for policy formulation and regulation of transport issues (excluding aviation) at the federal level. for regulations which need to be applied to the UAE as a whole. The NTA is in the process of preparing a Federal Transport Master Plan which will set out its priorities and policies for the future. and for inter-Emirate transport infrastructure planning. this remit was extended to cover policy development. 2. land and sea transport policy.1 CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE AND CAPABILITY Introduction The Abu Dhabi and federal institutions responsible for the development and implementation of transport policy are recently constituted and are still in the process of evolving in structure and expanding in skills to discharge their new obligations. 2. making recommendations to the government on setting up corporations in the related sectors. These changes are described in Chapter 3. deliver and keep refreshed in a rapidly-changing environment. highways and maritime sectors more generally. regulation and the oversight of major programs in public transport. capacity and capability to implement the Plan.3 Department of Transport The Department of Transport (DoT) is the main institution with transport responsibility across the Abu Dhabi Emirate. privatisation and tariffs. The scope of the NTA’s responsibilities includes: • • • • • • Planning the strategic inter-Emirate road and rail network Dealing with UAE interests on international regulatory issues such as road transport regulation (lorry axle loads etc) Maritime safety regulation Managing relationships with ESCWA Representing UAE on GCC planning issues such as the proposed GCC freight railway. The responsibilities of the DoT include developing general transport strategy. It was set up under Law 4/2006 with an initial scope overseeing the aviation and maritime sectors in the Emirate. agreeing standards and alignments at borders Setting technical and safety regulations for railways operating across Emirate borders. legislation.
through a combination of internal resources and external consultancies.3. maritime and surface transport. It is structured into four sections: • • • • 2. urban transit. It comprises only around six professional staff in early 2009 with recruitment plans to expand to around 12 filling specialist skill gaps. DoT is developing its own road safety team within the Highways Section but to date it only comprises of three members of staff. policy formulation. freight.The DoT currently comprises separate divisions covering aviation. this team will deliver the road safety policies identified in the STMP. planning and design studies in respect of passenger rail. described below. the DoT is currently responsible for the operation of the Emirate’s bus services which are run out of a separate Bus Office. 2.1 Highways Public transport Regulations Integrated planning Highways Section The Highways Section of the Surface Transport Division currently undertakes the following activities in respect of the strategic highway system: • • • • • • Highway policy development Setting infrastructure development and engineering standards Managing the delivery of highway infrastructure Design reviews. ferry. cycleways and pedestrian routes.3. In addition.2 Public Transport Section The Public Transport Section of the Surface Transport Division currently has responsibility for strategy development. 4 . highway studies Road asset management Highway feasibility studies It currently employs around 40 staff. When expanded. The Surface Transport Division encompasses highways and public transport and thus ensures that planning is integrated across modes. operating in four divisions: • • • • Technical Services Major Projects Operations Public Private Partnerships.
in order to refine the appropriate regulations and processes. This compliance check may be delegated to the contracting agency to monitor. • • • This Section will need to draw on the technical knowledge of highway.ensuring that where services are subject to regulation or contract. such as the Transport Police for monitoring and enforcement. and will also rely on other agencies. (This does not apply to freight services which are not subject to fare or quantity regulation) Customers – ensuring that appropriate passenger charters or by-laws are in place.2. mapping and transport data Master planning. programme and budgets Monitoring performance of plans This Section comprises around 10 professional staff with plans to double this number in the short term.3 Regulations Section The Regulations Section of the Surface Transport Division has responsibility for preparing regulations that support government objectives and policies which will be developed by the other sections in the Surface Transport Division. licensing and enforcement Services . road vehicles and vessels – ensuring that processes are in place and being followed for ensuring safe and environmentally appropriate operation Drivers – ensuring that the polices of the DoT are being implemented through driver testing. public transport and marine staff in other parts of the DoT. In particular this Section will need to develop and implement the Surface Transport Division’s actions in responding to the new Health Safety Environment Management System. its recruitment need and how the implementation of its regulatory activities should be carried out. Its activities therefore include: • • • • Collating and distribution socio-economic. 2. 5 .3. including rolling stock. transport modelling and impact studies Preparing a 5-year transport plan.4 Integrated Planning Section This Section is responsible for providing an information source for the other sections and for holding the transport planning capability and for monitoring progress. At present this Section only comprises one professional staff member who is seeking to develop the role of the section. These regulations it is responsible for monitoring will cover: • • • Operators – assessing the competency and capabilities of operators in compliance with any licensing regulations that are defined Infrastructure – ensuring that HSE polices are being followed and the processes for acceptance are in place and being followed Vehicles.3. that they are being provided at the correct fares and are of the specified quality.
2. It includes obligations to construct new car parks.4 Road Safety At present there is no overarching road safety agency with responsibility for the development of road safety targets and a strategy for meeting them. It is researching the number of injuries that result from not wearing seat belts and is developing campaigns to encourage seat-belt and baby seat usage. It is the DoT’s intention to create a new statutory body by law. install payment equipment for on-street parking and to manage the car parks (including enforcement). Charges will continue to be approved by the Executive Council. The DoT place great emphasis on road safety and this is reflected in the road safety policies partly developed by the DoT and included in the STMP. This contract was let by Abu Dhabi Municipality but has been passed to the Bus Office to manage. which will undertake bus operations and oversee the commercial management of public paid car parking at arm’s length from the DoT. as well as support staff and drivers. It is also procuring the new bus fleet without private finance. The Abu Dhabi Heath Authority (HAAD) is also involved in the promotion of road safety. The Bus Office was set up to operate the services directly until the services are contracted out in the future. The DoT undertook a tendering exercise for bus operations in the early part of 2008. 860 in 2010) to replace the existing fleet and meet current demand.6 TransAD TransAD TransAD (as the Centre for Regulation of Transport by Hire Cars) was established by Law 19/2006. regulate. A draft of the new law is being prepared. • • 2. The Bus Office is currently staffed by around 23 professionals. with the aim of offering gross cost concessions to new operators to supply and operate buses according to the DoT’s service specification.5 Bus Office The Bus Office has been set up as an operational arm of the Surface Transport to take on the management and operations of public transport from the Municipalities who have recently transferred their bus undertakings and infrastructure (350 vehicles. TransAD is a corporate body enjoying financial and administrative independence and a complete legal status to operate under the patronage and guidance of the Chairman of the Department of Transport (DOT) of Abu Dhabi. the issue of road safety is of concern to a number of institutions: • The Abu Dhabi police have set their own target for the reduction in the number of killed and seriously injured. to develop. 6 . and has ordered 1360 new buses (500 in 2009. bus stops. A private sector concession has been recently awarded for car parking management within Abu Dhabi City. bus stations and depots) to the DoT. However this process was abandoned as the DoT did not perceive that it was obtaining value for money from the bidders. Road Safety is one of six priorities for Abu Dhabi Police.2. However. but it has very little maintenance capability. monitor and continuously improve taxi services and the car hire industry in the Emirate.
with connections to the neighbouring states. A Board will be constituted with representatives from the Federal and participating Emirate governments. it will take over as the client organisation to the PMC and then recruit the necessary management and organisational capability to take on the strategic planning.7 Union Railway The Railway Planning Committee (RPC) was created as an administrative body but was given statutory status in 2007 as the Abu Dhabi Freight and Passenger Rail Committee through Decree 38/2007 by the Chairman of the Executive Council. a fund to compensate gold and white taxi owners for the withdrawal of their licenses. to take forward the development of the railway. Al Ain and Western Region. These Municipal Councils and their Municipalities cover Al Ain. it will need to coordinate with NTA on interEmirate rail links and DoT on the rail links needed to serve the Emirate. The Union Railway Company will be set up shortly under a Federal law. and in particular within Abu Dhabi Emirate (Phase 1). 7 . The RPC has been supported by a small team of staff from ADBIC to date. with sections across other Emirates will proceed in parallel with Phase 1. They expect that Phase 2 of the freight rail project. By the end of 2010 these franchisees will have provided over 7100 brand new taxis in Abu Dhabi. the Western Region and Abu Dhabi Municipality.8 Department of Municipal Affairs The Department of Municipal Affairs (DMA) has overarching responsibility within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi for the affairs of the three separate Municipal Councils and their executive bodies. This process will be complete by the end of 2012. the Municipalities. 2. It will establish communication links to relevant government and other bodies to ensure full coordination and policy consistency. accounting. Subsequent sections of the railway to Ruwais. Al Ain and Western Region. legal and insurance consultants will also be retained. the focus of the RPC’s planning has been on a freight railway. The Company will propose the most appropriate role for the private sector and for itself in delivering. Al Ain and Ghweifat may then be constructed in parallel by 2017. The DMA’s Chairman oversees the three municipalities and the operation of the DMA. In addition specialist financial. A Programme Management Consultant (PMC) with technical. operational. It has also established. It is charged with implementing the plan for a railway within the Emirate and then the rest of the UAE.It has implemented a new taxi franchising system with seven local companies operating taxi fleets in our Emirate. and manages. It contracts out the taxi monitoring system and the centralised call centre for booking taxis. control and contract management functions required during construction. but when the Union Railway Company has been set up. In particular. reporting to the Federal Cabinet. commercial organisational and institutional capability has been appointed. TransAD is fully staffed with 85 employees covering branches in Abu Dhabi. To date. Their objective is to open the first stretch of line between Mussafah and Khalifa Port and Taweela in 2014. 2. managing and operating the railway.
In July 2005.2 Al Ain Municipality Al Ain Municipality (AAM) is responsible for services in the eastern region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. At present ADM’s highways division is responsible for local roads. it was restructured through Law 16 giving it more authority on all environmental efforts as well as the new name: Environment Agency . it is likely that the majority of the highways staff that are currently employed by the Al Ain Municipality will be transferred to the DoT. The DoT has recently been given responsibility from the Western Region for the strategic routes. however the DoT has recently been given responsibility from AAM for the strategic routes in the region.Abu Dhabi (EAD).9 Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi The Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency (ERWDA) was established under Law 4/1996 to protect the natural wealth of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.8. EAD is designated as the Competent Authority for environmental and wildlife issues within Abu Dhabi Emirate as outlined in Federal Laws 23 and 24. If this transfer is approved. comprising around 40 staff. and to promote sustainable development. 2.8. and that the DoT will develop a satellite highways office to manage highway affairs in the region. In 2006. subject to Executive Council agreement will extend this responsibility to cover all roads.8. responsibility for Al Ain’s local roads will also be transferred to the DoT. design and construction. and. Once approved. Until recently this included all roads.2. The scope of the agency’s activities is comprehensive across all aspects of the environmental and sustainability agenda. However this situation is currently under review and subject to the approval of Executive Council. The Municipality is divided into a number of sub-departments which include a section which deals with highways issues. Subject to Executive Council approval. with teams responsible for maintenance. EAD’s Environmental Policy Department has been expanding recently to adopt a number of initiatives such as the establishment of an ‘Environmental Policies Sector’ to coordinate closely with the General Secretariat of the Abu Dhabi Executive Council in developing environmental policies. AAM’s highways division covers roads and infrastructure.3 Al Gharbia Municipality The structure of the Al Gharbia Municipality is similar to that of the Al Ain Municipality.1 Abu Dhabi Municipality The Abu Dhabi Municipality (ADM) is a delivery agency for the Department of Municipal Affairs and has been in place since 1966. ADM’s team of around 75 highway staff will transfer to the DoT. and continues to manage some strategic road contracts such as the Salaam Street Tunnel. 2. 2. the Abu Dhabi Municipality and the Public Works Department were merged and in 2008 the control of the strategic roads in the Emirate was transferred to the DoT. The staff with appropriate skills (around 10 staff at present) are then likely to be transferred into a new DoT satellite office to manage roads in the region. the control of all roads will transfer from the Municipality to the DoT. 8 .
S-based research and technical services firm RTI International. emissions. which are of direct relevance to the STMP EAD supports the Emirate’s role within the UN’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) initiative. EAD is the CDM-designated National Authority. This partnership is to establish an in-house institute equivalent to NILU for the EAD called the “Abu Dhabi Air and Climate Institute (ADACI)”.EAD’s Environmental Management Department is currently supported by an outsource partnership signed in November 2008 with the U. economic and legal activities to provide recommendations to the Ministry of Energy Higher Committee. including scientific. Over this five-year partnership the ADACI institute is aiming to build capacity in areas such as noise quality and monitoring. 9 . greener fuels and renewable energy. climate change and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). RTI currently provides technical and capacity building support to the environmental management department who are responsible for processing all environmental permit applications for major projects. This environmental permit processing is carried out in collaboration with the UPC. The EAD has a five year strategic partnership with the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). helping to promote the implementation of CDM projects and responsible for evaluating and approving CDM projects. It heads an executive council with responsibility for CDM implementation. staring in January 2008.
A clear and efficient institutional and funding framework will be required to provide a firm foundation for the implementation of the STMP. Goal 2 – Society and Culture: Protect and enrich people’s lives by maximizing safety and access to opportunities for all. This framework will need to be consistent with the overall goals for the transport sector. high-quality transport services for passengers and freight. 3. regulation and funding. These goals need to be embodied in the institutional and funding framework so that they can be given suitable priority and focus. Goal 3 – Environment: Deliver world-leading performance in environmental sustainability. and also major changes in societal attitudes to gain maximum benefit from the investment proposed. This will therefore impose a number of major challenges. We summarise our understanding of these aspects in this chapter as a precursor to developing a recommended institutional structure in Chapter 4.1 OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES GOVERNING RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS Introduction The STMP involves very large investment in transport systems which are new to Abu Dhabi. and preserving of Abu Dhabi’s unique environment. and generic policies with regard to service delivery.3 3. a privatisation approach in Chapter 5 and a funding approach in Chapter 6. through responsible use of resources. privatisation.2 Transport Sector Objectives The STMP strategies have been developed to support the vision of creating a world-leading transport system. These challenges need to be faced by government institutions. These will require a step change in approaches to delivery. minimizing pollution. in particular: • • • • • To mobilise and deliver an unprecedented programme of investment in transport infrastructure and services To convince people to change behaviour and travel by public transport To ensure that land development and transport capacity proceeds in step To retain flexibility to react to a changing environment To finance the very large capital requirement and on-going operating deficits. which in many cases are new and under-resourced even for their current roles. 11 . with three key Goals: • • • Goal 1 – Economy: Promote economic competitiveness and vitality through efficient. the key principles set out in the Policy Agenda 2007-8.
3.3. The vision for Abu Dhabi set out in that document is for a secure society and a dynamic open economy based on the following pillars: • • • Premium (quality) infrastructure assets A large. communication Development of strategies to achieve the objectives for the country with which the department is charged – in this case the transport objectives stated earlier in this chapter Monitoring the effectiveness of the strategies to achieve these objectives. in the public and private sectors To outsource non-core services to the private sector and increase private sector involvement in service delivery To increase the efficient use of technology as a key enabler in all departments and government entities To develop effective performance measurement and evaluation systems in all Government departments and entities. empowered private sector An optimal transparent regulatory environment Furthermore. and the continued appropriateness of policies inline with general government approaches • • 12 . but can be inferred from the Policy Agenda 2007-2008.3 3. and good practice elsewhere is to develop and articulate policy and strategy. and how it is has been implemented to date.3.1 Policy Principles Overarching Overarching Policy Framework In many areas. policies are not set out explicitly. olicy/S Separation of Policy/Strategy Development and Implementation Functions The core function of a government department in Abu Dhabi. This has a number of elements: • Development of policies governing the key approaches by the department and its agencies in respect of generic areas such as procurement. privatisation. the Executive Council articulated six key principles which should guide policy direction.2 To increase efficiency and reduce the cost of service provision To reduce the level of hidden unemployment and improve the performance of Government overall To increase the rate of Emiratisation. namely: • • • • • • 3.
the private sector can be fully incentivised to achieve strategic objectives by contract. This is because executive agencies can be set up with more flexible governance. we do not advocate the use of private finance in all cases. such as the creation of laws and regulations. but are often implemented by an executive agency under direction from the department. These can be carried out within a government department. to allow them to be more innovative and responsive to changing needs. build and operate a metro system.The treatment of the strategy implementation function is more complicated. which will often include the contractors. 13 . The scale of the STMP implementation task facing the Government (and the DoT in particular) is so large that the skills. employment and procurement arrangements. This has good international precedent since the private sector has maximum flexibility to respond to market needs and to seek and implement an optimum balance between capital and labour. or are largely administrative. Some strategies require close coordination between government departments to develop. Securing private finance means that the investors. There are various ways in which the instruction can be transmitted and accountability ensured. than apply to central government departments. In the absence of market pressures (and subject to appropriate regulation). Other strategies. or by a private sector party. capability and capacity of the private sector will need to be used to the maximum.3. However. there appears to be a clear policy to set up implementing agencies for service delivery and to use the private sector where advantages in efficiency or in cost-effectiveness can be demonstrated. In the Abu Dhabi context. there is a clear policy to separate strategy formulation and implementation in this way. including the design and construction of major capital projects. In Abu Dhabi. We advocate using the private sector to deliver services. In this case they are normally carried out within the central government department itself.3 Privatisation Policy There is a strong theme of private sector enhancement in the Government’s policy statements. This should only be tempered by the ability of the executive agency to define the outputs it requires and the capacity of the agency to procure these services. Accordingly we recommend that there should be a general policy of full outsourcing of service delivery to the private sector. In general. The government has to be satisfied that the higher cost of capital is justified by the transfer of these risks and the potential cost savings achievable from innovation and effective delivery. However. efficiency gains are more readily achievable if services are delivered at arms length from government. where cost-effective and timely delivery can be incentivised through performance contracts. This facilitates accountability (by requiring a clear strategy and set of deliverables to be articulated) and efficiency (by allowing more managerial freedom in delivery). 3. This point is elaborated in the next section. This can have the benefit of ensuring that whole life costs are taken into account and that delivery of the project to time and cost is fully incentivised.g. are exposed to major financial risk. Service delivery can be carried out within the government department. e. on funding policy. the cost of capital reflects these risks and generally increases as the number and severity of transferred risks increases. management. are more executive and operational in nature. in an executive agency. where the outputs and outcomes desired can be adequately defined.
In summary we recommend. as well as fulfilling other policy objectives. Fare policy should therefore remain under the control of the DoT and not the transport operator. Taxi charges have recently been raised in order to provide an adequate return to operators as they provide a better standard of services.) Car parking charges are being piloted in limited areas. could be levied by Abu Dhabi Emirate acting on its own. since the trade-off between ridership and revenue generation will remain an ongoing policy issue. set at a maximum of AED 1/hour. more geographically limited approaches to charging. but ideally the public transport system should also be sustainable. and it is not a policy option for a single Emirate. (Diesel prices. on the other hand are set by the fuel distributors. This would create appropriate economic signals. This is a UAE-wide policy. In the medium term. • • • In the future. such as highway tolls. highway users should also pay for the costs of providing. these charges could generate significant revenue. Other. Taxation and Subsidy Policies Currently. transport users have low costs in Abu Dhabi: • Car users experience low petrol prices which are set independently from the cost of fuel in order to provide stability in prices and not to have an inflationary effect when oil prices rise. However. Public transport users are also favoured as scheduled bus services have traditionally had low fares. as a privatisation policy.3. 14 . lead to greater mode shift towards public transport and raise revenue. or have been offered for free. Ideally. but these are still low by international standards and provide an inexpensive alternative to car or bus use. In the short term. maintaining and policing the highway system. that the executive agencies should engage the private sector to deliver services under the following circumstances: • • • 3. but these are low by international standards. We recommend that DoT should attempt to achieve a position where revenue from transport users should meet the operational costs of the public transport and car parking system in aggregate. the price of petrol remains subject to Federal policy. fares and charges will need to be set with two objectives in mind: • • To play a role in travel demand management policies To raise revenue The requirements of travel demand management should take priority in order to achieve the STMP’s transport objectives. the most efficient way of achieving this would be to place a tax on diesel and petrol. Cost Recovery.4 where this can be done more efficiently and effectively than if the services were carried out by the executive agency where the executive agency has the experience to specify accurately the desired service outputs and outcomes and to incentivise their delivery where the form of public private partnership adopted reflects an optimum balance of risk transfer Pricing. cordon charges or congestion charges.
The principles for guiding their choice should: • • • fit with the Government’s broader revenue-raising initiatives fit with achieving broader land-use and transport mode choice objectives fit with the over-arching Economic.3.or a cost-sharing basis In some countries. Tolls are used by turnpike authorities and on many PPP toll roads to pay for the construction and operation of those roads. there are alternative uses to which it can put its funds and therefore it needs to choose how it shares the burden of funding between the various groups of beneficiaries of improved transport infrastructure and services. UK. However. There a number of mechanisms for obtaining a contribution from all these groups. This may be intended to cover operating and maintenance costs only. Singapore.3. in general. Dubai) obtain a significant proportion of capital funding from developer contributions on either a value. Social and Environmental Goals Internationally practice varies depending on local situations: • Many countries (Hong Kong. the cash flow burden of the Government is eased by drawing on private finance with repayment though availability payments over time (for example through the shadow toll road programme in a number of western countries or through the under-writing of railway access charges by government to pay for the railway infrastructure. transport bonds are used to raise funds from the local population (through rates) and when the capital is repaid the rates are reduced accordingly. These beneficiaries include: • • • • the citizens of Abu Dhabi who enjoy the economic growth that is facilitated by the investment transport users who enjoy less congestion and more transport choices to a wider range of jobs and leisure destinations developers of land who have captured the economic benefit created by the ability to access their developments Home owners whose property value reflects the increased accessibility to destinations in the Emirate. a housing tax or rate is levied by the local authority and used to subsidise public transport or highway maintenance.5 Capital Funding Policies The Abu Dhabi Government is in a privileged position of not.) • • • • Following discussions with Department of Finance and DoT officials we have concluded that the guiding capital funding policy should be to reduce the peak requirement for government grant funding by a combination of: • Obtaining an appropriate level of contribution from developers reflecting a proportion of the cost of the incremental transport capacity needed to service their 15 . having an affordability constraint in its funding. In many countries. or include an element of capital funding as well In the US.
quality and price of supply Environmental impact Safety and security A key objective of STMP strategies is to achieve mode shift through supply-side strategies. freight services should continue to be de-regulated. Safety and security are of paramount importance on public transport modes. The quality and price of the required service will should be set by the DoT. market entry to provide passenger services should be controlled. taxi and truck use. This requires maximum emission standards to be set through regulations and for these to be enforced through inspections and testing to ensure that performance does not deteriorate over time. An important lever to influence environmental impact of vehicles is the regulation of the emissions from vehicles. • • Direct funding through rates or levies on commercial or residential property is ruled out at this stage as being inconsistent with general fiscal policy in the Emirate. depending on national policy at the time.3. • Harnessing private sector funding of PPP schemes where this gives value for money and where there is financing capacity. for the foreseeable future. However. The achievement of desired low levels of risk in these areas requires a regulatory regime that ensures that there are minimum standards of operator and driver competence and of vehicle integrity. This approach also has international precedents and has already been used as a means of funding other infrastructure projects in the Emirate. in line with the STMP strategies.6 Regulatory and Licensing Policies To maximise the benefits of using private sector entities to deliver services. there are a number of areas where regulation is needed to provide the transport system desired for the STMP: • • • Quantity. One implication of this approach is that.developments. and road safety is of vital importance to car. 16 . Providing the balance of funding from general Government sources or from government bonds. operators should be incentivised to deliver efficiently and effectively. There are many international precedents for this approach where there is the political will for its introduction. Environmental improvement is also a key STMP objective. and should be as unconstrained as possible in order to maximum the opportunities for innovation and cost reduction. However. and the necessary level of service should be provided or procured by the relevant executive agency. except for safety and environmental aspects. 3. the DoT will need to control market entry and specify the level and quality of service to be provided as well as the fare to be charged. where this is cost-effective and credit is available. In the Abu Dhabi context. Borrowing through national banks with a government guarantee to fund specific projects.
Within the DoT. Accordingly this function should be fulfilled by the DoT who can apply the same criteria and processes to operations carried out by the executive agency directly or by a private sector company. 17 . these activities should be carried out where the appropriate technical skills reside. The Regulations Section within the DoT will be responsible for setting up the procedures and ensuring they are complied with. for example the Marine Division should provide the expertise to regulate ferries and water taxis and the Highways and Public Transport Sections should provide expertise in their respective areas.Safety and environmental regulation should be carried out at arms length from the operator.
strategic planning. the precise structure depending on the balance struck between the criteria identified.4 4. It will be accountable for the successful implementation of the STMP and for achieving its outcomes.1. outline the roles and responsibilities of each institution and the mechanisms for communication between them. resource allocation and monitoring of the progress and effectiveness of its strategies. We outline. we describe the recommended institutional structure to implement the STMP. executive agencies to: o o implement strategy as set out by DoT report on performance and the achievement of operational outputs and transport outcomes Specialised executive agency(ies) should be created to meet the specific needs of each broad modal group.2 The Role and Responsibilities of the DoT The DoT is responsible for surface transport strategy.1. in turn: • • • • • The role and responsibilities of the DoT The executive agencies required for STMP implementation The role of other Abu Dhabi institutions The interface with Federal institutions The role of Programme implementation Management Consultants to support STMP 4. 19 . o o • • • • In this Chapter. within the agreed policy framework Monitor the performance of executive agencies and review their strategies The DoT should create. or nominate and delegate to.1 FUTURE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE FOR STMP INSTITUT IMPLEMENTATION Introduction In Chapter 3 we proposed the following institutional principles: • o The Department of Transport should: develop appropriate policies to govern the activities of the Department and its executive agencies within the overall policy framework set by the Executive Council develop strategies to achieve objectives. Regulation should be established independently of the executive agency or private operator delivering the transport service. The use of the private sector for operational delivery should be maximised where outcomes can be incentivised and requirements can be adequately specified by the procuring agency.
charges and fares and agreeing proposed levels. cities with the population of the Emirate have organisations with staffing in the range of 400-700 staff to plan. operational and financial feasibility. promotion. The DoT will need to exercise control over its executive agencies through a combination of mechanisms: • • By allocating resources (e. The DoT should monitor its agencies’ and sector performance and modify the sector strategy. Key areas of agency responsibility should include: • o o Infrastructure construction and maintenance: Detailed design of infrastructure according to the specification set by DoT Procure (through PPP or conventional means) and oversee the construction and maintenance of infrastructure Agree any changes in specification with DoT Commercial strategy: Develop commercial strategies in line with polices set out by DoT and seek approval from DoT before implementation o For public transport this will include product specification. It should therefore be responsible for establishing technical.The DoT should therefore “own” the STMP and be responsible for any changes over time. branding and revenue protection measures o • 20 . marketing. procure and monitor their transport networks. It should be the client organisation that specifies what it wants delivered.g. the STMP and its required Agency outputs accordingly. 4. for example by setting the principles for the structure of tolls.2 4. communication and private sector participation. sufficient to create specifications but not detailed design. Typically. This should be left to its executive agencies or contractor to undertake.1 The Executive Agencies Required for STMP Implementation Roles Generic Agency Roles The role of the DoT’s executive agencies is to implement its strategy.2. through the development of the detailed strategies outlined in the STMP. By setting the objectives of its executive agencies and approving its corporate plans and budgets By appointing key senior executives to the agencies By the Chairman of the DoT chairing the agencies’ boards. • • • The DoT should also generate the policies which guide the actions of Agencies on aspects such as funding. procurement. ticketing & distribution systems. They may do this either directly or through out-sourcing by contracting or a range of PPP structures. funding or road space) between modes and agencies By deciding on the balance between demand management and increasing supply.
21 . paid car parking. namely: • • A roads agency. The appropriate number of executive agencies will depend on a number of trade-offs between sometimes conflicting criteria. Union Railway. the Traffic Police or other agencies as appropriate. capacity provision.o Product specification includes frequencies. metro and regional rail in the medium and longer term TransAD – The existing agency responsible for the procurement and regulation of taxi and hire car services in the Emirate. systems and enforcement Operations: o • o Operate (or procure the operation of) infrastructure control and communication systems Directly operate the transport system or procure and manage these operations (including rolling stock/vehicles) Monitoring: o • o o Self-monitor progress and outputs and report to the DoT Monitor operator adherence to the service level and performance delivered. The implementation of the freight strategy is elaborated in Chapter 7. maintenance and management of highways and roads in the Emirate The Abu Dhabi Transport Corporation (ADTCo) – responsible for the development and delivery of bus. park & ride. BRT. covering tram. We recommend that freight policy continues to be developed by the Surface Transport Division of DoT and that implementation actions are carried out by RoadCo. referred to in this report as RoadCo – responsible for the construction. • There is no need for an agency to be responsible for freight. ferry and water taxi services in the Emirate in the short term and the delivery of rail-based public transport systems and services in the Emirate. There is a need to: • • • • • • Have a manageable span of control Minimise overlap of skills and remit between agencies Recognise the specialist skills and knowledge required within each transport mode Ensure integration across modes Achieve economies of scale and a critical mass of expertise Recognise the different skills required for running a transport business than procuring major infrastructure projects Having considered a range of options the DoT has decided to go forward with three agencies to implement its policies and strategies. levels of service to be provided in terms of quality and reliability For highways it will include implementing the toll strategy.
2 RoadCo) The Abu Dhabi Roads Corporation (RoadCo) RoadCo will be set up as an executive agency of the DoT with responsibility for operating. formed by statute and operated according to a corporate structure with the ability to borrow on their account. and construction framework contracts such as early contractor involvement and managing agent contracting Procuring or managing the maintenance of the existing network Setting up and operating traffic control centres and managing the road and highway network in real time Implementing any future tolling and congestion management infrastructure Implementing the road-based aspects of a freight strategy.The role and responsibilities of the new agencies is described in the following paragraphs. subject to DoT approval and sovereign guarantee.g. 22 . 4.2. installation and operation of weighbridges • • • • The main activities that RoadCo will need to carry out are set out in the box on the next page. construction and maintenance of the new roads and highways by design-and-build or DBFM contracts. The form of the agencies will be corporate. The objectives which underpin the above should include the following: • • • • • To provide an excellent quality service both to road users and those affected by roads To manage the new construction and maintenance programmes to secure the best value for money within the DoT’s overall strategy for roads To contribute to the target of improving road safety. and supporting wider government’s policy. maintaining and improving Abu Dhabi’s road network in line with DoT’s strategic plan. construction and maintenance of roads To improve the efficiency of the organisation year on year Responsibilities of RoadCo The new agency’s responsibilities will include: • Procuring the design. performance based contracts. Objectives of RoadCo RoadCo’s aim is to make the most efficient use of the road network to reduce congestion and improving reliability by implementing best practice and innovative solutions to deliver high quality services. e. To give full weight to both the environmental and economic costs and benefits associated with the use.
undertake a programme of research and development reflecting the aims and objectives of the Agency develop agreed performance measures reflecting the interests of road users and others and covering operational aspects. improvement schemes. roadway communications. the environment and the condition of the network 23 . safety. manage and deliver the new construction and improvement programmes manage the appraisal and design of new construction schemes in accordance with the transport and land use plans. plan and manage programmes for capital and current maintenance. cost and environmental aspects contribute to DoT initiatives to secure the maximum benefit.Figure 4. maintain and develop Certification and Technical Approval procedures and audit their effectiveness develop and maintain an integrated asset management system • • • • • General • • • explore ways of improving value for money in the management of the Agency’s programme and running costs budgets. construction. value for money and environmental aspects develop the associated specifications for materials and workmanship • Network Management and Maintenance • • manage the road network to secure the most economically efficient operation taking into account costs and benefits to both road users and others identify strategies and measure for developing the network within relevant transport and land use strategies and in response to the needs of traffic. develop procedures and guidance on environmental assessment techniques. including working with the ADNOC in their development of service areas. seeking at all times to strike an appropriate balance between traffic. develop the service to road users. landscaping and lightning. maintenance and assessment of strategic and local roads and associated structures including ancillary components. taking account of safety and environmental conditions.PBMC. safety. including reviewing staffing levels.CMF and other innovative contracts consider and develop new forms of contract which may lead to more cost effective procurement Civil Engineering and Environment • develop engineering policy and standards for the design.1 Summary of RoadCo’s Key Activities New Construction • • plan. safety. and the efficiency of the Strategic and Local Road Network from the PPP initiative • Contracts • • • maintain and develop procedures for the appointment of contractors and consultants develop PPP. while taking full account of traffic.
The development of the role. it will build and retain capability to be operator of last resort if this is seen as a more effective role from time to time in the future. whether by the private or public sectors. In addition. ADTCo will need to complete the purchase of the new bus fleet and determine (with the DoT) how it should be operated. However. ADTCo will be made responsible for the oversight of the management and operation of paid car parking in the Emirate.4.3 (ADTCo ADTCo) The Abu Dhabi Transport Corporation (ADTCo) The Abu Dhabi Transport Corporation (ADTCo) will be set up to take on the responsibilities for delivering the future public transport service in the Emirate. We therefore only provide a high level description in this report. It will need to work with the Surface Transport and Marine Divisions of the DoT to develop the water transport strategy and procure the vessels. letting of contracts to implement on-street and off-street charging and enforcement and the overall delivery of the car parking strategy. own. The next step will be for ADTCo to extend its responsibility to cover ferry and water taxi services. including the licensing of operators of paid car parks. 24 . management and monitoring of bus services and the operation and maintenance of public transport infrastructure from the Bus Office.2. The key roles of the agency will be to: • • • • • • • Ensure the delivery of the STMP public transport elements Plan the necessary public transport services to meet the STMP targets and objectives Encourage the use of public transport through communication. terminal infrastructure and operations for these services. In this function it will need to implement the DoT’s strategy for the development of this sector. It will do this through the creation of an appropriate contracting environment in which the services should be provided largely. ADTCO should set up an arm’s length entity which can provide services specified under a performance-based contract. If by the public sector. maintain and operate the necessary transport infrastructure Procure the operation of services and monitor the performance of contracts and adherence to license conditions of its operators Monitor trends in the provision of public transport services and in public transport patronage In the short term the ADTCO will need to focus on the transfer of activities such as the planning. by the private sector under concession or license. if not exclusively. responsibilities and functions of ADTCo are being undertaken in more detail through a parallel consultancy project which will draft a Corporate Plan for the agency. educational and an effective commercial strategy Implement the DoT’s fare strategy for public transport including the procurement and management of integrated information and ticketing systems Procure.
an overall strategy for achieving them and budgets for the delivery agencies. 4. UPC will also have a significant role in the implementation of Transit Oriented Development. The Committee should not be an executive agency in itself.are involved in the delivery of road safety strategies.5 The Role of other Abu Dhabi Institutions Urban Planning Council The Urban Planning Council (UPC) will play an important role as the planning authority in ensuring that the direction and nature of land development is managed as much as possible in line with the 2030 Vision and the supporting STMP. The procurement of theses activities will be assisted by the PMCs and preliminary design consultants and they assets themselves will be transferred to ADTCo on completion and acceptance. The Committee should maintain strong links with the NTA to ensure that its strategies can be coordinated with those at Federal level to ensure maximum effectiveness of any actions taken. The proposed Road Safety Committee should be set up as soon as practicable as a coordinating entity to ensure that all concerned agencies contribute in a focussed way towards achieving a common goal.7 EAD The EAD currently has an overarching role as the environmental regulatory body of the STMP. RoadCo. but supported by a secretariat comprising staff from the participating institutions.4 4. Health and Safety Management System (EHSMS). The introduction of development guidelines and the full involvement of the DoT in consideration of planning applications are prerequisites to the successful implementation of the STMP. but environmental management and effectively environmental permitting will be enveloped within each organisation’s EHSMS.2. 4. supply of equipment and vehicles and the supply of services. The Road Safety Committee should review the different road safety strategies which are identified by the differing agencies and propose a set of performance targets.6 Development of a Road Safety Committee Multiple agencies – the Abu Dhabi Police. HAAD and the insurance industry. but they have differing priorities and are currently poorly coordinated.2. The membership of this Committee should include representatives from all of the agencies which have an interest in road safety. DoT. This role is further elaborated in Chapter 7. ADTCO will also need to implement high capacity bus-based services with park and ride to encourage public transport use before the tram and metro systems come on line. It will work closely with the Public Transport and Highways PMCs and the preliminary design consultants for the public transport systems. In April 2009 immerging legislation is expected that will outline the new emirate wide integrated Environmental. or at the end of any BOT-type contract. including the Traffic Police. 4. The EAD will remain the competent overarching regulatory authority of this system. 25 . (The PMC arrangements are explained in more detail later in this chapter. DoT and HAAD .) ADTCo will contract with private sector companies for the construction of infrastructure. These targets and strategies should be presented to the Executive Committee for approval. Over time it will become mandatory for all organisations in Abu Dhabi to operate under the EHSMS.2.In the medium term. It will be represented on all their Steering Groups to ensure that the views of a public transport operator are reflected as the schemes are developed.2.
environmental management and assessment will then sit within the EHSMS as part of Environmental Health and Safety Impact Assessments (EHSIA). Once their system is audited and approved by corporate DOT.Until the EHSMS is fully in place. where a consistent approach will be essential for cross- • 26 . and those of DoT. and there appear to some overlap in the area of strategic planning of major infrastructure and in the regulation of transport. EAD will just act as the competent overarching regulatory authority of the overall system. NILU and the recent policy department expansion can be used to provide a means to source required additional technical support staff where needed. The major interfaces that the DoT will have with NTA will be: • • On vehicle regulations which will need to be consistent across the Emirates. The EAD’s current approach of outsourcing to build capacity can be utilised to grow the organisation to meet the demands of the STMP. would clarify these interfaces. The current technical capacity building support from RTI. for example on allowable lorry axle loadings or emissions limits On driver licensing. The respective roles of the DoT and NTA are not widely understood. There also is some overlap in the responsibilities that Union Railways have for rail. currently being prepared by NTA. significant increases in the EAD internal operations due to the STMP are expected to be in the areas of: • • • Environmental Management (in particular environmental permitting) Environmental Policy Air Quality and Noise Strategies The EAD is expected to have a key involvement on the ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’ and in particular in the development of the following strategy components: • • • Environmental Protection regulations and principles for infrastructure & environmental enhancement programmes Identify & assign low emission zones Collaboration with EAD Emirate wide Air and Noise Strategies EAD is already undergoing capacity building through outsource partnerships in the key areas of environmental policy. where NTA sets minimum requirements for car drivers and where consistency would be needed for example. over introducing driver’s hours regulations and the compulsory use of tachographs On rail safety regulation. 4. Once the EHSMS framework is in place within organisations. Corporate level DOT is currently establishing the transport sector HSE framework and will act as the regulator over transport sector entities. such as DOT agencies created for the STMP implementation. It would be helpful if the Federal Transport Master Plan. This capacity building is due to the increasing demand on these EAD departments due to rapid emirate wide development from multiple sectors. including those outside of transport. environmental management and air and noise partnerships.3 Interface Interface with Federal Transport Institutions The two institutions which have a major role are the NTA and Union Railways. DOT surface transport agencies will develop their own EHSMS for their projects.
ensuring the process is fit for purpose Resolution of cross-sector issues.4. and RoadCo and ADTCo will perform that function in the future. let alone responsibility for procurement of the STMP programme.1 The Role of Programme Management Consultants Management Overall Arrangements The scale and required speed of implementation of the STMP makes it one of the most intense transport infrastructure development programmes ever attempted.border operations and consistency in approach for domestic rail would be advantageous • On the planning of new inter-Emirate or cross-border transport links On fiscal issues such as vehicle registration taxes where different approaches by different Emirates could lead to distortions in policy outcomes With Union Railways. In order to meet the tight timetable required for delivery of the substantial elements of the STMP by 2015.4 4. we therefore recommend that the DoT sets up a Program Management Consultancy (PMC) arrangement as follows: • • • A Strategic PMC to be accountable for the overall delivery of the STMP and address the key cross-cutting strategic issues A Public Transport PMC to be responsible for coordinating the public transport aspects of the STMP A Highways PMC to be responsible for coordinating the highways aspects of the STMP The Strategic PMC would be accountable for the delivery of the STMP and would address strategic issues. land title. 4. in particular issues such as common approach to rolling stock procurement Overall funding strategy and arrangements to secure funding from Government Strategic procurement. However these agencies do not exist now and it will take time for them to be established and to take on their operational responsibilities. such as: • • • • • Overall industry structure. However. the DoT should be fully responsible for the planning of intra-Emirate passenger rail infrastructure and services and for the recommending a fares policy to the Executive Council for approval. development rights issues 27 . for example over allocation of highway capacity between car and public transport Identification and resolution of land procurement. This is the ultimate aim in Abu Dhabi. Massive construction and procurement programmes such as that embodied in the STMP are normally undertaken by well resourced executive agencies that report into the appropriate government ministries. there will need to be consistency of technical standards for railway planning and on the integration of the regional rail network within Abu Dhabi with the interEmirate freight and passenger rail networks.
unresolved conflicts would be referred upwards to through the Strategic PMC to the DoT for resolution. It would cause delay to interrupt that process or radically alter this scope of this procurement at this stage.2 Rationale We recommend this structure rather than a single PMC covering the whole of the STMP programme for a number of reasons: • The task of STMP implementation is huge and the resources required very large to support it. and developing a clear hierarchy of roads with the streetscape to match.e. If necessary.3 Coordination Arrangements The two main themes of STMP covered by the scope of the different PMCs.4. To assist in this coordination and to speed decision-making. The DoT has already started the procurement for a ‘Rail Transit’ PMC and is defining the scope for the Highways PMC. 4. The two PMCs should have an obligation to coordinate with each other over construction phasing to ensure that there is no mutual disruption between the two construction programmes. development of an integrated public transport network.4. • • 4. Nonetheless. In practice the DoT has had to start this procurement process for the Metro preliminary design. suppliers and operators whether on a DBFO or traditional basis. The two Highways and Public transport PMCs would need strong technical competencies in their areas. The three-PMC approach maps well onto the proposed institutional arrangements and ultimately the reporting lines for the sector PMCs could move from the DoT/Strategic PMC to RoadCo and ADTCo when these organisations have the capacity to take on the management role. i. The Strategic PMC would need to have competencies in achieving building a framework to allow the STMP vision to be realised and of drawing together multi-disciplinary advice. the process may not allow this sequence. we recommend that: • There should be an overall STMP Steering Committee chaired by the Strategic 28 . and they would need to be able to modify the agreed terms of reference as the STMP progressed. and the cross-cutting issues have been resolved. The Highways and Public Transport PMCs in turn would technically oversee. but should hand this responsibility over to the PMCs as soon as practicable. However. and the Strategic PMC will need to respond to major issues raised. and manage the procurement programme for highways and public transport design consultants and the subsequent procurement of contractors. are reasonably self-contained. Spitting the role in this way would give DoT access to a wider source of support. they are not free-standing and therefore both PMCs will need to coordinate and share information.• • • Ensuring any security requirements are identified and dealt with Ensuring that any enabling transport strategies are in place Identifying and promoting any legislative change that may be required to progress STMP Ideally the Strategic PMC would draft the terms of reference for supporting advisers and the two PMCs.
and the preliminary design consultants should all be accommodated within the same building if at all possible. attended by senior DoT officials. including the DoT Chairman. The relationship between the DoT. • • RoadCo and ADTCo should be represented on both the Highways and Public Transport PMCs’ steering groups.PMC. the three PMCs. the Highway and Public Transport PMCs and the cross-cutting advisers. 29 . The DoT client organisation. This should meet monthly and address issues of strategic importance and any factors delaying any aspect of the STMP implementation. PMCs and two executive agencies is described in more detail in Chapter 8.
To meet Government’s objectives of a strengthened private sector. There are good reasons to involve the private sector in delivery in any event. design and procurement is described in Chapter 7.5 5. Private sector participation can have many different forms. including: • • • • o o o o Reduced delivery costs by allowing innovation and flexibility in delivery Timely delivery A life-cycle approach to total scheme costs including construction. This has the advantage of converting large capital outflows by the government into predictable ongoing payments for the availability of the services procured. The capacity of Abu Dhabi’s public sector institutions will need to be expanded significantly to meet this challenge. procurement. The role of the private sector in programme management. operations and maintenance costs Risk transfer away from government or its agencies where the private sector contractor. but the private sector will need to be relied on heavily to deliver major Plan components. project management and construction of major capital projects Operation of public transport services and infrastructure Maintenance of highways or public transport infrastructure o • 31 . ensuring that all elements of the system work together Patronage/revenue risk. operator or investor is best able to control it in areas such as Construction. if this required PPPs can also include significant amounts of private finance. more predictable public expenditure profile. we have developed a feasible approach for private sector participation based on the following principles: • o Agencies should engage the private sector to deliver services where this can be done more efficiently and effectively than if the services were carried out by the executive agency where the executive agency has the experience to specify accurately the desired service outputs and outcomes and to incentivise their delivery Services can include: o o o Design. In this Chapter we outline the role of the private sector in taking on major delivery risk. operation and maintenance cost Operational performance Systems integration. However. and can deliver a range of benefits. and to meet the challenges of implementing the STMP. private finance should only be adopted as an option when the expected cost savings and value of the risk transfer are likely to offset the higher costs of capital compared with public sector borrowing. This source of supplementary funding can help to create a smoother.1 THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN DELIVERY Introduction The STMP gives rise to a massive programme of investment and a major delivery challenge.
On water. Growth in the fleet thereafter is modest as fixed track modes come into operation and buses assume more of a feeder role. 5.2 Objectives of the PPP Approach for Buses and Ferries The PPP approach selected should meet the following objectives: • • Provide strong incentives for efficient operation Provide access to private sector finance 32 . In addition there will be a need for buses to provide an interim high capacity express service along certain key routes providing a park & ride service before tram and metro lines are constructed.2. reflecting the high proportion of manpower costs. This approach is intended to be illustrative and to give sufficient confidence to allow us to make an estimate of the proportion of the STMP investment that could be most amenable to private sector delivery and/or private finance.2 billion for vessels for scheduled services and water taxis. The bus fleet is expected to become more diverse as it grows and serves different segments of the market with different quality services and differentiates between local and express services.360 vehicles in 2010 to around 3.e. The main infrastructure needs will be for bus stops and land-based multi-modal transport interchanges linked to jetties where appropriate. The capital cost will be much smaller. All costs in this Chapter are expressed in 2008 prices and exclude any contingency allowance. In all cases the actual PPP strategy will be subject to more detailed review during the feasibility design process. The cost of this fleet will be around AED 12 billion.2. excluding replacement costs during the plan period for vehicles with lives of 10-12 years. supply.1 Potential PPP Approach for the Buses and Ferries System Characteristics Network Characteristics of the Bus and Ferry Network The bus fleet will increase from 1. As public transport is novel in Abu Dhabi. 5. complete solutions including design. construction. the service will need to be supply-led with considerable experimentation to achieve an optimum balance between service level and quality. around AED 0. fares and demand. operations and maintenance Private finance should be sought where: • o Exposure to financial risk is likely to lead to innovation and whole life cost reduction to offset the higher costs of capital. The bus fleet is expected to become more diverse as it grows and serves different segments of the market with different quality services and differentiates between local and express services.o Turnkey schemes – i. or It can significantly reduce the government’s peak funding requirement o In this chapter we set out a feasible approach to PPPs for each transport mode.2 5.000 in 2015. ferries will provide a similar public transport service to buses on land.5 billion/year). Operating costs are expected to be around AED 1. The operating costs quoted in general exclude any replacement of assets.
fuelling and routine maintenance facilities. Various PPP approaches could be possible. As long as the vehicles are not excessively bespoke to Abu Dhabi requirements. including separate acquisition of the fleet and subsequent procurement of the operator or a full supply/maintain/operate contract. which should be transferable to subsequent operators. and its successor ADTCo. This means that internal benchmarking between operators will not be possible. The latter approach has the merit of ensuring that whole life operational and maintenance costs can be optimised. A PPP approach for buses should therefore be developed as follows: • • Prepare output-based specifications for service and vehicle quality requirements based on experience with current operations Procure bus services from multiple bus operators including provision and operation of the vehicles on 5-6 year contracts. The purchase and operation of buses is very suitable for private sector provision and financing. If it is adopted safeguards will be required to allow the Government to take possession of the fleet and engage another operator if the incumbent’s performance becomes unsatisfactory. funded largely through advertising revenues. Again the vessels should have value in other markets. • • The procurement of ferry services could follow similar lines. therefore it is likely there would be diseconomies of scale if more than one operator was engaged. 33 . concessions/licenses can be offered for durations less than normal vehicle life without incurring significant residual value risk premiums since there will be a second-hand value for the vehicles in other markets. Operators will need access to water-side docking. Operators would need to make their own arrangements for depots and workshops Ensure contracts have performance incentives and are flexible to allow the operators to propose or ADTCo to make changes to the timetable and service specification Let a separate concession for the provision and maintenance of bus stops.2. Whatever the PPP approach.3 Ensure flexibility to adjust services when fixed track services are commissioned Summary of Possible PPP Approach for Buses and Ferries The current procurement approach is to purchase vehicles centrally from a number of manufacturers. contracts will need to have performance incentives and to be flexible to allow ADTCo to specify changes in timetable and service specification as the use of ferries expanded and the network of services developed. and eventually let route-group concessions including vehicle provision. Separate contracts could be let for the construction and maintenance of jetties and transport interchanges. although separate competitions could be considered for scheduled services and for water taxis. The scale of the investment and operation is also much smaller than for the bus fleet. to operate buses directly through the Bus Office. The Bus Office intends to let concessions to private sector operators in 2-3 years to operate the public sector fleet.• 5. We strongly support a move to introduce competition into the supply of bus services. although the opportunities for re-sale are likely to be more restricted than in the case of buses.
and it is possible that the basic infrastructure for some of the regional rail network (station boxes etc) will need to be constructed at the same time as the metro where the two systems interact.2 Objectives of the Metro PPP Approach The main objectives to be achieved with the selected PPP approach include: • • • • • • 5.5. but for the Initial Scheme (the main loop).3 5. the very large scale of the design and construction task. This view can be tested during the feasibility design stage. operating cost and reliability risks transferred. This could apply to: 34 . It is likely to operate as a driverless service. 5. drawing on the advice of the design consultants. It will be operated as a self-contained system fully segregated from highways and the tram system. Significant sections of the route will be in tunnel. In this way the maximum use could be made of private sector skills and capacity and the government would be fully insulated from system integration risk. connected to the regional rail system for emergency or delivery access. the Programme Management Consultant and the proposed financial adviser (as elaborated in Chapter 7 and 8).9 billion. the high capital costs of tunnelling and structures and the difficulties of construction in a congested urban environment make this a very large project to be handled with full risk transfer. This may be possible for later additions to the network.3 Operator involvement during design development and procurement Early implementation of connection to airport and CBD-Capital District line Strong incentives for efficient/reliable operation Suitability for private sector finance Consistency with STMP’s objective to create the ‘world’s best transport system’ Fully integrated with the wider STMP transport system Potential Metro PPP Approach Ideally the whole metro system would be procured from a single turnkey supplier who would take full risk of whole-life cost and reliability over the infrastructure.3. Around 114 8-car trains (912 cars) vehicles are required and these will be spread across two or three depots. Elements of the infrastructure on developers’ sites will be constructed as part of the site development.1 Potential PPP Approach for the Metro System Characteristics of the Metro System Proposed A large metro system is proposed with a length of 180km. This construction of the network will be staged with the main loop being required as quickly as possible to provide a high capacity connection between the CBD and Capital City and Abu Dhabi International Airport.3. therefore a strong infrastructure/depot/rolling stock interface is vital. AED 59 billion capital costs and an expected annual operating cost of around AED 0. Nonetheless. major components of the metro system could be outsourced with supply cost.3. Additional spurs and loops will be added in subsequent phases. rolling stock and operation of the system. increasing capital costs and project overrun risks. particularly with many parts of the industry in a financially weakened state.
transfer of revenue risk is neither likely to be desirable (as fare levels are an integral part of the DoT’s policy armoury) nor cost-effective (as there would be considerable uncertainty around patronage levels on a new public transport system in Abu Dhabi). wayleaves could be contracted for the whole public transport system to maximise the combined potential and support unified branding across the modes.1 Potential PPP Approach for the Tram System Characteristics of the Tram System Proposed A major system is proposed in the STMP with over 350km of track and a capital cost of AED 35 billion and annual operating cost of AED 2. Initially at least. The operator could have responsibility for operating the service. Metro operations could also be procured from the private sector as there is an established market of reputable international operators who would be keen to take on such as service. although some sections will be fully segregated in their own right of way.4.) It is primarily a segregated system. which would be remunerated through availability and performance payments paid for by the Government. albeit with differently configured rolling stock potentially offering an “Airport Express” service. these assets and services could also potentially be financed though private sector sources. These could include: • • • Separate long term rolling stock availability contracts and shorter-term operating concessions Integrated rolling stock supplier and operator Integrated systems and rolling stock supplier. each with its own dedicated depot. there would be considerable merits in having a single supplier to minimise system integration risks. A number of vertically-integrated models could be appropriate and the merits of these will be investigated in the proposed metro feasibility study. a compatible technical specification and operating plan for the full system will be required to enable interoperability. as services will eventually operate between sub-networks. for example outlets at stations. advertising. 5. manning stations and operating the signalling and communications systems. electrical distribution and signalling/control systems rolling stock and depots Once the capacity of the credit markets is restored.4 5. 35 .4 billion. A single operator would be appropriate as a single integrated service will be offered.• • major infrastructure elements such as the rail. However. In each case. with on-street running and traffic conflict only at junctions. (By way of comparison this is larger than all the tram systems in the UK combined. The responsibility for exploiting the commercial opportunities available on the system. Construction will be staged to be in line with major developments (giving rise to several major “sub-networks”). with an operator included or separate.
There are also more choices to be made over the supply of rolling stock. Two alternative approaches will therefore need to be carefully considered in the feasibility study: • • Procurement of a number of tram networks through long term concessions Separate procurement of the infrastructure.2 Objectives of the Tram PPP Approach The PPP approach selected should meet the following objectives: • • • • • • 5. This approach is likely to deliver the quickest results. electrification and signalling/control could be procured by PPP.4.3 Operator involvement during design development and procurement Rapid implementation keeping pace with developments Strong incentives for efficient/reliable operation Suitability for private sector finance Consistency with STMP’s objective to create the ‘world’s best transport system’ Fully integrated with the wider STMP transport system Tram Summary of Possible PPP Approach for the Tram Network Unlike the metro which needs to operate as a single system. supply and install the electrical and control systems. A large number of vehicles are required (around 650 by 2030). but mechanisms would have to be put in place to ensure that services from one operator could extend onto another’s infrastructure. however phased development of system may make traditional procurement preferable Rolling stock could be procured on an availability basis according to a standard specification from one of more suppliers. This would minimise system integration risk within each network. or from a single supplier who might set up a manufacturing plant in Abu Dhabi. The permanent way. but then a number of groups could be commissioned in parallel to develop working sub-networks. supply the vehicles and depots and operate the service. maintain all the infrastructure. for example: • The construction of the infrastructure structures and sub-base for the light rail could be procured on a design and build basis as multiple contracts on existing roads and as part of the general infrastructure in new developments.The rolling stock does not need to be totally uniform as long as fleets are technically compatible and can run across the whole system. different approaches could be adopted for different elements of the system. there is more potential for the tram network to be operated as number of separate systems which allow inter-running of services. rolling stock and operations Under the first option. 5. Under the second option. It would require an early system specification to be developed. possibly based in Abu Dhabi • • 36 . several long term (25-30 year) concessions could be let to turnkey joint ventures who would design and construct the permanent way.4. which could be sourced from multiple suppliers (and imported).
which will generate a clearer idea of the way the system will operate. These lines. will need to be integrated with that of the Metro system.1 the Potential PPP Approach for the Regional Rail System Characteristics of the Regional rail System Proposed Because of its length (590 km). Construction is likely to be staged with services from the CBD/Capital District to Abu Dhabi Airport.4 billion are relatively low.2 Objectives of the Regional Rail PPP Approach The main objectives to be achieved with the selected PPP approach include: • • • Operator involvement during design development and procurement Strong incentives for efficient/reliable operation Suitability for private sector finance 37 . The regional passenger railway will need to meet the different demands of several different markets. will need to assessed in detail as part of the feasibility studies to follow.5 5. Each will have different rolling stock needs: • • • Commuters – requiring frequent peak hour services to/from Capital District and Abu Dhabi CBD Inter-Emirate travellers – in particular to Dubai and Jebel Ali Airport in the future on high-speed rolling stock International passengers – once connections are made to the west of Abu Dhabi with long distance rolling stock designed for longer duration trips and border crossing controls Overall. potentially with joint use of the Union railways corridors and tracks. 94 8-car trains (752 cars) have been included in the capital costs to meet the needs of the first two markets. longer contracts for rolling stock supply and operations could be let. the estimates of operating cost of AED 1. although regional railway construction is likely to be phased after the main Metro loop has opened. operate and maintain the control systems and infrastructure. The design of the major stations at the CBD and Capital City. 5. and hybrids. reflecting a much less frequent service than the Metro and many fewer stations. and some sections of common alignment. Interoperability will be required with the future Saudi rail system.5. and physical connections should allow Metro rolling stock to be hauled over the regional rail network if required. and where depots will be located.5. However. and light maintenance/cleaning of rolling stock. with the possible exception of the route to Al Ain will be on a different alignment to the Union Railways freight railway. As an alternative. • The merits of each approach. 5. Al Ain and Dubai.• Multiple operating concessions (5-7 years) could be let to operate the service. Further regional extensions would follow thereafter. the regional rail system requires the largest proportion of capital expenditure within the STMP (AED 95 billion).
Inter-Emirate rolling stock could be procured at the operator’s risk. However. It would need to be “licensed” by both Emirates Regional services.6 5. In this case the infrastructure provider could either be a regulated private sector company. tunnels. Saadiyat. Separate operating concessions could be let for: • The Abu Dhabi – Dubai service. the lessons learned from the approaches adopted by Union Railways for the freight railway.1 Potential PPP Approach for Highways Characteristics of the Highway Network The list of more than forty-five schemes forming the highway network includes bridges. 5. construction within this period can be staged to give priority to provide and improve access to new development areas such as Al Reem and Saadiyat. The proposed highway network will provide new and improved connectivity to Abu Dhabi Island from the surrounding islands (Al Reem. which could be a commercially-run service competing with coach and future fast ferry services.6. or a Government-owned Company. This high operating cost as a proportion of the capital cost reflects the fact that many of the highway schemes are upgrades rather than new schemes with a relatively low capital cost. It will also provide increased capacity on the existing network of Freeways and other E-Routes. new and upgraded roads.6. • • All the rolling stock could be subject to a PPP. A comprehensive highway network is proposed with over 80% of the schemes by value programmed for completion by the end of 2015. but could be operated by availability and performance-based concessions to meet social and political objectives International services. For example.3 billion.2 Objectives of the PPP Approach for Highways The main objectives of the PPP approach selected should be to: 38 . which are less likely to be commercially viable.5. and Regional Rail rolling stock procured with private finance and under-written by government guarantees or availability payments.3 Consistency with STMP’s objective to create the ‘world’s best transport system’ Fully integrated with the wider STMP transport system Potential Regional Rail PPP Approach The rail PPP approach can be kept flexible for longest period because of its later phasing. and by DoT for the Metro can be assessed and compared. interchanges. 5. which would be operated on the basis of arrangements between Governments to be agreed in the future. Yas and Hodariyat) and the mainland. If this phasing is retained. Lulu.• • 5. The capital cost of the proposed network is estimated as AED 43 billion and would require an annual operating and maintenance cost of AED 3. At this stage. separation of infrastructure from operations may be most the most effective structural solution since it would allow different operators providing the different services described above to enter the market most easily.
have normal levels of complexity. The principal difference is that with the road procured under PPP. The lessons learned from this project could provide a framework for a PPP model for all highway schemes. and the capacity to deliver. construction. not only in technical and operational matters. operation and maintenance of these projects can be procured from the private sector as there is a well-established market for these services. it is the private sector rather than DoT which bears most of the risk attached to designing.• • • • Promote quality and innovation. financing and operating and maintaining the highway network. Potentially. constructing. even those including tunnels and bridges. but also in financial and commercial arrangements Accelerate the introduction of cost efficiencies and whole-life cost analysis into the design and construction of highway schemes Transfer the appropriate level of risk to the private sector Ensure that the highway is designed. most of the schemes in the proposed STMP highway network could be deliverable through the PPP procurement process. the risks are appropriate for the private sector to manage. 39 . Operation and maintenance of the existing E0 Route network is currently provided through term contracting with different consultants and contractors for a period of five years. and should be amenable to being structured so that they meet the objectives set out above. The current procurement approach for the upgrading of the Mafraq to Al Ghweifat Highway project is through PPP as a DBFOT scheme. However. The design. and even in high risk projects. and a pilot project for a performance based maintenance contract is about to start. maintained and operated safely and satisfactorily to maximise benefit to road users and minimise any adverse impact on the environment Foster the development of a private sector road-operating industry in Abu Dhabi • 5. with such payment being linked directly to the performance of the private sector in providing the service. a mix of approaches would allow the merits of each to be evaluated and compared.6. based on the principle that the private sector will be paid for the road service delivered. To the road user the only significant operational features to distinguish a PPP road from the rest of the road network should be that the quality of the surface and the availability of lanes should be higher since the private sector operator is strongly encourage to deliver in these areas. The Mafraq to Al Ghweifat Highway project is a pilot DBFOT project. This projects adopts an ‘availability payment’ model.3 Summary of Possible PPP Approach for the Highway Network Abu Dhabi is building a sound precedent for highway PPPs. A significant number of the proposed schemes.
7. for regional rail we have assumed it is procured with public finance in this illustration.5. Depots have accordingly been included as a necessary element in providing asset availability. are likely candidates for private finance since the capital cost is less than for the infrastructure. Government funds in the future. system integration. and to provide a indicative estimate of the potential for private sector funding. For the Metro we assume that the rail systems. These include the availability of. delivery. Almost all the major elements of the STMP capital programme and public transport operations could be outsourced in this way and the best way of doing this in each area will be assessed during the feasibility studies for each plan component. and operating and maintenance cost risks to private sector contractors. • • • 40 . However.7. we have made a number of assumptions on the likelihood that elements of the capital programme could be funded costeffectively by the private sector: • All vehicles/vessels and rolling stock are assumed to be most amenable to private finance as there are established leasing markets and precedents for procuring these assets on an availability basis. incentives for operators to maximise patronage and minimise fare avoidance should be included. None of the metro and regional rail civil engineering work is assumed to be privately financed for a number of reasons. at least in the first round of operating contracts. some of the secondary loops and extensions of both systems could be implemented as privately financed turnkey projects.7 5. electrification and control and communication systems.2 Finance Private Finance The extent to which the Government should draw on private finance as part of its PPP solution will depend on many factors. Half of the tram infrastructure networks are assumed to be amenable to private finance as turnkey projects. In practice. we do not recommend the transfer of patronage or revenue risk. but that is not assumed in this illustration. for those risks that can be transferred without attracting an excessive risk premium. since demand will be building to a steady state and the DoT will wish to use fares as an important policy variable. This can be achieved through a range of performance incentivised contractual arrangements. and the cost and availability of private finance over the period of the Plan (influenced strongly by the level of risk transfer). The magnitude of the investment is very large for both the rail and metro projects and in the latter case there is significant tunnelling and utility diversion risk as well as the potential interface with elements of infrastructure constructed by developers on their sites.1 Summary of PPP Strategy Conclusions Out-sourcing Out- As a general principle. suppliers and operators. performance. including the provision of rail. 5. and the alternative demands on. For the purposes of assessing the options available for funding (in the next chapter). In general. discussed in the next chapter. we recommend the transfer of construction and supply cost. However.
• These are summarised in the table below and generate an estimate of 35% of the capital budget that could reasonably be raised through the private sector. it is assumed that the market will be limited in capacity to around one third of the total. Elements of bus infrastructure (bus stops and interchanges) are assumed to be financed by the private sector either as part of a commercial concession or through the operators. This is by no means a definitive figure and the Government may decide to raise a substantially lower or higher proportion of funding from private sources. rivate (I Table 5.• Although most highways could potentially be financed with private sector funding.1 Summary of Private Finance Assumptions (Illustrative Only) Mode Bus Tramway Metro Rail Ferries Highways Civil Works 50% 50% 0% 0% 50% 33% = Private = Partial Private Above Track Bed Systems 50% 100% 0% Depots 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Vehicles 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% = Public = Not Significant 41 . once favourable global credit and economic conditions are restored.
STMP FUNDING OPTIONS
Including 30% contingency, the capital costs of the full STMP will require funding of AED 320 billion beyond existing commitments. Furthermore, the additional highway infrastructure and public transport systems will generate an incremental annual operating cost, including contingency of AED 12.7 billion. These figures are expressed in 2008 prices and do not contain any allowance for inflation. The Government should adopt a funding approach that is both affordable and sustainable: • sustainable, To be sustainable revenues from all transport sources (fares, TDM measures etc) should at least cover public transport operating and maintenance costs, preferably including an allowance for capital cost replacement costs. In the longer term, means of raising revenue from users of the highway system should be seriously considered affordable, To be affordable capital costs should be spread over time by: Staging projects appropriately Using private sector and developer funding to reduce the peak funding requirement
• • •
This chapter of the Phase 3 Report identifies sources of revenue to offset the incremental operating and explores the options for funding the STMP capital programme. It is illustrative and does not reflect an agreed funding approach since the Government must retain flexibility to adopt appropriate fiscal strategy depending on the issues of the day. The balance between different sources of on-going and capital funding will depend on numerous factors including: • • • • 6.2 6.2.1 The sources of funds available to the Government in the future The Government’s fiscal policy at the time The cost and availability of private sector funding The different competing needs for Government funding across all sectors
perational Sources of Operational Funding Possible Sources
A wide range of sources of operational funding are used around the world, tapping different groups of beneficiaries. These include: • Users, Users paying through the fare box, or through other charges such as tolls, parking charges, fuel taxes, vehicles registration fees and other travel demand management charges businesses, Commercial businesses exploiting the commercial opportunities generated on the transport system, for example through advertising concession, naming rights, food and beverage outlets, other shops and wayleaves credits, Carbon credits through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
businesses, Residents and/or businesses making ongoing contributions through property rates or a levy to pay down a transport-related bond Government, Government through availability payments, revenue from fuel taxes, property rates, or as a last resort - deficit funding.
Some sources of funding, while adopted in other jurisdictions, are not likely to be appropriate in Abu Dhabi. These include: • Funding through fuel taxes – While this is a major source of taxation revenue in many counties, and would fit with the STMP modal shift objectives, the policy on petrol prices is decided at a Federal level and therefore cannot be relied on for revenue raising purposes in Abu Dhabi Property rates – Although the Government is seeking avenues of fiscal diversification, it is likely to adopt sales tax as a means of raising revenue, rather than a property based tax Deficit funding - This could be the balancing factor once other avenues have been exhausted.
The Government will seek to cover operating costs through a combination of the fare-box receipts, revenue from TDM measures and the exploitation of commercial opportunities. If this is insufficient, then the Government will make available funding to meet agreed availability payments on PPP contracts. 6.2.2 Revenue Generation through the Fare-box and TDM Measures are-
The STMP Preferred Strategy includes a Low TDM Scenario. This includes a set of fares and charges (at 2008 prices) which is summarised in the table below. Table 6.1 Summary of Transport Charges and Fares Assumed in 2030 (2008 Prices) rices) Infrastructure Only 1 1 0
Item Parking Charges (AED/hr) Taxi Fares (AED/km) Congestion Charge (AED/km) Regional Rail (Metropolitan Area) Long-Distance Rail Metro/LRT/Bus Fares
Low DM 1.5 1.25 0.25
Issue Introduce changes as tram and metro networks are completed to raise revenue Applied to Abu Dhabi Island only
AED 3 per trip + AED 0.1 per km AED 3 per trip + AED 0.7 per km AED 3 per trip
Metro/tram/bus fares are levied as flat fares per trip and apply equally to a short single bus journey or to a longer distance multi-leg multi-mode trip. Overall the revenue generated from this source covers around half the operating costs of the public transport network. This implies a Government subsidy (or cross-subsidy) of around AED 1000 for each resident in 2030. This amount is comparable to some Western cities such as Zurich and Stockholm with comprehensive transport systems and a low fare policy. Rail trips will be of generally longer distances and distance related element has been included. This generates 40-50% cost recovery in aggregate. Early TDM strategies include increasing car parking charges beyond the cost of operating car parks, and introducing a levy on taxi fares to minimise the consequent effect of car users simply becoming taxi users as a result of the higher parking charges. These charges would be introduced incrementally as the public transport choices improved, with a major step expected in 2015 after the main Metro loop has been commissioned. In addition, the Low TDM Scenario includes congestion charges. These are applied as a cost per car km for travel on Abu Dhabi Island. The options for congestion charges will need to be further investigated at a later stage. Congestion charges are introduced from 2016 and increased gradually over time. 6.2.3 Carbon Credits
In the wake of commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol, a multi-billion dollar carbon market has emerged which gives a monetary value to ‘avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions’. This market presents an opportunity for projects and schemes that result in reduced GHG emissions to secure additional revenue. Each tonne of CO2 (or CO2 equivalent for other GHGs) not emitted as a result of a qualifying project generates one Certified Emission Reduction (CER). If all of the rail, metro, trams and PRT components of the ADSTMP use renewable electricity, it may be possible to demonstrate that this offsets the equivalent amount of fossil fuel generation and its respective carbon emissions. This would generate around 3.7 million CER annually in 2030 based on a high-level estimation of system electrical requirement and a baseline grid emissions factor for the Abu Dhabi grid of 0.881tCO2/MWh. It is also possible to reduce emissions associated with the non-electric components of the ADSTMP. If the Low Demand Management scenario is achieved as the final outcome, this will reduce emissions by approximately 4.9 million tCO2 below the Reference Scenario, and 1.5 million tCO2 below the Infrastructure Only Scenario. It is by no means certain that all of the component projects that create these emission reductions would be CDM feasible. It is therefore considered more realistic to take 50% or even 20% of these emissions as possible future CERs. CER value varies project by project and over time, but is currently at around $10 each. On a set of conservative assumptions that there is only 20% CDM feasibility for non-electrical components at a CER value of $5/tCO2, only US$5 million per annum would be raised by this mechanism. If 50% eligibility is assumed together with fully renewable electricity use and a CER value of $15/t, then this could rise to US$92 million per annum.
However. the project type must be covered by a ‘methodology’ that is already approved by the UN. its eligibility to receive carbon credits under existing approved methodologies and an assessment of how likely it may be that a new applicable methodology could be successfully developed in the future. which all involve the deployment of low-greenhouse emission vehicles. and capturing emission reductions from the utilisation of low emission/ alternative fuel vehicles. retail outlets Station naming rights: these are being introduced in Dubai and the United States Fibre optic cabling. Secondly. High Definition projections (e. 200 square feet). there have been only two registered transport CDM projects.The calculations above are based on high level assumptions for CDM eligibility across the ADSTMP as a whole. but this will increase project development costs and add significant time delays to the CDM project development cycle. Each of the concepts considered in the ADSTMP scenarios has been assessed for its potential to contribute to reducing GHG emissions.g. 11 others await approval and many more are in development. Only five of the ADSTMP concepts. appear to be eligible under existing methodologies. three transport and two biofuel methodologies have been approved.2. there will be many opportunities to raise revenues from non-farebox sources. lift & escalator advertising. The CDM Executive Board (EB) deems a project additional if its proponents can show that realistic alternative scenarios to the proposed project would be more economically attractive. With this limitation in mind the next two most promising opportunities in the near term (to 2015) are the introduction of various public transport networks and supporting infrastructure. stations or lines. however.4 Commercial Revenue Generation With the development of Abu Dhabi’s extensive public transport network. In view of the wide range of possible outcomes and the uncertainty in achieving CDM eligibility. These will include: • Traditional advertising mediums: traditional posters. If a project does not fit under an existing approved methodology then a new methodology can be developed and submitted for approval. LCD screens and moving image advertisements in tunnels Station concession rentals: newspaper kiosks. and moving image advertisements in tunnels Digital advertising solutions: digital screens. Firstly. escalator panels. The most promising opportunity is the development of car free developments with electric car clubs. mobile phone equipment & other communications links: revenue can be generated from the rental of cable route space to third parties. projects must be able to prove that they are additional. Additionally is a complicated concept and may be difficult to demonstrate. cross-track projection. However. As of February 2009. larger scale solutions taking over whole platforms. and from mobile phone providers installing equipment on or alongside the • • • • 46 . for the purposes of assessing financial feasibility a lower quartile assumption of AED 100 million (around US$30 million) per annum revenue from Carbon Credits has been taken forward. there are two key factors that will determine which projects within the ASTMP are feasible as CDM projects. food & beverage stalls. 6. or that the project faces barriers that the CDM helps it overcome. this is not anticipated until 2030.
If adopted in Abu Dhabi. corporate sponsorship is now targeting public transport infrastructure. Detroit. The operating costs for the current and network and additional committed highways in the Reference Case will need to continue to be paid for through central government There is not expected to be an operating surplus that can be used to partially fund capital expenditure. Dubai’s example is most striking as it has the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA) has raised AED1. favouring the higher concentration of highly skilled / high income passengers passing through CBD stations. In this analysis.e. 6.e. The revenue generated from station concessions will depend on the number of stations (and tram stops) and the number of passengers passing through the stations. particularly on the ‘footfall’. Tampa and proposals by Miami-Dade Transit.infrastructure link The revenue generated from advertising will depend. the number of passengers passing the advertisement and the ‘demographic’ profile of passengers and their location.8 billion over 10 years for naming rights to 10 stations. i.5 Resulting Steady State Position in 2030 The diagram below summarises the waterfall of operating costs and revenue by source in 2030. There are examples of successful application of this process in Dubai. operating costs exclude depreciation and therefore do not allow for the replacement of assets.2. and receipts from the Carbon Credits and surcharges on car parking and taxis broadly cover the operating costs of the public transport systems The expected revenue from a congestion charge on Abu Dhabi Island makes a substantial contribution towards the cost of maintaining the highway network. i. naming rights could add a further 3-5% of revenue. Las Vegas. Analysis of non-farebox revenues on a number of systems internationally indicates that commercial revenue can contribute an additional 2-5% of revenue Once limited to the naming rights over sports stadiums. • • • 47 . The diagram indicates that: • The combination of farebox and commercial revenue.
Revenue will also grow towards the 2030 levels reflecting the availability of fare-charging public transport services. the growth in demand and changes in the level of fares and charges levied.6 Operating Cost and Revenue Profile Operating costs will increase over time as new infrastructure is brought into service and public transport services begin.1 Congestion charge <3-5 Car parking 1.3 Highway 3. revenues can be kept broadly in step with operating costs such as the year to year central subsidy for the STMP network should be very limited.3 Public transport 6.0 Farebox 3.2.3 6. It indicates that with appropriate planning.1 Comparison of STMP Operating Costs and Revenue Sources in 2030 (2008 Prices) AED Billion O & M Costs Revenue Contingency 3.9 Taxi 1. 48 . The diagram below illustrates the growth in operating costs and revenue over time reflecting these stages and also assuming that the level of car parking and taxi surcharges are increased rapidly once the main Metro loop and initial tram networks are in operation.Comparison Figure 6.
a mixture of equity and debt finance funded through availability payments in the absence of an operating surplus from farebox revenue. value-sharing or cost-sharing contributions. The Abu Dhabi Government will need to explore all sources of capitals to support this major infrastructure investment programme and ensure it is delivered efficiently. including contributions the sale of ‘air rights’ to build over major transport interchanges debt. • • • 49 .3 6. and backed by the sovereign fund if the Government finances are ever in deficit.1 Sources of Capital Funding Possible Sources Capital funding for transport infrastructure has often been provided by a combination of government and private sources. The main sources of finance open to it include: • Operators and investors through project finance.Figure 6. increasingly private finance has been sought in parallel with seeking cost effective ways of delivering assets and services. loaned from National banks or corporate borrowing by the new transport agencies funding. Roads generally have been viewed as a public utility. Developers’ contributions.2 Illustrative Operating Cash Flow Profile – Excluding Contingencies (2008 Prices) Operating cash flows (2008 prices) AED billions 12 10 8 6 STMP total operating costs Fare + parking + taxi revenue Revenue incl congestion charge Fare + commercial revenue PT operating cost 4 2 0 20 16 20 32 20 08 20 18 20 20 20 24 20 34 20 36 20 10 20 12 20 14 20 22 20 26 20 28 20 30 20 38 20 40 6. but as pressure grows on public sector finances internationally.3. Government grant funding paid as the capital cost is incurred or to service availability payments or debt. Government guaranteed debt from a number of sources such as public bonds. The early railways were privately financed (often on the back of property development gain) as were the canals and turnpikes.
This formula could be tariff-based or fully reflect the actual incremental cost. A wide range of issues need to be considered before such a mechanism is introduced. However. the characteristics of each of these sources of funds are described briefly and before a number of possible scenarios are presented. estimate its cost and apply a cost-sharing formula. However. This would be a value-sharing approach but only for limited highly accessible sites. have raised capital through the sale of land.2 Developer Contributions The current situation in Abu Dhabi is that developers are granted land and they design. This can be an effective source of capital funding and it can be implemented more easily than adopting a general developer valuecontribution system. as this is more practicable and equitable. This has been an acceptable way forward in the past for developments which have been largely infilling and using existing infrastructure. a more limited approach could relate to the sale of air rights.The balance between the sources will depend on many considerations at the national level depending on the cost and availability of different sources and the demand s on the government purse from time to time. hotel or commercial development and have attracted a high premium in major western cities and dense cities such as Hong Kong and Singapore. Some countries.3. and now DoT. It is more suited to incremental development and in-filling and less to major development sites where value is dependent on new infrastructure. But for major new developments requiring significant new highway and public transport infrastructure the old model is less appropriate. since it is difficult to assess market value of very large developments where there is a “first mover” advantage and it is a very radical change in approach as it comprehensively “taxes” the development premium away from developers. including Singapore. In the following paragraphs. Key transport projects in Bangkok in the 1990s suffered extensive delays when the price of land fell and caused the financing of the project to fail. it is important not to expose the transport development programme to uncertainty by linking the raising of funds directly to the financing of the transport project. 50 . It is unclear who has responsibility for on-site infrastructure maintenance after the development is complete. generally above major transport interchanges. we recommend that the Government considers the alternative ‘cost-sharing’ approach. The mechanism for this approach needs to be developed but is likely to include an assessment of the additional infrastructure needed to ensure that future transport users will be no worse off. or the right to develop over a station or transport interchange. This approach is unlikely to be effective in Abu Dhabi. ADM. and yet the value of a development depends on the accessibility of the site as well as the amenities created on the site. Such sites will be very well suited to high density residential. 6. No payments are made by the developer to cover the capital or operating costs of the new infrastructure. If developer cost-sharing is not introduced. most effectively Hong Kong. funds the infrastructure needed to access/service the site and accommodate extra demand on the network. Hong Kong and the UK. ‘value-sharing’ approach has been adopted where developers pay a premium to develop the land in question which is either set through a competitive process or by calculation by a public sector agency. build and fund the infrastructure needed on site. In many countries.
which could be national or foreign banks and funds. It is not expected that patronage or revenue risk would be transferred. If no revenue risk is transferred. and that it is paid as a grant in the year the cost is incurred. This gives rise to the conservative assumptions of around 35% of total capital costs being privately financed. delivery timing. the joint venture company is assumed to be registered locally and therefore needing to comply with the prevailing requirement that 51% of the equity is owned by a national entity. at least in the first round of any concessions to operate the new transport system. and for the purposes of illustration. In the case of the Mafraq-Ghweifat Highway PPP project. 50% of tramway track and systems cost. Project financing is normally raised by a joint venture company providing a service in return for an availability payment. 51 . we have assumed that 100% of vehicles/vessels/ rolling stock and depots could be privately financed. this role is played by affiliates of the Abu Dhabi sovereign funds. i. assuming a return to normality with respect to the cost and availability of project finance in the future. These indicate a weighted cost of capital of 4-5% per annum in real terms (9-10% pa in nominal terms assuming 5% inflation). 6. construction or build cost. all Metro systems cost but no rail network infrastructure. was left open. This assessment took account of the likely acceptability of the normal risk transfer that would be expected. A higher proportion may well be possible in the future. Decisions of this aspect will need to be made much closer the time. with the supplier registered in Abu Dhabi as a foreign company. operating costs and performance.3. this equity is assumed to be provided 100% by foreign sources. For illustration in the financial modelling reported below. We have assumed that debt is raised from private sector sources. varying by type of infrastructure.On the basis of a preliminary assessment of how such a mechanism could be applied. However. The financing assumptions used for the illustrative funding structures are summarised in the table below. for the purpose of establishing indicative funding approaches an initial assessment was made of the potential for private finance. we have estimated that around 10-15% of the construction costs could be attributable to specific developments. 33% of highway infrastructure. In the case of rolling stock of other vehicles/vessels. This is assumed to be repaid through constant nominal availability payments over an agreed concession period. On this basis. Although it is unlikely that very attractive rates are available for periods in excess of 10 years or so. then a higher gearing is achievable (1015% equity). we have assumed 12% of the capital funding to be generated from developers through cost-sharing (or air rights). The issue of whether this approach should be accompanied by private finance as well.3 Private Finance The proposed approach to private sector participation in delivery was outlined in Chapter 5 where the principle was established to make as much use as practicable of private sector capacity and expertise on a performance incentive basis. For infrastructure services.e. we have assumed longer period financing on the basis that the initial debt can be re-financed after the construction phase has been completed and the project is operational.
project bonds or agency borrowing as sources of debt. trams and even railways has increased dramatically in the last 20 years. If there is insufficient operating surplus to service the debt. 6. It has been particularly useful in circumstances where the Government is short of funds and wishes to bring forward the timing of transport projects which it can pay for later through availability payments. Although there is seldom direct linkage (hypothecation) between this revenue and the development of the transport network. as it has demonstrated when it experimented successfully with doing so internationally. for example SNCF. if it is able to raise funds from alternative sources under reasonable terms. It also has a track record in guaranteeing the repayment of loans borrowed from national banks by Government agencies. The issuing of project bonds is a method used extensively in the USA by city authorities. this is sometimes done in less developed countries in order to protect the revenue from being used for other purposes.4 Government Borrowing The Government has an excellent credit rating arising from its strong public finances and therefore has no difficulty in raising bonds.5 Government Grants Many governments fund their transport infrastructure through grants. the French national railway company. 52 . which increase the property tax paid by its residents and businesses until the bond is repaid.2 Assumed Private Finance Terms Assumptions Equity Private Equity ROE (Real) Interest Rate (Real) Tenor (Years) Infrastructure 15% 49% 12% 4% 20 20 etc Rolling Stock etc 10% 100% The use of private funding of roads.Table 6. Unless revenues significantly exceed operating and maintenance costs. particularly for highways and rail systems. 6. taxes and VAT. this can result in a ballooning of debt and eventual right-off by the government of the day. As a general strategy the Abu Dhabi Government is seeking alternative fiscal instruments in order to reduce reliance on the continuous flow of oil revenues.3.3. all forms of departmental or agency debt would need to be underwritten by central Government and therefore there is little merit in distinguishing between Government bonds. Furthermore. There is also strong international precedent for governments to guarantee corporate borrowing by its transport agencies. it releases its sovereign funds to diversify and seek higher returns from other opportunities. It would not be practical to implement such an approach in Abu Dhabi which has not precedent of levying property taxes and no system infrastructure for the collection of such taxes to build on. However. most governments also raise general revenue through fuel taxes or other vehicle related duties.
The funding is expressed in 2008 prices. 2% above inflation) – it is assumed that interest is paid in the year it is incurred and not rolled up. but the assumed level of inflation has an impact on the results. 5% construction cost inflation – No differential inflation is assumed over the period of the STMP. We have used the following common set of assumptions: • • • o 5% general price inflation . For public sector borrowing: 2% pa real interest rate (i.e.4 Illustrative Funding Options We recommend that the funding of the STMP is based on an appropriate blend from the following main generic sources: • • • • developer cost-sharing contributions or sale of air rights project-related private finance Government backed borrowing Government grant. the Abu Dhabi is considering the diversification of its sources to include a VAT or sales tax and possibly other forms of taxation. It is therefore not possible to say what level of grant funding can be assured in the future. with different combinations of funding from these sources.Traditionally the Abu Dhabi Government has funded its capital requirements directly from oil revenues and has funded highways and other utility infrastructure without charges to its citizens and residents. it draws on its reserves with its Sovereign Funds. 6. If there were to be a deficit. In the future. Decisions on what this blend will be will need to be taken in the future depending on such factors as: • • • • The sources of funds available to Government which will depend on the oil price and the development of other sources of revenue The performance of the property market in Abu Dhabi which will affect developers ability to contribute and the value obtained from the sale of air rights The availability of credit to fund public sector schemes Competing demands for funding from other sectors of the economy. Instead the figures below indicate that. It is therefore not possible to recommend a specific funding strategy for STMP. The availability of grant funding for transport will depend on the nature and level of competing demand for government expenditure. 20 year repayment period after 2030 with payments constant in nominal terms For private sector finance: o • 53 . the profile of government spending can be varied significantly to suit a wide variety of objectives in terms of the funding profile. while the international price of oil will continue to be a dominating factor in the generation of revenue. say at the UAE funding level.
0 13. Table 6. It is generally more front-end loaded within the programme and less applicable to the later spending on regional rail projects.5 25. o The table below summarises the combinations we have illustrated. availability payment and debt servicing costs. The average funding requirement is calculated assuming an equal payment is made into a fund over the 21 year period 2010 to 2030.6 9.5% 0 0 59 206 133 15.o o o 15% pa real equity return and 4% pa real interest rate Gearing dependent of project type but 10-15% equity Funding over 3-year periods treated as notional “projects” with interest rolled up during that period 20 year repayment period for each “project” with payments constant in nominal terms.8 20.6 14.4 11.1 18.5% 22. although this could be longer in practice with re-financing.0 21.5 54 . which earns interest if it is surplus and pays interest if it is in deficit at the public sector borrowing rate. The developer and PPP funding varies by mode according to the assumptions described earlier in this chapter.9 17.3 Funding Scenarios Illustrated (including Contingency) (2008 Prices) ontingency) Scenario Developer Funding Private Project Finance Government Debt Government Grant Funding Total Government Funding (AED billion) Funding after 2030 (AED Billion) Average Funding 2010-30 (AED Billion) Peak Funding (AED Billion) 323 293 356 417 386 1 0% 0% 0% 100% 2 12% 0% 0% 88% 3 12% 35% 0% 53% 4 12% 35% 53% 0% 5 12% 35% 22. Total Government funding is the sum of grant.
we assume no alternative source of funding except Government grant.000 15.000 5.3 Funding Scenario 1 – Government Grant Only (2008 Prices. with Contingency) Capital cost profile and total Government spending (with contingency) AED billions (2008) 30. The funding profile is illustrated below and indicates a peak funding requirement (with contingencies) of AED 25 billion. this payment would need to be AED 15.000 Government spending 20.000 20 05 20 07 20 09 20 11 20 13 20 15 20 17 20 19 20 21 20 23 20 25 20 27 20 29 20 31 20 33 20 35 20 37 20 39 55 .In Scenario 1.000 25. Figure 6.000 Capital cost profile 10.6 billion per year. If the capital programme were to be funded by a constant annual payment for 21 years from 2010 to 2030.
with Contingency) Contingency) Capital cost profile and total Government spending (with contingency) AED billions (2008) 30.4 Funding Scenario 2 – Developer Contributions and Grant (2008 Prices.000 25. Figure 6. we assume developers make a cost contribution of 12% and the balance is comprised of Government grant. The funding profile is therefore very similar but slightly lower in the early years because developer funding relates more to the tram system than the later rail system.000 20 05 20 07 20 09 20 11 20 13 20 15 20 17 20 19 20 21 20 23 20 25 20 27 20 29 20 31 20 33 20 35 20 37 20 39 56 .In Scenario 2.000 15.000 5.000 Capital cost profile 10.000 Government spending 20.
However.000 5.000 Capital cost profile 10. with Contingency) Capital cost profile and total Government spending (with contingency) AED billions (2008) 30.000 15. The residual requirement is met through Government grant.In Scenario 3.000 25.5 Funding Scenario 3 – Developer Contribution. the total amount paid by government increases as there is still AED 59 billion of availability payments to fund after 2030. shows a lower peak (AED 20 billion) but postponed by 10 years. we assume that 35% of the funding is provides by private sector project finance as well as the developer contribution.000 20 05 20 07 20 09 20 11 20 13 20 15 20 17 20 19 20 21 20 23 20 25 20 27 20 29 20 31 20 33 20 35 20 37 20 39 57 .000 Government spending 20. and Figure 6. Private Finance and Grant (2008 Prices. The funding profile illustrated below.
000 25. Private Finance and Government Debt (2008 Prices.6 Funding Scenario 4 – Developer Contribution.000 15. with Contingency) Capital cost profile and total Government spending (with contingency) AED billions (2008) 30. Figure 6.In Scenario 4. over AED 206 billion of funding payments are still outstanding at 2030. we assume the same developer and private funding but we fund the residual by borrowing rather than grant.000 Government spending 20.000 5. However.000 20 05 20 07 20 09 20 11 20 13 20 15 20 17 20 19 20 21 20 23 20 25 20 27 20 29 20 31 20 33 20 35 20 37 20 39 58 .000 Capital cost profile 10. This changes the funding profile significantly and delays the funding significantly.
7 Funding Scenario 5 – Developer Contribution. We estimate that this revenue should be able to cover the operating and maintenance a cost of the proposed network. This will help to create an economic and fiscal environment that will generate more government revenues in the long run.000 Government spending 20. Fares and charges from congestion management measures such as car parking fees. with Contingency) Capital cost profile and total Government spending (with contingency) AED billions (2008) 30. Figure 6. Private project finance can play a very important role. Grant and Government Debt (2008 Prices. Private Finance. we assume that the residual funding is equally split between government borrowing and grant. This produces a lower peak funding requirement of AED 17.5 billion. taxis surcharges and congestion charges will be vital new sources of revenue. Although the STMP will not generate enough revenue to finance its capital costs. new sources of funding must be tapped in order to limit direct government contributions to sustainable levels. but this will be a challenge • 59 .5 Financing Conclusions – STMP Financing With the very large capital budget required by the STMP. The DoT is progressing with the development of such a mechanism.Finally in Scenario 5. it will create the capacity to allow the developments in Vision 2030 to take place and for the Emirate to continue to grow and prosper. but still AED 133 billion of payments to be made after 2030. This requires new sources of funding to be developed: • A mechanism for identifying developer cost contributions will be needed to recycle a proportion of the development gain from developments to pay for the infrastructure that has made the property development possible in the first place.000 20 05 20 07 20 09 20 11 20 13 20 15 20 17 20 19 20 21 20 23 20 25 20 27 20 29 20 31 20 33 20 35 20 37 20 39 6.000 Capital cost profile 10.000 15.000 5.000 25. but it is unlikely to contribute towards capital costs or the financing of debt. Finance. However in the next 5-6 years large amounts of capital have to be raised to cover very high levels of capital expenditure.
60 . We recommend that the DoT engages a firm of financial advisers to receive input from the modallyorientated feasibility design studies to be carried out over the next two years and to advise on a privatisation and funding strategy that can keep refreshed in the light of emerging global and local economic developments. and their impact across the whole of the STMP programme. and keep the whole of the STMP programme in view. • Much greater use of direct Government’s borrowing will be required. As the Government’s overall financing strategy develops. These issues. will need to be kept under review. now being tested in Abu Dhabi. Bond issues. The mechanisms for doing so will need to be streamlined and the consideration will need to be given on easing the 51% local ownership requirement as it applies to special purpose companies set up to support this programme.at this time of global recession and credit shortage. may need to become routine. the changes will need to be factored in to the emerging STMP funding strategy. They are not modally specific.
railway construction) and the procurement of transport operations (e. 7. There are over 200 infrastructure projects or strategies within the STMP. Two examples may help to illustrate the scale of resource needed: • In London. In addition to this description of the implementation process. design.1 Public Transport Infrastructure Components Management Arrangements The planning. indicating the overall phasing of STMP projects and strategies and identifies the responsibilities for implementation.2. an AED 80 billion project to build an underground main-line railway link beneath London and upgrade tracks to the East and West of the City is being undertaken by Cross London Rail Links Ltd.g. but should not be seen as indicating committed timings and milestones. metro services) The development of the highway network including new build and upgrade projects STMP strategy implementation. phasing and procurement.g. The feasibility design and procurement strategy for all the components of the STMP will be subject to considerable further refinement with respect to design.1 HIGH LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAMME Introduction This chapter sets out the high level implementation programme for STMP. The plans reported here therefore indicate the sequence of key projects and illustrate the demands that will be placed on the delivery institutions. the development of Crossrail. procurement and construction oversight of a major engineering project such as that envisaged for the Metro.7 7. all the individual projects and their staging is set out on a master Gantt chart held by the Dot to be used within the STMP monitoring process. The components of the strategy are grouped as follows: • The development of the public transport network including infrastructure projects (e. tram and rail systems in Abu Dhabi is a massive undertaking. bus services. This organisation has 200 staff mainly dealing 61 . wholly owned by Transport for London.2 7. covering o o o o o o o Congestion Management Strategy Freight Strategy Low Carbon Strategy Accessibility Strategy Pedestrian Strategy Road safety Strategy Environmental improvement Strategy • • Action plans for the main institutions involved in delivering STMP are described in Chapter 8.
at least to 2015. tram. 43km of Metro and integrated ticketing) proceed through the development process. interchanges and regional rail to the extent that it impacts the other services. Its role should include: • • Establishing an overall programme for implementation of these components of the STMP developing and detailing the action plans in this report Drafting the terms of reference for consultants to be employed to carry out strategy development or preliminary design and procure these consultants on behalf of the DoT Reviewing and coordinating the activities of the consultants during the preliminary design phase of their work Recommending an overall procurement strategy to the DoT drawing on the advice of the design consultants and legal and financial advisers Reviewing and coordinate the activities of the consultants during the procurement phase of their work • • • 62 . the Irish Government has set up the Rail Procurement Agency to procure new metro and tram projects. The scope of the PMC’s role should include the Metro. and the emerging role of the private sector.with planning. and ferry systems. • In Dublin. the role should be reconsidered in the light of the development and performance of ADTCo. using a PMC approach. The organisation has recruited a PMC which is expected to provide up to 800 staff in the field to oversee the project. Beyond that timeframe. The build up of staff of this scale within the constraints of public sector recruitment and employment regulations in Abu Dhabi is impractical in the timescale required and thus the private sector needs to be turned to. The proposed Public Transport PMC should have a wide remit to oversee the implementation of the public transport elements of the STMP. The expectation is that the RPA staff numbers will increase well beyond this number as their main projects (50km of tram extensions. The RPA had a total staffing of about 200 personnel in early 2008 of which over half were engaged in project development and the remainder engaged in corporate activities. This will increase during the design phase to 400 staff and during construction to 60 staff. obtaining planning consents and communications.
Therefore. including a PMC streamlined procurement processes early decisions on the specification of the rolling stock that will be used. designs will need to be undertaken. commenced. and a further six months is necessary for the testing and commissioning of the railway. means that the construction contracts will need to be let before the end of 2010. a similar size to the Core System being proposed in Abu Dhabi. This is very near the minimum that has been achieved elsewhere and requires an extremely fasttrack approach to be adopted. The DoT has begun the process of appointing a design and procurement consultant to commence on the preliminary designs for the project during Q1 2010. construct and commission a completely new system. Nor has a Transport Authority or a shadow operating organisation been established to be responsible for the system construction. including tunnels and stations would be expected to last for three years. including the initial system for Singapore have been constructed and commissioned within five years. Some systems works and the fitting out of stations can be concurrent with the completion of the civil construction. This is ambitious but achievable. providing that the organisational structure and management teams (including the PMC) are in place to drive the project forward. and following the logic described above. The construction of the civil works. during the next 15 months the alignment will need to be finalised. However. together with the relocation of utilities and other preparatory works often means that the construction process cannot commence for 12-15 months after the award of the construction contracts. but a period of at least 6-9 months will be needed at the end of the civil works to complete the installations. the DoT will act as the Metro Authority supported by the PMC. depending upon the size of the contracts that are to be let.2.7. It should be noted that the Singapore and Hong Kong systems took approximately 30 years to extend to 100km length. commissioning and operating. While such an agency is being set up. stations located and accurately sized. the type of rolling stock that will be used on the system has not yet been determined. Although the Metro alignment has been defined within the STMP. which allows a total period of around six years to plan. The procurement of large construction plant including the tunnelling machines. land appropriation and utility diversions etc. as this is fundamental to the design of the project and resolving the location of depots for stabling trains overnight the establishment of the ADTCo to take on responsibility as the future operator for the Metro as early as possible. and the tender documents prepared to allow contractors to be procured to build the Metro. • 63 . Other (much smaller) systems.2 Metro Staging and Approach to Procurement The capacity provided by the Initial System of the Metro is required as soon as possible and it has a target opening date in 2015. To achieve a project opening in 2015. with the following prerequisites: • • • • swift decision making throughout the process a fully resourced procurement team. design. a significant amount of planning and preliminary design had taken place over a number of years prior to the start of construction to ensure that most technical and logistical issues had been resolved prior to the award of the construction contracts.
Saadiyat and Yas amongst others.e. the initial system will be much shorter and the system should be developed over a number of stages. with a long length of surface track. These extensions are of smaller scale and could be provided through turnkey contracts. i.As far as possible. Provision has also been made for a dedicated Airport Express service from 2020 comprising differently configured rolling stock and the fit-out of additional dedicated station platforms at the Airport. The Initial System will provide links to the existing most congested areas and the main transport corridors. The developments on both Saadiyat and Yas would be expected to be substantially complete by 2015 and this route could be built relatively quickly compared with the long lengths of tunnelling required for other sections of the system. The design of the Initial System should take account of how Metro extensions and the regional railways can be implemented with the minimum of disruption to services. They are timed to be operational by 2020 and 2025 respectively. the planned Capital District and the new developments on the islands of Suwa.4 Tram Staging and Approach to Procurement The overall tramway network identified in the STMP study is roughly 340 km in length. Part of the CBD – Airport – Capital District Loop (PM1) is an ‘express’ line between the business district and the airport via Saadiyat and Yas islands. 7. For Abu Dhabi this would be from Saadiyat Island to Marina Mall (PM2) and the CBD – Airport – Capital District loop (PM1). 7.3 Metro Implementation Programme The overall metro system in the STMP will be approximately 130km in length and serve Abu Dhabi City. The International Airport is currently undergoing an expansion and it is expected that this will be complete within the next three years. this does not mean necessarily maximising the use of private finance. turnkey contracts should be used to internalise decision making within contracting organisations and maximise the transfer of delivery and system integration risks. These two routes will have a shared section of infrastructure through the CBD. procurement and delivery of the stages of the Metro is shown in Appendix A. Both of these lines would be implemented to be operational by the end of 2015. 64 . The Gantt chart at Appendix A indicates the indicative timing of the Metro staged implementation.2. CBD and Saadiyat stations. There are two proposed extensions to the main core system. A more detailed implementation programme will be prepared as part of future design development to reflect increased knowledge of the design requirements and construction methods to be employed. However. the Capital City – Mohammad Bin Zayed Loop (PM3) and the Shamkhah to Capital City Spur (PM5). The indicative programme for the design. Separate considerations apply to that decision. The timing of this service is being considered as part of the Metro preliminary design study.2. A staged implementation will be needed for this scale of system. Reem. As discussed in Chapter 6.
through the PMC and design and procurement consultants. Enquiries within the industry show that projects of 20 km to 30 km per phase are within the capability of existing supply consortia. the stages of development should not be over-ambitious because this would lead to very large construction contracts and the overheating of the construction market. during the preliminary design phase for the rolling stock for a number of sub-networks to be procured separately from the infrastructure. This is ambitious but achievable. Conversely. locate and accurately size stopping places Identify and reserve land for depot locations for the whole network Undertake preliminary design development sufficient to let turnkey contracts for delivery Complete land acquisition and commence utilities diversion The same process for the second sub-network should follow as soon as practicable. provided that the organisational structure and management teams are in place to drive the project forward. where 27 km was built as Phase 1. it is proposed that the initial system should comprise two independent stages: 65 . and 29 km in Calgary (Canada). self-contained system. each stage will need to be long enough to ensure it creates a useable. and the merits assessed. Although other initial systems have been constructed and commissioned within three years. 7. following one step behind so that the PMC and design consultants can apply lessons learned to streamline the process. These include: Croydon Tramlink. The general coverage of sub-networks is illustrated in the plan below. will need to achieve the following: • • • • • • Develop the specification for the whole system including rolling stock Decide on the procurement approach and prepare tender documents for the initial sub-network Finalise the alignments for the initial sub-networks. The opportunities should be explored. and recognising local pressure from developers. However. or shadow operating organisation has been established to take the project forward. during the next 15 months the DoT. On this basis. The achievement of a first-phase opening in 2013 requires construction contracts to be let in 2010. 22 km in Sheffield (UK). The geographical spread of the tramway network across metropolitan Abu Dhabi potentially allows a number of sections of the ultimate network could be developed and implemented in parallel and to achieve the opening of a small sub-system in 2013. in most cases a significant amount of planning and preliminary design had taken place during several years prior to construction. The selection of the rolling stock that will be used on the operational system is fundamental to the design of the project and will need to be finalised as part of the very first phase of the tramway development.Numerous very large contract packages have been awarded for the construction of tramways. most technical and logistical issues had been resolved before awarding the construction contracts and a tramway authority.2. with delivery typically taking 36 months. Therefore.5 Tramway Implementation Programme Abu Dhabi’s future tramway will need to be divided into manageable lengths for each stage of development.
These sub-networks could be implemented in parallel. The STMP has not attempted to specify the rolling stock to operate on the tram network. The full network includes connections between these independent systems which will allow for tram services to run through between different stages of the overall network. Furthermore individual routes will inevitably need to be adjusted to best serve emerging travel demands. Furthermore. and the airport. Possibly a separate network serving Saadiyat Island that would in due course link with the network serving the CBD. • It is anticipated that these independent networks would be gradually extended in subsequent stages. The Gantt chart at Appendix A shows a possible phasing for the four stages described. It is anticipated that some 6–10 depots may be required. or with a series of fleets which are operationally compatible. suitably located to serve the areas of peak demand for tram services. including Raha Beach. The identification and allocation of sites. and A network linking Raha Beach. It should also be recognised that travel patterns will also evolve as the Metro and rail systems are developed in parallel. recognising the currently understood priorities for operation. namely the number and locations of tram depots to serve the network. It should be noted that individual tram routes have not yet been defined since they are likely to be refined over time and depending on the phasing of construction. and the subsequent construction and commissioning of depots is expected to be a critical path activity for the first stage. Another critical issue remains to be resolved. This could be achieved with a single contract for procurement of a rolling stock fleet that can be allocated on an as-needed basis to routes within the network. 66 . via Khalifa A. since one role for the tram network is to serve as a feeder to these faster high capacity modes that are more appropriate for longer distance travel. there must be a depot available within each of the initial sub-networks. It is essential that a standard specification for the fleet allows the vehicles to operate anywhere on the complete network. Each of these developments has been planned around a tram system and this needs to be implemented quickly to meet the demands of residents and workers as they move into these new developments. sequentially building out to the full network (rather than on a route by route basis). via Masdar. The choice of tram will be an important issue to be determined in the forthcoming Tram Preliminary Design Study. In addition there is scope for further independent stages to be introduced: • • A network to serve Capital City. As outlined above it is envisaged that the system would be implemented in discrete areas or subnetworks.• An initial network linking Reem and Suwa to the existing CBD where substantial short-term travel demand can be virtually guaranteed due to the existing development density and the need to integrate the new developments into the city. and in due course to extend to link with adjacent developments. Masdar and Yas Island to the airport.
1 Tramway Phasing Plan by 2030 67 .Figure 7.
In deciding the priorities for the staging of investment. Over 80% of the schemes by value are programmed for completion by the end of 2015.6 Regional Rail Staging and Approach to Procurement Within the overall staging of the infrastructure components of the STMP. We advocate the appointment of a highly skilled and experienced team of Program Management Consultants for this role as timely delivery can be incentivised through well-established performance contracts. key elements of its design will need to be fixed much earlier as several points on the rail network. at Capital City and at the airport. as it can provide the skill.3. Apart from this aspect.3. interacts with the Metro. capability and capacity to project manage the scale and scope of works required to be delivered on time. 7. the private sector can be incentivised to deliver this programme in partnership with the DoT.7. The schemes under consideration represent a very large pool of work which will take some time to deliver. We have indicated this as an activity relating to the Metro design. However. we considered the following factors: • The programme must prioritise improving the performance of the congested national and city networks. and three major interchange stations in the CBD.3 billion.2. and the current committed projects also have to be delivered. 7. The DoT is a relatively new organisation and is under-resourced even for its current roles.2 Highway Staging and Approach to Procurement The large investment in major improvements to the road network set out in the STMP highlights the challenge that Abu Dhabi faces in sustaining the key role of the national network in supporting economic growth and productivity in the face of current congestion at peak times and future traffic growth. It will take many years for it to establish the necessary skills and capacity through recruitment and training to be able to deliver the STMP highway programme on time.3 7. and therefore it is premature to consider the process for its design and procurement. and access to international gateways (such as ports 68 . The feasibility studies.1 Highway Infrastructure Components Management Arrangements The STMP proposed highway network is estimated as AED 43 billion and would require an annual operating and maintenance cost of AED 3. the feasibility design and procurement strategy for the regional rail will not be on the STMP critical path until after 2015. surveys and preliminary design of more than 15 schemes needs to be initiated very soon if the highways are to be open to traffic by 2015. The individual plan components which comprise the regional rail network or nonetheless included in the master Gantt chart. However. the regional rail has been given a lower priority and construction is not expected to commence until after 2015. This very large investment in highway infrastructure in Abu Dhabi will impose major challenges to mobilise and deliver an unprecedented programme of construction and subsequent maintenance.
69 . security and health and improving quality of life. These schemes also fit with other goals such as contributing to better safety. Some schemes are relatively quick to deliver with few engineering complications whereas some require more planning works and the acquisition of additional land. The schemes that are programmed for completion by 2015 can be packaged into three groups: • • • • Group A – Schemes Programmed for Completion by 2011 Group 1 – new construction Group 2 – upgrade Group 3 – capacity enhancements schemes (CES) The table below lists the schemes in these groups. Focussing on these key routes will maximise the benefits for motorists as well as freight movement. we have identified the schemes that are necessary by 2015 and subjected these to further review to determine a phasing strategy. • Taking these factors into account.1 Highway Packages for Completion by 2015 Group A RH1 RH2 RH4 RH5 RH6 RH10 RH12 RH16 Group 1 (New Construction) RH3B/RH36 RH8 RH11 RH13 RH17 RH23 RH25 RH35 Group 2 (Upgrade) RH20 RH30 RH32 RH37 RH38 RH39 Group 3 (Capacity Enhancement) RH7 RH52 We are advocating the appointment of Programme Management Consultants to project manage the above packages and assist in the transition to RoadCo. We have not developed a prioritisation strategy for those schemes that are required after 2015.and airports) to best support the national economy. • High priority must be given to schemes which will facilitate housing growth helping to support the Government’s target to deliver high quality residential and business units. The core strategy of this staging is to provide for the main road network linking and serving major developments. Table 7. Group 3 package in 2010 and Group 2 package in late 2010 and early 2011. as this can more effectively be planned at a later stage. as construction will need to start in the next two to three years. Group 1 packages must be procured in late 2009 and early 2010. supporting economic growth by reducing congestion and providing more reliable journeys for motorists and freight operations. Group 1 and 3 schemes could deliver all of the above.
Congestion Management Strategy Overview of Implementation
The congestion management strategy underpins the successful delivery of the STMP. Without this carefully planned approach to managing congestion impacts, modelling has indicated that severe congestion would arise, prejudicing the achievement of the STMP objectives. Infrastructure measures are key inputs to the congestion management strategy and are included in earlier sections of this report. This section describes the policy and strategy measures that support the delivery of the strategy. The congestion management strategy is a broad strategy cutting across different modes of transport and different delivery organisations. It consists of four sub-strategies that aim to address the STMP objectives of minimising congestion and reducing reliance on the automobile which are further sub-divided into a set of components. The sub-strategies are: • • (1) Providing high quality alternatives to the car – to encourage and deliver mode shift away from the private car; (2) Making best use of the highway network – to ensure efficient operation and to provide the most appropriate infrastructure to meet the residual demand for travel by car; (3) Transit oriented development – to ensure that developments are designed to minimise traffic generation with higher densities around stations to maximise accessibility, local services to reduce the need to travel and high quality transport infrastructure to encourage non-car modes; (4) Demand management – measures to manage both the overall level of demand and demand in particular locations where congestion is most prevalent.
Given its breadth, it will necessarily be implemented by a range of organisations, although the DoT will play the pivotal role. The DoT will lead the development of the policies and in its role as client will oversee the delivery of the implementation of the schemes, policies and initiatives, managing delivery of both infrastructure and outcomes through the performance monitoring system (see Chapter 9). The main exception is related to sub-strategy 2, transit-oriented development, where UPC is likely to be the lead and DoT would work in partnership with them. In many instances, particularly as many of the actions need to be implemented at a very early stage before the DoT develops to full capacity, consultants are likely to be required to support the development of policies and policy initiatives. The chart below summarises the key actions that will be required to implement the congestion strategy and identifies the lead organisation.
Figure 7.2 Congestion Management Strategy
The key actions that are required to deliver each component of each sub-strategy are set out below. 7.4.2 lternatives Providing High Quality Alternatives to the Car
This sub-strategy consists of the following components: • • • • Interchanges; Integrated ticketing; Travel information; Walking & cycling.
Interchanges will be required to facilitate some of the more complex travel patterns in Abu Dhabi. The interchanges will need to adopt international best practice in ensuring easy and convenient transfer between modes and the public realm whilst addressing local issues such as protection from the heat with air conditioning and catering for the needs of women and children. The key action for the DoT will be to commission best practice interchange design guidelines which can serve as a specification for interchange design and influence the Abu Dhabi metro and light rail studies that are to be procured. This work should be accelerated to feed into the tram, ferry and Metro preliminary design work to ensure a consistent high quality approach to interchange design. Integrated ticketing will be required to ensure that all modes of public transport can be used in a seamless way. The most likely form of integrated ticketing will be an integrated smart card ticket that would enable use of all forms of public transport and could be extended to other areas such as park and ride and any future road pricing systems. It is important that a specification that works for all modes is quickly identified so that it can inform the metro and tram studies. As a preliminary action the DoT would commission a feasibility study to establish the most appropriate technology. Having identified the technology the DoT would procure the system through ADTCo. The integrated smart card system would be rolled out initially to the existing (and new) bus network as a precursor to its introduction as part of the metro and light rail, and indeed heavy rail systems. Travel information can take a number of forms including: • • • static information at bus / tram stops, stations and in public locations, real time information at point of use such as at bus stops / interchanges or in public buildings or hotels, and Real-time information remote from point of use.
Having developed the policies they can be applied to new infrastructure as it is designed. However it will also be necessary to develop a programme for retrospectively implementing the policies for existing roads where this is possible. including the regulation of freight traffic. 7. to create the framework for the application of the policies that will govern the highway network. The policies will develop further the criteria identified in Working Paper 9 which cover function. There would be advantages of ensuring that the study is commissioned at the same time or as a single study with the ITS study required below. A feasibility study will be required. This should be undertaken as an early action so that it can be applied before new infrastructure planned as part of STMP is designed. both on-board and at stops / interchanges.To ensure that the STMP is underpinned by a world class transport system all three of these will be required. and pedestrian crossings. parking and loading. The aim is to make best use of the highway infrastructure through traffic management. This will require initial investigation by RoadCo and procurement of any changes to the existing network. The sub-strategy includes: • • • Developing a road hierarchy. speed.3 Making Best Use of the Highway Network The STMP sets out a plan whereby new highways are provided where necessary to meet demand for travel that cannot be catered for by public transport and other alternatives. The implementation is likely to be undertaken by contracts issued by ADTCo for transport interchanges. The design guidance will be used by DoT / UPC to ensure that walking and cycling improvements are implemented as part of transit oriented development (TOD). as the choice of technology will be influenced by decisions taken in terms of more general ITS requirements. this may be a radio based system or alternatively a GPS based system. The STMP includes improvements to walking and cycling both as feeders to the public transport and system and as modes in their own right for local journeys. RoadCo for general street enhancement and through developers. The preliminary action will be for the DoT to commission a study to develop a strategy for walking and cycling that will set out the route priorities. ITS and policies to control traffic disruptions by developers and statutory undertakers. The roll-out of the system would commence with procurement by the ADTCo of real-time information for the bus system. The design guidance is linked to the road safety audit process described below. to identify the most appropriate technology taking into account the studies underway to develop a standard ITS architecture. Network management. For example.4. interfaces with the pedestrian realm and key opportunities within the existing urban fabric of Abu Dhabi. capacity. DoT will need to commission a study. accesses to development. Developing the road hierarchy is an urgent action. 73 . This will be supported by a set of design guidance that will be used to ensure that all schemes designed and implemented are safe. Developing and implementing intelligent transport systems (ITS). This would be later extended to metro / tram as these come on line and would be available from day one of their operation. or develop planning policies in-house. Given the disruption caused by such work it is likely to be restricted to speed limit changes and changes to servicing and pedestrian crossings. commissioned by the DoT.
The ITS strategy is an important component in improving journey time reliability and reducing congestion. higher density. and urban traffic management and control (UTMC). On completion of the system architecture study. • The team would include highway inspectors who would patrol sensitive parts of the highway network and monitor over-running works. Once the policies have been drafted and agreed. This will require an examination of the arrangement of traffic signals to enable the costs and specification of the UTMC system to be identified. The DoT would continue to develop policy. including: 74 . 7. high quality development at or around transit stations. a separate investigation should be commissioned by RoadCo (or DoT if insufficient capacity is in place in RoadCo) to examine the feasibility of implementing a UTMC system in Abu Dhabi. pedestrian friendly.4 Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Transit oriented development encourages compact. The development of parking standards to ensure that car parking availability is matched to the public transport accessibility of any particular location. supported as required by their consultants. This team will have a number of duties including: • Drafting policies governing the use of the highway by third parties (developers. The implementation of the ITS strategy will take place over a number of years starting with the development of the system architecture and control centre and followed by the implementation of the UTMC system.4. The network management component will require the formation of a network management team by the DoT in the Highways Section. Travel plans to support new developments – both residential and workplace. statutory undertakers etc) to ensure that these impacts are co-ordinated and managed and where appropriate fines are imposed for over-running works. There are a number of potential applications of ITS such as variable message signs. There are a number of different technologies that could underpin the ITS system. LandLand-use planning controls will be the main mechanism for achieving TOD. Developing plans for major events to make sure that congestion is minimised and that use of alternative modes is maximised. the operational members of the team should be transferred to RoadCo where there may be more synergy with other operational duties. mixed use. The DoT will need to work in partnership with the Urban Planning Council (UPC) to ensure that the TOD is successfully implemented. The DoT is in the process of commissioning a study to develop the most appropriate system architecture to underpin the ITS strategy for Abu Dhabi. UPC will have a major role in its delivery through a number of initiatives in partnership with DoT building on the existing UPC approach to ensure that the full range of relevant STMP initiatives are covered. The system architecture would enable a range of applications to be applied and should link to the travel information component described above. in-car information. The study should also consider the specification for the development of a traffic control centre in Abu Dhabi where active control of the network can be undertaken. They could eventually be based in the network management centre (see ITS strategy above). This sub-strategy includes: • • • Land-use planning controls to ensure that new developments are designed to minimise traffic generation.
as well as complementary walking and cycling routes. They can include pricing and behavioural change measures. Most of the measures can only be introduced after the public transport alternatives to the car have been improved. Public information. 7. • The policies would be implemented by UPC although DoT would advise on the transport aspects of new developments. Park & ride. consistency with the design guidance and consistency with the policy framework to ensure that developments contribute to the aims and objectives of the STMP Developing a framework for ensuring that the transport impacts caused by the new developments are mitigated through measures funded by developer contributions. Fares. UPC / DoT would review the travel plans submitted by developers and assess them against the guidance and conformity with the STMP. Road pricing. DoT will need to set out a Travel Plan policy or guidance that developers will need to adhere to. There are six main components: • • • • • • Parking management. These travel plans will need to conform to the TOD policy and design guidance identified above. DoT would receive the funding contributions from developers for the construction of any new transport infrastructure required to mitigate the development impacts that could not be constructed by developers. The DoT will need to commission a parking standards guidance document that will be used by UPC in assessing the parking aspects of development applications.5 Demand Management Demand management is a tool kit of techniques to influence the demand for travel. Parking standards will be required to ensure that parking levels provided for new developments are consistent with the strategy of reducing reliance on the car and encouraging use of public transport. The policy would be applied by the UPC in consultation with DoT. Travel planning – addressing existing land-uses rather than for new developments which is covered above.4. 75 .• • Developing detailed design guidance covering for example the level of accessibility to alternative modes that should be designed and funded by the developer Drafting and implementing a policy framework for planning applications that explicitly assesses the development’s impacts. Travel plans will be required to be provided by developers as a condition of receiving nonobjection to their planning applications from DoT. primarily to encourage people to travel by non-car modes or to make fewer trips. This will draw on international best practice and be specifically tailored to the local situation to ensure that it is in line with the STMP strategy.
and implementing and enforcing traffic regulations (jointly with the Traffic Police). The strategy would then be rolled out over a number of years by the DoT to complement the introduction of new public transport modes and ensure maximum take up of usage of these new modes. This will help to reduce traffic congestion in two ways: formalising parking will reduce traffic disruption and increased parking capacity will encourage alternative modes of travel. Identify the likely size of the DoT team that would be required to implement the strategy. and for the enforcement of payment. The strategy would: • • • • Identify target locations for personalised travel plans (PTP). These would be clearly linked to the behavioural change and public information campaigns described below. RoadCo will be responsible for managing all road space. The public information component is a key part of the STMP. The timing of the introduction of these plans is clearly linked to the development of public transport modes and the construction of improved walking and cycling routes. Identify the approach to incentivising residents and businesses to use alternative modes. including on-street parking. The DoT will need to develop a parking strategy that deals with the shortterm ‘quick wins’ but also sets out the longer term development of parking management in Abu Dhabi linked to the development of public transport modes. 76 . In the short term DoT should commission the development of a travel planning strategy. ADTCo will be responsible for implementing strategy relating to public on-street and off-street car parks where fees are charged. The strategy should be commissioned as a preliminary or short-term action so that a consistent approach and message can be given over a number of years. Travel planning will consist of personalised travel plans being developed for residential areas and workplace travel plans for businesses. The development of the parking strategy will need to be very clearly linked to the introduction of new public transport modes as it is only really when these are in place that the availability of parking can be significantly reduced. It will be supported by the external dissemination mechanism described in Chapter 9 which is intended to raise the profile of the implementation of the STMP. As a key part of its commercial strategy.Parking management will include the extension of the current parking management areas to help to address the congestion caused by long term on-street parking in the CBD. The change from a car-based culture to one in which public transport is the mode of choice will require significant changes in public perceptions and behaviour. the ADTCo will need to commission marketing consultants to assist with the development of a phased strategy to change public perceptions and encourage use of alternative modes. Identify the approach to working with businesses to reduce travel demand.
3 below. 7. The DoT will need to build its in-house skills to include specialist with an understanding of inter-modal freight logistics and the market and regulatory frameworks governing them. The DoT should commission a scoping study to enable the options to be identified at an early stage to inform the future evolution of the STMP strategy. The DoT supported by consultants would lead this strategy with inputs from UPC on site locations. A range of approaches and technologies could be employed and these will develop as the technology options improve over time. the Police and Customs and border control. This should be reviewed periodically to take account of the development of technology options before possible procurement in the medium to long term. UPC. The implementation will be led by ADTCo.The fares policy will support the congestion strategy by enhancing the attractiveness of travel by public transport relative to the private car. improves the utilisation of the transport resources deployed. If congestion charging is introduced. The aim is to support the development of a sustainable freight distribution system that provides an appropriate balance between alternative transport modes. ensuring that fares are set at a relatively low level whilst contributing to the operating and maintenance costs of the system. An outline of the Freight Strategy is summarised in Figure 7. The strategy should also identify the key features of the park and ride sites that would be integral to their successful operation. The DoT will need to take the lead in promoting this strategy. This implies location at the edge of the most congested areas. park and ride sites should be located just before the area at which charging starts. This would then underpin the development of the metro. The STMP includes the inclusion of congestion pricing once the Metro opens at some point in the future to help to manage demand. A park and ride strategy will be required urgently to confirm the safeguarding of these sites. Close co-ordination will also be required with private sector transport operators and trade and industrial organisations. The existing approach to fares should be developed into a fares policy by the DoT. The fares policy will also take account of the role of concessionary fares for specified population groups. 77 . minimise congestion and generate revenue. and lowers the unit cost of freight based services.5 Freight Management Strategy This strategy seeks to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of freight movement within Abu Dhabi. and a Gantt chart outlining a tentative timeline for actions is attached at Appendix A. Provisional sites have been identified in the STMP. Support will be required from a range of public sector institutions including RoadCo. tram and rail systems and would inform on a consistent basis the ridership assessments that will need to be developed for the metro and tram studies that are being commissioned. MPE. such as children or the disabled to ensure that the public transport system is accessible to all sectors of society. Union Railways. In the first instance the fares policy would be applied to the existing bus network and later rolled out to the new modes as they become operational. The park and ride sites will be developed in key locations to enable demand to transfer onto the metro / tram system. notably through the co-ordination of its Surface Transport and Marine Sections.
3 Freight Management Strategy 78 .Figure 7.
Further evaluation of taxation and fiscal incentives to promote changes in freight mode selection may also be followed. including market information services and common handling standards. 79 .5. The promotion of an RDC network requires a shift in the current road-based distribution practices. An initial action will therefore be to complete baseline studies into the structure of the freight sector.5. There is limited understanding of current freight operations within Abu Dhabi. notably through the addition of rail specialists. The actual timing of the RDC development will be reflective of future trade and distribution traffic pressure.2 Freight Transport Modal Shift The objective of this strategy component is to promote a better balance between alternative freight transport modes within Abu Dhabi. working in close co-operation with the MOT. Taking each scheme forward will require a comprehensive planning evaluation to ensure the facility matches with its market requirements. and how this may be expected to evolve over the medium to long term. and if the documentation. 7.1 TranshipmentFreight Transhipment-Promotion of RDC The objective of this strategy component is to promote the effective interchange of freight between alternative modes of transport.7. This includes the promotion of maritime and rail services. plus options to promote RDCs. thereby promoting connectivity and a shift away from road-based primary haulage. Establishing the RDC network requires due consideration to be given to longer term planning and protection of key interchange locations. but should be encouraged by providing effective alternatives to the current freight transport systems. Action will also be required to improve the integration of freight services. contractual and insurance arrangements are fit for purpose. thereby facilitating the opportunity for freight exchange. will also need to be examined.or water-based freight transport provision. It therefore reflects the sustainability objectives set out in the Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. This change should not be forced. This is to be achieved through the establishment of a network of Regional Distribution Centres (RDCs) at key locations within Abu Dhabi. This will require the involvement of the UPC and the Ministry of Planning & Economy. either in terms of volumes or origins and destinations. Selective enhancements of the highway network. This will require them to work in conjunction with public and private sector organisations to evaluate rail and maritime based schemes. Achieving this balance is likely to require a combination of incentives and constraints to promote the case for rail. and the means through which the alternative transport modes can effectively exchange freight cargo. should be implemented at an early stage to develop regulatory and administrative policies to complement the provision of infrastructure. where there is an overall benefit. A review of the constraints in the industry from this perspective. The MOT will need to take the lead in evaluating the options for alternative non-road-based transport solutions. Logistics services can only be effective if there is freedom to create the types of freight-forwarding structures and arrangements dictated by the industry being served. The latter organisation to be able to provide comprehensive advice will need to enhance its own transport planning capabilities.
1 Providing an Integrated Transport Network A key component of this Accessibility Strategy is the provision of a comprehensive fine-grained and integrated public transport system that is regular and reliable and accessible to all. The MOT will need to promote the case for improvements in the current highway network management. The proposed public transport system comprises a hierarchy of individual modes to serve separate components of the overall travel market. 7. led by the Land Transport division who will need to define standards for accessibility and then monitor achievement of these standards in new developments. Achievement of this objective will require close consultation between the MOT and private transport operators and trade and industrial organisations. Tram to provide frequent and reliable services covering the denser development • • • 80 . Capital City. Al Ain and the KSA. Ease of access will also encourage the use of public transport by those members of society who suffer from impaired mobility and require convenient and easy travel arrangements. KPIZ. The DoT will need to take the lead in promoting this strategy.5. Regional rail suburban trains providing services to key suburbs or towns within Abu Dhabi. and Police to address issues related to delivery schedules and parking limits. They will need to work with the UPC. MPE. This is to be achieved through the application of a range of traffic demand management and network management schemes. Close collaboration in the form of “Freight Partnerships” to discuss the means of introducing international best practices may be considered. Metro to provide fully segregated high capacity services linking throughout the metropolitan areas of Abu Dhabi.6. are able to fully contribute to society and. These services could operate at up to 400 km/hr and only serve major stations. Abu Dhabi International Airport. where appropriate. At the same time the opportunity should be taken to introduce charging measures to ensure that road freight operators pay for the road maintenance costs that they incur. to provide travel times competitive with those by road. 7. including Shahama. This is to enable a step change in the freight sector’s working practices and standards to be achieved. to the economic development of Abu Dhabi. irrespective of where they live and work. These include: • Regional rail providing high speed intercity trains from Abu Dhabi to Dubai. including CBD.7. throughout the Emirate so that all segments of society. Mirfa and Ruwais. Al Ain and possibly Oman and Qatar.6 Accessibility Strategy This strategy seeks to develop a consistent level of accessibility for all. notably traffic information and signage.3 Freight Traffic Management The objective of this strategy component is to improve the effectiveness of freight operations on the existing and planned highway network. A separate effort will also be required to enhance current provisions of access to/from existing and committed developments so that these areas do not lose out. plus improvements to transport companies’ operational performance.
with peak period frequencies of at least 4 buses per hour on a fine-grained network providing excellent accessibility to all. The complete public transport system needs to be designed and operated as a single integrated system so that the level of accessibility is consistent throughout the Emirate irrespective of location or service. • • As set out in Plan Abu Dhabi 2030. If the potential demand does not warrant this level of service. to provide a door-todoor on-demand service. This role has now been complemented by the new bus services. • Buses to provide reliable services in those areas where trams cannot be justified. Hence bus and tram stops should be spaced at no more than every 500 metres. with carefully defined catchments areas with links to metro/tram/bus services that have peak period frequencies of at least 4 services per hour. 7.areas. where the higher capacity can be justified. However it is clearly not acceptable to provide a well-located bus stop but only a very infrequent service. taxis or private hire vehicles provided the only alternative to the private car. this number does not represent an increase in the total taxi fleet. 81 . it is therefore proposed that stops will only qualify if they are served by peak period frequencies of at least 4 trams/buses per hour. it is envisaged that no-one in urban areas will need to walk for more than 300 metres to their nearest public transport stop. Demand-responsive buses/minibuses in those areas where conventional buses at a peak period frequency of 4 buses per hour cannot be justified. depending on the route density. it is proposed that demand-responsive buses/minibuses should be provided instead. These services would be provided as part of the overall public transport service and procured/arranged by ADTCo. including up-to-date information in the event of delays or disruption to enable travellers to revise their journey. However. Integration in this context means: • • • a single fare system that does not impose extra costs simply due to the need to change vehicle/mode a timetable that minimises waiting times at interchanges and ensures connections are achieved provision of all mode information in real-time for all potential travellers. which may also be appropriate where regular off peak bus services cannot be justified. Taxis will continue to provide a door-to-door service for those willing to pay the higher fares. At the same time the fleet of ‘white and gold’ taxis are being withdrawn and replaced by a new fleet of silver taxis under the regulation of TransAD. and only depends on the level of demand.6. using different routes/modes as appropriate.2 Identify Taxi Numbers Required to Complement PT Improvements Prior to mid-2008. in each direction. and will not therefore address the current shortfall. It is planned that over 7000 silver taxis will be in operation before all the ‘white and gold’ taxis are withdrawn. However taxis should not be the only public transport service supplied. with a fine-grained network providing excellent accessibility to all.
82 . to be monitored by DoT as one element of the overall transport system. This demand will also be influenced by the fares charged. Comparison of trends in average waiting times and the number of passengers carried by taxi. will enable decisions on any changes in taxi fleet to be made on the basis of reliable information.6. It is recommended that the DoT. The aim of this strategy is to match the demand for taxis with the corresponding demand for their services. Since the introduction of bus fares this system has broken down and a new approach will need to be devised which balances increased operating costs (say. from having a conductor). this was achieved by defining the front seats as ‘priority for ladies’ with the driver enforcing the rule that male travellers should move to the back of the bus if female passengers boarded. It is suggested that this section should generally be in the middle of the vehicle so that the position is reasonably consistent whichever direction the vehicle is travelling. and adequate break periods. 7. This is unofficial but clearly accepted due to the lack of available alternatives. to improve road safety. yet segregated arrangements. The hierarchy of public transport modes comprising rail. tram and bus will not be sufficient to serve all travel demands everywhere at any time. This will include a segregated section and possibly a separate door to/from the vehicle. taxis can serve the smallest isolated community where conventional buses cannot be justified. although many cities nowadays also operate all night bus services. and both the number of taxis in operation and the fare scales need to be kept under annual review. This was workable before fares were charged as the front door of the bus could be restricted to use by female passengers. Furthermore. a regular programme to measure average waiting times for a taxi by potential passengers should be set up.3 Develop Policy for Women & Children Using Public Transport To meet the cultural requirements prevailing in Abu Dhabi. it is necessary to provide an element of segregation for women and children when travelling. which appear to operate on a similar basis as regular taxis. and male passengers had to use the middle doors. The Plan also recommends that consideration be given to introducing restrictions on driving hours. up to the size of minibuses. For the regional rail/metro/tram services it is proposed that separate accommodation is provided for women and children. On the buses.The ‘white and gold’ taxis include a range of larger vehicles. To do this. However there is a substantial ‘shared taxi’ operation to cater for the lower income segments of society. The implementation of this policy should be a normal part of the workload of TransAD. metro. through Trans AD. the proportion served by public transport and the relative cost of travel by taxi as compared to alternatives. The DoT is currently inviting consultants to bid for a study of shared taxis and minibuses to ascertain the significance of these operations and advise on the role they should play in the transport hierarchy within Abu Dhabi. reduced revenues (from increased ticketless travel) and adherence to the desired policy. The number of taxis required cannot therefore be determined in isolation from the overall travel demands. should monitor the use and availability of taxis on a regular basis and increase the number of taxi permits as and when the need arises. In the longer term a smartcard ticketing system could allow more streamlined. Conventional services generally stop operating overnight.
This strategy should be based on a formal prioritisation by geographical area or type of development. or for VIPs. those with impaired sight or hearing and those in wheelchairs or with young children in pushchairs. The extent and details of the women and children section for each vehicle type will need to be defined during the corresponding feasibility and design study. whatever their cultural background. This guidance will complement the Street Design Guidelines being developed jointly by DoT/UPC. e. This provision will help to ensure the personal comfort and safety of women and children travellers. It may be appropriate that the post-holder is member of an impaired group as this would bring a particular viewpoint to the issues. A post within DoT may need to be introduced to take this subject forward as the requirements are very specific and require special understanding of the needs of the mobility impaired.In addition it is proposed that the regional rail/metro/tram services also provide a First Class section. This requires designing for the mobility impaired. and/or UPC. it will be necessary for the DoT. It is therefore recommended that design guidance is developed. There are no specific resource requirements for the design or operation of these segregated facilities for women and children. adjacent to hospitals and schools. 83 . and that the proportion of capacity provided for women and children is consistent with the corresponding proportion of the overall travel demand. based on international best practice. There will need to be an element of enforcement of the segregation policy but this could be carried out by the on-vehicle staff that will be required in any event to check tickets and fares and to provide security. and encourage their use of the public transport system. The First Class section could have higher quality seating. and limitations on standing passengers. to make sure the guidelines are applied to all new developments and that a strategy of retro-fitting is adopted for all existing developments.6. 7. DoT will need to coordinate the studies so that the provision is consistent between each mode.g. The outcome from this strategy component will be improved accessibility for the mobility impaired for both new and existing developments for the overall benefit of all sectors of society.4 Design Impaired Develop Design Guidance for Access by the Mobility Impaired In order to ensure mobility and accessibility for all it is important that the future transport system is designed for all segments of the community. for the design of infrastructure to meet the needs of the mobility impaired. this could be adjacent to the section restricted to women and children for ease of enforcement. Once the guidance has been drafted and agreed. and would only be accessible to those paying a higher fare. including those who have difficulty walking or using steps.
Implementation of pedestrian enhancements should ideally be undertaken in parallel with the introduction of transport infrastructure as an integral part of those projects. for example. ongoing resources shall be required to identify. in partnership with the DoT. should also be considered. However. the Technical Advisory Committee formed for this project also includes representatives from the Municipalities. We note that the Abu Dhabi Urban Street Design and Mobility Standards Manual project already recognises the opportunity presented by major transport projects to enhance the pedestrian realm and it includes the re-design of Zayed the 1st and Al Falah Streets as part of its scope in anticipation of the introduction of trams in both. In addition to promoting walking as an alternative mode of travel in its own right. and the potential for active cooling through the use of air-conditioning units powered by renewable energy. especially noting that the above-mentioned manual can only go so far and more detailed site-specific design work will be required in each location in accordance with the principles established by the manual. ideally in parallel. The creation of such a strategy is already underway as the UPC. the Health Authority. the Traffic Police. The enhancement of the pedestrian realm is therefore a constant theme throughout Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 and a key objective of the STMP. has recently commissioned consultants to research. a highquality public realm also makes the use of public transport more attractive by improving passenger experience and accessibility. 84 . and from developers and utility providers. the provision of shading will be crucial. which is due for completion in the third quarter of 2009. through the creation of enhanced / new routes within existing developments In order to facilitate year-round use. Examples of potential enhancements include: • • • • • Pedestrianisation of Hamdan Street Creation of a pedestrian-only promenade along the waterfront of Saadiyat and Suwa Islands Provision of significant pedestrian priority along the middle ring of Capital City Improved pedestrian crossings at junctions and mid-block Improved connectivity.7. As the DoT is the key partner to the UPC for this work.7 Real ealm Pedestrian Realm Strategy Areas where pedestrians have priority over cars are a feature of many world class cities and are one of the key factors in attracting high levels of tourism. Civil Defence agencies (fire protection). it is assumed that the aims of the STMP are already being incorporated in the manual. with the introduction of transport infrastructure and other major interventions that provide a similar opportunity to upgrade the public realm. In addition to the UPC and DoT. prioritise and manage individual pedestrian realm enhancement projects. As production of the Abu Dhabi Urban Street Design and Mobility Standards Manual is already underway. and in order of priority. particularly regarding areas and routes with high volumes of pedestrian movements. formulate and produce the Abu Dhabi Urban Street Design and Mobility Standards Manual. A Pedestrian Realm Strategy is therefore required to scope the extent of enhancement. no additional resource to that already committed is likely to be required.
such a measure does not provide an indication of the success of such interventions.There will be overall as well as project-specific outputs and outcomes that should be monitored. Another approach is to undertake customer satisfaction surveys in relation to individual and overall enhancement works.8 7.8. • 7. The aim is to reduce the carbon footprint and CO2 emissions of all aspects of transport in Abu Dhabi. 85 . initiation of energy policy change. and for ensuring full account is taken of the pedestrian landscape whne tam schemes are implemented RoadCo will be responsible for implementing other pedestrianisation projects within the general streetscape. targeting emissions reduction and complementary awareness raising programmes. a more effective and useful assessment of outcomes is required. The DoT will need to take the lead on this important strategy to continue to carry forward the STMP sustainability agenda. Support from consultants is likely to be required in the early stages where a significant amount of preliminary work is required. Implementation of pedestrian realm improvements will fall to different parties: • • Developers will implement projects approved by UPC within their developments as they are built ADTCo will be responsible for transport interchanges which will have a strong pedestrian access element in the design. Whilst the outcome of such projects could be measured in terms of the square meter area that has been enhanced or pedestrianised. One such approach would be to measure and compare the level and patterns of pedestrian activity before and after enhancement. many of which are likely to be associated with the introduction of major transport infrastructure. More specific outputs will be the individual pedestrian realm enhancement projects. The strategy achieves this through an overarching low carbon commitment framework. Such monitoring will provide a useful feedback to indicate what elements of pedestrian realm enhancements are most effective and with a view to making improvements to the Abu Dhabi Urban Street Design and Mobility Standards Manual over time. In the overall sense. the principle output will be the completion and release of the Abu Dhabi Urban Street Design and Mobility Standards Manual. Major collaboration with EAD/NILU on emissions and Masdar/ADFEC on low carbon energy is required. As such. Such measures can be undertaken for each individual project and subsequently combined to indicate a measure of success for the overall pedestrian realm enhancement works in Abu Dhabi. which will provide the minimum standards and guiding principles for all pedestrian realm enhancement works.1 Low Carbon Strategy – Action Plan Overview of Implementation The Low Carbon Strategy is to guide and steer Abu Dhabi transport towards a sustainable future.
A ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’ should also be established to support DoT and oversee all sustainability and environmental strategies of the STMP. 3. This taskforce would oversee implementation. Masdar/ADFEC and UPC. To ensure that carbon reduction is a key criterion in all public transport procurement from now even before the low carbon framework documentation and regulation is in place. 4. For DoT to immediately get specialist support in carbon for the preliminary framework set-up tasks. RTI. NILU. Key priorities for the Low Carbon Strategy implementation are: 1. To establish the ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’. A summary of the key components of the strategy are set out in the figure below. making recommendations for future modifications improvements. the taskforce will also carry out a high level monitoring and auditing role of the strategy. This taskforce should include a high level representative from all major stakeholders of the key sustainability issues of the STMP such as EAD. to begin CDM requirements and to build internal capacity in this area. 86 . 2. To begin the emissions baseline study requirements as soon as possible. and a Gantt chart setting out tentative timing of actions is attached at Appendix A. drive progress and assist setting of strategic objectives and policy for both the Low Carbon Strategy and Environmental Protection Strategy. Once set up.
Figure 7. procurement. construction and operation. with consultant support if required. into design development. A life-cycle low carbon commitment will be made and developed into a framework of carbon regulations. The compliance with the low carbon framework will need to be monitored.4 Low Carbon Strategy LCS – LOW CARBON STRATEGY Strategy Components LCS-1 Low carbon framework LCS-2 Energy policy LCS-4 Vehicle tax LCS-7 Low emissions zones LCS-5 Public transport fleet LCS-4 Subsidised parking EPS-B3 Campaign to Raise Awareness Sustainable Transport Taskforce Strategic objectives CDM – Engage with DNA Preliminary Actions Framework documents and regulation Baseline emissions studies STMP Launch Event Short term actions Implement Update Monitor Report Medium – long term actions MOU Emirate wide vehicle tax introduced Develop objectives and charging method Cover period before LCS-1 procurement documents Parking surcharge introduced by CMS-13 New Scheme Promotion Support to All Strategy Areas Policy change Tax discounts available Install and monitor LCS-1 procurement guidelines and subsidies Subsidised parking rate available Continued Awareness Raising Key Plan: Agencies which will deliver the strategic components DOT DOT with Consultant Support DOT Masdar / ADFEC DoT Masdar / ADFEC Consultant DoT EAD / NILU DOT EAD / NILU Consultant DoT PR consultants 7. strategic objectives for the low carbon framework will need to be established by the ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’ and carbon policy drafted in consultation with government and industry stakeholders.2 Low egulatory Framework Develop STMP Low Carbon Regulatory Framework Documents The objective of this strategy component is to reduce the carbon footprint of the STMP and to embed a low carbon policy into all decisions made through the full STMP lifecycle. 87 . The framework will govern STMP implementation organisations to commit to make low carbon orientated decisions and potentially undertake carbon auditing. Once these are established a regulation will need to be put in place to make adherence with the low carbon framework mandatory for all STMP implementation organisations. policy. Guidance documentation and tools will need to be developed. starting from the publishing of the STMP.8. First. guidelines and tools.
up to 100%. using future transport energy demand to catalyse a transition to a low carbon future.8. 7. Scoping study to establish and collate available emissions data. which is preferably Federal. DoT will require additional staff to specifically set-up. 88 . The tax should allow for significant discounts. Consultancy support fees will need to be budgeted for in the short term to obtain specialist carbon expertise including registered carbon auditors and start to capacity build within DoT on carbon. which should include: 1. 2. Identify data gaps. DoT is responsible for this strategy component and should pursue the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Masdar/ADFEC to commit to work together to strive for a sustainable low carbon future for all aspects of transport in Abu Dhabi emirate in line with the Masdar Initiative.3 Initiate Change in Energy Policy for Low Carbon Renewable Energy with Complementary Energy Tariff The objective of this policy is to initiate change to the Abu Dhabi energy policy to drive investment and development into low carbon energy generation from renewables to power components of the STMP. In Abu Dhabi the DNA is presided over by the Ministry of Energy and is also called the National Higher Committee for CDM. Actions of this strategy will also support applications for carbon credits under CDM. The tax system should also cover freight vehicles. In the short term DoT will need to optimise the position of upcoming STMP projects for claiming carbon credits through laying the foundations for a future additionality argument. methods used and policies surrounding the generation of energy in Abu Dhabi. Carry out supplementary data collection.8. The ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’ should define strategic objectives for carbon and energy use within the STMP. 7. DoT will need to work with the government and industry stakeholders in the energy sector to initiate changes to the sources.4 Establish Scaled Vehicle Tax The objective of this strategy component is to develop a vehicle taxing system. A baseline study will need to be carried out as a priority. from the standard rate of tax for low emission vehicles and those utilising low carbon fuels or CNG. that takes into consideration the emissions level and fuel type of vehicles and broader cost recovery and demand management objectives. co-ordinate and monitor adherence to the low carbon framework.The framework should guide DoT to strive for carbon credits in projects and therefore to engage with the Designated National Authority (DNA) office as early as possible for upcoming projects to initiate the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) requirements. 3. A consultant with specific capability in carbon and energy. should be sought by DoT to initiate short term aspects of this strategy and build internal capacity within DoT. supporting development of the Low Carbon Framework.
8.6 Vehicle urchase Incentives for Low Carbon Vehicle Fleet Purchase by Public Transport and Taxi Operators The objective of this strategy component is to ensure all the public transport vehicle fleets in Abu Dhabi are world-leading in terms of sustainability characteristics and low carbon technology. The Public Transport Section in the DoT would be responsible for the introduction of this subsidy. DoT will therefore need to begin this baseline study work as a priority in collaboration with EAD and their air quality partner organisation NILU. 7. The outcome of the baseline studies and ongoing data collection is required for key tasks such as setting strategic objectives and targets. This will encourage a transition to low emissions and low carbon fuel type vehicle ownership. Awareness raising programmes will be required before and during the roll out of the parking charges to highlight the discount available to low emissions vehicles. Continued monitoring of emissions levels and fleet composition should be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the strategy. in consultation with NTA. A consultant should be utilised to initiate the baseline emissions study work as a priority. tram. Awareness-raising and educational programmes on the vehicle tax system and available discounts should be implemented before the taxing system is in place and continued during rollout. this strategy should be applied on a Federal level to minimise dilution of its impact by different Emirates having different tax levels. regional rail. 89 .8. including categorisation by fuel type and emissions level. The DoT should work with NTA to achieve this. As the fixed-track public transport system is starting from scratch this opportunity to ensure all public transport is implemented as a sustainable low carbon solution should not be missed. Ideally. The overall vehicle tax system should not be introduced before adequate public transport alternatives are in place. Coordination and utilisation of the Abu Dhabi Police vehicle registration system should be carried out to institutionalise improved. The new vehicle tax could be introduced at the same time as the low carbon footprint discounts to minimise the impact on those with low emission vehicles. the Emirates Standardisation and Metrology Agency (ESMA) should endorse at least EURO IV emissions standards on all vehicles. Ideally an emissions inventory for Abu Dhabi should be developed. water taxis and additional buses and private taxis. The strategy also includes provision of priority parking for low emissions vehicles. This strategy component needs to be implemented before procurement of major public transport systems such as metro.A study to review the current fleet composition of vehicles in Abu Dhabi will also be needed. more thorough emissions testing. mapping emissions and emissions modelling. To complement this. 7. and should also work with designers of parking areas for developments such as new stations and park and ride sites to include the low emissions priority parking spaces.5 ubsidised/P Establish Subsidised/Priority Parking for Low Emissions Vehicles The objective of this strategy component is to provide a subsidised parking rate for low emissions vehicles within the overarching parking surcharge introduced in support of the Congestion Management Strategy. DoT will be responsible for establishing the taxing system. performance monitoring.
7 Assign Identify & Assign Low Emission Zones The objective of this strategy component is to reduce pollution levels in areas where local pollutant levels would otherwise be unacceptable. Alongside the policy and regulation of the low carbon framework. This may include subsidy arrangements with DoT or other potential investors. The shift to low carbon public transport and taxis will be a progressive transition. DoT policy staff will deliver this strategy working with ADTCo. namely: (1) Abu Dhabi. Suwa and Saadiyat Islands (2) Capital city bordered by the E22. TransAD and potential investors. 90 .8. A method of applying an emissions charge for entering the zone should be developed in consultation with NTA to encourage cross-Emirate co-operation and the utilisation of common technology standards such as the SALIK tag system. Ultimately vehicles will be run on low carbon energy from renewables. Reem. This strategy should be introduced once previous strategy components are in place. It should also be coordinated with any congestion charging mechanism at that time One potential method of implementing a low emissions zone strategy could be for all vehicles to be classified by level of emissions at vehicle registration. E20 and E11 This strategy has the same initial requirements to set strategic objectives for emissions reduction and to carry out the emissions baseline studies as outlined above. Initially vehicles will adopt intermediate low carbon solutions such as CNG fuel. Other zone conditions could be included such as excluding HGVs access during peak times. Once a baseline for the typical fleet composition of vehicles in Abu Dhabi has been established. The outcome of this strategy component is a key aspect of the STMP that can be showcased as a significant positive commitment to sustainability stewardship. A consultant should be utilised for the emissions baseline work. This emissions classification data could be stored on an electronic tag such as the SALIK. the charging technology could be used to monitor the composition of vehicles entering the zone in terms of their emission level. support and subsidies should be provided to ADTCo and TransAD by DoT to encourage them to procure and operate worldleading sustainable and low carbon vehicle fleets. However. The emissions charge on entering the low emissions zone could be scaled according the emissions class of the vehicle. 7.The procurement guideline documentation of the Low Carbon Regulatory Framework will significantly support this strategy. It will complement these measures in the identified local pollutant emissions hot spot areas. DoT should ensure this strategy is upheld in the short term prior to these documents being produced. Objectives and boundaries for the zones will need to be established. Existing DoT policy staff will work with EAD/ NILU to establish this strategy in consultation with UPC. This will be led by DoT on the ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’ to allow significant collaboration with EAD and NILU.
3. The strategy goes beyond the minimum requirements in terms of environmental and sustainability management as part of environmental permitting and EHS management systems. Promotion through the internet. A specialist public relations consultant should be utilised to support DoT during implementation and to build internal capacity. social and environmental benefits.9 Str trategy Environmental Enhancement Strategy This strategy promotes maximum environmental stewardship in the protection and enhancement of the natural and built environment of Abu Dhabi. To begin environmental baseline studies as soon as possible. Educational messages on issues relating to sustainability. increases the profile of marine environmental protection and initiates air and noise strategy integration to emirate wide programmes. The campaign will focus on the reasons for change in Abu Dhabi transport and will celebrate the resulting economic. Other innovative features to educate users on their carbon use or CO2 emission of their journey could be incorporated.8. such as establishing the baseline environmental data. Increased awareness and understanding is aimed to promote the modal shift to new public transport systems available and catalyse a change towards low carbon and sustainable practises in all aspects of life in Abu Dhabi. 7. To establish the ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’. 2. 91 . carbon footprint and CO2 production should be embedded in the STMP roll out. Major collaboration with EAD/NILU should be carried out in the development of the air and noise strategies. It takes a proactive approach. Key priorities for the Environmental Protection Strategy implementation are: 1. media. To establish collaborative working partnership with NILU of EAD. producing environmental zones for environmental mapping and the continued collection and maintenance of key environmental data to 2030 and beyond. The spatial environmental mapping will take the baseline and continued data collection for aspects of the natural and built environment alongside air quality and noise to identify protection priority areas. Although this strategy is separated into components. An environmental improvement index should be developed alongside the environmental mapping to assist performance monitoring of this strategy. launch events and informative displays such as posters and LCD screens in waiting areas of the public transport stations should be used. analyse cumulative effects and monitor the improvement or deterioration of the environmental resources across the emirate through using a spatial display medium.8 Campaigns Strategy Awareness Raising Campaigns to Generate Support for Low Carbon Strategy The objective of this strategy component is to promote the low carbon and sustainability aspects of the STMP and support the implementation of all components of the Low Carbon Strategy and Environmental Protection Strategy. a collaborative approach can be adopted for many parallel activities. The DoT will take the lead on this strategy utilising the ‘Sustainable Transport Taskforce’ to move forward on high level issues and will utilise significant consultant support in the preliminary stages.7. For example a carbon foot print value or CO2 figure could be printed on metro tickets. DoT public relations department will take the lead on this with potential collaboration with the EAD education and awareness raising department.
The key elements of this strategy are summarised in the diagram below, and a Gantt chart setting out tentative timing of actions is attached at Appendix A.
Figure 7.5 Environmental Protection Strategy
EmirateCollaboration with EAD Emirate-wide Air and Noise Strategies
The objective of this strategy component is to work towards reducing the level of local pollutant air emissions, global air emissions and noise emissions released by components of the STMP. This transport specific strategy is to be developed to support the emirate wide emerging policy and strategy on air and noise pollution in Abu Dhabi from EAD, which contains specific programs or requirements on the transport sector in the policy areas of ‘Ambient Air Quality’ and ‘Outdoor, Indoor and Occupational Noise Levels’. Strategic objectives will be set for the air quality and noise by DoT in collaboration with EAD and their air quality and noise partner organisation NILU, as part of the ‘Sustainable Transport Task Force’. A collaborative working agreement should then be established between DoT and EAD/NILU for continued work specifically on this STMP air and noise strategy. Key issues of this strategy will feed up to the Abu Dhabi Air Quality Committee (formed under Comm. Decree 36C 3/2008). An Emirate-wide baseline study work for air and noise emissions will need to be carried out as a priority, which should include: 1. Scoping study to establish and collate available emissions data; 2. Identify data gaps; 3. Carry out supplementary data collection. In addition, there is a need to understand the current fleet composition of vehicles in Abu Dhabi, including categorisation by fuel type and emissions level. Ideally an air emissions inventory for Abu Dhabi should also be developed. This work should support the environmental permitting and EHS management systems requirements such as the assessment of cumulative impacts during both construction and operation of the STMP and compliance with local and international limits and standards. New national standards may need to be developed in areas such as rail noise. The collaborative working partnership should then go on to develop measures and targets for air and noise emissions reduction to complement the emirate wide strategy. CO2 reductions strategy and measures should support carbon credit applications to CDM. This overarching air quality strategy will also support the all the emissions reduction components of the Low Carbon Strategy. This strategy will drive all the emissions reduction related actions of other strategy subcomponents such as the vehicle tax and low emissions zone and is therefore a critical strategy subcomponent that should be focused on and prioritised. Ongoing work towards the air quality aspects of the strategy should include both ambient air quality monitoring and emissions modelling. Ongoing work towards the noise aspects of the strategy should include ambient noise monitoring and zoning/mapping. It is suggested that the data collection, monitoring and reporting as part of this strategy subcomponent acts as sub-data set to feed into the EAD emirate wide emissions data to be held within The Abu Dhabi Spatial Data Infrastructure (AD-SDI)
Strategic objectives will be set for the protection of the natural environment by DoT and the ‘Sustainable Transport Task Force’. should be established to develop environmental zones as part of environmental mapping and the identification of protection priority areas. contractors and operators.2 Environmental Enhancement of Natural Environment The objective of this strategy component is to minimise the impact of the STMP transport infrastructure on sensitive aspects of the natural environment of Abu Dhabi. and processing. This strategy should also include an initial environmental baseline study. Natural environment baseline data sets for groundwater. Built environment data sets such as heritage sites. environmental mapping and guidance document production. particularly in a protection priority area. A consultant should be utilised to carry out the air and noise emissions baseline studies required as outlined above. areas and public open space. This index is likely have a high weighting towards the overall environmental improvement index. due to the air quality and noise being critical environmental issues surrounding surface transport with significant impacts on human health and the urban environment. 7. This should be carried out in collaboration with EAD and UPC to complement the requirements of environmental permitting and EHS management systems. A dedicated air and noise specialist should be appointed in the DoT. data collection. landscape character assessments. buildings. Guidance documentation should be developed for defining ‘protection priority’ areas and be made mandatory for use by all STMP designers. This strategy will aid addressing environmental design issues at the earliest possible stage and encourage additional environmental enhancement and restoration programmes of any on-site natural resource areas. 7.3 Environmental Enhancement of Built Environment The objective of this strategy component is to minimise the impact of the STMP transport infrastructure on aspects of the built environment of Abu Dhabi including existing cultural or heritage landmarks. It also aims to enhance and provide enjoyment from existing aspects of the built environment. An Emirate-wide natural environmental baseline study work will need to be carried out as a priority. the identification of data gaps and supplementary data collection. A consultant should be utilised for the environmental baseline study work. An environmental improvement index should be developed to track the improvement or deterioration of the natural environmental resources. which should include a scoping study to establish and collate available environmental data. ecology etc.9. The DoT will be responsible for leading this strategy with significant collaboration with EAD and UPC. This should be carried out in collaboration with EAD and UPC to complement the requirements of environmental permitting and EHS management systems. The document should enforce the environmental protection hierarchy.An environmental improvement index should be developed to track an improvement or deterioration to the local air quality and noise levels. soil. visual influence zones and ecological assessments etc. Continued collection and monitoring of the key natural environment data sets should be carried out to 2030 and beyond. 95 .9. in the built environment will be required to develop environmental zones as part of environmental mapping and the identification of protection priority sites. archaeological sites.
This should support and go beyond the minimum requirements of environmental permitting and EHS management systems. environmental mapping and guidance document production.Guidance documentation should be developed for protection priority sites and made mandatory to use by all STMP designers. This strategy will require strategic objectives for the protection of the existing built environment and goals for the future image of Abu Dhabi’s built environment. Restrictions may also be introduced on access and speeds of vessels around environmentally sensitive areas to prevent damage from wake washing and pollution. Environmental baseline studies specific to marine environment will be needed to complement the overall environmental data sets collected above. buildings. Navigational buoys around coastlines and islands may be introduced to assist mariners.9. areas and public open space. Guidance documentation should be developed to encourage the incorporation of traditional Arab architectural features into STMP infrastructure design. alternative fuels and renewable features such as PV cells. 7. 96 . data collection. The current DoT maritime department with ADTCo will be responsible for leading this strategy and in consultation with the Abu Dhabi Ports Authority. and processing. determination of acceptable carrying capacity and operational guidance document production. The code should establish acceptable water taxi and ferry routes and associated acceptable operational procedures in terms of waste disposal. Marine environmental zones and mapping will also be carried out to identify priority protection areas and establish the carrying capacity of the marine waterways for additional water services to be introduced. improve safety and protect environmentally sensitive areas. constructors and operators. Strategic objectives will be set for the marine environment by DoT and the ‘Sustainable Transport Task Force’.4 Develop and Implement Marine Code The objective of this strategy component is to develop and establish a marine code on the water services around Abu Dhabi to protect the local marine environment and the global environment. Continued collection and monitoring of the key built environment data sets should be carried out to 2030 and beyond. The DoT will be responsible for leading this strategy with significant collaboration with EAD and UPC. environmental mapping. A consultant should be utilised for the environmental baseline study work. A consultant should be utilised for the environmental baseline study work. This may take the form of operational guideline documents for water taxi and ferry companies. The code will introduce aspects such as a fee structure for marina berthing dependant on fuel type and emissions of vessels. An environmental improvement index should be developed to track the improvement or deterioration of the aspects of the built environment. This should support the EAD in calling for the UAE Ministry of Foreign Affairs to ratify Annex VI of the IMO’s Marine Pollution Convention regulating air pollutants SO2 and NOx from ships. noise and light emission etc. This documentation should include the environmental protection hierarchy to prevent the encroachment or damage of existing cultural or heritage landmarks. This fee will drive a move away from low quality marine diesel to super low sulphur diesel. The strategic objectives should also call for programmes to restore the existing built environment near new STMP infrastructure and to expand the amount of public open space where possible.
a Speed Management Strategy and a Road Safety Audit programme. Once these are completed. Furthermore we note that many of the initiatives identified would be more effective if implemented at the Federal level. This flow diagram identifies which agency is best placed to deliver the strategy. The STMP will be an important input into their considerations of Federal requirements. The DoT will need to take a lead with developing the road safety strategy.5 Follow Estidama Community Guidelines and Equivalent International Best Practise The objective of this strategy component is to ensure that sustainability is integrated into the design of STMP infrastructure at community level using the Estidama community guidelines and equivalent relevant international best practise.6.9. We support the DoT’s initiatives to set up a Road Safety Council.10 Safety & Security Strategy The road safety and transport security strategy measures identified in the STMP will need to be delivered by a range of cross-institutional organisations. the SRSP will be able to revisit the STMP initiatives outlined below and assess priorities in accordance with the evidence gathered and a review of any available crash data. The flow diagram also indicates where the DoT is likely to need assistance from outside consultants to help deliver the strategies to supplement DoT’s internal resources. The strategies identified for delivery are presented in the flow diagram included in Figure 7. The NTA is in the process of developing a Federal Transport Master Plan which will also address issues of road safety and road transport regulation. To date the DoT has tendered for consultants to deliver a Strategic Road Safety Plan. 97 .7. This should be achieved through DoT drafting a regulation making it a mandatory for concept and detailed designers of STMP infrastructure to apply the principles of the Estidama community guidelines and equivalent relevant international best practise 7. but will need to work closely with the Traffic Police and others. which would be able to endorse the strategy and ensure all relevant institutions play their part in its implementation.
6 Process Map of the Delivery of the Road Safety Strategy 98 .Figure 7.
should be subject to detailed analysis through accident investigation and site visits to ensure that speed is not a contributory factor. Although not already identified by the DoT for other roads within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi it is recommended that a speed management process is developed for these other roads.10. The completion of the above speed management strategies will help to contribute to a reduction in the crash reduction strategy for the Emirate. The completion of road safety audits will help to identify road safety issues on the existing and proposed highway network therefore enabling appropriate road safety strategies to be recommended and implemented. for example outside schools and in high density residential areas. and the corresponding regulatory framework. This will help to determine where poor speed compliance is occurring. it is envisaged that the DoT will require further road safety specialists in-house to help them manage the road safety audit programme. strategies. The DoT have invited Consultants to help them deliver the road safety audit programme however.1 Speed Management There is poor compliance with existing posted speed limits.7. This should then be followed up with an enforcement campaign.10. A review of any available crash data and discussions with the Police will help to determine the target groups and locations to which these campaigns should be directed. If there is supporting evidence then the introduction of remedial highway measures should be considered. Determining regional emphasis areas through a cooperative process. Specific areas where there is a lot of pedestrian activity. enforcement. These campaigns will be implemented once the initial speed management programme has been completed. Excessive speed is one of the main contributory factors towards accident levels. The DoT has also recently invited Consultants to bid for the development and launch of a comprehensive and coordinated Strategic Road Safety Plan (SRSP) for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi that focuses on engineering. A media campaign should be undertaken to raise awareness of the dangers of driving at excessive speeds. for example traffic calming. emergency services.2 Road Safety Audits and the Strategic Road Safety Plan The DoT is currently in the process of selecting Consultants to help them develop road safety audit guidelines for the Emirate. goals. and priorities of all road safety stakeholders in the Emirate. education. and the degree of non-compliance. Existing conformity with posted speed limits should be monitored through the collection of speed data and this will initially be completed for the high speed road network in Abu Dhabi for which the DoT have already approached Consultants to tender for services. 7. The delivery of the above measures will require additional road safety specialists based at the DoT. The SRSP will integrate and focus Abu Dhabi’s road safety programmes by: • • Assessing plans. 99 . The introduction of road safety audit guidelines will be supported by the delivery of road safety audits that will be completed to the entire existing Abu Dhabi strategic road network and future planned and completed highways. Following the collection of speed data the appointed Consultant will make recommendations on whether the posted speed limits on the high speed road network should be amended.
7.and priorities. and help introduce appropriate strategies. This will enable the development of priority sites. The measures should be supported by Emirate wide media campaigns.10. Remedial measures to address the road safety concerns should then be designed and implemented on site. The delivery of the SRSP by Consultants will require input from the DoT in terms of monitoring and directing the output from the Consultants. The introduction of the pedestrian safety campaigns will require the DoT to develop an overall approach and to engage a communications team who can liaise with the different stakeholder communities. The educational measures should be delivered face-to-face to school children and other identified vulnerable groups. The Safety Audits will highlight the first level priorities. This team will also need to liaise with the road safety team at the DoT to access crash data and develop appropriate measures to address the crash history. improvements to the pedestrian infrastructure will be able to be more specifically targeted towards crash cluster sites which involve pedestrians. The DoT has already identified the need to expand the size of their existing road safety team. The completion of the SRSP has already been identified by the DoT as one of their core strategic road safety measures to be implemented. This strategy would be expected to make a high contribution to road safety if implemented through an integrated approach that combines all road safety policies and programmes.g.3 Pedestrian Safety Current crash statistics indicate that there are a high number of pedestrian casualties although due to current inadequacies in the crash database it is not possible to identify where clusters of crashes occur. The implementation and resource requirements of the strategy measures identified through SRSP will be determined once all the stakeholders have agreed on an appropriate plan of action. and • Integrating goals and accompanying strategies from the Abu Dhabi 2030 Plan. The requirement of the site visits will be to determine pedestrian desire lines and identify possible solutions to the road safety problem. Improvements should therefore be made to the existing pedestrian infrastructure with a review of current crash data in an attempt to determine where pedestrians are most at risk. Once a crash database is developed between the police and the DoT. It is likely that the DoT will need some assistance from a Consultant to help them deliver the pedestrian safety strategy. The completion of improvements to the pedestrian infrastructure will be an on-going process. In addition pedestrian education measures should also be developed to encourage safe crossing of the road. A similar strategy should be developed to target other vulnerable groups. schools. The existing infrastructure for pedestrians is poor and in addition pedestrian education in terms of crossing the road safely and being aware of their own vulnerability appears to be poor. These identified sites should be visited by either road safety specialists working for the DoT or by Road Safety Specialist Consultants working on behalf of the DoT. 100 . e. The number of pedestrian casualties should be monitored to determine the success of the measures.
These would include campaigns that highlight the dangers of excessive speed or the risks of not wearing seatbelts. 7. 101 . The following initiatives should be undertaken to further improve driver behaviour. These campaigns are likely to be most effective if conducted at an Emirate level although there is merit in introducing them nationally as many of the examples of poor driver behaviour exist across all Emirates.10. The introduction of these campaigns will require additional resources from the Police as there will be increased levels of enforcement required to ensure the campaigns are successful. The development and publication of a Highway Code will result in some costs initially. Campaigns will be identified by stakeholders through the development of the SRSP. A Highway Code once developed should also be made available to existing drivers so they too can improve their level of knowledge. better driving habits should result in a reduction in the number of crashes. arising from non-compliance with traffic laws.The introduction of the above measures will help to target the existing high level of pedestrian casualties. aggressive driving. Introduce Highway Code The development and introduction of a Highway Code would outline specific driver behaviour and knowledge that should be incorporated within a driver test. subject to confirmation in the SRSP.4 Driver Training and Education The current standard of driving is poor. Educational campaigns are being introduced to increase awareness but further campaigns are needed and the messages need to be backed-up by enforcement by the Police. A Highway Code should be made available to all those who apply and renew their driving licenses. and poor awareness of other drivers and road users. the on-going campaigns should be expanded to increase awareness of driver behaviour and actions that contribute to traffic crashes and personal injury. The development of the Highway Code will be completed in a number of stages which will include an initial draft Highway Code which once agreed will be launched and then eventually built into the test. The development of the Highway Code should ideally endorsed by the NTA so that rules and regulations are standardised across all the Emirate states. Educational campaigns To improve driver education. however once it is distributed and becomes a reference document to a greater number of drivers. The introduction of the public awareness educational campaigns should help to raise the overall standard of driving and help to contribute to a reduction in the number of vehicle crashes and personal injuries.
This may be achieved through further development of the existing points system by reviewing schemes developed in other countries. 102 .Penalise dangerous driver behaviour To improve driver behaviour it is recommended that the level of fines for motoring offences is increased together with increased use of driver bans for persistent offences or dangerous driver behaviour. The introduction of the revised test and probationary period for newly qualified drivers will require coordination between the different Emirate states as there should be a uniform standard in the required level of driving to complete the test. This will enable specific locations of clusters of accidents (‘black spots’) to be identified and remedial action taken. The reporting of crash locations by the Police should therefore be improved together with the development of an accident database that is referenced to GIS. This should be recorded information. The introduction of such measures should be based on a cross-Emirate review of the current driver testing process and a benchmark review of the test requirements in other countries. the Police and their subcontractors who attend crash sites will need to be equipped with GPS systems and trained to accurately record the locations of the site on collision forms. The development of a points system would be most effective if pursued at a Federal level with points accumulated for drivers in all Emirates irrespective of which Emirate has issued their license.10. 7. possible amendment of the existing collision form and the purchase of additional location-identifying equipment.5 Accident Investigation The monitoring of crash data at present is not sufficiently detailed to identify accident cluster sites and causes. The implementation of such a scheme would require NTA support with inputs from all the Emirates leading to a final scheme developed at a Federal level. camera footage etc which should not be open to corruption. The introduction of a scheme that further penalises poor driver behaviour is likely to result in better compliance with existing highway laws and therefore reduce the number and severity of crashes. Prosecution of motoring offences should be supported by evidence. This will require investment in further training. The existing driving license test should be reviewed in the light of these findings with consideration given to the introduction of a more stringent test and a probationary period for newly qualified drivers. This does not permit the identification of specific crash locations on the highway network therefore appropriate remedial measures can not be implemented. To enable the development of a crash database. Review existing driving test Following the investigation of the causes of crashes in more detail. the role of better driver training and testing should be identified. The likely outcome of a revised more stringent test and a probationary period for newly qualified drivers is an increase in the general standard of driving and a reduction in the number of crashes.
For spot checks. This will not require additional resources from the DoT however there may need to be an additional requirement on resources by the Police to ensure that there is compliance of the new regulation. The introduction of this strategy will not require additional resources to implement. For periodic testing. the frequency and thoroughness of vehicle inspections for both commercial and private vehicles should be increased. The regulation should be set at a national level so that it is applicable across all Emirate states for consistency and to avoid driver confusion. however it will require policy adopted centrally by the NTA so that all Emirates stipulate the same standard of vehicle specifications so that there may continue to be free movement of vehicles through the Emirate states.The DoT will need to liaise closely with the Police and develop a crash database. New vehicles that do not perform highly in NCAP crash tests should not be permitted to be imported. It is recommended that the tachograph system and guidance on maximum loaded vehicle weights is developed centrally through the National Transport Authority (NTA) and be applicable across all Emirate states. or are not enforced sufficiently to penalise those whose vehicles or driver behaviour are unsafe. Minimum standards for new vehicles New vehicles should have as standard a high specification in terms of safety features which includes airbags and ABS systems. The following initiatives are included in the STMP. This will require the DoT to have both GIS expertise and road safety data analyst specialism. This will require additional resources from the Police to implement.10. It is likely that the DoT will require assistance from a Consultant to help deliver the accident investigation studies as at present the DoT do not have sufficient resources to deliver. More thorough and frequent vehicle inspections To address these concerns. This results in. In addition. enforcement of laws to penalise the use of mobile phones whilst driving and noncompliance with seat belt usage should also be increased. this will require the establishment of licensed workshops. 7. New safety regulations Regulations should be implemented to introduce compulsory wearing of rear seat belts and the introduction of child safety restraint systems. The implementation of these policies will result in development and administration costs in addition to more police time.6 Develop and Implement Traffic and Vehicle Regulations At present existing traffic and vehicle regulations are either not in place. 103 . amongst other things. excessive speeding and aggressive driving behaviour together with a high number of poorly maintained and overloaded vehicles being present on the highway network. and should be confirmed in the SRSP. this will require a greater Police presence to undertake vehicle inspections together with increased use of weighbridges to penalise overloaded vehicles. and the introduction of a tachograph system (initially for domestic vehicles) to monitor driving hours to ensure excessive driving hours are not completed without taking a break.
The outcome from this strategy should be a better understanding of the individual concerns of user groups about completing trips on foot or using public transport. some users may feel vulnerable or uncomfortable when using. and the particular aspects of design that would give rise to security concerns. This strategy therefore seeks to identify the barriers to public transport use and increased pedestrian activity and implement measures to overcome them. Following the initial interviews of user groups of all modes of transport including private car users. National security aspects Overall advice on this subject should be sought by the DoT (or Strategic PMC. 104 . The initial activity in the development of a transport security strategy will be to identify the level and causes of concern based on interviews with groups of user and non-users. for example the vetting of contractors or the control of access to tunnels. to determine whether non-use is as a result of fears over personal security or for other reasons. By developing a better understanding of these concerns measures can be implemented to make public transport and completing trips on foot more inclusive.10.7 Transport security Personal security aspects As public transport develops. or waiting to use the different modes of public transport.7. a strategy should be developed to encourage journeys on foot and by public transport. Women and particular cultural groups may be particularly concerned about personal security and/or feel uncomfortable travelling with other groups and sexes. Users and non-users of public transport should also be questioned on the introduction of CCTV to determine whether its introduction is likely to encourage or discourage public transport use. The DoT/SPMC could then issue instructions to consultants and contractors on individual projects for them to follow during the design and procurement stages. from whom and by what process. This advice would need to encompass identifying what approvals were required. Pedestrians may have similar concerns. This will help to identify the barriers to increased use of public transport and the completion of trips on foot. The completion of the monitoring and interviewing of user groups for all modes of transport will require some additional input from DoT staff as they will need to assess the results and determine a forward strategy from the collected results. This strategy will be based on the implementation of security measures that user groups have identified as required to encourage a modal shift. on its behalf) from the appropriate authorities so that security considerations can be factored into the procurement and design process.
large scale teams have been established. and Cross London Rail Links is planning to expand to around 600 staff during construction of the underground rail mainline link railway. The key challenge of the institutions is to build capacity and skills as quickly as possible. and that for Berlin with populations between 1 and 3 million. including some operational services. The Irish Rail Procurement Agency set up in 2002 to procure metro and tram infrastructure and services employs 200 staff.1 INSTITUTIONAL ACTION PLANS Introduction This section sets out the actions required by the key institutions with a role to play in the development and delivery of the STMP. Crossrail. These staff oversee an organisation of over 7000 staff which work for privately contracted out commissions covering different areas of the country. and the maximum practicable use of contracting out services and infrastructure delivery to the private sector. An area with a similar length of road network to Abu Dhabi would employ around 1500 persons. We therefore only outline the main milestones and activities for these agencies in the longer term. The process for developing the business plans and action plans for ADTCo and RoadCo is currently underway and will be completed in Q3 and Q4 of 2009 respectively building on the inputs from the STMP. In countries where these functions have been in place for some time.8 8. for example: • The UK Passenger Transport Executives with public transport strategy. have staff complements of 400-500 people. This does not include the highways management function. • • • It will not be feasible for the institutions in Abu Dhabi to recruit staff to these levels overnight and therefore there will be a need for greater reliance on interim measures in the short to medium term (such as the employment of advisers and consultants to support permanent staff carrying out the functions of the institutions). The institution with prime responsibility is the DoT whose actions will fall into three broad categories: • • • Development of its own functions to take on its expanded responsibilities Setting up the new executive agencies (RoadCo and ADTCo) Developing and implementing the strategies arising from the STMP The proposals for the functions and scope of the new executive agencies are explained in Chapter 4 and are not repeated here. planning and procurement functions for the major conurbations in Great Britain. RTA in Dubai has a staff complement of around 1500 covering all modes and highways. The Highways Agency employs some 3500 staff to manage the strategic road network in England. 105 .
when the construction activity and demands on project management are at its peak.8. if not all of the role of the PMCs. The arrangements thereafter could change significantly and the DoT and agencies should be capable of taking much more. 106 .2 Institutional Overview of the Institutional Approach To ensure that the DoT has sufficient resources at its disposal in the short term we have proposed an approach to implementation which includes three PMCs as described in the previous chapter. The figure below summarises how this structure would operate in the period up to 2015.
Institutional Figure 8.1: Proposed Institutional Arrangements for Implementation of the STMP 107 .
privatisation and legislative issues Transport modelling Transport policy advisors Developing the STMP monitoring framework and capability In the public transport area. RoadCo and ADTCo would be represented on the steering groups of the PMCs and the relevant preliminary design consultants. targets and KPIs.The three PMCs would be appointed by the DoT. Their scope will depend on the degree to which the DoT has sufficient skills in this area in house. The DoT would also commission as series of specialist advisers through the Strategic PMC who would provide advice in their areas to all parties as required. Key general areas of focus for the DoT (Surface Transport Division) will be as follows: • • o o o o • Developing the regulatory function which will be a key aspect of the implementation in the HSE framework Procurement of advisors on cross-cutting themes Financial advisors on PPP and funding Legal advisers on land procurement. the contracts for procurement. Once infrastructure projects were complete or assets were procured. In turn.3 Department of Transport The DoT has a detailed Strategic Plan already in place for the period 2009-2013. key activities. and is elaborated in the next section. they would be transferred to the two agencies. However. 8. key initiatives will include: • • • • • Appointment of the public transport PMC Initiating the procurement of STMP public transport projects Creating the new ADTCo Supporting the Bus Office to take on new roles in respect of car parking and ferry service specification Developing other public transport strategy areas In the highways area. The rest of this chapter sets out the key actions that need to be taken by the DoT and its new agencies to implement the strategies described in Chapter 7. supply or operational services would be with RoadCo and ADTCo so that funding could be channelled through them. key initiatives will include: • • Procuring a highways PMC Setting up a Road Safety Council 108 . and they in turn would manage the various preliminary design consultants. which outlines its priorities. the preliminary design consultants would provide oversight of any contractors and suppliers until they had passed acceptance testing. The purpose of this part of the STMP Implementation Plan is not to duplicate the Strategic Plan but to highlight key additional aspects which will need to be addressed to implement the Plan.
Policy in these areas should be determined by the Highways or Public Transport Sections. the DoT Marine Division. This will ensure that as wide a view of the issues as practicable are obtained and the overall strategy in these areas is not undermined by a piecemeal approach. TransAD and others. and to liaise with the Department of Finance before recommending an overall strategy on procurement and funding which can then be implemented through the PMC 109 . vehicles and drivers and the implementation of the HSE processes in the Surface Transport Divison and its agencies and suppliers. This includes specifically the appointment of: • Financial advisors. Two key activities stand out in particular: • The new HSE Framework will embody many of the non-economic aspects of regulation and the Regulatory Section should be the champion for its adaptation and roll-out in the surface transport area. It will therefore need to set up a strategy for enforcement and ensure the enforcement agencies are appropriately instructed and resourced. The framework will need to be developed in parallel to the rail procurement process and there will need to be close liaison with the NTA to ensure consistency with emerging Federal standards for rail safety. drawing together the Health. The relevant agencies could include the Traffic Police.3. we identify the need for the DoT and PMCs to have access to specialist advice across the whole range of the STMP activity. In addition.1 Initiating the procurement of STMP highway projects Overseeing the transfer of Municipality staff and contracts Creating the new RoadCo Developing other highway/street based strategies CrossCross-Mode Activities Regulation The DoT has identified the need to set up a Regulatory Section within the Surface Transport Division to be responsible for ensuring the proper regulation of operators. The process should include independent HSE verification (potentially carried out by the PMC) and an Independent Sustainability Assessment (potentially carried out by an external agency) at every project milestone prior to progressing to the next project phase. • crossProcurement of advisors on cross-cutting themes We have recommended that three PMCs be appointed to support the implementation of the highways and public transport elements of the STMP implementation respectively. The development of the rail safety regulatory framework is a subset of the regulation which is entirely new to Abu Dhabi. to receive input from the various preliminary design consultants on cash flows for their projects and on the feasible options for funding and PPP structures. and the Regulatory Section will then be responsible for ensuring that the regulations are effectively monitored and enforced. Safety and Environmental aspects of the regulation of operations and construction projects into this framework. to form a view on the implications for funding across the whole of the STMP programme and the capacity of the credit market.• • • • 8.
110 . procurement of surveys. The rationale for this is set out in Chapter 9. to advise on cross-cutting issues such as land procurement. This could take the form of a framework panel of advisors with specialist expertise in different areas from which advice could be procured competitively. This would proceed in parallel with project risk management which would be carried out by the PMCs. In the meantime. rights to sell and lease-back assets. to provide a consistent source of data and projections to the consultants developing individual projects. This activity should be tied in with monitoring the progress of the DoT’s Strategic Plan. The consultant to construct a new transport model has been appointed. the legal basis for other forms of private sector involvement and drafting laws and regulations for setting up the new agencies. the current Enhanced Model needs to be maintained and kept up–to-date as planning data changes and we recommend this would be best achieved by the retention of a transport modelling adviser to provide this support and advice to others who are using the models at a project level. A Strategic Risk Register should be set up and kept under review.procurement process. access and report the monitoring data collected. detailed specification of performance indicator hierarchies and the surveys and data that will need to be gathered. The performance monitoring framework and associated management processes will play a pivotal role in the delivery of the objectives and outcomes of the STMP. but many elements of this work could be out-sourced. Transport policy/strategy consultants to assist the DoT in managing the significant short-term work-load that will be required to set up the detailed policy framework. Monitoring the progress of the STMP is a core function of DoT. This approach is increasingly used by public sector organisations to reduce the time taken to make appointments for specific advisory work. Part of this framework should be the identification of the key risks facing the DoT in the achievement of the STMP. but this model will not be operational until at least mid-2010. development of systems to store. establishment of the management arrangements including risk management processes to review the data and to take corrective action as required to ensure that the STMP objectives are achieved. • Legal advisers. For its implementation the performance monitoring framework will require: • • • • • • the recruitment of a dedicated performance monitoring team within DoT. Transport modelling advisers. This is described in more detail in Chapter 9. • • monitoring Developing the STMP monitoring framework and capability Details of the STMP monitoring framework are presented in Chapter 9. training in survey / data collection and monitoring techniques.
The development track for ADTCo is described in the next section of this report.3. Initiating the procurement of STMP public transport projects Although ideally the PMC should be appointed first and then help to design the Terms of Reference for the appointment of preliminary design consultants. This will in turn affect station and interchange design. The PMC should be required to ensure that the major Metro and tram projects (in the first instance) are part of a fully integrated approach to the public transport network with regard to infrastructure (such as transport interchanges) and commercial strategy (which will define the operational specification and the commercial systems that will need to be provided). Until ADTCo is created.8. They will keep this up to date for periodical reporting to the DoT. However. They will be responsible for developing a detailed scheduling and resourcing plan at a project level. tram and possibly the regional rail procurement. Creating the new ADTCo The creation of the executive agency is a high priority task for the DoT so that the new organisation can recruit the necessary staff and the DoT can delegate non-strategic functions for implementation. The PMC interface with the DoT and then ADTCo will need to be defined.2 Implementation Activities . the concept for the integrated ticketing system will need to be developed with its application across all modes in mind. the time scale for proceeding is very tight and the DoT has taken the initiative to start the procurement process with briefs either in preparation or consultants invited for: • • • • Preliminary design and contracting for the Metro system Preliminary design and contracting for the tram system Development of ferry services and specification of vessels Cycle way and pedestrian domain design. The PMC should be responsible for risk-based planning and ensuring that HSE principles are embodied in the work of the design consultants and in the construction activities themselves. and for the comprehensive identification and assessment of project risks (including financial risks) and their management for every project phase. 111 . and the form of system will affect how tickets are sold and how ticketless would be prevented.Public Transport Appointment of the public transport PMC The DoT has initiated the procurement of a ‘Rail Transit’ PMC . since these latter bodies will be responsible for key decisions. For example. We recommend that the brief for this PMC be broadened to cover the public transport elements of the STMP more broadly. the activities to inform the decisions may be better led and managed from within the PMC. the DoT will need to continue the development of its strategy for ferries and car parking so that the implementation of strategy in these areas is not held back. with coverage of the Metro.
• In due course the DoT or ADTCo will need to make strategic decisions on: • • • the future procurement strategy for bus services whether the bus fleet that is being procured currently will be transferred to ADTCo as part of its asset base. marketing/promotion. fares and travel information. and the operational activities that will need to be carried out at arm’s length (bus operations and maintenance. contracting). criteria and requirements for Transit Oriented Design. Developing other public transport strategy areas Other elements of public transport strategy need further development as outlined in Chapter 7. driver training etc). that will inform the metro and tram studies. The Highways PMC should be responsible for risk-based planning and ensuring that HSE principles are embodied in the work of the design consultants and in the construction activities themselves. The PMC interface with the DoT and then RoadCo will need to be defined. This includes: • • • Regulation of shared taxis and minibuses.3 Implementation Implementation Activities . Development of policies such as integrated ticketing. or transferred to new private sector operators whether ADTCo will have an operating division or rely exclusively on the private sector to deliver. in partnership with UPC. and for the comprehensive identification and assessment of project risks (including financial risks) and their management for every project phase. They will be responsible for developing a detailed scheduling and resourcing plan at a project level. the Bus Office will need to move towards a clearer separation between: • the functions that will be transferred to ADTCo permanently (network planning. They will keep this up to date for periodical reporting to the DoT. monitoring of patronage and operational performance.3.Supporting the Bus Office Until its functions are absorbed into the ADTCo. the Bus Office will continue to function as an extension of the DoT. 8.Highways Appointment of the highways PMC The DoT will need to appoint a highways PMC to take forward the STMP highway programme and is already taking steps to do this. While the ADTCo is being created. Initiating the procurement of STMP highway projects 112 . Setting up a Road Safety Council The current proposals for setting up a Road Safety Council should be accelerated so that it is in place when the results of the Road Safety Audits and the recommendations of the Strategic Road Safety Plan need to be acted on. ticket distribution. Establishing.
The DoT has already commenced the development and procurement of major highway schemes. Developing other highway and demand management strategy areas Other elements of highway and demand management strategy need further development as outlined in Chapter 7. it should advise on the packaging of highways projects and draft the Terms of Reference for the appointment of preliminary design consultants. transfer Overseeing the transfer of Municipality staff and contracts We understand that the transfer of all responsibilities for roads from the municipality to the DoT has been agreed. under traditional and DBFO processes. management systems powers and resources Phase 2: Taking on operational responsibility for the development and delivery of services in three areas: Public bus services Ferry services Public. A key immediate task is therefore to accomplish the smooth transfer of staff and contracts to the DoT. free-standing organisation with its own governance. metro and rail infrastructure and networks 113 . 8.Once the PMC is appointed. fee-paying car park management Other policy measures Phase 3: Taking on procurement responsibility for the tram. These on on-going projects already committed. The DoT is already progressing this and has issued a request for proposals to develop a corporate plan for RoadCo.4 Abu Dhabi Transport Corporation There will be a number of phases in setting up ADTCo: • • o o o o • Phase 1: Setting up an operational. This includes: • • • • Developing a road hierarchy Developing intelligent transport systems (ITS) Drafting a network management strategy Considering a road charging strategy A Gantt chart showing the tentative timing of these actions is attached at Appendix A. Creating the new RoadCo The creation of the executive agency is a high priority task for the DoT so that the new organisation can recruit the necessary staff and the DoT can delegate non-strategic functions for implementation. The development track for RoadCo is described in the next section of this report. They should continue to be managed as now and this activity transferred in due course to the RoadCo.
liaising with the DoT and NTA and establishing the practice to be followed in the case of accidents involving railbased modes.4. and conformity with DoT policies and practices.. incident management. Ensure all construction and operational aspects of the STMP projects falling under the responsibility of the agency are compliant with the HSE framework. management of change etc. The management processes will determine hoe the ADTCo goes about its business and ensures that it can discharge its duties in respect of financial probity. this should not prevent the recruitment of the Board and senior staff unto a ‘shadow’ organisation in the DoT. services and supplies. procurement of equipment.2 Phase 2: Taking on Operational Responsibility In this phase the main steps will be the transfer in of the bus planning. Clearly this ‘shadow’ phase needs to be as short as possible so that the development of the ADTCo can be shaped by its own management arrangements and internal procedures and bylaws rather than those of the DoT. We recommend that ADTCo transfers bus operations to the private sector for delivery at as early a stage as practicable. A Gantt chart showing the tentative timing of the actions to set up ADTCo is attached at Appendix A. 114 .DoT has commissioned a corporate plan for ADTCo from consultants. Safety and Environment Management System (HSE MS) into the agency’s operations. Develop safety cases for all construction and operational aspects of the STMP projects falling under the responsibility of the agency. This will include key tasks such as: • Carry out health. Of particular importance given the nature of its operations will be the implementation of the DoT Health. commercial management and monitoring functions from the Bus Office and the separation of the operations function into an operating subsidiary at arm’s length from ADTCo. This implies an acceleration of the drafting and approval of the ADTCo law and then the necessary internal regulations or by-laws that will govern its pay scales and procurement.1 Phase1: Setting up ADTCo The main steps in creating the organisation area set out in the Gantt chart below which also gives indicative timings. 8. recruitment and management processes. This allows those who will be accountable for the delivery of ADTCo’s objectives to be able to influence how it is set up and to recruit their own team. 8. In the case of ADTCo this will mean the application of rail safety framework.4. in preparation for the future expansion of the private sector’s role in bus service delivery. Although the ADTCo may not be fully constituted until late 2009. procedures. • • Ensure budget is provided in the STMP implementation plan for HSE Framework tasks. management of its human resources. This will include framework aspects such as standards. This will be developed taking account of the STMP strategies and allocation of responsibilities. safety and environmental assessment for all construction and operational aspects of the STMP projects falling under the responsibility of the agency. work instructions.
to be complete in Q1 2011. The third strand of activity relates to taking over responsibility for the public car parking contract currently with the Abu Dhabi Municipality and establishing the regulatory framework for licensing public car park operators. 8. A similar process could take place with the development of the tram network.5 8. The new legislation would set out: • • • Its role in relation to the key policy principles and strategies in the DoT’s strategic plan A clear mission statement for RoadCo and a set of guiding principles that should govern its establishment and management Its broad functions and responsibilities and the corresponding functions and responsibilities of the DoT in relation to it. and procurement and funding strategy.In parallel. Accordingly ADTCo could take on the management of this operation at the end of Stage 1 once the DoT has agreed feasibility design. The DoT should appoint a Shadow Board of Advisors in advance of the impending laws and / or regulations to ensure that the Roads Agency is established in a way that enables it to carry out its responsibilities efficiently and effectively. in 2009 Q2. jetties for ferries and information systems for the integrated transport service. to be complete in Q4 2009 Stage 2: Preliminary Design & Implementation Schedule. to undertake: • • • Stage 1: Feasibility Study & Functional Specifications. In addition ADTCo will need to take over the implementation of the STMP strategy in a number of related areas.1 The Roads Agency Phase 1: Setting up the Roads Agency (RoadCo) RoadCo will be set up by new legislation which will set out the agency’s role in managing and developing Abu Dhabi’s highway network. A Programme Management Consultant would provide valuable assistance in to coordinate the design and procurements of these elements. 115 . the network of air-conditioned bus stops. described in Chapter 7. the transfer of the planning and design of the new ferry services and facilities will need to be transferred from the DoT. 8. so that ADTCo can take over the procurement of infrastructure and operations and the subsequent monitoring of the operations. to be complete in Q2 2010 Stage 3: Contract Documentation & Tender Award.5. Its responsibility is highlighted in the action plans for the different strategies.3 Phase 3: Taking on Procurement Responsibility The process for taking forward the development of the Abu Dhabi Metro is already proceeding under the leadership of the DoT with the selection of consultants.4. In addition there will be numerous other elements of infrastructure that will need to be procured such as inter-change terminals.
A Gantt chart showing the tentative timing of the actions to set up ADTCo is attached at Appendix A. as the private sector have the skills. finance and human resources. the proposed Highway PMC should take on the role of managing the design consultants and procurement for the STMP programme in the period to 2015.5.3 Procurement Phase 3: Taking on Procurement Responsibility Significant procurement experience and capacity already exists in the two legacy organisations: • The DoT is already managing many contracts for the procurement of network services and operations and major projects such as the Mafraq to Al Ghweifat Highway PPP Project and the Performance Based Maintenance Contracts about to be piloted for Abu Dhabi to Al Ain highway. handing over the new or upgraded highways as they are completed. 8. major projects. However. RoadCo would work with the PMC to facilitate the introduction of innovative and new contractual requirements with the private sector currently under development by DoT to deliver the STMP highway proposals. In addition to PPP and PBMV contracts which are currently being piloted in Abu Dhabi. These established units could provide the core of RoadCo’s regional offices.2 Responsibility Phase 2: Taking on Operational Responsibility In this phase. The DoT and the municipalities of Abu Dhabi. The Executive Director will be responsible for the day-to-day management of RoadCo and will advise the DoT of its operational policies. These services will need to be transferred to the Shadow Roads Agency. Early Contractors Involvement (EDI) framework contracts such as Construction Management Framework and Management Agency Contracts are well established contract strategies which will contribute to the delivery of the STMP highways proposals. and its achievement of these objectives will be monitored against relevant performance indicators. The municipalities have established contract units dealing with procurement of services and operation and major projects. Al Ain and Al Gharbia already have established functional units covering these areas in their Roads & Infrastructure Directorates. • RoadCo will therefore take on responsibility for existing contracts for construction and maintenance. 8.The Shadow Board’s role would be to support the Shadow Roads Agency in the DoT on the strategic direction of the agency especially the preparation of its corporate and business plans and its performance targets and key performance indicators.5. capacity and capability to provide these services. information services. The DoT will set RoadCo’s strategic objectives in support of the DoT’s obligation to deliver the STMP. the main steps will be the appointment of a RoadCo Executive Director and staff for key management positions to lead and direct functional units such as network services and operations. 116 . The Executive Director will also have the lead role in making recommendations to DoT about the implementation of the STMP highways proposals.
the programme amended to reflect changing circumstances. 117 . and to the public. the management arrangements required to ensure that progress is maintained and. with regular evidence-based reviews of progress. • • • • Performance monitoring involves more than simply programme management. goals and objectives for transport in the Emirate. not only in terms of implementing individual schemes or components. Performance measures of the transport system serve as criteria for investment decisions made in the transportation planning process. an approach to external dissemination and stakeholder engagement ensuring key external issues are communicated both internally to key partners. and expected future transport system conditions. This requires that the STMP is managed as a ‘live’ plan.2 Performance Monitoring The performance monitoring for the STMP needs to: • focus on key outcomes. communications with decision makers and the public about past. It will support the delivery of: • a business planning process that provides a sound basis for long term future delivery including an annual cycle of review and assessment. The performance monitoring framework presented in this Chapter describes the processes which ensure that these outcomes are achieved. external stakeholders and the media an approach to ensuring continued maintenance of the STMP transport model maintenance model. objectives and key outcomes. These inputs are designed to deliver outcomes . Managing the programme is clearly important but is in effect controlling the delivery of inputs to the STMP. a formalised approach to ‘Business Excellence’ that will move the DoT and its partners towards being world class in their delivery of transport services and support continuous improvements. and they can be used to evaluate the success of projects and programs. internal stakeholders and delivery agencies. if necessary. current. taking account of the status of large development projects. 9. the development of contractual and service level agreements that provide the focus and incentives for all stakeholders to deliver to meet transport challenges. but also in terms of whether the overall plan continues to be ‘fit for purpose’ to achieve the vision.1 MONITORING PERFORMANCE MONITORING SYSTEM Introduction In this chapter we set out the recommended approach for performance monitoring describing: • the performance monitoring framework and performance indicators needed to monitor progress towards achievement of STMP goals.the goals and objectives of the STMP.9 9. interfaces with other planning agencies. • • • An effective performance monitoring system is critical to the delivery of the STMP and its outcome objectives.
and collect statistically reliable data. and preserving of Abu Dhabi’s unique environment Objective Develop a low carbon economy Preserve critical natural environment Strategy Low carbon strategy Strategy to enhance the critical natural environment Tonnes of CO2 emitted by transport p. b) Unit freight costs for selected freight tasks Strategy Key Outcome Indicator a) Average delay per vehicle by time period and location. Strategies and Outcome Indicators Goal 1 .1: Objectives. in addition to the technical indicators. Stra trategies Table 9. Natural environment improvement index Built environment improvement index Protect and enhance cultural heritage.1 Focus on Key Outcomes The performance monitoring system should provide a way of measuring whether the STMP has achieved. through responsible use of resources. strategies and indicative key outcomes that have been identified for the STMP are set out in the Table 9. symbols and monuments 118 . This requires the definition of a set of key outcomes that relate to the STMP objectives. indicators to measure value for money and customer satisfaction. minimising pollution. monitor the external influences and impacts that might influence delivery of the programme and the desired outcomes. b) mode share for non car modes c) Customer satisfaction Sustainable & efficient freight distribution Freight management strategy Goal 2: Society and Culture .a. The objectives. make best use of available data sources.Delivering world leading performance in environmental sustainability . symbols Strategy to protect and enhance cultural heritage. and monuments landmarks. Objective Improve international connectivity Improve regional connectivity Improve connectivity within metropolitan area Improve safety Enhance the pedestrian realm Safety and security stratgey Strategy to improve the pedestrian realm Strategy Accessibility strategy a) Travel time by public transport & car between key origins and destinations b) customer satisfaction Numbers Killed and seriously injured p. Public satisfaction Goal 3: Environment . and include a balanced set of indicators covering.Economy: Promoting economic competitiveness and vitality through efficient. high quality transport services for passengers and freight Objective Minimise congestion Congestion strategy Reduce reliance on the automobile a) Freight costs as % of GDP. Each of these is considered below.2.a. or is on track to achieve.• • • • • provide a hierarchy of performance indicators. landmarks. its goals and objectives.1 below. 9.Protecting and enriching people’s lives by maximising safety and access to opportunities for all. include targets and trajectories.
2 Hierarchy of Performance Indicators Although outcome indicators provide a high level picture of progress they need to be supported by additional outcomes. Input indicators will also encompass the programme monitoring of STMP schemes and initiatives.1: Example of a Performance Hierarchy Performanc e hierarc hy Congestion Reduction External influences Outcomes PT frequencies PT Patronage / mode share Walk / cycle index Journey time reliability Traffic delays PT Service Satisfaction Services operated Outputs Service punctuality Individual route satisfaction Infrastructure implementation Service Improvements Inputs Detailed performance hierarchies will need to be developed at an early stage in the implementation of the STMP. The map also includes ‘output indicators’ describing key characteristics of the transport system that influence the targeted outcomes. for example new vehicles purchased. For each objective or strategy a ‘performance map’ can be drawn to set out the chain of influences that need to be managed in order to deliver the outcome. Providing new highways and managing traffic.2 to 9. The congestion management strategy will require the monitoring of a range of performance indicators to understand the extent to which it is addressing the objectives. The congestion management strategy consists of various sub-strategies: • • Providing high quality alternatives to the car. Within this map there are ‘input indicators’ that provide a record of the investments and resources committed by the DoT and its agencies. An illustration and description of this indicator hierarchy is provided in Figure 9. Finally there are external influences that are outside of the control of the performance management and monitoring system but that need to be monitored and managed through change management processes. outputs and inputs. 119 . One of the key objectives for the STMP is to minimise traffic congestion.2. Some of the key indicators that will need to be collected and monitored and their sources are set out in Tables 9. kilometres of new highway capacity commissioned or constructed.9.1 below: Figure 9.9.
To properly understand the extent to which these strategies are contributing to delivering the congestion key outcome. fares relative to average income (particularly for lower-income households. public transport travel speeds relative to driving. frequency. Affordability is indicated by the availability of transit service to lower-income residents. portion of passengers that must stand. These will be more proactive indicators rather than the reactive outcomebased indicators generally presented here. 120 . waiting area comfort (portion with shelters). such as 15 minute or less headways). businesses and public institutions with some threshold level of public transport service. seat comfort. and Demand management. taking into account special need-based discounts. reliability (indicated by the portion of trips that are on schedule).• • • Transit oriented development. monitoring the success of the provision of high quality alternatives to the car as part of the congestion management strategy will in turn require a focus on service quality and consumer costs. Consumer costs are indicated by the portion of household expenditures devoted to transport and housing. such as concession fares and free transit passes for seniors. people with disabilities and children). Traffic engineering / management. and ease of obtaining user information. vehicle and waiting area cleanliness. Service quality can be indicated by network accessibility (portion of homes. Key performance indicators that relate to the STMP projects and inputs to the strategy will also need to be developed based on the action plans presented elsewhere. As an example. This approach is set out in the following tables for each of the main STMP strategies. they will need to be monitored and performance indicators will need to be identified.
a. reliability.developed & applied Demand management % schools with travel plans % residents who feel well informed about their travel options Demand for parking by area. time. n/a n/a Table 9. frequency.% of PT journeys Surveys or GPS data running late % of PT users standing in peak periods Surveys or ticket data Customer satisfaction by mode for price. cycle. train. shopping Journey to school mode share PTP schemes implemented Survey Survey (Automatic Traffic Count (ATC) / Manual Classified Count (MCC) MCC survey or ATC Attendant reports Urban Planning Council (UPC) UPC UPC UPC School surveys Customer survey Survey Customer survey School surveys DOT Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually n/a 2009 TBD 2010 TBD 100% 2009 TBD 2009 TBD TBD 100% by 2015 2009 TBD 2009 TBD 2009 TBD TBD 1 p. LRT.to work. 2009 TBD Freight transhipment Freight transport modal shift Freight traffic management 121 .Table 9.by mode Accessibility model or new AD Enhanced model 2009 base 2009 levels model by 2015 2009 Improve 2009 STMP levels Annually Annually 2009 STMP levels 2009 STMP levels Ratio of PT journey time to car journey time Surveys or GPS data Bus wait times and overloading by time.a. school.3: Freight Management Strategy performance indicators Strategy Strategy Freight outcome Freight Management KPI Freight distribution costs as % of GDP Unit freight costs for selected freight tasks % of freight transferred to smaller less polluting vehicles for final distribution % of freight carried by non-road hauliage Number of freight quality partnerships in operation Customer satisfaction Source DOT estimates Survey or operators Survey or operators Survey or operators DOT Monitoring Customer survey Frequency Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually Baseline Target World top 2009 quartile 2009 TBD 2009 TBD 2009 TBD 2009 1 p.tickets issued Transit-oriented development % dwellings built within 400 m of PT stop Dwelling density around PT interchanges Mixed use developments Parking standards .walk. quality.a. day & route (later extended to other modes) Number of newly registered motor vehicles by type and emissions levels Journey time reliability . information. Customer survey cleanliness Provide new highways and manage GPS / Automatic Number Plate Journey times on selected routes traffic Recognition (ANPR) Congestion index (observed journey times/free flow) ANPR Monthly Monthly <5 % by 2009 2020 2009 TBD 5% increase 2009 p. day & parking durations Average journey length . to the car metro. PRT % of developed area within 400 m of PT access point to a service with a 15 minutes headway Every 2 years on Enhanced AD Transport Model model update Survey Every year Cordon counts Abu Dhabi (cordon) Annually bridges .2: Congestion Strategy Performance Indicators Strategy Strategy Congestion Management KPI Source Frequency Baseline Target Congestion outcome Average delay per vehicle by time period Customer satisfaction Providing high quality alternatives Non-car mode share (%) . bus.a 2009 STMP levels 2009 TBD 2009 TBD Annually Annually Annually Annually Traffic flows Abu Dhabi (cordon) bridges Programme of traffic counts across the Emirate Traffic classification (%) Parking violations .
a. Cyclist injury accidents per cycle trip Child injury accidents per head pop. Source Customer survey DOT Frequency Annual Annual Baseline n/a n/a Target >85% TBD 122 . time. of accident blackspot locations investigated and solved Reporting of traffic violations (speeding. day % of pedestrian crossings with facilities for disabled % of public transport vehicles fully accessible to disabled % of public transport facilities with facilities for women & children % of interchanges fully accessible to disabled % of interchanges with facilities for women & children Source Frequency Baseline Target Accessibility outcome Surveys & timetables Survey Surveys & timetables Surveys & timetables Surveys & timetables Accessibility model or new AD Enhanced model Surveys Surveys & on-going monitoring Surveys & on-going monitoring Surveys & on-going monitoring Surveys & on-going monitoring Surveys & on-going monitoring Annually Every year Annually Annually Annually Annually Monthly Annually Annually Annually Annually Annually 2009 2009 Improve 2009 STMP levels 2009 STMP levels 2009 STMP levels 2009 STMP levels 2009 <15mins 100% by 2009 2015 2009 2009 2009 2009 100% 100% 100% 100% International connectivity Regional connectivity Metropolitan connectivity Access for all Table 9.Indicators Table 9. & specific destination pairs % dwellings / busineses within 400 metres of a PT stop / interchange Average wait time for taxis by area. No. red light jumping) Reported injuries on public transport or at interchanges per trip Perception of safety Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly n/a World 2008 bench-mark 2008 TBD 2008 TBD 2008 TBD 2008 TBD 2008 TBD 100% DOT monitoring & police statistics Annually Police Annually Police accident statistics with ticket data Monthly Customer survey Annually 2009 TBD 2008 2008 TBD Security Table 9.4: Accessibility Strategy Performance Indicators Strategy Strategy Accessibility KPI Travel time by PT and car between a range of destinations within the Emirate Customer satisfaction PT journey times .CBD to Capital City.tourists / residents Number of kilometres of pedestrianised area implemented p.CBD to Al Ain and Western Region PT journey times .6: Pedestrian Realm strategy Performance Indicators Strategy Pedestrian Realm Strategy Pedestrian Realm outcome KPI Customer satisfaction .CBD to Airport.5: Safety and Security Strategy Performance Indicators Strategy Strategy Safety & security KPI Source Police accident statistics with model outputs for veh kms a/a a/a Police accident statistics Police accident statistics with cycle survey data Police accident statistics Frequency Baseline Target Safety Outcome Road safety KSI per million veh kms (mvkms) Serious injury accidents per mvkms Slight injury accidents per mvkms Pedestrian injury accidents per head pop. Dubai & other destinations PT journey times .
renewables DOT Annually 7% by 2020 3 10% RPS 2 2009 by 2030 2009 TBD 1 Awareness and acceptance 1 2 Customer survey Annually In line with Masdar Initiative In line with EAD draft Climate Change Policy 3 Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) 123 . CNG. % of taxis adopting alternative low carbon fuels e.g.g. renewables DOT CDM Annually Annually 2009 (to be World done) bench-mark 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 TBD DOT Annually DOT/PTCo Annually 2009 7% by 2020 1 Low Carbon Energy 2009 TBD % of non-electrified PT adopting alternative DOT/PTCo low carbon fuels e.Table 9.g. CNG. CNG. % of private vehilces adopting alternative low carbon fuels e. % of freight transport using ultra low sulphur diesel % of marine vessels adopting super low sulphur diesel DOT/TransAD Annually Annually 2009 TBD 20% by 2009 2012 20% by 2009 2015 2009 (baseline to be 100% by done) 2014 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD DOT Annually DOT Annually DOT/PTCo Annually % of all energy of all modes from low carbon energy e. biofuels etc.g. biofuels etc.g.7: Low Carbon Economy Strategy Performance Indicators Strategy Low Carbon Strategy KPI Source Frequency Baseline Target Low Carbon outcome Tonnes of CO2 Carbon footprint Emissions calculation DOT Carbon Auditing Annually Low Carbon Framework Number of projects registered with UN under CDM MW of low carbon energy generated by STMP initiated low carbon energy projects/initiatives % of electrified energy for PT supplied by low carbon enegry e. biofuels etc.
CO. Direct surveys could be undertaken by the agencies through a service level agreement or procured directly from the private sector by the DoT. An early action will be to develop a detailed survey programme that will provide the level of data required. some indicators require special data that may require additional resources to collect. and some surveys will be annual while others will need to be monthly. Data from third parties would be provided to DoT. society and to the environment. For example. for example information on land-use indicators will be collected by UPC and accident statistics from the police.g.g. Some will be collected by third parties or agencies.3 Surveys and Data Sources A significant amount of data needs to be collected and analysed to effectively assess the performance of the transport strategy and its impacts for the economy. The survey programme will include surveys at different times of year to reflect changing travel patterns and numbers that will vary with the seasons. and some from model outputs. travel surveys and traffic counts can be modified to better account for alternative modes. 124 . others from direct surveys undertaken for the DoT. SO2 and Pb Noise emissions levels Noise Annually Annually Annually 9.nvironment Table 9.2. Some of the data required may be available through existing sources. Some data can be collected during regular planning activities. surveys can include questions to categorize respondents). However. O3. and to allow comparisons between different groups (e.8: Natural and Built Environment Protection Strategy Performance Indicators Strategy Environmental enhancement strategy Strategy Environmental Protection outcome KPI Source Baseline and continued environmental monitoring Baseline and continued environmental monitoring DOT Baseline and continued environmental monitoring DOT DOT Emissions data collection and studies DOT Emissions data collection and studies Frequency Environmental Improvement Index Natural Environment Improvement Index Every 3 years Natural Environment Number of natural emvironment enhancement/restoration projects Built Environment Improvement Index Built Environment Number of built emvironment enhancement/restoration projects Vehicle fleet composition Emissions Air quality emissions levels within catagories of vehicle fleets Every 3 years Annually Baseline Target 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD 2009 (baseline to be done) TBD Every 3 years Annually Annually Air Annually NOx emissions levels PM10 emissions levels Ambient air quality monitoring and emissions modelling Ambient air quality monitoring and emissions modelling Ambient air quality monitoring and emissions modelling Ambient air quality monitoring and emissions modelling Ambient noise monitoring and mapping Annually Annually CO2 emissions levels Other pollutant emissions levels e.
outputs and inputs. and to enable the strategy to be reviewed. and Changes in consumer preferences.2.g. the model can be used to recast the targets.2. interchange dwell time etc.) isochrones to be drawn to key destinations and could be used as a key element in the monitoring system as well as influencing future transit oriented development. As external influences on the STMP change. on energy or pricing). It would allow indicators such as journey time (including walk.4 Targets and Trajectories In assessing whether the STMP objectives are on course to be delivered. global warming etc. By way of example. wait. flows by road type. vehicle kilometres travelled and mode shares. or as a result of external factors.’ and be used for aggregate information on traffic speeds. policies (e. Regular updates (every 2 years) will enable detailed monitoring of vehicle delays. technology. One key source of data will be the Abu Dhabi enhanced model. stop patterns and service variations and could be incrementally developed as the public transport system is built. The model can provide key performance indicators on traffic conditions such as vehicle delay per vehicle. Data audits may also be required to provide confidence in the validity of the data collected. This GIS-based model would contain all PT routes. Significant land-use changes. The model will also be used to keep the STMP live. Indicative targets are shown in the above tables where they can be identified at this stage. service frequency. it is important to set targets and trajectories to enable progress to be monitored in each year and for corrective action to be planned. and vehicle kilometres travelled by mode. Security issues. provide inputs to a Traffic Speed Index that can be calculated relating average speeds to ‘free flow speeds. These include: • • • • • Economic growth – local and global. Year on year changes need to be explained showing whether variances are a result of DoT policies. and even manual traffic counts are subject to an error of + or – 10% which is often greater than the trend value. a large number of consecutive days need to be surveyed to ensure that statistically reliable results are obtained. Targets will be set according to international benchmarks where appropriate to ensure that the STMP is delivering world class performance. Similar issues arise with customer surveys. 9. The development of an accessibility model would also enable key accessibility metrics to be monitored.5 mpacts External Impacts that Influence Delivery A number of external influences can affect the delivery of the STMP outcomes. However where cycle flows are at a low level. in vehicle.The survey programme will need to be supported by a detailed specification for each survey to ensure that the data collected is statistically reliable. 125 . many transport authorities monitor cycle flows through periodic (often annual) surveys. actions by a transport agency (or lack of action). Oil price variations. 9.
DoT corporate EHS will require each of the DoT sectors to develop an EHS performance monitoring plan on an annual basis of which STMP and project-related performance monitoring will be an important component. The STMP will need to fit in with the DoT’s cascading performance management approach which is illustrated in Figure 9. This will be through a set of customer-focused performance indicators. and amends the programme in response to these and external changes. mode shares. Indicators will also be required to estimate the value for money aspects of the plan delivery. residents. workers. This external monitoring would not be undertaken by DoT. and Accuracy of timescale estimation by agencies.2 below. consultants and contractors such as ratios of planned timescales to actual timescales.6 A Balanced Set of Indicators The performance indicators collected and monitored need to extend beyond the confines of technical performance indicators such as traffic flows. • These would be compared against international benchmarks to ensure value for money in procurement of services. If there are significant changes such as global events. but indicators collected elsewhere in the Government will need to be collated and reviewed. 126 . consultants and contractors such as ratios of planned to actual cost and design costs as a percentage of total construction costs. accident statistics. on-board and destination surveys. if necessary to recast the targets and trajectories. A large sample will be required if conclusions are to be drawn on minority transport modes such as cycling. and the environment. shoppers and tourists. except where it impacts on the updating of the model. The customer perceptions would be captured through an annual customer survey. The survey would aim to include users of the public transport system as well as non-users. However these external influences will need to be monitored to enable their effects to be isolated. then more regular recasting of the model will be required. The surveys would be a combination of household. some of which have been integrated into the tables above. These would include: • Accuracy of cost estimation by agencies. It is also important to ensure that customer perceptions are also captured. It will be prudent to update the Transport Model every two years and.3 Management and Organisational Arrangements The performance management processes ensure that DoT takes corrective action where there is under-performance against key outcome targets.2. The recommendations for these management processes are set out in later sections of this Chapter. 9. The performance monitoring system should also address the strategic indicators contained in the Strategic Plan and the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) performance requirements as stipulated by EHS law. 9.The STMP should be managed as a live document and regularly updated.
but elements of the task could be outsourced to the PMCs. These would include: • • • • A monthly monitoring meeting – supported by a monthly monitoring report. It is vital that the STMP progress. agencies or other parties and the Strategic PMC could also assist in setting up the process. 9. business-like approach to all aspects of information gathering and dissemination is essential to support the DoT Chairman account for the Plan delivery.2: DoT’s Cascading Performance Management Approach Policy IN G TO R Corporate GO VE NI RN MO CE AN & PL AN N IN G STMP Projects The planning. A Quarterly review meeting – supported by a quarterly monitoring report.1 Performance Monitoring Team A performance monitoring team should be established within the DoT with the remit to ensure integration of the STMP with the agency delivery plans and to link it to the budgeting process through resource planning. which would be tied to the work programme and milestones required to be met by the Programme Management Consultants.3. 127 . A structured. This is a core function of the DoT. the public and the media. monitoring and review cycle will be supported by a set of reports and meetings. outcomes and context are monitored and reported effectively as it is essential than such a costly programme retains full credibility with stakeholders.Figure 9. Each of these is considered in more detail below. and A 5-yearly strategy review – supported by a detailed review of the 5-year implementation plan and a revised STMP document. An annual review meeting – supported by a more detailed monitoring report which is also aimed at external stakeholders.
128 . The team will also be responsible for conducting a full analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of performance monitoring processes from time to time. its agencies and its delivery partners. through analysis of the other indicators in the KPI hierarchy as well as external influences. The information would be used to prepare an external facing report for stakeholders. identifying variations from plan and identifying clearly the reasons why. The efforts of the performance monitoring team will help to 'build momentum' behind the system and to align behaviour across partner organisations to a common set of objectives.3. and Supporting the enhancement of business planning skills. It will be supplemented by a monthly financial report prepared by the Strategic PMC.4 Review Annual Review The annual review would consider the full range of performance metrics. This forum is designed to encourage crosspartnership working to address problems arising as well to share best practices. and would include review of external influences on the delivery of the STMP. Progress towards all key outcomes and KPIs would be presented in an internal monitoring report. financial and scheme delivery information. The team has a key role to play in: • • Encouraging senior managers to commit to the defined business planning process. This document is described further below.The team should help ensure that STMP objectives are cascaded through the DoT.3. It would be led by the DoT Chairman or his nominee.2 Monthly Meetings The DoT’s agencies and the two PMCs will be required to report monthly to the Performance Management Team (PMT) on the basis of defined KPIs. 9. A detailed delivery plan for the following year would also be agreed at the meeting. It will need to ensure that KPI reports are produced across the agencies to a common standard so that a comprehensive document is produced from which to review strategy performance. 9. The monthly report will be discussed with the Strategic PMC and presented at the STMP monthly Steering Committee for consideration. the public and the media which would ‘sell’ the successes from the year and set out key goals for the year ahead. and use of Key Performance Indicators within the functions. A summary report would be prepared by the PMT. 9.3.3 Quarterly Review Progress against annual targets will be reviewed quarterly with senior managers across all partners involved in the delivery of STMP objectives. This would be presented to the monthly STMP Steering Group meeting in addition as an overview to the normal monthly report. The PMT will draw the KPIs together into a monthly report following discussions with the agencies/PMCs to acertain the explanations for any significant variances.
3 below.3: Risk Management Process Communicate & Consult Establish the context Objectives Stakeholders Criteria Establish key elements Identify the risks What can happen? Analyse the risks Review controls Likelihoods Consequences Evaluate the risks Evaluate risks Treat the risks Identify options Select the best responses Rank risks Develop risk treatment plans Implement How can it happen? Level of risk Monitor & Review ANSA/NZ 4360:2004 129 . 9. Mission. 20yr). Updated STMP.Critical Success Factors. Policies.The annual review would be linked to agencies’ service level agreement reviews. The review of the STMP would involve extensive stakeholder consultation and engagement and would result in an updated STMP document for both internal and external consumption. Figure 9. Values. and individual staff appraisal reviews to ensure that all aspects of the performance management system are aligned towards achieving the STMP objectives. The outputs from the Strategy Review process will be adjustments to: • • • • Vision. This report would be presented to the STMP Steering Group by the Chairman of DoT. 9. and subsequently to the Executive Council. Updated budget projection (next year. The revised STMP would drive the direction of the surface transport strategy for the next five years.3.6 Management of Risks Performance monitoring is part of the risk management cycle. This is illustrated in Figure 9. and Corporate Structure.5 Strategy Review Process The 5-yearly strategy review will take a 20-year forward perspective on the STMP.3. and Targets. reviewing the goals and objectives as well as the strategies and programmes of work required to deliver them. and Input to the next year Delivery Plan . A formal Risk Management process such as the ANSA/NZ 2004 standard should be adopted to identify potential scenarios that could seriously impair the ability of the DoT to achieve its objectives. Key Objectives. 5yr.
4. and pedestrians. The annual review process will also include an update of the Risk Register. there is a need for a strategic and integrated approach to stakeholder engagement and. visitors. the availability of public funding.1 External Dissemination and Stakeholder Engagement Background Background The DoT will provide transport solutions for a diverse geography with a challenging range of stakeholders who may have different perspectives for priorities and the characteristics of a successful outcome. Some of the most significant external risks. shortage of industrial supply-side capacity. the availability of private funding. public transport users. The performance monitoring team will play a key role in minimising these risks through their advice and support to DoT managers and to partners. a programme of communications that ensures clarity over responsibility for delivery and fosters an open and honest relationship between all those involved. businesses. It is essential that the factors influencing the risks are continually monitored and that control measures / contingencies are prepared for when critical thresholds are approached.4 9. Key risk factors will be routinely tracked at the quarterly review meeting and discussed in detail where the data indicates a significant threat. include: • • • • • global economic effects on the rate of development. cyclists. public resistance to the STMP or to the Vision. and travellers. 9.Risks are assessed in terms of how likely they are (likelihood) and the magnitude of the consequences (impact) if they were to occur. oil price variations. In view of this. and suppliers. at a process level. shippers. construction or supply price inflation The risks which are more controllable by the STMP implementation agencies include: • • • • • • a shortage of staff and/or skills that threaten the delivery of the STMP sub-optimal design requiring changing after construction works have been commissioned. The DoT’s stakeholder engagement processes should ensure that: 130 . each requiring a different approach to engagement: • • • decision makers and partner agencies. unforessen technical or land constraints. There are several stakeholder groups. which include commuters. for which mitigation measures may be needed. poor communication between of within the implementation agencies.
stakeholders’ aspirations are managed explicitly and that transport solutions are developed in recognition of key constraints so that there is no avoidable disruption to the DoT’s delivery plans; transport issues are taken into account as stakeholders develop their own business plans; resources can be allocated according to where there is the greatest risk or opportunity; and the DoT is made aware of all significant risks arising externlly and the actions being taken to mitigate their potential impact on the STMP.
• • •
Key Communication Processes
The approach to each stakeholder group should be tailored according to the stage of relationship and the level of risk or opportunity. The aim is to optimise the level of resources and input provided to each stakeholder to ensure a healthy productive relationship but also good use of time and effort. Methods of engagement will include an appropriate mix of: • • • • • 9.4.3 updates of performance provided on the DoT’s website; customer panels; orchestrated meetings with stakeholder groups; attendance at ad hoc or emerging event meetings; and annual stakeholder conference.
Annual Monitoring Report
An annual monitoring Report will be produced by DoT as described above. The report’s target audience will be stakeholders, the public and the UAE and international media. The report will be produced to a high level of design and will be aimed at raising the profile of the STMP’s successes over the past 12 months and looking forward to future plans. It would be separate from the DoT’s own annual report and those of the Agencies which will be aimed internally rather than externally. The report will set out: • • performance against objectives, key outcomes targets and trajectories; trends in KPIs, for example road safety, traffic growth, public transport patronage growth, percentage mode share and customer feedback from an annual survey; and successes and show cases, such as the opening of a flagship tram line ahead of schedule, reduction in public transport journey times through the opening of a new scheme, and highlighting innovation and best practice.
Annual Stakeholder and Media Conference
The Annual Monitoring Report could be launched to the media and the rest of the world at an annual conference. This would showcase the STMP and include invitations to international experts to present on specific topics related to the next phase in the plan’s implementation. The world’s media would also be invited to ensure that the successes are recognised internationally. 9.5 9.5.1 Maintenance of the STMP Model The Requirement
The maintenance and update of the STMP Enhanced Model will be an important task of the responsibility of the DOT. The Enhanced Model will be used for some 18 months to a year for a number of purposes including: • • • • • The detailed design of Metro, Tram and bus systems More refined analysis of policies like bus priority, parking restraint, Park & Ride Extending the bus network Supporting Traffic (or Transport) Impact Studies Updating forecasts as conditions or expectations change over the next two years
This requires keeping the model “live” and usable, retaining its original integrity and updating it as appropriate. Moreover, it will be necessary to perform runs with changed options or land uses and validate the results from them. Overall, the following activities must be undertaken in respect of the STMP Enhanced model in order to retain it as a useful and live tool: 1. Maintenance maintain the central or official version of the model over which all other Maintenance: runs must be based; maintain and protect the databank and the land use information as well as the appropriate documentation; answer any queries about inputs, outputs and interpretation of model results. 2. Run the model: or review runs for particular purposes. These objectives may range from consideration of small changes to the network and alignments, junction improvements, modifications to some schemes; a significant use would be to support TISs through the cordoning of matrices and networks and the analysis of results. 3. Improve the model: as appropriate to satisfy new requirements that were not essential for the delivery of the STMP; a typical example may be to improve the model in its treatment of Park & Ride facilities or of delays at junctions where trams would operate. 4. Update the model as new data becomes available, either because expectations for future model: land uses have changed, or new data has been collected, it will be desirable to update the model and retain its functionality with fresher data. The tasks above are the responsibility of DOT as owner and guardian of the STMP Enhanced Model. These responsibilities can be discharged either through building a strong in-house modelling team or outsourcing to consultants some of these tasks.
It is rare for all these functions to be undertaken in-house. The development of a model or a major update would require in-house resources that will not be necessary in the interim periods between updates. Moreover, a good contract with an external body gives more control on timescales and resources than the in-house operation. The DOT is building up its strength in all areas, including transport modelling capability. It contracted the development of the STMP Enhanced model to a consortium of consultants and awarded the development of the New Advanced Model to a separate consultancy. It is possible for DOT to internalise some of the functions above in the immediate future. It is clear that for major studies other consultants will use the official version of the model and enhance and modify it to serve their purposes better. It is desirable that any enhancements to the model are then reviewed by DOT to decide how much of them should be incorporated in the official version. Figure 9.4 outlining this process is offered below. Any new version of the model and its databank should only be released after some thorough testing. Versions could be identified by their parameters, structure and functionality with the first digit and land use and network versions on the second one. In many cases the changes would affect only one or two years and in that case it would be more appropriate to change only the land use/network index and call it, for example, version 1.1. 9.4 Figure 9.4: Process of Maintenance of the STMP Model
Development model using surveys & data
Data Collection for New Model
New Advanced Model
Production model for use in planning and design
Enhanced Model V1
Enhanced Model V2
Enhanced Model V2, V3 etc
New Advanced Model
Model in use for TIS and design
Metro Project using V1
TISs using V2
Proposed pproach Our Proposed Approach
It is useful, in this sense, for the DOT to keep the integrity of the official version and also have an update or enhancement under development and review. The DOT will have the responsibility, therefore, of version control and the handing over of databank and other files and documentation to consultants and other users. When the DOT is satisfied that the new version is stable and reliable enough for general use and really adds value to any forecasts, it can release it for general use and provide the documentation and training that may be required.
some of the internal runs that will be undertaken by the team Help in deciding the best approach to coding certain schemes and in interpreting the results from initial runs 9. performance monitoring. as far as possible. set up progress review mechanisms. develop accessibility model. To bring the in-house capability up to the desired level it may be necessary to obtain additional. management and dissemination of the STMP: • Initial set up: • • • • • • recruit team. We recommend that DoT aims for a balance between the development of in-house capability and out-sourcing. techniques. depending on the volume of in-house runs and work that are anticipated. training in survey specification. 134 . commission on-going survey programme. detailed development of KPIs.6 Action Plan The following actions will need to be undertaken in 2009 to take forward the performance monitoring.Although the DOT will not be responsible for the quality of the model runs should keep an overseeing function on the model use to ensure consistency and acceptability of the analysis based on these runs. on-call support to: • • • • • Train DoT modellers on the technical and practical aspects of running the model Develop more comprehensive documentation than originally envisaged Request clarification and support in dealing with the initial set of questions that may arise and that cannot be solved by extensive documentation Develop specific macros to automate. develop detailed survey specifications. • Planning the reporting cycle • • • plan for stakeholder engagement. Implementing the monitoring process: • • • • develop baseline for KPIs by analysis or survey as appropriate and targets based on baseline and STMP modelling. creation of detailed performance hierarchies. develop detailed survey programme. statistical techniques. plan for annual conference (March 2010).
RoadCo and ADTCo to deliver reports on the achievement of their service KPIs to a survey specialist to carry out regular surveys of transport outcomes (for example. The collection and collation of data should then be out-sourced as follows: • • • to the PMCs to deliver progress reports on the achievement of project milestones to the agencies. traffic flows. the team would be able to draw on support to set up the framework and monitoring process if it is short of capacity. travel times. accessibility indices. 135 . environmental indicators) This will allow the PMT to concentrate on analysis and reporting.Although this is a core function of DoT.
APPENDIX A List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Metro Network Staging Plan Tram Tram Network Staging Plan Congestion Strategy Action Plan Freight Strategy Action Plan Environmental Environmental and Low Carbon Strategies Action Plan Road Safety Strategy Action Plan DoT Overview Action Plan ADT ADTCo Set up Action Plan RoadCo RoadCo Set up Action Plan A-1 .
Network Figure 1 Metro Network Staging Plan A-3 .
Figure 2 Tram Network Staging Plan A-4 .
Figure 3 Congestion Strategy Action Plan A-5 .
Figure 4 Freight Strategy Action Plan A-6 .
Environmental Figure 5 Environmental and Low Carbon Strategies Action Plan A-7 .
Figure 6 Road Safety Strategy Action Plan A-8 .
Figure 7 DoT Overview Action Plan A-9 .
ADT Figure 8 ADTCo Set up Action Plan A-10 .
RoadCo Figure 9 RoadCo Set up Action Plan A-11 .
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