i
1 0 0 0
1
2 90 0.125
0
2
3 0 0.65
0
3
4 90 0 0.6
4
5 90 0 0
5
6 90 0 0.2
6
Fig. 1 JS10 robot and DH parameters
3. OPERATIONAL SPACE AND EQUATION
OF MOTION
3.1 Operational Space
Task specification for motion and contact forces,
dynamics, and force sensing feedback are closely linked
to the endeffectors motion. Obviously, the control of
endeffector motion and contact forces, or the analysis
and characterization of endeffector dynamic
performance requires the construction of the model
describing the dynamic behavior of this specific part of
the manipulator system.
The basic idea in the operational space approach
(Khatib 1987) is to control motions and contact forces
through the use of control forces that act directly at the
level of endeffector. These control forces are produced
by the applications of corresponding torques and forces
at the manipulator joints.
3.2 Effector Equation of Motion
The manipulator configuration is represented by the
column matrix q of n joint coordinates, and the
endeffector position and orientation are described, in
frame of reference, by m
0
x1 column matrix x of
independent configuration parameters.
In the reference frame R0, the system of m0
equations expressing the components of x as functions of
joint coordinates, i.e., the geometric model, is given by
G( ) = x q (1)
Equation (2) is the vector represents the relationship
between the joint velocity vector q response to this
change of position and orientation of the endeffector
associated with vector X.
( ) J q q X = (2)
where ( ) J q is Jacobian matrix. The endeffector in m
dimension space, if the manipulator moves in n degree of
freedom, ( ) J q is an m
0
x n matrix. The kinetic energy
of homonomic articulated mechanism is a quadratic form
of generalized operational velocities
1
( , ) ( )
2
T
T = A x x x x x (3)
where ( ) A x designates the m
0
x m
0
symmetric matrix
of the quadratic form, i.e., the kinetic energy matrix.
Using the Lagrange formalism, the end effector
equations of motion are given by
d L L
dt
c c  
=

c c \ .
F
x x
(4)
where the Lagrange ( , ) L x x is
( , ) ( , ) ( ) L T U = x x x x x (5)
and ( ) U x represent the potential energy due to gravity.
F is the operational force vector. Let ( ) p x be the vector
of gravity forces
( ) ( ) p U = V x x (6)
The endeffector equation of motion in operational
space can be represented by the following form
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Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 3
( ) ( , ) p( ) A + + = x x x x x F (7)
where ( , ) x x is the vector of endeffector centrifugal
and Coriolis forces given by
( , ) ( ) ( , ) T = A V x x x x x x
(8)
The relationship between F and the generalized joint
forces is given by
( )
T
J = q F (9)
4. ACTIVE FORCE FORCE CONTROL IN
OPERATIONAL SPACE
High performance control of endeffector motion and
contact forces requires the description of how motions
along different axes are interacting, and how the apparent
or equivalent inertia or mass of the endeffector varies
with configurations and directions.
The operational space formulation provides a natural
framework to address the problem of motion and force
control in an integrated manner, allowing the
development of unified approach for the control of
endeffector motions and contact forces.
In constrained motion operations, the endeffectoris
subjected to a set of geometric constraints which restrict
its freedom of motion. However, active forces and
moments at these constraints can still be controlled. The
number of degrees of freedom for the motion of the
constrained endeffector is given by the difference
between the numbers of degrees of freedom of the
unconstrained endeffector and the number of the
independent equations that specify the geometric
constraints. The description of a fine motion task
involves specifications of the forces and moments that
must be applied at the geometric constraints, and
specifications of the endeffector motion freedom
directions.
4.1 Generalized Selection Matrices
In the operational space framework, the control of the
endeffector motions and contact forces is based on a
model which describes the dynamic behavior as
perceived at some reference point on( or attached to) the
endeffecotr. It is with respect to this point O, called
the operational point, that the endeffector translational
and rotational motions, active forces and moments are
specified. Force and moments applied at the operational
point are defined by a global reference
frame
0 0 0
( , , , )
O
O 9 x y z . This frame always remains
parallel to fixed reference frame,
0 0 0
( , , , )
O
O 9 x y z
,
irrespectively of the orientation of the
endeffector.
0 0 0
( , , , )
F
O 9 x y z is defined coordinate of
the endeffector frame which translate and rotates with
endeffector.
Fig. 2 Reference Frames
Let us consider the case of the simple onepoint
contact task, illustrated in Fig. 4. Let F
d
be the vector of
desired forces to be applied by the endeffector at the
contact point. The freedom of motion of the constrained
endeffector lies in the subspace orthogonal to F
d
. A
convenient coordinate frame for the description of such a
task is the coordinate frame R
F
(O, x
F
, y
F
, z
F
) obtained
from R0 by a rotation transformation, SF. For this type
of contact, it is convenient to select the axis z
F
along the
direction of the desired force F
d
. Clearly, this assignment
of axes might not be the most appropriate for other types
of contact. For multiple contact tasks, the z axis can be
more efficiently selected along one of the axes of
freedom of translational motion.
Fig. 3 Constrained Motion Task
The motion specification matrix can be defined as
equation (10) where
x
F
,
y
F
and
z
F
are binary
numbers assigned the value 1 when a free motion is
specified along the axes, and respectively, and zero
otherwise. The directions of force control are described
by the force specification matrix EF associated with
The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011
Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 4
E
F
is represented by the formula (11) as following
0 0
0 0
0 0
x
 

E = 


\ .
y
z
F
F F
F
(10)
f f
I = (11)
where I
3
designates the 3x3 identity matrix
A similar specification matrix can be defined for task
involving constrained rotations and applied
moments. ( , , , )
M M M M
o x y z 9 is a coordinate frame
obtained from
0 0 0 0
( , , , ) o x y z 9 by a rotation S
M
. To
a task specified in terms of endeffector rotations and
applied moments in the coordinate frame
M
9 , are
associated the rotation/moment specification
matrices E
M
, EM , defined as
0 0
0 0
0 0
 

E = 


\ .
x
y
z
M
M M
M
(12)
3
I E = E M
M
(13)
where
x
M
,
y
M
and
z
M
are binary numbers assigned
the value 1 when free rotation is specified about the axes
0 , 0 and 0
M M M
x y z
respectively, and zero otherwise.
Tasks involving position/force and orientation/ moment
specifications are described by the generalized task
specification matrices
0
0
T
T
S S
S S
  E
O =

E
\ .
F F F
M M M
(14)
0
0
T
T
S S
S S
 
E
O = 

E
\ .
F
F F
M
M M
(15)
associated with specifications of motion and forces,
respectively.
4.2 Unified Motion and force control
For a multilinked manipulator, the
endeffector/sensor equations of motion can be written as
0 0 0 0
( ) ( ) p ( )
contact
A + + + = x v x, v x F F (16)
The vector F
contact
represents the contact forces acting
at the endeffector. The unified approach for endeffector
dynamic decoupling, motion and active force control is
achieved by selecting the control structure
0 motion active force
= + F F F (17)
Where
*
0 0 0
( ) ( ) p ( )
motion motion
= A O + + F x F x, v x (18)
*
0
( )
active force active force sensor
= A O + F x F F (19)
And
0 0
( ), ( ) x x y A , and
0
p ( ) x in the equation (18)
represent the estimates of
0 0
( ), ( ) x x y A , . The vector
*
F
motion
and
*
F
active force
represent the inputs to the
coupled system. The generalized joint forces required
to produce the operational forces
0
F are
0 0
( )
T
J = q F (20)
With perfect estimates of the dynamic parameters and
perfect sensing of contact forces Fsensor = Fcontact, the
closed loop system is described by the following two
decoupled subsystems:
*
motion
O = O v F (21)
*
active force
O = O v F (22)
The unified motion and force control system is
shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 4 Unified control for contact force and motion
architecture
5. SIMULATIONS
5.1 Motion Control
The initial configuration of the robot is initial
position (0.6, 0.3, 0.4) via final position (0.6, 0.1, 0.4)
and the desired circular trajectory of radius 0.2m. This
path is generated on the yz plane and traced for two
The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011
Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 5
second form t=1 to t=2. The dynamic control input
conducted by
*
( ) ( )
motion p d v d
K x x K x x
 
= + F (23)
Where Kp = 5e04, Kv = 1e03. The average error of
estimation of the dynamic parameters is shown in table 1
Error of , , p (%) Position error(m)
10 3,2886e004
20 4.1567e004
30 5.9365e004
Table 1 Robustness to parameter uncertainty
5.2 Impact Force Control
Control of impact force provide with essential
information of the contact force occurred at the
endeffector and environment.
The first experiment, contact force and motion are
controlled without any measure after impact and the
second experiment with the impact of the endeffector
and workpiece, FT sensor touch and detected the
moment from damping force which is used to apply for
this algorithm. Finally, the gain value K
d
applied to
damping force know as the value of the workpiece and
the distance endeffector are adjusted according to the a
specific location, hence, the algorithm are used to change
the value of the sigmoid function. (Lim, T.M. 2005).
(a) Without control
(b)Damping control
(c)With sigmoid function
Fig. 5 Control of impact force
5.3 Unified motion and force control
The endeffector motion on the surface of the
workpiece as well as the experimental results of force
control has been verified. Control input for controlling of
the endeffector movement to determine
*
motion
F , set up
a selection motion matrix O,
*
active force
F
is the force
control of endeffector and setting the selection matrix
O that determine the direction of force control. In
addition, in case of impact contact, damping force is
applied on endeffector and workpiece.
Fig. 6 Unified control of contact force and motion
The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011
Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 6
6. CONCLUSION
In this research, the 3D modeling simulation of the
industrial robot manipulator JS10 implemented with
contact force and unified control over the workspace.
Unified control over the operational space is much
easier and more efficient than implement them on the
joint space. The proposed approach shows that it has
considerable robustness about variation of the dynamic
parameters.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Following are results of a study on the "Human
Resource Development Center for Economic
Region Leading Industry" Project, supported by the
Ministry of Education, Science & Technology
(MEST) and the National Research Foundation of
Korea (NRF).
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