# Applicable Methods in Sampling Plant Community

Prepared by: Elora Grace B. Camanzo BS Biology IV-B

Presented to: Vivian fonollera

Bio 180 General ecology

October 2011

density. more extensive forms of vegetation survey are reconnaissance is to obtain general impression of the landscape and its covering plant life. Calculate the distance of the same species within the area. To do this. Describe the plot sizes of the area and number of the species in the area. Finding the population of many species of plants and animals is a huge task. Task 5. the term “reconnaissance” means a preliminary examination of a territory. the country is transverse rapidly by the most convenient means and the ecologists searches for the most general and obvious reasons. Task 4. Determine the increasing size of the data of species. Objectives: Task 2. cover and frequency by using quadrats. In reconnaissance. Task 5. You will also used the transect method. Ecologists often take a random sampling of parts of an area and then estimate what the population is like in the larger area. the plotless sampling method. After the reconnaissance. In this investigation. nested plot and randomized block location method. Determine the height of species above the ground in transect method. ecologists must know exactly what species of plants and animals there are and how many individuals are likely to be disturbed. Ecologists are sometimes asked to carry out an environmental impact study to see how developing an area of land will affect the living things there. Task 3. As used in geology. Differentiate the four plotless methods. engineering and military activities. Reconnaissance is the first phase in the analysis of vegetation.Introduction Concepts and methods in the analysis of vegetation vary considerably with the nature of vegetation and the aims of the study. This is also an appropriate term for the initial phase of the study of vegetation. . you will use a technique called the quadrat method for estimating the plant populations that inhabit a nearby area.

2. We put the 2m x 2m quadrat in every 2m interval on the line. In the new map we have. We count the plants physically intercepted by this line. Measure the intercept length. but with different quadrat size. or species listed. This quadrat should starts with 0. e. c. In each quadrat. c. Random quadrat method. Quadrats can be established randomly.Materials:     Vegetation map ruler randomized table number pencil Procedures 1. The first digit of the random number determine the direction. b. f. plants counted. we make a transect line bisecting the map into two halves measured 30cm. 3. make series of quadrats. all with the same plot corner location. New maps again.this method has been most often applied to dense trees or shrub-dominated vegetation. a. odd=left.5m x 0. we also make a transect line in the middle measured 30cm. b. we mark the transect line in every 5m intervals. This length is the portion of the transect length in meters by the plant or clump of plants or by a perpendicular projection of its foliage intercepted by the line.A quadrat delimits an area in which vegetation cover can be estimated. Mark the quadrats on the map. In the map we have. then 1m x .5m. or subjectively witin a study site a. Relationship between ploy size and the number of species Nested plot method a. record the density and frequency of species found. This method can record cover as a function of height above the ground. regularly. Transect method. even=right and the last two digits determine the distance for the transect line. We used the random table numbers so we know where we going to place the 2m x 2m quadrat.

833 0. Closest individual method – distance from the sampling point to the nearest individual is measured. c. 1 Shrub1 Shrub2 Shrub3 Shrub4 Tree1 Tree2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 2 6 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 1 0 8 3 0 0 0 0 0 9 2 0 0 0 1 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 11 1 1 0 0 2 1 12 0 0 0 0 1 1 0. Point-Centered Quarter Method – distance from the random sampling point to the nearest individual in each quarter is measured. from a sampling point. a. Nearest Neighbor Method – distance from the individual nearest random point to its nearest neighboris measured. Plotless sampling technique for density estimate. d. b.42 2.5cm until it reaches 8cm. And record the number f species in the next larger quadrat. Count the number of species in the corner quadrat of 0.4. line or point frames.5 x 0. These methods do not used quadrats.1m followed by further increments of 1m on a side until quadrats of 8m x 8m have been constructed. Mean Density of each species in each quadrat Species Quadrat Mean density Freq.17 6 2 1 0 5 4 18 .includes the different distance methods.58 0. . RANDOM QUADRAT METHOD Table 1.5. b. We used random numbers to put the location of the quadrats from 0. Randomized block location methods a.17 0 0. Random Pairs Method – a line is taken to the nearest individual and a 90 degree exclusion angle erected on either side of it.17 0. Results: TASK 2.

3. Species Mean Density Relative Density Present in how many plots Frequency Relative Frequency Shrub1 Shrub2 Shrub3 Shrub4 Tree1 Tree2 Total 0.7.01 TASK 3.25 0.12 0 0.13 0.17 0 0.4.02 0 0.17 0.10 0 0.86 (Lci) (Rci) (IV) .22 1.25 0.01 6 8 1.3 Total 8 0.13 0.Table 2.34 0.01 1.5 0.28 0. Importance Value of Plant Species Using the Transect Method Species (ni) (Lni) (Rdi) (ji) (fi) (Rfi) Intercept length Shrub1 Shrub 2 Shrub 3 Tree 1 Tree 2 0 2 2 1 3 0 0.38 0.43 0.4 0.38 0 0.6 0.06 0 0.17 1 3.27 0.33 0.08 0.19 2.63 0.03 0.17 0. 0.93 0.42 2.4 0.25 0.58 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.8 0.2 0.5.27 1. TRANSECT METHOD Table 3.1 0 0.833 0. 0.25 0. 0.07 0.38 0 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 0 0 0.4 6 2 1 0 5 4 18 6 2 3 0 5 4 18 0.08 0 0.07 0. 0.

Nested Location method Samples Cumulative Area sampled 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0. Of new species 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 Cumulative no. Of species No. new species 0 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 Nested plot method 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 no.species cummulative area sample .5mx0. of species no.5m 1mx1m 2mx2m 3mx3m 4mx4m 5mx5m 6mx6m 7mx7m 8mx8m 0 1 2 5 6 13 21 28 39 No.

Of species No.5mx0. new species 0 1 6 8 8 10 10 10 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 5 8 14 6 25 15 35 .5m 1mx1m 2mx2m 3mx3m 4mx4m 5mx5m 6mx6m 7mx7m 8mx8m No.*there is no significant effect using this method Randomized location method Samples Cumulative area sampled 0. Of new species 0 1 5 3 0 2 0 0 3 Cumulative no.

Randomized loc ation method 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 no. . of species no. Of species cummulative area sample *there is no significant effect using this method.

8m 5. Random Pairs 6.7m 2.5m 2m 0. .2m 5. Nearest Neighbor C.5m 30 0.3 0.5m 5.14 density *there is no significant effect in using this method.7m 29 0.025 0. Closest individual B.77 4m 2.9m 1.Task 5 PLOTLESS SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR DENSITY ESTIMATES Plotless Distance point Mean density method 18 A.7m 5.31 2m 27 0.8 0.

1.1 4.3.0.5 2.4 3. Density Estimates of tree 1 using the point-centered quarter method Point Distance (m) 5m 1.9 4.2.7 15m 1.Table 6.2.8 3.6 2.2.5 11m 1.1.1.9 2.7 3.3.5 4.2 4.5.23 .1.2.3 3.2 2.4.1 Mean Distance= 14 Mean Density= 2.4 25m 1.

70 0.22 1. Random Pairs 4.01 23 1 30 3.Table 7.25 0.5 Mean density density 1.4 2.43 *there is a significant effect using this method .7 4 0. Density estimate of tree 2 using 3 plotless sampling method Plotless Distance point method 10 A.7 2.65 0.2 3.6 1.1 17 0.07 0.23 3. Nearest Neighbor C.3 2. Closest individual B.

the species have high density might not filled lots of quadrats.1 28m 1.1.centered quartet method Point Distance (m) 10m 1.3. Random Quadrat Method uses quadrat in sampling.1. is the distance from .1 24m 1.1 2.5 4.2.0.2 4.2.7 2. Shrub 1 has the highest mean density while the lowest mean density on the other hand. Task 4 used Nested Plot Method and randomized location Method.75 Mean Density= 1. Density estimate of tree 2 using the point.3.9 4. Task 3 is the transect method.0.2.2 4.5 2.5 3.6 17m 1.0 Mean Distance= 19. In table 1.1. Species with high density doesn’t always have high frequency because sometimes.1 3.0 3.6 2.1 3.69 Discussion and Conclusion Task 2.3. in the table shrub 2 has the highest importance value and shrub 1&4 has the lowest importance value.2. Plotless Sampling Techniques for Density Estimates in task 5 has 4 plotless methods the closest individual methods.Table 8. is the shrub 4.

density. Chapter 9: Method of sampling the plant community. plot-less methods. 1987. M. Random Pairs the 3rd plotless method is a line taken to the nearest individual and a 90 degree exclusion angle erected on either side of it. CA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. However. "Completely randomized sampling will inevitably under sample rare but interesting and ecologically informative kinds of vegetation" (Barbour et al. The most dominant and common species are the shrub 1 and the tree 1. plant sampling methods such as quadra sampling. and frequency.com/ebook/products/0-13-181118-5/blat2050.. 1987). and W. Menlo Park.pearsonsuccessnet.. Nearest Neighbor Method is the distance from the individual nearest random point to its nearest neighbor measured. Retrieved from http://www. The appropriate method of community sampling is dependent upon the project.H.. J. Lastly is the Point-Centered Quarter Method distance from random sampling point to the nearest individual in each quarter is measured.G. In conclusion.D. References Barbour.pdf . Pitts.the sampling point to the nearest individual is measured. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. from sampling point. and distance methods can provide accurate estimates of cover. Burk. Transect Method provides the most accurate density because in this method there’s no bias at all coz you will just sampled whats in the transect line. the extensive labor and preparation needed may make these techniques poorly suited for characterizing large mitigation sites.