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The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011

Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 1


Unified Control for Contact Force and Motion of Industrial Robot
Manipulator JS-10 in Operational Space
D. S. Ahn
1
, Van Phuc Nguyen
1
, K.T. Kang
2

1
Mechanical and Automotive Engineering Department, Pukyong National University, Namgu, Busan, Korea
2
Electrical Engineering Department, Pukyong National University, Namgu, Busan, Korea


Abstract. In this paper we present an approach for contact force and motion control of robot manipulator based on the
operational space. The end-effector equations of motion in operational space are a fundamental tool for the analysis of
control, and dynamic characterization of manipulator systems. These equations are expressed by use of the
relationships between its operational positions, velocities, accelerations, and the virtual operational forces acting on it.
For general tasks that involve end-effector motion and contact forces, the motion directions or force directions are
selected depending on generalized task specification matrices which can be constant, configuration-varying, or
time-varying. Simulations are performed on dynamics simulator SIMSTUDIO. Virtual environment and full solid
model of JS-10 are created by use of 3d Max and CATIA v5. The real-time operational space control system has been
implemented in the industrial manipulator robot JS-10 which manufactured by KAWASAKI, with real-time dynamics
simulator. All of preparatory equations are computed with Robotics Toolbox in MATLAB. The robot control
algorithms are coded by C++.

Keywords: Operational space, Unified control of contact force and motion,Manipulator


1. INTRODUCTION
The traditional manipulator used in industry has
been operated by controlling of their joint and angular
velocity which are previously determined. However,
applications in industrial field are limited and cannot be
precisely controlled because they are difficult to
recognize the interactive environment between the
end-effector and contact surface on the workpiece. On
the other hand, the robot manipulator working on the
operational space can be operated much more efficiently
than the traditional manipulator robot. The approaches
based on operational space enable a manipulator to
perform tasks much easier and intuitively.
In this paper, we present the unified control of
contact force and motion for a 6-DOF robot manipulator
(Kawasaki JS-10) on the operational space. The
developed model is simple and exact enough to be
computed and used in real time and dynamics-based
control techniques.
The main contents of this paper are organized in
these following. Section 2 describes the representation of
manipulator dynamics and presents applied kinematics
parameters for all links of JS-10 robot arm. Section 3 and
4 devote to establish formula of active force and motion
control, respectively. Section 5 presents simulation result
and compares the results of control algorithm under
different conditions, and finally conclusions are
summarized in Section 6.

2. MANIPULATOR KINEMATICS
A manipulator is treated as a holonomic system with
a structure of an open kinematic chain of n+ 1 rigid body,
i.e., links, articulated through n revolute and/or prismatic
joints having one degree of freedom.
The kinematic relationship between a pair of
adjacent links in the chain is described by the coordinate
transformation between two coordinate frames attached
to the two links. Links are numbered from 0, the base, to
n, the end-effector, while joints are numbered from 1 to
n.
A coordinate frame R
i
(O
i
,x
i
, y
i
, z
i
) is attached to
link i: The position and orientation of the link i with
respect to link i-1 is described by the transformation
between a coordinate frame R
i-1
(O
i-1
, x
i-1
, y
i-1
, z
i-1
)
attached to the link i - 1 and R
i
:
The z-axis, z
i
; of a coordinate frame R
i
are selected
along the axis of joint i.
The ki nemat i c rel at i onshi p bet ween a pai r of
adj acent l i nks i -1 and i connect ed t hrough a
one-degree-of-freedom j oi nt i can be compl et el y
det ermi ned by a set of four
The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011

Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 2
paramet ers ( , , , )
i i i i
a d , cal l ed paramet ers of
Denavi t -Hart enberg. These paramet ers defi ne
t he homogeneous t ransformat i on bet ween t he t wo
coor di nat e frames at t ached t o t he t wo l i nks. The
Denavi t -Hart enberg paramet ers of KAWASAKI
robot JS-10 are defi ned as shown in Fi g. 1


i
i-1
a
i-1
d
i

i
1 0 0 0

1

2 -90 0.125

0
2

3 0 0.65

0
3

4 -90 0 0.6

4

5 90 0 0
5

6 -90 0 0.2

6



Fig. 1 JS-10 robot and D-H parameters

3. OPERATIONAL SPACE AND EQUATION
OF MOTION
3.1 Operational Space
Task specification for motion and contact forces,
dynamics, and force sensing feedback are closely linked
to the end-effectors motion. Obviously, the control of
end-effector motion and contact forces, or the analysis
and characterization of end-effector dynamic
performance requires the construction of the model
describing the dynamic behavior of this specific part of
the manipulator system.
The basic idea in the operational space approach
(Khatib 1987) is to control motions and contact forces
through the use of control forces that act directly at the
level of end-effector. These control forces are produced
by the applications of corresponding torques and forces
at the manipulator joints.

3.2 Effector Equation of Motion
The manipulator configuration is represented by the
column matrix q of n joint coordinates, and the
end-effector position and orientation are described, in
frame of reference, by m
0
x1 column matrix x of
independent configuration parameters.
In the reference frame R0, the system of m0
equations expressing the components of x as functions of
joint coordinates, i.e., the geometric model, is given by
G( ) = x q (1)
Equation (2) is the vector represents the relationship
between the joint velocity vector q response to this
change of position and orientation of the end-effector
associated with vector X.
( ) J q q X = (2)
where ( ) J q is Jacobian matrix. The end-effector in m
dimension space, if the manipulator moves in n degree of
freedom, ( ) J q is an m
0
x n matrix. The kinetic energy
of homonomic articulated mechanism is a quadratic form
of generalized operational velocities
1
( , ) ( )
2
T
T = A x x x x x (3)
where ( ) A x designates the m
0
x m
0
symmetric matrix
of the quadratic form, i.e., the kinetic energy matrix.
Using the Lagrange formalism, the end- effector
equations of motion are given by
d L L
dt
c c | |
=
|
c c \ .
F
x x
(4)
where the Lagrange ( , ) L x x is
( , ) ( , ) ( ) L T U = x x x x x (5)
and ( ) U x represent the potential energy due to gravity.
F is the operational force vector. Let ( ) p x be the vector
of gravity forces
( ) ( ) p U = V x x (6)
The end-effector equation of motion in operational
space can be represented by the following form
The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011

Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 3
( ) ( , ) p( ) A + + = x x x x x F (7)
where ( , ) x x is the vector of end-effector centrifugal
and Coriolis forces given by
( , ) ( ) ( , ) T = A V x x x x x x

(8)
The relationship between F and the generalized joint
forces is given by
( )
T
J = q F (9)

4. ACTIVE FORCE- FORCE CONTROL IN
OPERATIONAL SPACE
High performance control of end-effector motion and
contact forces requires the description of how motions
along different axes are interacting, and how the apparent
or equivalent inertia or mass of the end-effector varies
with configurations and directions.
The operational space formulation provides a natural
framework to address the problem of motion and force
control in an integrated manner, allowing the
development of unified approach for the control of
end-effector motions and contact forces.
In constrained motion operations, the end-effectoris
subjected to a set of geometric constraints which restrict
its freedom of motion. However, active forces and
moments at these constraints can still be controlled. The
number of degrees of freedom for the motion of the
constrained end-effector is given by the difference
between the numbers of degrees of freedom of the
unconstrained end-effector and the number of the
independent equations that specify the geometric
constraints. The description of a fine motion task
involves specifications of the forces and moments that
must be applied at the geometric constraints, and
specifications of the end-effector motion freedom
directions.

4.1 Generalized Selection Matrices
In the operational space framework, the control of the
end-effector motions and contact forces is based on a
model which describes the dynamic behavior as
perceived at some reference point on( or attached to) the
end-effecotr. It is with respect to this point O, called
the operational point, that the end-effector translational
and rotational motions, active forces and moments are
specified. Force and moments applied at the operational
point are defined by a global reference
frame
0 0 0
( , , , )
O
O 9 x y z . This frame always remains
parallel to fixed reference frame,
0 0 0
( , , , )
O
O 9 x y z
,
irrespectively of the orientation of the
end-effector.
0 0 0
( , , , )
F
O 9 x y z is defined coordinate of
the end-effector frame which translate and rotates with
end-effector.

Fig. 2 Reference Frames
Let us consider the case of the simple one-point
contact task, illustrated in Fig. 4. Let F
d
be the vector of
desired forces to be applied by the end-effector at the
contact point. The freedom of motion of the constrained
end-effector lies in the subspace orthogonal to F
d
. A
convenient coordinate frame for the description of such a
task is the coordinate frame R
F
(O, x
F
, y
F
, z
F
) obtained
from R0 by a rotation transformation, SF. For this type
of contact, it is convenient to select the axis z
F
along the
direction of the desired force F
d
. Clearly, this assignment
of axes might not be the most appropriate for other types
of contact. For multiple contact tasks, the z axis can be
more efficiently selected along one of the axes of
freedom of translational motion.

Fig. 3 Constrained Motion Task
The motion specification matrix can be defined as
equation (10) where
x

F
,
y
F
and
z
F
are binary
numbers assigned the value 1 when a free motion is
specified along the axes, and respectively, and zero
otherwise. The directions of force control are described
by the force specification matrix EF associated with
The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics HCMUT, 27~28/10/2011

Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 4
E
F
is represented by the formula (11) as following
0 0
0 0
0 0
x

| |
|
E = |
|
|
\ .
y
z
F
F F
F

(10)
f f
I = (11)
where I
3
designates the 3x3 identity matrix
A similar specification matrix can be defined for task
involving constrained rotations and applied
moments. ( , , , )
M M M M
o x y z 9 is a coordinate frame
obtained from
0 0 0 0
( , , , ) o x y z 9 by a rotation S
M
. To
a task specified in terms of end-effector rotations and
applied moments in the coordinate frame
M
9 , are
associated the rotation/moment specification
matrices E
M
, EM , defined as
0 0
0 0
0 0

| |
|
E = |
|
|
\ .
x
y
z
M
M M
M
(12)
3
I E = E M
M
(13)
where
x
M
,
y
M
and
z
M
are binary numbers assigned
the value 1 when free rotation is specified about the axes
0 , 0 and 0
M M M
x y z
respectively, and zero otherwise.
Tasks involving position/force and orientation/ moment
specifications are described by the generalized task
specification matrices
0
0
T
T
S S
S S
| | E
O =
|
E
\ .
F F F
M M M
(14)
0
0
T
T
S S
S S
| |
E
O = |
|
E
\ .
F
F F
M
M M
(15)
associated with specifications of motion and forces,
respectively.

4.2 Unified Motion and force control
For a multi-linked manipulator, the
end-effector/sensor equations of motion can be written as
0 0 0 0
( ) ( ) p ( )
contact
A + + + = x v x, v x F F (16)
The vector F
contact
represents the contact forces acting
at the end-effector. The unified approach for end-effector
dynamic decoupling, motion and active force control is
achieved by selecting the control structure
0 motion active force
= + F F F (17)
Where
*
0 0 0

( ) ( ) p ( )
motion motion
= A O + + F x F x, v x (18)
*
0

( )
active force active force sensor
= A O + F x F F (19)
And
0 0

( ), ( ) x x y A , and
0
p ( ) x in the equation (18)
represent the estimates of
0 0
( ), ( ) x x y A , . The vector
*
F
motion
and
*
F
active force
represent the inputs to the
coupled system. The generalized joint forces required
to produce the operational forces
0
F are
0 0
( )
T
J = q F (20)
With perfect estimates of the dynamic parameters and
perfect sensing of contact forces Fsensor = Fcontact, the
closed loop system is described by the following two
decoupled sub-systems:
*
motion
O = O v F (21)
*
active force
O = O v F (22)
The unified motion and force control system is
shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 4 Unified control for contact force and motion
architecture
5. SIMULATIONS
5.1 Motion Control
The initial configuration of the robot is initial
position (0.6, 0.3, 0.4) via final position (0.6, 0.1, 0.4)
and the desired circular trajectory of radius 0.2m. This
path is generated on the yz plane and traced for two
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Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 5
second form t=1 to t=2. The dynamic control input
conducted by
*
( ) ( )
motion p d v d
K x x K x x
- -
= + F (23)
Where Kp = 5e04, Kv = 1e03. The average error of
estimation of the dynamic parameters is shown in table 1
Error of , , p (%) Position error(m)
-10 3,2886e-004
-20 4.1567e-004
-30 5.9365e-004
Table 1 Robustness to parameter uncertainty

5.2 Impact Force Control

Control of impact force provide with essential
information of the contact force occurred at the
end-effector and environment.
The first experiment, contact force and motion are
controlled without any measure after impact and the
second experiment with the impact of the end-effector
and workpiece, FT sensor touch and detected the
moment from damping force which is used to apply for
this algorithm. Finally, the gain value K
d
applied to
damping force know as the value of the workpiece and
the distance end-effector are adjusted according to the a
specific location, hence, the algorithm are used to change
the value of the sigmoid function. (Lim, T.M. 2005).

(a) Without control

(b)Damping control

(c)With sigmoid function
Fig. 5 Control of impact force
5.3 Unified motion and force control
The end-effector motion on the surface of the
workpiece as well as the experimental results of force
control has been verified. Control input for controlling of
the end-effector movement to determine
*
motion
F , set up
a selection motion matrix O,
*
active force
F
is the force
control of end-effector and setting the selection matrix
O that determine the direction of force control. In
addition, in case of impact contact, damping force is
applied on end-effector and workpiece.

Fig. 6 Unified control of contact force and motion
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Proceedings of The 2011 International Symposium on Mechatronics and Robotics 6

6. CONCLUSION
In this research, the 3D modeling simulation of the
industrial robot manipulator JS-10 implemented with
contact force and unified control over the workspace.
Unified control over the operational space is much
easier and more efficient than implement them on the
joint space. The proposed approach shows that it has
considerable robustness about variation of the dynamic
parameters.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Following are results of a study on the "Human
Resource Development Center for Economic
Region Leading Industry" Project, supported by the
Ministry of Education, Science & Technology
(MEST) and the National Research Foundation of
Korea (NRF).

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