Q. What are the challenges before the Human Resource function in today’s Indian business scenario?

Ans. A goal seeking organizations especially one that seeks improvement over the current situation is a challenge, taking organization. When many such goals are pursued tremendous internal pressures some of them conflicting, tend to be generated. Unless the organization develops mechanisms for coping with these self-generated pressures, it may face major failure and suffer disastrous retreats from its goal.

Human Resource function cannot be performed in a vacuum. There are many challenges that it has to face to survive. All these challenges are discussed below.

1. Technological factors: Just as necessity is the mother of invention competition and a host of other reasons are responsible for the rapid technological changes and innovations. As a consequence of these changes, technical personnel, skilled workers, computer operators and machine operators are increasingly required while the demand for other categories of employers has declined. Hence procurement of skilled employees and their increase in numbers to match the changing job requirements has become a complicated task.

2. Human Resource in the Country: The structure, values and the level of education of human resource in a country influence much of the Human Resource function. The influence of manpower in the country can be studies through the changes in structure of employment. a. Change in the Structure of Employment: The structure of employment in an organization changes with the entrance of workforce with different backgrounds (Social economic, region, community, sex, religion, traditions culture etc). There has been a significant change in the structure of employment with the entry of 1) candidates belonging to the schedule castes, schedules tribes and backward communities. 2) more female employees, due to increased career orientation among women to the suitability of women for certain jobs and to women becoming more acclimatized to the working climate and higher level of commitment. 3) The workforce consists of different regions but due to increased transportation facilities and mobile character of people. These changes in workforce are a challenge and a complicated task of HR function. It has to deal with employees with different backgrounds.

3. Changes in employee Roles and their Values: Earlier the management could totally control its employees and get the desired output. Today the employees have to be considered as a partner in the organization. Changing structure of workforce has led to the introduction of new values in organization. Among these are moves 1) emphasis on quality of life rather than quantity ii) equality and justice for employees over economic efficiency iii) participation over authority. iv) Workers now prefer flexible working hours to fixed time schedule. v)

Social factors: Social environment consists of class structure. 4. The Employment Exchange Act. Trade Union act 1962. Hence the customers pose a challenge special ally in service industry. Customers may develop a negative attitude towards the organization. But the need for Govt. In other words organizations depend upon customers for their survival and growth.. religion culture etc. 7. Changing demands of employer: changes always are not on the side of employees. 1948. Customers: Organizations produce products or render services for the ultimate consumption use by the customer.Level of education in recent years is comparatively very higher. Government and Legal factors: Until 1940 the government was not involved or interested regarding the problems of labor or industry. The Minimum Wages Act 1923. Standing Order Act 1946. To cater to everyone’s requirement and keep them happy is a big challenge faced by HR today. and The Apprentice Act 1961. The information technological revolution and neck to neck marketing competition of most of the organizations due to globalization demand that the existing employees adopt to the ever-changing work situation and learn new skills. 6. Maternity Benefit Act 1961. interference arose out of the belief that Government is the custodian of industrial and economic activities. The banks face such type of challenges. mobility social roles social values nature and development of social institutions caste structure and occupational structure. 5. Payment of wages Act 1936. traditions. if it does not follow the social policies of the country. Organizations also undergo changes and consequently their demands on employees will also change. knowledge etc to cope with the new changes. Increased formal education has led to the change of attitude of the employees. Write short notes on any three. The Payment of Bonus Act 1965. Q. Customers revolt against employees. However awareness of legislations is very important like the Factory Act. if the services rendered are less qualitative. The role of the government in business has after 1991 with the announcement of economic liberalization. a) Job Description Manual b) Training Needs Analysis c) Employee . All these acts if not complied with can get the organization into deep trouble.

Sr.. experience. 2. It tells us what should be done. works wise. Training needs = Job and organizational requirement-Employees Specifications Methods used in Training Need Analysis. Training Needs Analysis: Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational analysis. 4. And b. 5. 1. The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position. The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all important relationships. 6.d) Organization Downsizing e) Team Effectiveness Ans a. 8. 9. knowledge and skill. should be stated very clearly. It serves to identify a job for continuation by other job analysts. training methods and course content are to be planned on the basis of training needs. 7. (g) The basic requirement. age qualifications etc. Job Description: Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. Training programme. (f) Supervisory responsibility should be shown to the incumbents. Group or Organizational Analysis To identify Organizational goals and objectives Personnel/skill inventories Organizational Climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Observation of behavior . Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which is lacking attitude/aptitude. why it should be done and where it should be performed. More specific words should be selected to show (a) the kind of work (b) the degree of complexity (c) the degree of skill required (d) the extend to which problems are standardized (e) the degree and type of accountability. 3. duties etc. job analysis and manpower analysis.

Traveling and subsistence expenses. Grievance procedure. holidays. medical care arrangements. Teamwork gains more significance rather than individual jobs. Though each employee is allotted a job in the team. Sickness rules. promotion channel.changes Ans. market. earned – holidays. Various employees – their designations – position in the organisation. training and development facilities. vacation. he is expected to take up the job of other employees when they fail to do it perfectly. equipment. customers etc. Because maintaining surplus of labour will eat into the profits of theCo. organisation and management. information – pay – sick leave. use of materials. Basic conditions of employment – hours of work. Career path. Organisational Downsizing: When there is a surplus of labour the organization is faced with a problem of downsizing the organization. special. of the company. It is not easy to pay employees without extracted work from them. These days’ organizations started designing teams and analyzing team work. Pay. Another way of downsizing is delayering the organization and rectifies the situation of overstaffing. Thus jobs in a team overlap with each other. Unions. Social benefits and welfare measures. The Employee Manual contains the following :                   History. c. Ans e. In fact individual jobs are losing their relevance in the re-engineered businesses. products. clothing. Education. Leave rules – casual. In such cases the organization is faced with a problem of using the existing surplus for some higher category of work by giving them training or employing them with their sister concern or simply giving the employees a golden handshake through Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS). Disciplinary rules and procedure. Employee Manual: The Employee Manual is a document that an employee can refer to for any kind of query about the rules and guidelines of an organization. growth. Health. deductions. The total operation is assigned to a group of employees. Ans d. organizations based on supply chain management. Work rules – work-load. negotiating machinery. shift. Team Effectiveness: Team effectiveness is the result of team work which consists of a group of jobs that are linked and interconnected with each other for the purpose of performing a total operation. Canteen and restaurant facilities. Telephone calls and correspondence. retirement benefits. Safety. allowances. and machine. Most recent organization . Uniforms. Team effectiveness is essential to serve the customer completely.

Business Process Re-engineering (BPRE) and Supply Chain Management require teamwork. The Role of a constructive and positive Trade Union - Achieving higher wages and better working and living conditions for the members Acquiring the control of industry by worker Minimizing the helplessness of the individual workers by making them stand collectively and against victimization and injustice of the employers Raising the status of the workers as partners of the industry and citizens of society by demanding the increasing share for the workers in the \management of industrial enterprises Providing a worker self confidence and self esteem Imbibing sincerity and discipline in workers. Infact practices of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). The impact of synergy results in high productivity of teamwork than that of the total of individual employees.has realized that teamwork produces better results than the performance of individual work. Q. Besides the above functions of the trade unions the national Commission of Labour has entrusted the following responsibilities on to the trade unions which they execute: - Promotion of national integration Instilling in their members a sense of responsibility towards the industry and the community Generally influencing the socio-economic policies of the community through active participation in their formulation at various levels. . What is the role of a constructive and positive Trade Union? Ans. To protect the right to be consulted on all matters affecting the workers interest. Team effectiveness pertains to minimum acceptable human qualities and relationships necessary to perform all kinds of activities in a team.

Social Functions: These functions include carrying out social service activities. 4. Militant or Intra Mural Functions : these functions include protecting the workers interest i. providing more benefits. Viz 1. . discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers etc.e. 2. preparing notes for union officials. helping the political party in enrolling members. Political Functions: These functions include affiliating a union to a political party. recreational and housing facilities. 5. canvassing during the election period. Educating its members and their family. hike in wages. Analyzing data for collective bargaining. provision of social and religious benefits etc. seeking help of political parties during the strikes and lockouts. extension of medical facilities. Arranging to conduct research programmes. collecting donations. 3. for court cases etc. provision of education. Ancillary Functions: Ancillary functions of trade include Communications to its members. job security etc. construction of houses. Fraternal Or Extra Mural Functions : These functions include providing financial and nonfinancial assistance to workers during the period of strikes. a Give a brief outline of the Human Resource Planning System. lock-outs. through collective bargaining and direct action such as strikes. Q. Welfare activates like acquiring of house sites. recreation. and establishment of co-operative societies. gheraos etc. industry and different sectors etc.The functions of the trade union can be divided into 5 categories. during sickness and casualties. They also arrange to analyze macro data about the economy.

To make the best use of its human resources To estimate the cost of human resources. To improve the standards.a. To foresee the impact of technology on work. diversification etc. . STRATEGY Expansion Diversification Acquisitions and Mergers Retrenchment Low Cost Leadership Differentiation Strategy HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Additional human resources of existing categories. skill knowledge. To maintain congenial industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resources.Ans. It is influenced by the strategic management of the co. To foresee the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of consequent vacancies. To access the surplus or shortage of human resources and take measures accordingly. right number in the right time and right place. ability discipline etc. To meet the needs of the programmers of expansion. Purpose of Human Resource Planning. It is a process by which an organization moves from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. To minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of the right kind. Additional human resources of different categories Reduction of human resources of managerial positions Reduction of human resources of almost all the categories through VRS and other means Reduction of human resources Additional human resources of different categories. - To recruit and retain the human resource of required quantity and quality. unit and the total company for a particular date in order to carry out organizational activities. Human resource planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job.

Estimating the net human resources requirements In case of future surplus. What is Job Evaluation? Ans. - Analyzing Corporate and unit level strategies Demand Forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resources requirements in accordance with the organizational plans. Job Evaluation is the process of determining by observation and study and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. Once jobs have been evaluated it is then possible to harness a wage or salary structure to the established hierarchy Q. It is concerned with arrangement of jobs in order of relative value within a given organization. abilities and responsibilities of the worker of a successful performance and which differentiates one job from all others. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if future supply is more than or equal to net human resource requirements.Important Elements of Human Resource Planning. Q b. Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if future supply will be inadequate with reference to future net requirements. retrenchment and lay off. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills. b. In case of future deficit. plan for re-deployment. Write short notes on any three: . forecast the future supply of human resources from all sources with reference to plans of other companies. Supply Forecasting: Obtaining the data and information about the present inventory of human resources and forecast the future changes in the human resources inventory. knowledge. development and internal mobility if future supply is more than or equal to net human resources requirements. Plan for recruitment.

4. Training needs = Job and organizational requirement-Employees specifications Identification of Training Needs Sr. 6. 5. 4. 8. job analysis and manpower analysis. 2. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general . Group or Organizational Analysis To identify Organizational goals and objectives Personnel/skill inventories Organizational Climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Observation of behavior b. The trainee received job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the Different job assignments. 9. One is the Organizational Analysis and the other Individual Analysis. 3.1. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which employee is lacking attitude/aptitude. 1. 2. Basically there are two type of analysis done to identify the training. Identification of training needs Job Rotation Principle of Natural justice Workers participation in Management Ans.a. knowledge and skills. Identification of training needs: Training needs are identified on the basis of organizational anaylsis. 3. Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. 7.

The main objective of WPM in management include To promote increased productivity for the advantage of the organization. d. The concept crystallizes the Concept of industrial democracy and indicates an attempt on the part of an employer to build his Employees into a team which works towards the realization of a common objective. It is a mental and Emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to goals and share responsibilities in them. trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs.Management positions. with agencies utilizing existing or revised Grievance processes to enable employees to raise issues arising from the change process. This method Gives an opportunity to express his own ideas. .Workers Participation in Management: The concept of WPM is considered as a mechanism where Workers have a say in the decision making process of an enterprise. workers and society at large. All decisions are transparent All decisions are adequately documented A review process exits for affected employees. Principle of Natural Justice: It is a fair practice of decision making and running the organization.Relevant and current policy and procedures are well documented and accessible by employees. Decision making takes into account both the individual and employers needs . c.

What steps should an organization take to make training more effective? Ans a. Q. Joint Management councils. The important steps for a training to be effective are as follows: 1.e. Forms of WPM include works committees. Joint Councils and Shop Councils.To provide a better understanding to employees about their role and place in the process of attainment of organizational goals. 2. Preparing the Instructor: The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. To develop social education for effective solidarity among the working community and for tapping latent human resources. demonstration or explanation. a. 3. The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time without the training losing plan. a) A serious and committed instructor must : 1. 4. whether a particular point is best taught by illustration. For each part one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction i. Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach Have the aptitude and ability to teach Have willingness towards the profession Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership . To satisfy the workers social and esteem needs To strengthen labour management co-operation and thus maintaining industrial peace and harmony. An ideological point of view to develop self management in industry To build the most dynamic human resource To build the nation through entrepreneurship and economic development.

Some instructors prefer that the trainee explains each step before doing it. The material should be taken from standardized text When the standardized text is not available then the programme should be developed based on group approach consisting of employer. Repetition should be in different words. In addition one may illustrate various points through the uses of picture. Presenting the Operation: There are various alternative ways of presenting the operations viz. knowledge or procedure. the trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Most people are somewhat nervous when approaching an unfamiliar task. in the sense that he should equip himself with the latest concepts and knowledge. explanation. 5. safety rules. Getting ready to Teach : This stage of the programme is class hour teaching involving the following activities : Planning the programme Preparing the instructors outline Too much material much be avoided The session should move logically Each item should be discussed in depth. trade union leaders and others familiar with the job requirements. particularly if the operation involves any danger. ability to work without supervision. An instructor mostly uses these methods of explanation. skilled employees. The trainee through repetitive practice shall acquire more skills. 4. 2. quantity. Teach about the standard for trainee like quality. The quality of empathy is a mark of a good instructor. waste or scrap. supervisors. human relations etc.5. Though the instructor may have executed the training programme many times he or she should never forget the newness to the trainee. Be a permanent student. Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods 6. 3. . charts diagrams and other training aids. Try out the Trainees Performance: As a continuation of the training sequence. demonstration. Preparing the Trainee: The trainee should be made at ease.

Quality of supervision 5. Maintenance Factors or Dissatisfiers or Hygiene Factors 1. Critically examine Herzberg’s two factor theory. Their presence or existence does not motivate in the sense of yielding satisfaction. Herzberg Theory of motivation deals with basically two factors. Job Content 2. working conditions. advancement and growth in job. but their absence would result in dissatisfaction. Another WAY to present the above question Ans b. Extrinsic Factors 3. interpersonal relations. Every training programme should have a follow up to improve on the future programmes. Q b. supervision. Herzberg’s Classification of Maintenance and Motivational Factors Sr. These factors he called “DISSATISFIERS” and not motivators. Peer Relations Motivational Factors or Satisfiers Job Content Intrinsic Factors Achievement Recognition Advancement Work Itself . It includes factors of achievement. SATISFIERS: The second group are the”satisfiers’ in the sense that they are motivators which are related to job content. salary. Relations with superiors 6. DISSATISFIERS: The first group (factor) consists of needs such as company policy and administration. status. They are also known as hygiene factors. recognition. b. Ans. Their presence yields feeling of satisfaction or no satisfaction but not dissatisfaction.6. Follow up can be adapted to a variable re-enforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion of learning principles. Follow Up: The final step in most training procedures is the follow-up when people are involved in any problem or procedure it is unwise to assume that things are always constant. job security and personal life. challenging work. Company Policy and Administration 4.

It includes techniques like in basket. b. 11. 9. Later. Relations with subordinates Pay Job security Work Conditions Status Possibility of Growth Responsibility Q. 8. case studies. role playing. business and industrial houses started using this method. Ans. structured in sight.7. This method of appraising was first applied in the German Army in 1930. In fact it is a system or organisation. stimulation exercises. 10. This is not a technique of performance appraisal by itself.b. where assessment of several individuals is done by various experts by using various techniques. Write short notes on Assessment Centre. transactional analysis etc .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful