# CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STRUDY
A. Zeikii posted and proved on the Mathlinks Forum [1] the following inequality

(1.1)
where a and b are positive real numbers less than or equal to 1. In addition, he
conjectured that the following inequality holds under the same conditions:

. (1.2)
Starting from this, we have conjectured that

(1.3)
for all positive real numbers a and b.

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE SUDY
The following are the goals of the study:
1) To prove the power – exponential inequaity

.
2) To show that the highest possible value of .

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will serve as a reference for future researcher whowould like to study
on inequalities. It focuses on proving the power – exponential inequaity

and finding the highest possible value of r which is e.

2

1.4 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

1.5 METHODOLOGY
This paper is posted in M Mathlinks Forum [1] in 2006 by A. Zeikii. The proof is
subdivided into parts as to show the

3

CHAPTER 2
PRELIMINARY CONCEPTS
In this chapter, we present some basic concepts which are useful for the better
understanding of the paper.
Definition 2.1 [ ]A real number is a set of all numbers that can be represented as an
infinite decimal expansion, both the repeating and the non- repeating decimals. Thus, a
real number us either rational or irrational number and we can write .
Example 2.2: One way to represent the set of real numbers is using a number line

Definition 2.3 []Positive real numbers are real numbers greater than 0.
Example 2.4 The set of positive real numbers are {
1
/
2
, 1,√,
3
/
2
, 2, 3,, 4, 5, 6, 7, . . .}

Definition 2.5 []When a is a real number and n is a positive integer, then

( ). The expression

is called the kth power of a, k is called the
exponent, and a is called the base.

Theorem 2.6 [] (Laws of Exponents) Let k and m be positive integers, then
(1)

,
(2) (

)

(3) ()

(4)

-2 -
3
/2 -1 -
1
/2 0
1
/2 1 2
3
/2 2
5
/2 3
t

7
/2
4

Example 2.7
(a)
9 5 4 5 4
x x x x = = ·
+

(b) ( )
( ) 6 3 2 3
3
2
27 3 3 x x x = · =
(c) ( )( )
7 4 3 3 4
15 5 3 5 3 x x = · =
+
x x
(d)
3 2 5
2
5
x x
x
x
= =
÷

Definition 2.8 []Inequality is a mathematical statement saying that the two values are
equal or not equal. The equality symbol = in an equation is replaced by any of the
symbols < , >, s or >.
Example 2.9 For example 5 2 3 < + x , 0 3 2
2
> ÷ ÷ x x .

Theorem 2.10 [](Properties of Inequalities) Let a, b and c be real numbers.
(1) (Transitive Property) If b a < and c b < , then c a < .
(2) (Addition and Subtraction Property of Inequality) If c is any number and
b a < then it is also true that c b c a + < + and c b c a ÷ < ÷ .
(3) If b a < and d c < then d b c a + < + . That is the inequalities in the same
(4) If b a < and c is any positive number, then bc ac < , while if c is any negative
number, then bc ac > .
Example 2.11 Let 3 = a , 5 = b , 8 = c and 10 = d then
(a) Since 5 3< and 8 5< , then 8 3<
5

(b) We know that 5 3< , then 8 5 8 3 + < + , that is 13 11< . And 8 5 8 3 ÷ < ÷ gives
3 5 ÷ < ÷ .
(c) 5 3< and 10 8< , then 10 5 8 3 + < + , the result is 15 11< .
(d) ) 8 ( 5 ) 8 ( 3 < . The result is 40 24< . If 2 ÷ = c , then ) 2 ( 5 ) 2 ( 3 ÷ > ÷ . This implies that
10 6 ÷ > ÷ .

Definition 2.12 []If a function f is defined for values of x about the fixed number a, and
if, as x tends toward a, the values of () get closer to some specific number L, then we
write

()
And we read it, “the limit of () as x approaches a is L.

Example 2.13 Find the limit of the function ()

(√)

By direct substitution we have
()

(√ )

Rationalize the denominator by multiplying the numerator and denominator by √ ,
we have

(√ )

( )(√ )
( )

()

The limit of the expression can be found by direct substitution of , we find
6

()

Definition 2.14 []If f is a function, the derivative of the function f, denoted by is
defined by the formula
()

( ) ()

The function f is said to be differentiable if it is differentiable at each point in the domain
of f. Given the above definition, we can quickly form a systematic method in obtaining
the derivative of f at x and we call it the three-step rule.

Definition 2.15 []Three Step Rule Given ()

. Find the derivative () by the
three-step rule.
Step 1: Write the formula for the expression ( ) ().
We have ()

( ) ( )

( ) ()

Step 2: Divide the expression for ( ) () by h. Since h is a factor of this
diference, we get
( ) ()

Step 3: Take the limi as h tends to zero.
We find

( )
7

()

Theorem 2.16 []Theorems on Differentiation
(1) If ( ) c x f = , a constant for all x, then ( ) 0 ' = x f for all x. (The derivative of a
constant is 0)
(2) If n is a positive integer and ( )
n
x x f = , then ( )
1
'
÷
=
n
nx x f .
(3) If ( ) x f has a derivative ( ) x f ' , then the derivative of ( ) ( ) x cf x g = is
( ) ( ) x cf x g ' ' = , where c is any constant. (the derivative of a constant times a
function is the constant times the derivative of the function)
(4) If ( ) x f and ( ) x g have derivatives and ( ) ( ) ( ) x g x f x F + = , then
( ) ( ) ( ) x g x f x F ' ' ' + = . (The derivative of the sum is the sum of the derivatives.)
(5) If ( ) x u and ( ) x v are any two functions which have a derivative and if
( ) ( ) ( ) x v x u x f · = , then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x u x v x v x u x f ' ' ' · + · =
(6) If ( ) x u and ( ) x v are any two functions which have a derivative and if
( )
( )
( ) x v
x u
x f = with ( ) 0 = x v then ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) | |
2
' '
'
x v
x v x u x u x v
x f
· ÷ ·
=
(7) If n is a positive integer and ( )
n
x x f
÷
= , then ( )
1
'
÷ ÷
÷ =
n
nx x f .

Example 2.17

8

Definition 2.18 []A function f is said to be increasing on the interval I if ( ) ( )
1 2
x f x f >
whenever
1 2
x x > , so long as both x
1
and x
2
are in I. It is decreasing if ( ) ( )
1 2
x f x f <
whenever
1 2
x x < as shown in the figure below. The interval may contain one endpoint,
both endpoints, or neither endpoint.

Example 2.19

Theorem 2.20 []If a function's derivative is positive on an interval, it is strictly
increasing throughout that interval. Similarly, a negative derivative throughout an
interval implies a strictly decreasing function.
Example 2.21

Theorem 2.22 []If f is continuous on an interval I and if ( ) 0 ' > x f for each x in the
interior of I, then f is increasing on I. If f is continuous on an interval I and if ( ) 0 ' < x f
for each x in the interior of I, then f is decreasing on I.
Example 2.23
Theorem 2.24 []First Derivative Test
i) If f is increasing (

) on some interval to the left of

as endpoint of this
interval, and if f is decreasing (

) on some interval to the right of

(with

as endpoint), then f has a relative maximum at

if it is continuous there.
ii) If f is decreasing (

) on some interval to the left of

with

as endpoint of
this interval, and if f is increasing (

) in some interval to the right of

9

(with

as endpoint), then f has a relative minimum at

if it is continuous
there.

Example 2.25 Discuss the function f defined by
()

for relaive maxima and minima, and define he intervals in which f is increasing and those
in which f is decreasing.
The derivative is
()

( )
The critical value is . The derivative is not defined at . We construct the
following table (* means undefined)
x -5 -2 -1 0 1
() + 0 - * +
() 0
3()

4 0 6

We conclude that
f increases for
f decreases for ;
f increases for
We now apply the First Derivative Test and conclude that there is a relative maximum at
and relative minimum at
10

Theorem 2.26 [](Second Derivative Test) Assume that f has a second derivative, that f”
is continuous, and that x
0
is a critical value (

(

) ). Then
i. If ( ) 0 ' > x f , f has a relative maximum at
0
x .
ii. If ( ) 0 ' < x f , f has a relative minimum at
0
x .
iii. If

() , the test fails.
Example 2.27 Discuss the function
()

for relative maxima and minima.
The derivative is
()

(

)
and the critical values are solutions of

or

.
We now apply the Second Derivative Test
()

(

)

()
Therefore
Definition 2.28 []The natural logarithm is the logarithm to the base e, where e is an
irrational constant approximately equal to 2.718281828. It is generally written as ln(x),
log
e
(x) or sometimes, if the base of e is implicit, as simply log(x).

11

Theorem 2.29 []If a and b are any positive numbers, then
i. () () ()
ii. .

/ () ()
iii.
iv.

, if r is any rational number.

12

CHAPTER 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In what follows, we will prove some relevant results concerning the power –
exponential inequality

(3.1)
for a, b and r positive real numbers. We will prove the following theorems.

Theorem 3.1. Let r, a and b be positive real numbers. If (3.1) holds for

, then it
holds for any

.
Proof: Without loss of generality, assume that Let and , where
. Solving for a and b, we have

If we substitute a and b from the inequality (3.1), we have
x y y x
r
y
r
x
r
y
r
x
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
> |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|

we then distribute powers of x and y to the inequalities, we have
x
x
y
y
y
y
x
x
r
y
r
x
r
y
r
x
+ > +
then we combine like terms, that is
y
y
y
y
x
x
x
x
r
y
r
x
r
y
r
x
÷ > ÷
13

( ) ( )
y y
y
x x
x
y x
r
y x
r
÷ > ÷
1 1

multiplying both sides by
x
r , that is
( ) ( )
x y y
y
x x
x
r y x
r
y x
r
(
¸
(

¸

÷ > ÷
1 1

the inequality becomes
( ) ( )
y y
y
x
x x
y x
r
r
y x ÷ > ÷
( ) ( )
y y y x x x
y x r y x ÷ > ÷
÷
.

From the hypothesis that
0
r r = , we have
( ) ( )
y y y x x x y x
y x r y x r ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
0
.
Furthermore, we have
( ) ( )
y y y x x x
y x r y x ÷ > ÷
÷
0
.
Suppose that for any r r >
0
, we have
( ) ( )
y y y x x x y x
y x r y x r ÷ > ÷
÷ ÷
0

Since 0 > ÷ y x and 0 > ÷
y y
y x
( ) ( )
y y y x y y y x
y x r y x r ÷ > ÷
÷ ÷
0

hence
( ) ( ) ( )
y y y x y y y x x x
y x r y x r y x ÷ > ÷ > ÷
÷ ÷
0
.

14

Theorem 3.2 If a and b are positive real numbers such that * + , then (3.1)
holds for any positive real number r.
Proof: Without loss of generality, assume that b a > and
.
From
( ) ( ) b a r b a r
b a
÷ ÷
> ,
we have
rb
ra
rb
ra
b
b
a
a
> and we get
ra
ra rb
rb
a
b a
b >
. Therefore,
ra rb
ra
ra rb
ra ra rb rb ra
b a
a
b a
a b a b a ÷ ÷ + > ÷ ÷ +
ra
ra ra rb ra ra rb ra
ra rb rb ra
a
b a a a b a a
b a b a
÷ ÷ +
> ÷ ÷ +
2

ra
ra ra rb ra ra rb ra
ra rb rb ra
a
b a a a b a a
b a b a
÷ ÷ +
> ÷ ÷ +
2

( )( )
0 >
÷ ÷
> ÷ ÷ +
ra
ra ra rb ra
ra rb rb ra
a
b a a a
b a b a
because
rb ra
a a > and
ra ra
b a > .
Theorem 3.3. If 2 0 s < r , then ()holds for all positive real numbers a and b.
Proof: By Theorem 3.1 and Theorem 3.2, it suffices to prove () for 2 = r and
0 1 > > > b a . Let
b
a c
2
= ,
b
b d
2
= and
b
a
s = where 0 > > d c and 1 > s . We have bs a =
, inequality () become
a b b a
b a b a
2 2 2 2
+ > +

bs bs
b c d a
2 2
+ > +

s s
d c d c + > +
d c d c
s s
÷ > ÷
In order to prove this inequality, we have to show that
15

( ) ( ) d c d c cd s d c
s
s s
÷ > ÷ > ÷
÷
2
1
()
The left side of the inequality in ( ) 2 . 2 is equivalent to
( ) ( ) d c cd s d c
s
s s
÷ > ÷
÷
2
1

( ) ( ) 0
2
1
> ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
d c cd s d c
s
s s

Let ( ) ( ) d c cd s d c c f
s
s s
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷
2
1
) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 ÷ + + ÷
+ ÷ ÷ =
s s s s
s s
c sd c sd d c

Getting the first derivative of
()

2
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
) ( '
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷
÷
+
+
÷ =
s s s s
s
c sd
s
c sd
s
sc c f
( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + + ÷ =
+ ÷ + ÷
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
1 1 2
2
1
s s s s
d s cd s c sc
We have ( ) c g sc c f
s
2
3
'
2
1
) (
÷
= , where
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 1 2
+ ÷ +
÷ + + ÷ =
s s s
d s cd s c c g
Taking the derivative of ( ) c g .
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
1
1 1 '
÷ ÷
+ ÷ + =
s s
d s c s c g
( ) 0 1
2
1
2
1
>
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + =
÷ ÷ s s
d c s
We can then say that, ( ) c g is strictly increasing, ( ) ( ) 0 = > d g c g , and hence ( ) 0
'
> c f .
Therefore, ( ) c f is strictly increasing, and then ( ) ( ) 0 = > d f c f .
16

Solving for the right side of the inequality in ()
( ) ( ) ( ) d c d c d c s
s
÷ > ÷ ÷
÷
2
1

We multiply both sides by

( ) ( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷
·
(
¸
(

¸

÷ > ÷
÷
d c
d c d c cd s
s
1
2
1

( ) 1 2
1
>
÷ s
cd s
If we substitute
b
a c
2
= ,
b
b d
2
= and
b
a
s = to the above inequality, we have
( ) 1
2
1
2
>
÷
b
a
b
ab
b
a

()

()
()

( ) 1 >
÷b a
ab
b
a

Multiplying both sides by b
, we have

( ) ( ) b ab
b
a
b a
·
(
¸
(

¸

>
÷
1

( ) b ab a
b a
>
÷

Taking the ln of both sides, that is
,()

-

()

( )()
17

( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( )

( )
( )

Let ( )
( )
( )
b a
b a
b a
b f ln ln
1
1
÷
+ ÷
÷ +
=
In order to prove that ( ) 0 > b f , we have to show that ( ) 0 ' < b f for all ( ) a b , 0 e ; then
( ) b f is strictly decreasing and hence ( ) ( ) 0 = > a f b f . Since
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) b
a
b a
b a b a
b f
1
ln
1
1 1 1 1
'
2
÷
+ ÷
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
=
( )
( )
0
1
ln
1
2
'
2
< ÷
+ ÷
÷
=
b
a
b a
b f
Now
( )
0
1
ln
1
2
2
< ÷
+ ÷
÷
b
a
b a

Multiplying both sides by -(1-a+b)
2
we have

We call this equation as
( )
( )
b
b a
a a g
2
1
ln 2
+ ÷
+ =

( )
0
1
ln 2
2
>
+ ÷
+
b
b a
a
18

where g(a)>0 is equivalent to f’(b)<0

Since 1 0 < < < a b , we have
( )
( )
b
b a
a
a g
+ ÷
÷ =
1 2 2
'
( )
ab
b a a b + ÷ ÷
=
1 2 2

ab
ab a a b 2 2 2 2
2
÷ + ÷
=
( )
ab
b a ab a + ÷ ÷
=
2
2

( )( )
0
1 2
<
÷ ÷
=
ab
b a a

Thus ( ) a g is strictly decreasing on | | 1 , b , and therefore ( ) ( ) 0 1 > = > b g a g . Combining
the two inequalities ( ) ( ) d c d c cd s d c
s
s s
÷ > ÷ > ÷
÷
2
1
.
Therefore
a b b a
b a b a
2 2 2 2
+ > +
Equality hold if and only if b a = .
Finally,
a b b a
b a b a
2 2 2 2
+ > +
.

Theorem 3.4. If a and b are positive real numbers such that either
r
b a
1
> > or b a
r
> >
1
, then () holds for any positive real number e r s .
19

Proof: Without loss of generality, assume that . b a > Let ra x = and , rb y = where
either 1 > > y x or y x > > 1 . From Theorem 2.1 we have ,
(

)

(

)
Since y x > , 0 > ÷
y y
y x and , it suffices to show that
(

)

(

) ()
For the nontrivial case y x > , using the substitutions

and

(where ),

we can then rewrite () as
(

)

( )
In order to prove this inequality, we have to show that
(

)

()

( )

( )
The left side of the inequality is just the left hand inequality in () for

while the
right hand side of the inequality is equal to

()

( )

( )
we then substitute

and

, we have

(

)

(

)

(

)
20

()

Now, let ()

()

Take the ln of both sides from the above inequality, we have
[

()

]
[

()

]

(

) ()

( )( )
() can be rewritten as
()

( )( ) .
We then take the derivative of (), we have

()

[( )

( )]

( )

()

()

()

and its second derivative is

()

21

Case 1: . Since () , () is strictly increasing and hence

()

()

.
Let ()

. Its first derivative is equal to

()

.
From

()

It follows that () is strictly increasing, () () , and hence

() .
Therefore, () is strictly increasing, and then () () .

Case 2: . Since () , () is strictly concave on , -. Then it suffices
to show that () () . The fist inequality is trivial, while the second
inequality is equivalent to () for , where
()
()

.
From
()
()

()

,
it follows that () is strictly decreasing, and hence () () . Combining the
two inequalities

22

(

)

()

( )

( )
Thus
(

)

( )

Therefore

Equality hold if and only if b a = .
Finally,

.

Theorem 3.5. If e r > , then () does not hold for all positive real numbers a and b.
Proof: (after an idea of Wolfgang Berndt [1]). We will show that

for ( )

()
, where ; that is
(

)
()

[

( )
]
()
()
(

)
()
()
[

( )
]
()

(

)
()

( )

[

( )
]
()

We multiply both sides by ( )

, we have
{(

)
()

( )

[

( )
]
()
} ( )

23

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

()

( ).
Since

, it suffices to prove that

()

.
For the nontrivial case , this inequality is equivalent to () , where
() (

) ( ).
we then take the first derivative, we have

() (

) () (

) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )
( )

24

and
() (

)
( ) ()
( )

(

)

( )

( )

( )
( )( )

( )( )

( )( )

( )
( )( )

Since () () is strictly decreasing for , and then

()

() .
Therefore () is strictly decreasing, and hence () () .

25

CHAPTER IV
Other Related Inequalities
Proposition 4.1. If a and b are positive real numbers such that * + , then the
inequality
(4.1)

holds for any positive real number r.
Proof. Without loss of generality, assume that .
From

()

()

we get

, and

(

)(

)

because

.

26

Proposition 4.2. If are positive real numbers, then
(4.2)

.
This inequality, with (), was posted as conjecture on the Mathlinks Forum by
Zeikii[1].
Proof. Without loss of generality, assume that * +. There are three cases to
consider: .
Case 1: By Theorem 3.3, we have

. Thus, it suffices to prove
that

.
For ,

this inequality is an equality. Otherwise, for , let

,

and

(where
)

Let ()

and

()

() is strictly increasing for , and therefore () () .

Case 2: By Theorem 3.3, we have

. Thus, it suffices
to show that
27

Let ()

, is equivalent to () (), where
()

This inequality is true is () for . We have

()

(

)

(

)

(

)
We need to show that

Conjecture 3.3. If are positive real numbers, then

28

REFERENCES
[1] A. ZEIKII, V. CIRTOAJE AND W. BERNDT, Mathlinks Forum, Nov. 2006
[2] Galliguez, Thelma C. and Ricablanca, Deodato L., College Algebra and
Trigonometry, University Book Center, 2005
[3] Protter and Protter, Calculus with Analytic Geometry, Jones and Bartlett
Publishers, 1988
[4] Lipschutz, Seymour, Schaums Outline of Theory and Problems of Finite
Mathematics, McGrawHill Book Company, NewYork
[5] http://www.mathreference.com/ca,inc.html

29