Research Philosophies Positivism is the dominant theory in science and philosophy, based on observation of the external world, and

assesses independent facts that can be measured in terms of quantity and valued the way they are. Thus positivism is much more based on objectivism than subjective value and observation, an assessment of reality that can be grasped by mind the way it is and it looks like. Positivism mostly involves in description and experience, thus knowledge of phenomena, having to do with objective facts. Science mostly focuses on what can be known and conceived by human mind In general. Further knowledge, than the one provided by observation is for positivists beyond their conception.( Trochim 2000). While scientists from other fields, assume that one has to study the real world, by taking part to it, and by using their own subjective abilities, positivists, assume they should abstain from the external world in regard to studying and researching its own substance and innate properties. ( Healy and Perry, 2000). According to theory of positivists, they world should be viewed and considered by means of logic, being ruled by reason, and thus be interpreted this way, as a world, of determinism, where relationship between cause and effect is going always to prevail always to prevail, and this way it can be conceived, explained and predicted to an extent, by means of scientific method only. Behind each fact, there should be a ‘’reasonable’’ explanation. Thus science is used here in a mechanic way. Positivism can this way, ‘’dispute’’ other theories, based on more abstract and subjective ideas, and according to them these theories should be tested and checked again. Positivism is synonymous to empiricism that defends, that everything in the outside world can be understood only through observation and experience. Empiricism mainly uses experiment to be able to prove some things, and the only way to conceive laws of nature, through which external reality can be interpreted in a satisfying way for human reason. Research paradigms-Quality and Quantity A paradigm, or else called theory, is the main way, mental ‘’path’’ and method, that lead human mind, in terms of investigation and research. ( Guba and Lincoln 1994, p.105) The method of quantity, is applied in positivism. The dogma of positivism is ruled by empiricism and its respective research; all phenomena and external facts can have standard criteria of measurement, for objective knowledge. For this theory, there’s only reality, corresponding to one single truth, that exists objectively, independent of the subjective criteria of researcher and investigator. Thus investigator, proceeds to study and explanation in one single way, that can cannot affect reality, nor be affected by it, this meaning absence of any further subjective and sentimental factors that could influence possible objective measurements. (Guba and Lincoln, 1994, p.110). There’s totally absence of value given to facts by researcher, and personal assessment, as the outside world, has not actually to be evaluated but just get known, by means of perception ruled by logic, the determinist process, that there’s always a cause behind an effect. So techniques for this case, are pure logic, and questionnaires including strict norms and predetermined, standards of answering.

Unlike qualitative methods used in other paradigms, in positivism mostly quantitative method and standards are to be applied. Reality is structured in such a way, dictating its change all the time. According to qualitative method, there’s no reality and social facts, as well as facts in all fields of life, that can be interpreted without contribution of human mind and subjective opinions and ideas. (Smith 1963). Subject and object, are always in an interactive relationship, where conclusions and concepts of reality, are part of strictly personal criteria and personal prism of view and factor of random and randomization play a crucial role to this method of theory. Thus we could say here’’ that mirror reflects always the expression of our Own face they way we look at it at a certain moment’’. This implies further, that reality, has no meaning, if we stop considering it, or it gains no value, can even stop existing without prior knowledge by individual, without participation of the individual to it. There are thus few and limited samples that can be used in the qualitative method, not being able to give statistic results corresponding to majority. Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative method has the only purpose to satisfy subjective analysis and explanation of the world, by making things ‘’more simple’’ for human mind, and enable the ‘’make sense’’ process, as well as ‘’common sense’’ process for individuals. This method, focuses on conception of reality, from the scope of single individual, thus give value to human logic, they way it is viewed , experienced and considered under a certain circumstance by someone, who directly involves in a fact or experience. Investigator will be influenced by the way participants will behave and interact in the external world, and he will get knowledge by means of their subjective behavior in an objective world, then his conclusions will be rather subjective and assessing than objective and measuring. In this paradigm, there’s no a priori concept, but a posteriori valued and assessed reality, as criteria do not preexist, but are formed and shaped upon procedure. Research places too much importance on data collection that represent deeply subjective difference among individuals of vast majorities.