TK090207 : Manajemen Operasi

AUGUST, 2011 2011 NO. IV

Topic: EKONOMI TEKNIK (lanjutan)

3 macam evaluasi kelayakan proposal proyek



Kelayakan Teknis Untuk mengetahui kemampuan teknologi yang tersedia dan yang dipilih Kemampuan menguasai teknologi yang akan digunakan Kelayakan Operasional Untuk mengetahui kemampuan organisasi untuk menjalankan proses produksi Kelayakan Ekonomi Berapa nilai proyek yang diinvestasikan melalui analisa biaya Untuk mengetahui berapa lama pengembalian modal (Return On Investement) Berapa besar kemampuan menghasilkan keuntungan (Profitability)



Perencanaan Bisnis
Perencanaan bisnis minimal terdiri dari informasi berikut selama jadwal proyek, yaitu:
Target dan tujuan proyek perusahaan Data pasar Proyeksi pasar Harga pasar Pertumbuhan pasar Pasar-pasar dimana perusahaan Kompetisi, domestik dan global Proyek dan/atau umur produk Kebutuhan Keb t han modal Fixed capital investment Working capital Other capital requirements Project life Estimated life cycle of the product or venture
James R. Couper, Process Engineering Economics, Chemical Industries, A Serie of Reference Books and Textbooks 97, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (2003)

Operating expenses Manufacturing expenses Sales S l expenses General overhead expenses Protability Prot after taxes Cash Flow Payout period Rate of return Returns on equity and assets Economic value added Projected risk Effect of changes in revenue Effect of changes in direct and indirect expenses Effect of cost of capital Effect of potential changes in market competition



Total capital investment includes funds required to purchase land, design, purchase, and install equipment and buildings, as well as to bring the facility into operation. A list of these items includes: Land Fixed capital investment Offsite capital Allocated capital Working capital Other capital items Interest on borrowed funds prior to startup Catalyst and chemicals Patents, licenses, and royalties

Information guide for capital cost estimates.



Information guide for capital cost estimates.

Manufacturing expense sheet.



Total Operating Expenses
Raw materials By-product credits Net materials Direct expenses Utilities Operating labor Maintenance Supervision Payroll charges Operating supplies Laboratory expenses Clothing and laundry Technical service Royalties Environmental control



Total material and direct expenses Indirect expenses Depreciation Plant indirect expenses Total indirect expenses Packaging, loading, and shipping Total product expenses General overhead expenses (SARE) Total operating expenses

Utility costs
Steam: High pressure (,>450 psig) Medium pressure (,100–150 psig) Low pressure (,50–75 psig) Electricity: 60 Hz, 440 V Energy_Natural gas: Cooling tower water: (85F, 25 psig) City water (75F, 60 psig)



Labor Expenses and Productivity
A method for estimating labor requirements for various types of chemical processes in the United States was proposed by Wessel [6]. His equation for plants producing product from 2 to 2000 tons/day is as follows:

log10Y = - 0,783 log10X + 1,252B
where Y = operating labor in man hours per ton per processing step man-hours X = plant capacity, tons/day B = a constant depending upon the type process + 0.132 (for batch operations that have minimum labor requirements) + 0. (for operations with average labor requirements) - 0.167 (for a well-instrumented continuous process)

There are two components to the maintenance expense, materials and labor. For preliminary estimates, a percentage of the xed capital investment per year is often used. An average of 6–10% of the xed capital investment is reasonable. For processes having a large amount of rotating equipment such as pumps, compressors, centrifuges, or processes that operate at extremes of temperature and/or pressure, the higher percentage should be used. Processes that have a minimum of rotating equipment or that operate near ambient conditions or a gure near the low end of the range might be used. It should be understood that the percentage i l d b h labor and d I h ld b d d h h includes both l b d materials. If it necessary to split the maintenance expense into materials and labor, reasonable gures are 60 and 40%, respectively.



Supervisory personnel are the salaried employees whose responsibility is the unit’s operation. They include the department supervisor, foremen and departmental clerks. If the positions and salaries can be identied, then these data should be used with allowances for salary increases. As an alternate, 20–30% of the operating labor expense is reasonable. The lower gure would be for continuous operations while the higher would be more realistic for batch operations.

Payroll Charges
This expense category would include workmen’s compensation, social security premiums, unemployment taxes, paid vacations, and holidays as well as life, medical, and dental insurance premiums. In recent years, a company’s contribution to pension plans has declined with more of the responsibility placed upon the employee. Up until the 1980s, these expenses amounted to about 45–50% of the labor plus supervision expenses; however, beginning in the late 1990s, this gure began to decline to between 30 and 40%.



Operating Supplies
This expense includes instrument charts, computer paper, lter cloths, brooms, mops. Company records for similar operations are the best source of information. For new operations, a reasonable estimate might be 5–7% of the operating labor.

Laboratory Expenses
With the advent of in-line analyzers and other sophisticated equipment for production-line use, these expenses as a separate item will decline in the future. Many products, however, still must be subjected to various quality-control tests in the laboratory. The charges for these expenses approach $100– $150 per laboratory hour. As an alternate, a reasonable estimate for preliminary purposes might be 15–20% of the operating labor.



Clothing and Laundry
In the production of food-grade products, pharmaceuticals, toxic chemicals, high-technology microelectronics, etc. Co service for manufacturing personnel. This expense will vary depending upon the product made and the manufacturing process. Company records are an excellent source of data. If no information is available, then 15–20% of the operating labor expense is reasonable. Companies provide clothing and laundry

Technical Service
In some companies, the maintenance of technical and/or engineering assistance to manufacturing departments from a central pool of technically trained personnel is an operating expense. These people are concerned with process or production improvement in product quality or quantity, and in some cases the addition of new equipment. It is recommended that about 25% of a new engineer’s salary be allocated. The 25% gure is based upon the assumption that this engineer might be assigned responsibility for about four such projects.



This expense item applies if a rm buys technology. It is a difcult item to estimate since there are a number of ways that a royalty agreement may be drawn. In Chapter 3, there was an entry for royalties, patents, and licenses. These were one-time charges that are regarded as replacement for research and thus are capitalized. In contrast to royalties mentioned in Chapter 3, there is a “running royalty.” Under this type of royalty, a fraction of a cent per unit of production is assessed for use of this technology. As an alternate, 0–5% of sales might be used.

Environmental Control Expense
Wastes from manufacturing operations must be disposed of in a safe and in an environmentally acceptable manner. This expense is borne by the manufacturing department. Some companies may have their own facilities for proper disposal or may contract with other rms, but no matter how the wastes are handled, there is a fee.



Table 5.2. Environmental Control Expenses
Type of waste management

Type or form of waste
Drum Bulk

$100–$150 per 55-gal drum $150–$300/U.S. ton $0.25–$0.60/gal $0.25–$1.25/gal $0.25–$2.50/gal $0 25 $2 50/ l $6.00–$15.00/gal $0.40–$2.00/gal $2.00–$20.00/gal

Land treatment Incineration (where permitted)

All Relatively clean uids, high Btu value Liquid Li id Solids, highly toxic liquids

Chemical treatment

Acids/alkalies Cyanides, heavy metals, and highly toxic wastes

Total Direct Expense
The total direct expense is the sum of all expenses beginning with utilities and ending with the environmental control expense.



Total Direct Manufacturing Expense
This item is the sum of the net material expense and the total direct expenses.

Indirect Expenses
Depreciation The Internal Revenue Service allows a deduction for the “exhaustion, wear , and tear, and normal obsolescence of a property used in the trade or business.” The subject is treated more fully in Chapter 7. With each revision to the tax laws, there are modications to the rules for depreciating equipment. For operating expense reports, straight-line depreciation is used, and the MACRS method is used for cash ow analysis. The overall effect of depreciation on cash ow will be discussed later in Chapter 8.



Plant Indirect Expense Plant indirect expense covers a wide range of items such as property p g p p y insurance; personal and property liability insurance; workmen’s compensation; franchise and real estate taxes; re protection; safety; plant security; maintenance of roads, yards, and docks; plant personnel staff, cafeteria expense. A rm’s accounting department usually has developed factors based upon capital investment, operating labor, or a combination of the two for each plant site. A quick estimate of these expenses is 3–5% of the xed capital investment. Hackney [7,10] proposed a method based upon a capital investment and a labor component. It is presented in Table 5.3.

Total Indirect Expense
The sum of depreciation and plant indirect expense is the total indirect expense TABLE 5.3 Plant Indirect Expense Factors



Total Manufacturing Expense
This item is the sum of the total direct and indirect expenses. At this stage the product has been manufactured but now must be made ready for shipment to the customer.

Packaging, Loading, and Shipping Expense
Products may be packaged in a variety of packages or containers, such as ber drums, leverpaks, barrels, carboys. Some products, however, may be transferred by pipeline, e.g., gases and some liquids If the nished product is shipped in containers a charge must be liquids. containers, made for the containers. Associated with the package expense is also the labor to perform this task. There is an expense for moving the product from the manufacturing department to a warehouse or to a transporting conveyance. Under some circumstances, dunnage may be required in trucks or rail cars to protect the container from shifting or being damaged during shipment. A third expense may be incurred when shipping the product to the customer. It may be absorbed by the manufacturer or it may be charged to the customer. If the manufacturer assumes the shipping expense, it becomes part of the total operating expense. The best Th b source of these cost d f h data is a  ’ records for products of similar characteristics, rm’s d f d f l h since companies maintain good cost control records on packaging and in-plant handling and warehouse expenses. Transportation charges may be obtained from a company transportation specialist or from local rail, trucking, or barge companies. Current transportation charges may be found in Table 5.4 [11]. For estimating purposes, 0–7% of sales may be used.



Total Product Expense
The sum of the total manufacturing expense and the packaging, loading, and shipping expense is the total product expense. TABLE 5.4 Transportation Charges

General Overhead Expense
The general overhead expense includes the expense of maintaining sales ofces throughout the country, staff engineering departments, research laboratories, and administrative ofces. All products are expected to share in these expenses so an appropriate charge is made for each product. The charge will vary between 6 and 15% of the annual sales revenue. The wide range in this charge will vary as some products may require more customer service due to the nature of the product



Total Operating Expense
The sum of the general overhead expense and the total operating expense is the total operating expense. There are occasions when an order-of-magnitude operating expense would sufce. The total manufacturing expense may be estimated for the following processes: Organic chemical processes: 50–70% of the total manufacturing expense is in raw materials. Inorganic chemical processes: 30–50% of the total manufacturing expense is in raw materials.

Operating Expense Estimating Factors
Material expense Raw materials Material balance By-products Material balance B d M i lb l Direct expenses Utilities Energy balance Labor Itemize Maintenance 6–10% xed capital investment Supervision 20–30% of labor Payroll charges 30–40% of labor plus supervision Operating supplies 5–7% of labor Laboratory expense $100–$150 per laboratory hour $100 $150 or 15–20% of labor Clothing and laundry 15–20% of labor Technical service 25% of a new engineer’s salary Royalties 0–5% of sales Environmental control See Table 5.2


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