irrigation

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irrigation

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- INDUS BASIN IRRIGATION SYSTEM, BRIEF HISTORY & SALIENT FEATURES
- Canal Design
- Design of Irrigation Canals
- Canal Hydraulics Design
- Mangla Dam
- Canal Design
- Irrigation Engineering Part 2
- Salient Features of Indus Basin, Barrages of Pakistan and its off-taking Canals
- Irrigation Design Manual
- Design of micro hydro power
- Design of Canal Drops
- Irrigation Engineering
- Step by Step Visual Basic Matrix Solver - Structural Engineering
- IRRIGATION
- Assignment 1 of irrigation
- Indus Basin Irrigation System of Pakistan
- Head Regulator Design
- Design Section for Right Canal
- Water Resources Engineering II
- Irrigation

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A network of canals is required to carry water from source ie headworks (storage reservoir or diversion weir) to destination ie fields. Classification of canals Based on size/source 1. Main canal 2. Branch canal 3. Major distributaries 4. Minor distributaries 5. Water course/field channel Based on alignment 1. Watershed canal 2. Contour canal 3. Side slope canal Based on canal surface 1. Rigid boundary canals 2. Loose boundary canals

Fig. 1 depicts commonly used canal sections. Triangular sections are generally constructed for carrying small discharges. Rectangular sections are constructed for moderate discharges. For carrying large discharges rectangular sections are not preferred. This is on account of stability of side slopes. Vertical side walls require large thickness to resist the earth pressure. Trapezoidal section is better for such cases since sloping side walls require less thickness.

1 m

yn

yn

b

(a) (b)

1 m yn b

(c)

yn D/2

(d)

T Y m 1

yn

(e)

T NGL

1 m r

h2

h1

(f)

(g)

(h) Fig 1. Canal Sections (a) Triangular (b) Rectangular (c) Trapezoidal (d) Circular (e) Parabolic (f) Combined (g) Rounded corner trapezoidal (h) Rounded bottom triangular For small discharges, semicircular sections are often adopted for irrigation canals. River beds, unlined canals and irrigation furrows all tend to approximate a stable parabolic shape. Therefore, unlined canals can be made more hydraulically stable by initially constructing them in a parabolic shape. Since the channel side slopes along the cross section are always less than the maximum allowable side slope at the water surface, parabolic channels are physically more stable. A lined parabolic channel has no sharp angles of stress concentration where cracks may occur. A parabolic canal is described by:

Y = aX 2

in which Y = ordinate; X = abscissa; and a = parameter. The flow area is

y nT T / 2 2 8 2 A = 2 YdX = y nT = my n 3 0 2 3

where T = top width of the canal at the water surface (m) given by

(dX )2 + (dY )2

(1)

P = 4 yn m + 2 yn 8y2 =T + n 3m 3T (2)

Geometric elements of a combined (circular bed trapezoidal) section can be defined as follows

= cot 1 m ;

sin = 1 1 + m 2 ;

cos = m

1+ m2

y = h1 + h2 = r (1 cos ) +

T = 2r sin + 2h2 m m T r = y 1 + m2 m 2m

T m y h1 = 2m 1+ m2

h2 = 2y T 1+ m2 m 2 1+ m2

(T 2r sin )

2m

( 1+ m

)

) ( )

2

T 2m y T2 T 2 r2 A = A1 + A2 = 1 m cot 1 m = m 1 m cot 1 m 2 4m m 4m 1+ m m

P = 2 r + 2 h2 1 + m 2 = = T m

2

T m

(1 + m ) 2r (1 m cot m

2

(1 + m ) 2(1 m cot

T 2m y m 2 1+ m m

where, A = flow area of channel section (m2); A1 = area of circular portion (m2); A2 = area of trapezoidal portion (m2); y = depth of flow (m); h1 = depth of circular part (m); h2 = depth of trapezoidal part (m); r = radius of bed section or circular part (m); T = top width of channel (m); m = side slope of channel (H:V) at water surface; and = side slope angle.

5 Table 1. Geometrical Properties of Canal Sections Section Shape Triangular Rectangular Trapezoidal Circular Parabolic Flow Perimeter P Area of Flow A

2 my n

2 yn 1 + m 2

b + 2 yn

by n

b + 2 yn 1 + m 2

r

1 1 1 1 2 yn m 2 1 + 2 + ln + 1 + 2 m m m m

2 y ( + cot )

(b + my n ) y n

0.5r 2 ( sin )

8 2 myn 3

y 2 ( + cot ) by + y 2 ( + cot )

b + 2 y ( + cot )

Rigid boundary canals are designed for uniform flow considering hydraulic efficiency, practicability, and economy. A maximum hydraulic radius results in a section of minimum excavation area and best hydraulic design. When an open channel is constructed, the excavation and the lining constitute major cost. Obviously it is desirable to keep these costs at a minimum by adopting the most economical canal cross section.

Flow Requirements

A rigid boundary is designed to convey the required discharge under uniform flow conditions. The most commonly used uniform flow formula is the Manning equation. Mannings equation, as an equality constraint function, will be used to provide uniform flow condition in the canal. The uniform flow rate or discharge Q (m3/s) in a canal by Mannings equation is

Q = AV = 1 1 1/ 2 AR 2 / 3 S f = n n A A P

2/3

Sf

1/ 2

1 n

A A P

2/3

S0

1/ 2

where V = mean velocity of uniform flow (m/s); R = hydraulic radius (m), defined as the ratio of flow area to the flow perimeter; n = Mannings roughness coefficient; Sf = energy slope (dimensionless); and So = bed slope of the canal (dimensionless). For uniform flow Sf = So. In the Mannings formula all the terms except n can be directly measured. The roughness coefficient is a parameter representing the integrated effects of the channel cross-sectional

6 resistance. The selection of a value of n is subjective, based on experience and engineering judgement. Standard text books list values of n for different conditions of a canal.

The classical optimal section is the best hydraulic section which has the maximum flow velocity or the minimum flow area and wetted perimeter for a specified discharge and canal bed slope. Mathematically, it could be stated as

Minimize

A = A( y, b, m )

1 A5 / 3 1/ 2 S 0 = ( A, P ) = ( y , b, m ) = 0 n P2/3

Subject to = Q

This is a nonlinear optimisation problem with nonlinear equality constraint. Using Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers it can be converted into an unconstrained optimization problem in terms of an auxiliary function as

Minimize

F = A +

where is the undetermined multiplier. Since F is function of 4 variables (m, b, y, ) the optimal conditions are F =0 y A + =0 y y (a) (b) (c) (d)

F =0 m

F =0 b F =0

A + =0 m m

A + =0 b b

( y , b, m ) = 0

Eliminating from (a) & (b) and (a) & (c) and (b) & (c) A A = y m m y A A = y b b y (e) (f) (g)

A A = b m m b

From (d)

1 S 0 / 2 A 2 / 3 P A 2A = 5P 5/3 b 3 n P b b

7

1 S 0 / 2 A 2 / 3 = y 3n P5/3 1 S 0 / 2 A 2 / 3 = m 3 n P 5 / 3

P A 2A 5P y y P A 5P 2A m m

A P A P = b m m b

Trapezoidal Section

For a trapezoidal section

Applying optimal condition (i) b + 2my = y 2 1 + m 2 Applying optimal condition (j) y 2my 1+ m

2

b = 2 1 + m2 m y

)

m = 1/ 3

= y2

1 + m 2 = 2m

Limits on Side Slope: Many times the value of m is fixed if the side slope is chosen based on the angle of repose of material (See Table 2) for better stability or for vehicles to cross the channel during no flow periods. If restrictions are put on the canal side slope, then the optimization problem reduces to a case of two variables (y and b) i.e. Minimize A = A( y, b ) , Subject to ( y , b ) = 0 . Lagranges method for two variables (y and b) gives condition (j) hence

b + 2my = y 2 1 + m 2 b = 2 1 + m2 m y

Parabolic shape

Since a parabolic canal is completely described by two independent variables y and m, Substituting A and P in (h)

1 1 1 8 2 2 1 1 1 16 1 + 2 + ln + 1 + 2 ym 4 ym ln + 1 + 2 = y 2m m m 3 m m 3 m m Simplifying

1 1 1 1 3 ln + 1 + 2 = 1+ 2 m m m m

Solving by trial and error

m * = 0.514

where superscript * denotes optimum value. Approximate Perimeter : Substituting the values in (h)

16 2y 8 2 2 2 6m 2 + 1 ym 2 6m 1 = y 3 3m 3 3m

Simplifying

m* = 1

2 = 0.707

Table 2: Recommended Side slopes by IS 10430:2000 Side Slopes (Horizontal : Vertical)

S. No.

Type of Soil

in Cutting in Embankment 2:1 to 3:1 2:1 1.5 : 1 to 2: 1 2: 1 to 3.5 : 1 1.5: 1 to 2.5: 1 0.25: 1 to 0.5: 1 Very light loose sand to average sandy soil Sandy loam Sandy gravel/murum Black cotton Clayey soils Rock

i ii iii iv v vi

Combined Section

Applying optimal conditions on a combined section

T = 2r 1 + m 2 ; T = 2r Solving for m 1 + m2

9 m* = 0 ;

* = 2

This condition implies that the resultant optimal section is a semicircular section. Solving Manning Eq. with this condition y * = r * = T * 2 = 1.004 Qn / S Therefore A* = (2 )

1 4

3/8

(Qn / S )

3/ 4

P * = (2 )

58

(Qn / S )

3/8

3.1542 Qn / S

3/8

Limits on Side Slope: the optimization condition for two variables (y and T) gives

T = 2r 1 + m 2

y* = r * ;

m h1* = y 1 1+ m2 m * ; h2 = y 1+ m2

A* = y 2 m + cot 1 m = y 2 ( + cot ) ;

P * = 2 y m + cot 1 m = 2 y ( + cot )

This is the recommended section by Bureau of Indian Standards as shown in Fig 1(h).

Channel surfaces Sandy soil Black cotton soil Muram and hard soil Firm clay and loam Gravel Boulder Disintegrated rock Brunt Clay Tile Concrete Tile Concrete Hard rock Limiting Velocity (m/s) 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.15 1.0 1.25 1.0 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 4.0

10

If velocity is low silting will take place and if velocity is high scouring will happen. Therefore design should ensure nonsilting and nonscouring condition in the canal. Design methods 1. Silt theories a. Kennedys method b. Laceys method 2. Tractive force method

Silt Theories

Also known as regime theory. Water carries silt and there is equilibrium between silt load and bed material and hence the canal is nonsilting and nonscouring. The shape of canal section is Trapezoidal in regime canals. In long run the canal side slope acquire 0.5:1.

Kennedys method

Nonsilting and nonscouring velocity V = 0.55 CVR y 0.64 Critical velocity ratio = 0.7 (fine bed material) to 1.3 (coarse bed material) Kutters equation is used as uniform flow equation.

1 0.00155 + 23 + n S V = 0.00155 n 1 + 23 + S R

RS

The side slope is assumed 0.5:1. Still there is shortage of one equation, so either b/y ratio or bed slope S is assumed. For design Woods table or Garrets chart is used. Shortcomings one equation is short so no unique solution and depend upon Kutters equation so drawbacks of Kutters equation also involve in Kennedys method.

Laceys method

Lacey gave Four equations 1. Characteristics of silt f = 1.76 d 50 2. V 2 =

2 fR 5

11 In this method sufficient equations are available so all the parameters can be expressed in terms of given/known Q and f Velocity: multiply both sides of Eq. (3) by V, use AV = Q and then solve for velocity V = Qf

140

1/ 6

Wetted perimeter: Eliminate f between Eqs (2) and (3), use R = A/P and then P = 4.75 Q Hydraulic radius: Hydraulic radius is approximately = depth of flow = normal scour depth during flood. Maximum scour depth = 1.5 R to 2 R below HFL. Substitute V into Eq (2) to

(4.75q )2 R = 0.481 f

1/ 3

1/ 3

1/ 3

Q = (4.75q )

and

hence

q2 = 1.35 f

1/ 3

Canal bed slope: Eliminate V between Eqs (2) and (3), substitute R and then solve for S ie 2 f 3/ 2 f 5/3 f 5/3 = = fR = 10.8 2 R 4 / 3 S 2 / 3 S = 5 4980 R 1 / 2 3340Q 1 / 6 5813q 1 / 3

It is assumed that canal water is clear so no problem of silting. To avoid scouring the velocity should be less than critical (incipient motion) velocity. For details see Appendix. There are two cases (1) Canal shape is trapezoidal and (2) Canal shape is corresponding to maximum efficiency. Trapezoidal canal: Incipient motion condition (drag force = resistance force) on bed and side slope along with Mannings equation can be used to find canal dimensions. Stable hydraulic section for maximum efficiency: In this case incipient motion condition prevails throughout the perimeter. The relationships for this condition can be derived as per Appendix. Resultant shape of the stable canal is cosine curve as

tan y = y 0 cos y 0 x

tan T y0 tan T As y = 0 at x = T/2 so 0 = y 0 cos ; Area hence top width T = = y 2 tan y0 2 2 0 T /2 T /2 2 2 y0 2Ty 0 2 y0 2 and perimeter P = 2 1 + (dy / dx ) dx = A = 2 ydx = = E (sin ) where sin tan 0 0 E(sin ) is complete elliptical integral of second kind.

12 Most efficient stable channel can carry a particular discharge only, if the design discharge is less or more than that then canal area at centre section should be removed or added by maintaining same velocity.

Canal Section Design steps (A) Design steps for Lined Canals

Given data Q, S (based on topography), and n & Vper (See Table 3: depending upon type of lining material) 1. Consider shape of canal and other condition (if given); 2. Use optimal conditions for the shape and condition of Step 1. 3. Calculate y from Mannings

Qn S = A5 / 3 P2/3

4. Find other parameters from optimal & known conditions and then A and P. 5. Compute V = Q / A If V < Vper then optimal design is OK. 6. If V > Vper then optimal design is not possible, so provide nonoptimal section.

Q 7. For nonoptimal section one condition is Mannings Eq P = V per S , second V n per , and other condition may be assumed if required depending

3/ 2

condition is A = Q V per

upon the shape of canal. Using these conditions find all the parameters for the section.

i. Kennedys method

Given data Q, n, S, CVR and take canal shape is trapezoidal with m = 0.5 1. Assume y; 2. Compute V = 0.55 CVR y 0.64 3. Determine b from A = Q V = by + 0.5 y 2 thus b = A 0.5 y 2 y 4. Calculate P = b + 5 y 5. Compute R = A P and then V from Kutters equation. 6. Check Velocities in step 2 and step 5 should be same, if not repeat steps. Increase or decrease y for the next step if V from Kutters equation is more or less than from step 2.

13

ii.

Kennedys method

Given data Q, n, CVR, b/y and take canal shape is trapezoidal with m = 0.5 1. A = ((b / y ) + 0.5) y 2 ; Q = AV = ((b / y ) + 0.5) y 2 0.55 CVR y 0.64 2. Solve y 2.64 = Q{0.55 CVR ((b / y ) + 0.5)} 1 and then b = 3. Compute R =

A (b / y ) + 0.5 = y P (b / y ) + 5 b y y

4. Determine V = 0.55 CVR y 0.64 5. Calculate S from Kutters equation or Mannings equation.

iii.

Laceys method

Given data Q, & silt factor f and take canal shape is trapezoidal with m = 0.5 5. Compute V = Qf

140

1/ 6

6. Form one equation A = Q V = by + 0.5 y 2 7. Form second equation P = 4.75 Q = b + 5 y 8. Compute two unknowns b and y from these two equations. 9. Calculate bed slope S = f 5 / 3 3340Q 1 / 6 5V2 . Both should be same, if not check calculations. 10. Determine R = A P and R = 2 f

iv.

Given data Q, n, S, , b,per and take canal shape is trapezoidal 1. Assume m; m = cot 2. Compute K = cos 1 3. s , per = K b , per 4. Find y from s , per = 0.75 w y S

<

tan 2 sin 2 s = 1 = tan 2 sin 2 b

14

A5 / 3 by + my 2 = 2/3 = S P b + 2 y 1 + m2

6. V = Q A

Qn

5/3

2/3

v.

Given data Q, n, S, , and b,per 1. Compute y0 from b , per = w y 0 S tan 2. Canal profile y = y 0 cos y 0 3. Top width T =

T /2

y0 tan

2Ty 0

4. Area A = 2 ydx =

0

2 2 y0 tan

5. V =

6. Find Q = AV 7. Compare Q with design discharge 8. If design discharge is more than Q then provide additional area at centre of canal of n(Q"Q) width T " = 5 / 3 1 / 2 and hence new top width = T + T; new area = A + Ty0 y0 S 9. If design discharge is less than Q then remove some area at centre of canal of width Q' T and hence new top width = T T; new area = T ' = 1 Q T /2 tan T ' ' 2 y 0 cos( x tan / y 0 )dx and new depth at centre y 0 = y 0 cos y 2 T '/ 2 0

15

Appendix

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

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