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HRM 6. Discuss the following with suitable illustrations. a. Performance Standards b. Job criteria c.

Performance appraisal Methods Ans: a) Performance Standards: Performance standards provide the employee with specific performance expectations for each major duty. They are the observable behaviors and actions which explain how the job is to be done, plus the results that are expected for satisfactory job performance. The purpose of performance standards is to communicate expectations. Keep in mind that good performance typically involves more than technical expertise. Performance standards are: * Based on the position, not the individual * Observable, specific indicators of success * Meaningful, reasonable and attainable * Used to describe a "fully satisfactory" performance once an employee is trained * Expressed in terms of quantity, quality, timeliness, cost, or outcomes b) Job Criteria: Job criteria are the most important factors people do in their jobs; in a sense, job criteria define what the organization is paying an employee to do. Because these criteria are important, individuals performance on job criteria should be measured, compared against standards, and then the results must be communicated to each employee. Jobs almost always have more than one job criterion or dimension. For example, a baseball outfielders job criteria include home runs, batting average, fielding percentage, and on-base performance, to name a few. In sports and many other jobs, multiple job criteria are the rule rather than the exception, and it follows that a given employee might be better at one job criterion than at another. c) Performance appraisal Methods: Performance appraisal methods include 11 appraisal methods as follows: i. Critical incident method: This format of performance appraisal is a method which is involved identifying and describing specific incidents where employees did something really well or that needs improving during their performance period. ii. Weighted checklist method: In this style, performance appraisal is made under a method where the jobs being evaluated based on descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behavior on jobs. iii. Paired comparison analysis: This form of performance appraisal is a good way to make full use of the methods of options. There will be a list of relevant options. Each option is in comparison with the others in the list. The results will be calculated and then such option with highest score will be mostly chosen. iv. Graphic rating scales: This format is considered the oldest and most popular method to assess the employees performance. In this style of performance appraisal, the management just simply does checks on the performance levels of their staff. v. Essay Evaluation method: In this style of performance appraisal, managers/ supervisors are required to figure out the strong and weak points of staffs behaviors. Essay evaluation method is a nonquantitative technique. It is often mixed with the method the graphic rating scale.

HRM vi. Behaviorally anchored rating scales: This formatted performance appraisal is based on making rates on behaviors or sets of indicators to determine the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of working performance. vii. Performance ranking method: The performance appraisal of ranking is used to assess the working performance of employees from the highest to lowest levels. viii. Management By Objectives (MBO) method: MBO is a method of performance appraisal in which managers or employers set a list of objectives and make assessments on their performance on a regular basis, and finally make rewards based on the results achieved. ix. 360 degree performance appraisal: The style of 360 degree performance appraisal is a method that employees will give confidential and anonymous assessments on their colleagues. This post also information that can be used as references for such methods of performance assessments of 720, 540, 180. x. Forced ranking (forced distribution): In this style of performance appraisal, employees are ranked in terms of forced allocations. For instance, it is vital that the proportions be shared in the way that 10 or 20 % will be the highest levels of performances, while 70 or 80% will be in the middle level and the rest will be in the lowest one. xi. Behavioral Observation Scales: The method based on the scales of observation on behaviors is the one in which important tasks that workers have performed during their working time will be assessed on a regular basis.

7. a. Why training is necessary for employees in an organization? Discuss the systems approach to training. b. Discuss the various approaches and evaluation processes in Training. Ans: a. As per Michael Armstrong, Training is systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. Training helps employees to improve their performance in current jobs. Training is an integral part of the whole management process. It is the corner-stone of sound management. It is a practical and vital necessity in creating an efficient and effective organization. It is widely accepted problem-solving device. It moulds the employees attitudes and helps them to achieve a better co-operation with the company and a greater loyalty to it. Training helps employees to improve their performance in current jobs. Training means acquiring technical knowledge and skills. It can be internal or external.

Systems Approach to Training: The System Approach to Training or SAT is a methodology for managing training programs. It is an orderly; logical approach to determining what people must know and do at a particular job or in a specific profession. The systematic approach to training ensures that people are prepared for their work by having the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes to do their job. The steps invoked in assigning a training program are as follows: Identify training needs who need training and what do they need to learn. Taking account of learning theory- design and provide training to meet identified needs. Assess whether training has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. 2

HRM Make any necessary amendments to any of the previous stays in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

Figure below shows three major components of a systematic approach to training:

Assessment Phase: In the assessment phase, planners determine the need for training and specify the objectives of the training effort. Implementation Phase: Using the results of the assessment, implementation can begin. It is the process of putting the training project/program into operation. This finalized training is ready to be delivered to the target audience. Evaluation Phase: The evaluation phase is crucial. It focuses on measuring how well the training accomplished what its originators expected. Monitoring the training serves as a bridge between the implementation and evaluation phases and provides feedback for setting future training objectives.

b. Discuss the various approaches and evaluation processes in Training. There are various training approaches: 1. On-the-Job Training (OJT) The trainee learns on the actual equipment and in true job environment. 3

HRM It is economical as no extra personnel and facilities are required. The trainee learns the rules, regulations and procedures by observing day-to-day working. It is suitable for a company with number of jobs equal to the number of employees. Suitable for teaching the knowledge and skills that can be learnt in a short period of time.

2. Job Instruction Training (JIT): A special, guided form of on-the-job training is known as job instruction training (JIT). e.g. During World War II, JIT was used to prepare civilians with little experience in industrial sector producing military equipment. 3. Classroom and Conference Training: 4. Simulation: In this technique, the actual job conditions are created as nearly as possible. This technique is commonly used in the aeronautical industry. Training seminars, courses, and presentations can be used in both skills-related and developmental training.

5. Cooperative Training: It is a mix of classroom training and on-the-job experiences. It has two types: a. Internships : It is a form of on-the-job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools, high schools, colleges, or universities. b. Apprenticeships: Here the workers are employed and given a small stipend to learn the job first. After the training is completed they are recruited in the industry.

Training evaluation Process is done to Judge the ability of the participants to perform the jobs for which they were trained. It find defects or faults in training provided, Find whether the trainee requires any extra training, find the training requirements of the participants to the meet job requirements. There are four basic categories of outcomes that can be measured using Training evaluation: Reaction: It is evaluating the trainees reaction to the programme. Learning: It is finding whether the trainee learnt the principles, skills and facts taught by the trainer. Behavior: Whether the trainees on-the-job behavior changed after training. Results: What results have been achieved after training.