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ORGANIZATION jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn COMMITMENT mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjk Submitted by: xcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq POOJA PATEL 08BEC247 ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiop B1 Slot sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx vbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyu opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj zxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
and nonprofit sector. A variety of antecedents and outcomes have been identified in the past thirty years. such as responsibility personal characteristics of the employee such as age. the need for affiliation or achievement and the desire for meaningful work. People were seen as a resource to be spent like any other. willingness to exert effort on behalf of the organization. job tenure . Contrary to this view. The concept of organisational commitment has attracted considerable attention over recent years and has become a central objective of human resource management. and more recently internationally. commitment-related attitudes and commitmentrelated behaviors. and cognitive constructs such as job satisfaction characteristics of the employee’s job and role.Organizational Commitment Organizational commitment has an important place in the study of organizational behavior. involving an employee’s loyalty to the organization. degree of . affective. This view focuses on employees as potential talents and it is management’s responsibility to learn how best to attract and retain these resources. Batemen and Strasser state that the reasons for studying organizational commitment are related to employee behaviors and performance effectiveness attitudinal. Organizational commitment has been studied in the public. now it recognizes that people are motivated by a complex set of factors that are interrelated. Early research focused on defining the concept and current research continues to examine organizational commitment through two popular approaches. such as money. Definition of Commitment Multiple definitions of organizational commitment are found in the literature. Furthermore. Their main focus was an emphasis on productivity through people. Bateman and Strasser state that organizational commitment has been operationally defined as “multidimensional in nature. Up until the 1980’s the main concerns of management were the organisation’s strategy and structure with an emphasis on the technical aspects of work. private. This is in part due to the vast number of works that have found relationships between organizational commitment and attitudes and behaviors in the workplace.
According to Buchanan most scholars define commitment as being a bond between an individual (the employee) and the organization (the employer). and Porter identified commitment-related Attitudes and commitment-related behaviors. though his own definition of commitment Meyer and Allen and Dunham identified three types of commitment. identification. Weiner discusses normative commitment as being a “generalized value of loyalty and duty”.goal and value congruency with the organization. Mowday further state that affective communication is “when the employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals in order to maintain membership to facilitate the goal”. Meyer and Allen continue to say that employees retain membership out of choice and this is their commitment to the organization. Affective commitment is characterized by three factors (1)belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values. or things that are special to the organization. Normative commitment is the commitment that a person believes that they have to the organization or their feeling of obligation to their workplace. and a definite desire to maintain organizational membership”. Continuance commitment also includes factors such as years of employment or benefits that the employee may receive that are unique to the organization. relationships with other employees. Meyer . Continuance commitment is the willingness to remain in an organization because of the investment that the employee has with “nontransferable” investments. Mowday. Sheldon defines commitments as being a positive evaluation of the organization and the organizations goals. Steers. Nontransferable investments include things such as retirement. affective commitment continuance commitment Normative commitment. Affective commitment is defined as the emotional attachment. and desire to maintain membership”. and (3) A desire to maintain organizational membership”. (2) A willingness to focus effort on helping the organization achieve its goals. It discusses three major components of organizational commitment as being “a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals. and involvement that an employee has with its organization and goals. a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization. Meyer and Allen further explain that employees who share continuance commitment with their employer often make it very difficult for an employee to leave the organization.
thousands of job cuts have been announced across all sectors of the UK economy. religion. Meyer continue to say that generally the research shows that those employee’s with a strong affective commitment will remain with an organization because they want to. with their definition of normative commitment being “a feeling of obligation”. by hiring temporary workers or independent contractors. etc. A climate of fear has been created for those people. with 'downsizing' and 'delayering' being an obsession of many large companies. 2008. concerning which company the employee is committed to i. nevertheless there will always be a core group of workers and it is important to retain their commitment to the organisation. puts in a full day and more. and those with a normative commitment remain because they fell that they have to. This employee positively contributes to the organization because of its commitment to the organization. Employees need to be reassured that their jobs are secure. Meyer & Allen define a committed employee as being one “stays with an organization.e. otherwise they won’t exert as much effort in achieving organizational objectives. One can therefore question whether the concept of organisational commitment is now becoming redundant? People constantly fear their jobs and lose their motivation and commitment to work. organisations are increasingly relying on outsourcing to meet their labour force requirements.. Protects corporate assets. It is argues that normative commitment is only natural due to the way we are raised in society. In addition.and Allen supported this type of commitment prior to Bolon’s definition. therefore when it comes to one’s commitment to their place of employment they often feel like they have a moral obligation to the organization. and believes in the organizational goals”. However one must consider that even if organizations are moving towards “the flexible firm”. . Furthermore commitment also conflicts with the notion of flexibility. Allen. For example. the “job for life” is no longer existent. attends work regularly. since October. This highlights further complexities. Normative commitment can be explained by other commitments such as marriage. family. those with a strong continuance commitment remain because they have to. In today’s dynamic world and increased job insecurity. & Smith say that the three types of commitment are a psychological state “that either characterizes the employee’s relationship with the organization or has the implications to affect whether the employee will continue with the organization”. Meyer. whether it is the organisation they were originally employed by or the place they are currently working. Numerical flexibility has been a predominant feature of recent years.
Various research studies take place examining the outcomes of employee commitment. organizational citizenship. Outcomes Research on commitment outcomes examines whether the different components of commitment have certain consequences. Employee retention. therefore influencing their obligation to the organization. Psychological contracts are the beliefs that a person has about what will be exchanged between them. Studies have also found that employee traits such as leadership and communication styles have an effect on organizational commitment. all investigated the role of personal characteristics and found that the characteristics and experiences that a person brings to an organization can predict their commitment to the organization. Studies examining different types of work sectors have found that government employees have higher levels of continuance commitment then other sectors. money. Allen & Meyer have found there to be a positive relationship to between an employee’s age and time with the organization and their level of commitment. and job performance are commitment outcomes that are widely studied. It has been argued that having a committed workforce is seen as the key factor in achieving competitive performance. Continuance commitment studies two antecedents: investments and alternatives. These studies often look at investments such as time. the variables being antecedents and outcomes. Mowday. Normative commitment because it is the more recently defined type of commitment does not have a lot of research identified. Highly committed employees wish to remain . Furthermore. Florkowsi and Schuster found a positive relationship between profit sharing and job satisfaction and commitment. Affective commitment antecedents are studied in the form of personal characteristics or what the employee contributes to the workplace. attendance. the employee and the organization.Antecedents There are two significant variables that are studied in terms of commitment-related attitudes and commitment-related behaviors. or effort.
new ideas. In addition. The underlying assumption is that they will work harder at their jobs . However having a low labour turnover is not always a positive factor. training and development. which ensures a return on the investment in careful selection. This highlights a positive relationship between the level of organisational commitment and job tenure.associated with the organisation and advance organisational goals. For example in times of change some turnover is desirable to bring in new people. In-role job performance work attendance has been reported to be higher for employees with strong affective commitment. and are therefore less likely to leave (employee retention is seen to be highest with all forms of commitment). and more diverse thinking. if employees with continuance commitment are staying in the organisation because they are not able to get jobs elsewhere this won’t help the productivity of the organization Furthermore Meyer & Allen have illustrated a positively correlated relationship between affective commitment and work attendance.
management .e. Other HR practices. it is found that organizational commitment is strongly tied to role ambiguity and teamwork as antecedents of the service delivery gap. such as recruitment and selection. After the initial recruitment of an employee. Since there is a positive relationship between satisfaction with performance appraisal and commitment. working in an environment in which one is positive about has implications for reduced stress levels. Even though the link between them is not very strong. To stay committed. Employees with strong affective commitment are more willing to engage in citizenship behavior than those with weaker affective commitment. Further. employees with affective commitment may be a barrier to change. Job satisfaction is said to have the largest effect on commitment. Therefore obtaining affective and normative commitment from employees may have positive effects for the organization. also play an important role in gaining employee commitment. This is because they are committed to a single set of values and goals and won’t be able to cope with prevalent uncertainties and as a result may resist this change. affective commitment could lead to negative consequences for life beyond the organization. On the personal level.. removing the need for supervisory staff and producing efficiency gains. By providing realistic job previews and accurate information. This has been positively correlated to self-reported measures of work effort and to adherence to organisational policy. which are perceived as fair and satisfactory. It is essential to reinforce a sense of self-worth within newcomers. applicants are better able to determine whether the job is appropriate for them. Therefore. However organisations can increase employee commitment by providing them with fair and reasonable working practices in a rather cost-effective way. Alternatively. Further research has investigated the link between organizational commitment and the delivery of service quality. A positive relationship between communication and commitment was detected highlighting the importance for management to ensure that communication channels remain open to allow for better transmission of information. employees should feel valued and recognised by management. this factor should be increased to improve an employee’s commitment to an organisation. which can be achieved through a supportive environment. which are vital in gaining employee commitment. Committed workers can be expected to exercise responsible autonomy or self-control.and perform them better than those with weaker commitment. reward systems or benefits. there are benefits for strong affective commitment i. This can be done by providing performance appraisals. one must take into consideration that in times of organisational change. induction training and socialisation are carried out.
Therefore the way people are managed has a major impact on their commitment and on organisational performance. there have been numerous studies of organizational commitment. but it does lack in the subtopics. more supportive management and reasonable rewards. This topic does not lack in the amount of literature. good communication. keeping such an employee should be a high priority to the organisation. public. private. Organisations can secure this commitment by engaging in fair HR practices such as procedural justice. . it’s easy for organisations to say that people are our most important assets or the source of our competitive advantage. Nonprofit employees may have different motivations and outcomes as well as commitment and this would be interesting to see what the research would find. meaning there is not enough variation. Thus. The organization should communicate clearly how decisions are made and why some people and not others did get promotions.need to ensure that their performance appraisal systems is perceived by employees to be fair before they can expect higher commitment from them. and better product quality and employee flexibility leading to the firms’ competitive advantage. the fairness in the decision making process is crucial for commitment. Organizational commitment though should continue to be studied in all sectors. But it’s much more difficult to provide evidence. and non-profit both domestically and internationally. increased participation. extra role behavior. it would be interest to examine organizational commitment in this sector. Further Research Overall. With the professionalizing of the nonprofit sector. In conclusion. In terms of assessment and promotion. given the contribution that a highly productive trained employee can make to organizational productivity. Not every research study examining organizational commitment used the same variables which often lead to contradicting or inconclusive support for previous studies. Compensation programmes such as ESOP’s can create a sense of commitment within the organisation. especially at a time when downsizing is so prevalent. Advantages of gaining employee commitment have been perceived to be lower labour turnover. However by placing organizational commitment at the core of the definition of HRM is an attempt to “win the hearts and minds of the workforce”. We must bear in mind that the focus of commitment “goes further than simple compliance: “it is an emotional attachment to the organisation”.
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