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Know the relation between the observed flux of a star—that is, its brightness—and its luminosity and distance. This is the generalized form of the inverse distancesquared law for stellar brightness. (D07)
F= L/4piD^2 Understand that ‘flux’ is the technical term for brightness. ‘Luminosity’ is the intrinsic energy output of a star. (D07) What is the significance of 51 Peg in extrasolar planet studies? (First system in which a normal extrasolar planet was discovered). Also review the system’s properties, primarily the existence of a hot, close-in Jupiter-like planet. (D07) This planet is huge! Its mass is at least half that of Jupiter, the Sun’s largest planetary companion, at least 150 times more massive than Earth6. But any similarity with the Planets in the Solar System ends there. Jupiter is over 5 AU from the Sun and has an orbital period of nearly 12 yr. This planet is entirely different. It is nearly on top of its sun7 (see Figure 7.2), orbiting a mere 0.05 AU from the center of 51 Peg, 100 times closer than Jupiter is from the Sun. And with a period of only 4.2 days.
Review methods of finding extrasolar planets, including radial velocities, transits, direct detection and gravitational lensing. (D07) Radial Velocities: One
commonly detected signature of a planet is the radial velocity changes it induces in the spectrum of the star it is orbiting. What favors the detection of this velocity wobble? Well, it is obvious that a large velocity change is easier to detect than a small one. At some point— due to the limited precision of our instruments—we become insensitive to planets below a certain mass simply because they don’t induce sufficiently large motions in their parent stars to be detected. It is also obvious that it is easier to find planets with short orbital periods compared to longer one. The planet orbiting 51 Peg takes a very reasonable 4.2 days to complete one orbit. That can be measured with ease in under a week. But, as noted above, to do the same with Jupiter would take years. And what if we happen to be looking straight ‘down’ onto the orbits of the planets surrounding a star? In that case, the motion that planets induce in their parent star would be neither towards or away from us. We could never be able to measure a Doppler shift to detect planets in this case no matter how precise our measurements. TransitsPlanets can also be detected as they pass between us and their sun during events known as transits. Though we do not see the disk of the star or of the planet—they are far too distant—we do see the light output of the star dip by a tiny amount when the planet blocks part of the stellar disk. If the process repeats at a precise interval, we can reasonably infer something dark is orbiting the star to pe-
riodically block its light. Detailed studies of transits can provide information on the sizes and masses of planets, as well as the compositions of extrasolar planet atmospheres. Direct Detection Seing the planet with Doppler shift or by seeing it in a telescope.
Gravitational Lensing Know the role of exoplanets in star formation, particularly regarding how
they can absorb much of the angular momentum of the collapsing cloud. (D07) . though you do not need to remember all the terms in detail. the Sun—where most of the mass of the Solar System is located— could not have formed without the Planets—which contain most of the angular momentum in the Solar System. (D07) n this respect. Understand what the Drake equation might be used for.
Be able to plot the HR diagram. Remember it is a plot of luminosity and temperature. The temperature is plotted in a funky way. increasing to the left. In the HR diagram: Where does the MS lie in the HR diagram? The blue main- . (D08) Basic properties of the main sequence.
roughly. most massive. does the Sun lie on the main sequence? (D08) How do stellar properties vary along the main sequence? Know that the blue stars of the main sequence are also the most luminous. the red main-sequence stars least luminous. hottest and largest main sequence stars. (D08) .sequence stars are the most luminous. Where. youngest. And that the red main sequence stars are opposite in all of these parameters.
When it was later understood that the physical basis for the appearance of these spectra was the temperatures of stars21. The hottest and coolest mainsequence stars have weak H lines. ‘B’ the next strongest. (D08) Thus. but the form of this equation is important. As it .The surface flux of a thermal source is given by . the classification scheme was changed to reflect this new knowledge. All other stars show a steady variation in the strength of the H lines. Spectra of stars that are a bit cooler (redder) than the H-strong stars also exhibit weakened. M. Many of the stars with intermediate temperatures show very strong H absorption. surface temperature and size for stars (this holds for any spherical star. That is. and (b) that it says that luminosity increases rapidly as stellar mass increases—roughly as or depending on if the star is less or more massive than the Sun. stars of spectra class ‘A’ have the strongest absorption lines. No need to remember the value of σ . H lines are strongest among intermediate-temperature stars. And A-type star has strong H lines. all of the stars that do show strong Hydrogen absorption have very nearly the same colors. though still clearly visible. (D08) Odd behavior of stellar spectra on the main sequence. and so on until the letter ‘O’ for stars have the weakest H absorption lines in their spectra. stars just a bit hotter (bluer) than the stars with the strongest H lines exhibit weaker H absorption lines. (D08) Know the basic relation between luminosity. For example.and O-type stars have weak H lines. Basis of spectral classification: Letters refer to the relative strength of the H lines. not just main sequence stars). Be sure you appreciate that (a) it applies only to the main sequence stars. (D08) The main-sequence mass-luminosity relation. H absorption. (D08) The hottest stars in the cluster show little or at best very weak H lines in their spectra. Moreover. The coolest Pleiades stars also exhibit very weak H absorption lines.
Though 30 million years is a lot longer. the key is to appreciate the sequence is ordered by temperature. One famous—but somewhat silly—example is ‘Oh. (D08) The sequence of spectral types on the main sequence from hottest to coolest: O . mercifully. Two new classes—denoted ‘L’ and ‘T’—have been added to the sequence in recent years to include extremely cool objects. ‘Thermo’ implies that it has to be hot so the particles are moving at great speed and energy.1)—reflects this ordering by temperature. Since OBAFGKM(LT) is kind of an odd ordering of letters(you think?). some people find it easier to remember a mnemonic than the sequence itself. If the star is too hot. F. slightly cooler. so they became the first spectral type in the new sequence. and. The resulting classification scheme—still in use today (Figure 8. ‘nuclear’ implies that the process involves the nuclei of atoms (very different from chemical reactions which involve moving the electrons around). If the star is too cool. and ‘fusion’ means you are combining small particles to make bigger ones (H to He. But at some intermediate temperature. ‘O’ stars are the bluest—and therefore the hottest—of all stars.B A .happens.). (D08) The actual source of energy in stars: Thermonuclear fusion. became second in the sequence. Si to Fe. the atoms are ionized and so there are no bound electrons to form absorption lines. some not (more on this below). presumably. G. (D08) Why chemical reactions cannot power a star like the Sun. However one chooses to remember the progression of stellar spectral types22. (D08) Main sequence fuse H into He stably in their cores. Temperature of the star is the key factor that determines the spectral type.K .000 years. This continued right up to the coolest. It would live only 10.F . Understand all aspects of the name.000 to 100. Be A Fine Girl/Guy.M (recall that L. the omission of some of the redundant spectral types: O. absorption is maximized—the atoms can be excited without ionizing them. K and M. the Sun. it is still not enough time to explain the measured age of the Earth and. Know that Lord Kelvin was associated with the idea that the Sun might be powered by slow gravitational collapse. Kiss Me (Lotta Times)’. A. (D08) .8 and Table 8. He to C. etc. some of which may be stars. and T are recent additions to the cool end of the sequence). B. there are too few energetic photons to excite the atoms and produce absorption lines in the process. reddest stars denoted as class ‘M’. (D08) Why gravitational contraction cannot power the Sun. (D08) Worth repeating: The variations of the strengths of absorption lines in stellar spectra are caused principally by differences in the surface temperatures of stars.G . ‘B’ stars.
(D08) The Sun’s main sequence lifetime is 10 Gyr (remember. the least luminous. (D08) Mass is the one primary parameter that dictates all the other properties of a star. In the Sun. most luminous. The Main-Sequence Mass-Luminosity relation tells us that its mass is . the smallest in radius. and mass and luminosity are related. The Pleiades are about 70 Myr (remember. Its current age is 5 Gyr. luminosity is proportional to that total energy divided by the star's lifetime. This source can easily supply the power to maintain the Sun at its current luminosity for billions of years. (D08) We combine this info in the Pleiades to estimate the cluster’s age. Its lifetime is therefore that of Sun. The H atoms must slam together hard enough to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of the protons. Since by Einstein’s equation the total energy of a star is proportional to its mass. On the Main Sequence. (D08) Why does this work? 0. Einstein’s equation ( E=Mc2 ) let’s us estimate how much energy the Sun could produce assuming it starts out most as H (which is correct). the largest radii (but the radii are not that much larger than the lower mass stars). but the basic result of H fusion is that four H nuclei are converted to one He nucleus. but understand that the most massive main sequence stars live for the shortest time. Low mass stars are the coolest. (D08) The detailed form of the main sequence age-mass relation is not critical. we get that the time a star spends on the main sequence is related to its mass. and the ones that live longest. high mass stars are the ones with the highest temperatures. this means the temperature reaches 15 million K. (D08) The hottest.8% of the mass of the input H atoms is converted to energy (we get that by noting that the four input H atoms weigh a tad more than the single He atom). the highest luminosities. about 100 Myr old using more detailed calculations. Understand how this is done. (D08) Understand why you need high temperatures. or about 73 Myr (an .Fusion reactions are complex in detail. It is definitely on the Main Sequence. and which live the shortest time. most massive star in the Pleiades is Alcyone. 1 Gyr = 1 billion years). 1 Myr = one million years) old based on the relations in the text. and its luminosity is about 910 times greater than the Sun’s. (D08) Understand how the mass-age relation for main sequence stars comes from the main-sequence mass-luminosity relation.
abbreviation for Megayears. or 1 million yr). the faint outer light of the Milky Way expands to about twice that width. well known to sky-watchers in the Southern Hemisphere. Properties of the Milky Way: a band of light with irregularities that bisects the sky as seen from Earth. We also note that in most parts of the sky. This inky hole. Brightest towards Sagittarius. the Swan. the Southern Cross—one section of the Milky Way appears to have been blotted out altogether. around 100 Myr. (D09) For example. As we look Northward along the Milky Way. To the South. This split in the Milky Way is known as The Great Rift. these bands join into a single stream within the constellation Cygnus. in the constellation Aquila—the Eagle—the Milky Way splits into two parallel bands of light. most notably between the constellations Centaurus and Vela . is called the Coal Sack. but in the constellation Sagittarius. the Milky Way is around 10-15 degrees wide. This estimate is close to what more precise calculations gives for the age of the Pleiades. one of the bands fades to invisibility while the other defines the main band of the Milky Way. Many bright stars—especially numerous blue ones—appear to congregate near this portion of the Milky Way in the Southern Hemisphere. Even farther to the South—in the constellation Crux.
You should understand and be able to discuss the physical meanings of all the terms in these density laws.We define the direction toward or away from the Galactic Poles as the z axis. We define the direction outward from the Galactic Center as the R direction. (D09) . (D09) The structure of the Galactic disk is consistent with an Exponential Density Law in both z and R. Know the basic form of this density law.
the same symbol we introduced earlier to denote the distance from the Galactic Center. The terms and have exactly the same meaning as before. Their numbers fluctuate wildly as we But . most massive main-sequence stars. That's because we didn’t notice such strong evidence that the space densities of different types of stars declined at different rates as we move outward from the Galactic Center (well. known as the Scale Length (notice the capitalization of the symbol). but there is a new term. . almost. Most types of objects in the Galactic Disk have a scale length of about 3.there are some important differences. the distance is now denoted by . The related symbol. of about 3. Unlike the scale height (lower case). though the youngest stars and gas/dust have slightly different behavior in the outermost parts of the disk. Most types of stars in the Galactic Disk exhibit a scale length.000 parsecs. For one. meaning that these things stay closest. the scale length does not have the index . to the mid-plane of the Galactic Disk (that is.5 kpc. The scale height for young stars and gas/dust is smaller than for other stars. behave in an even more complicated manner. (D09) ‘Scale length’ measures how concentrated stars and gas are with relation to the center of the Galaxy. (D09) Know that ‘kpc’ = kilo-parsec = 1. Since the space density of (most) types of stars and (much of ) the ISM in the Galactic Disk varies exponentially in both the direction—perpendicular to the Disk— and in the direction—outward from the Galactic Center—the Galactic Disk represents an example of what is known as an Exponential Disk. (D09) The densities of O and B stars.5 kpc. on average. the youngest. 8. where z=0 ). . represents the distance of the Sun from the Galactic Center. we’ll return to this point momentarily). ‘Scale height’ measures the ‘thickness’ of the Galactic Disk and is different for different types of stars.5 kpc.
(D09) The rotation velocity does not drop significantly from the Sun as you move further outward from the Galactic Center. (D09) By measuring Sun’s motion with respect to other stars and gas in the Galactic Disk. Be prepared to make draw a rotation curve. we simply note that these arms seem to be easiest to trace when we focus on the youngest stars or on star-forming regions within the Galactic Disk. (D09) Local stars appear to be standing still with respect to the Sun. The Center itself is located in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius as seen from Earth. (D09) . (D09) Understand that a rotation curve is a plot of rotation velocity with distance from the center of a galaxy (does not have to be the Milky Way).travel outward within the Galactic Disk. If we carefully map the distribution of these stars—or of regions of the Cold and Hot ISM that are related to star-forming regions such as the Orion Nebula—we would find they trace out sweeping spiral patterns that appear to emanate from near the Galactic Center. we can conclude that the disk rotation velocity at the Sun is about 210 km/s. We shall encounter such Spiral Arms again when we visit other galaxies similar to ours.5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The Sun is located 8. Older stars show much less enhancement near spiral arms. This means that the Sun and its neighboring stars are rotating about the Galactic Center together. But the shape of the disk implies rotation. For now. consistent with our observation that they obey a smooth Exponential Density Law.
Know how Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity let’s us estimate the Galaxy’s mass (that is. M=V^2circ R/G). (D09) . The mass of the Galaxy interior to the location of the Sun is 10^11 M(sun).
massive. and a complex ISM that has cold. and a range in chemical abundance. it hasn’t. Of course. unusual forms of radiation including synchrotron (from electrons moving in magnetic fields). our view of the Milky Way—seems to have ‘disappeared’. At the location of the Sun. sharing the same center as the Galactic Disk.5 kpc.Appreciate that the Galaxy’s rotation curve appears to be mostly flat. we'd expect the velocities to fall off in accordance to Kepler's Third Law: Vcirc= Sqrt(GM/R) (as in Solar System). (D10) The Galactic Bulge resides in the inner Galaxy. very hot thermal radiation. mostly old stars. (D10) Young stars and the ISM exhibit a more ‘lumpy’ distribution than other types of objects in the Disk. At our current location 1 kpc from the Galactic Center—well inside the core radius of the Bulge—the Bulge contributes most of the stars visible in this Alien Sky. But inside 1. (D09) The inner Disk obeys the same Exponential Density Law of the outer Disk. beyond the core radius of the Bulge—the density of Bulge stars drops rapidly as we move away from the Galactic Center. annihilation radiation (from matter-antimatter interactions). But this is not seen. hot and coronal components. The Bulge has little gas. The Bulge and the Disk coexist here. General properties of the Galactic Center: The Galactic Center harbors young stars. the Bulge contributes at most 2-3% of the stars we see in Earth’s sky. very young clusters. Know what IRS 16 and Sgr A* are (both are in Galactic Center). young stars and the ISM are relatively rarer than other types of objects in the Disk. young star clusters. (D09) The most popular idea is that we need ‘Dark Matter’ to produce a flat rotation curve as observed. In the inner 2-3 kpc of the Disk. (D09) Why is this unusual? If all the mass is concentrated towards the Galactic Center (as observed from visible matter). Bulge stars become much more numerous compared to the number of stars in the Disk. (D10) We can now see that IRS 16 is . particularly at large radius. The distribution of stars obeys a Power-Law Density Law which is more centrally-concentrated than the Exponential Density Law of the Disk. indicative of some large-scale spiral-like structures. (D10) For R is greater than 1. That’s why the Disk—in particular. (D10) Unique features of the Galactic Center: Massive.5 kpc from the Galactic Center— that is. It’s simply much harder to discern the Disk among the more numerous stars of the Bulge near the Galactic Center. really. The visible stars alone are not sufficient. warm.
No gas or dust. This arises when electrons and their anti-matter partners—positrons—meet and annihilate one another in a process that converts their combined mass entirely into energy18.3 pc from the cluster center the rotate at a speed of about 265 km/s about the cluster center. the orbital speed is about 460 km/s. very luminous stars. the cluster is older—about 14 Gyr—than the Sun’s predicted total lifetime. (D11) Properties of globular clusters such as M92: compact (only 30 pc in radius) but contain 100. For the Galactic Center black hole. (D11) Be able to plot M92’s HR diagram. The blue continuous spectrum of this light arises from radiation emitted by electrons spinning in magnetic fields—a form of light known as synchrotron radiation (the long streamers of gas visible in Figure 10. At 0. There’s something very weird here. (D10) Location of most globular clusters: The congregate around Sagittarius—the location where we found the Galactic Center.1 pc. The region around IRS 16 also emits gamma-rays. Some of the gamma-rays are emitted as an emission line that corresponds to what is ominously known as annihilation radiation17. the stars are moving at an astonishing 2. yes. About 5x10^6 M(sun) appears to be packed into a volume smaller than the Solar System at the center of the star cluster IRS 16! (D10) Stars located about 0. Short main sequence plus lots of red giants. The apparent center of all this motion coincides with a strong source of radio emission known as Sgr A* (pronounced ‘Sagittarius A-star’ or ‘Sag A-star’).yet another massive star cluster composed of young. As we probe even closer. Evidence for central massive. is about 16 times the size of the Sun. at a distance 0.6 of Destination 5). so understand it well.9 also suggest the presence of large-scale magnetic fields here). Thus.03 pc. This is the same reasoning as for the Pleiades. compact object.003 pc from the cluster center and a distance not much larger than the solar system (!). The top end of the main sequence contains stars that are less luminous than the Sun. Is this a black hole? Know the relation for the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole: RS=2GMBH/c^2 . this is all consistent with a central black hole. (D11) . It is the most luminous cluster we see here. 840 km/s. blue. At 0.000 to 1 million stars. So. Long. Some of these filaments glow with an eerie grayish-blue light unlike any gas we’ve encountered so far. Low abundance of heavy elements in the stars.700 km/s—almost 1% the speed of light! The velocities appear to keep increasing the closer we get to the center of IRS 16. the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation (see Figure 5. and we soon appreciate that it is also the most unusual. thin filaments of gas extend many pc around it.
The star becomes a red giant. Degeneracy produces a pressure that (a) can halt the core collapse. only higher and higher energy states are availa- .Stars can be thought of as having a ‘core’ and surrounding ‘envelope’ which react quite differently as evolution proceeds. and (b) does not depend on temperature. Evolution starts when H is exhausted in the star’s core while on or near the main sequence. It is due to the nature of the electrons and not due to the electric repulsion force. (D11) As low-energy levels are filled. Understand what this is in rough terms. The envelope reacts by expanding. The star’s core contracts and heats up from gravitational energy. (D11) Know the evolution of low-mass stars such as those in M92. (D11) Electron degeneracy sets in.
it simply gets hotter. (D11) The shape of M92 is not a disk. it would expand. Instead. and reach a stable configuration. When it finally expands. (D11) Mass loss causes the envelope to evaporate away. Know the details of evolution up to the Helium (He) flash. material continues to fall in. Such stars all evolve into white dwarfs eventually. having the same energy as—other electrons in the core. (D11) What happens when He runs out? Core never gets hot enough for full Carbon fusion. If the core were not in its bizarre degenerate state. It is a violently runaway situation and. We call that lowmass stellar evolution. it is way too hot for its pressure and the core expands explosively. leaving the inert core. the core reaches a terminal state where electron degeneracy pressure equals the inward pull of gravity. Satellites of the Milky Way. (D12) For stars less massive than 8 M(sun) . piling onto the core and heating it up even further What’s really happening in the core of the star is that the electrons must populate higher and higher energy levels to avoid becoming degenerate with—that is. And the core becomes hotter still. so much energy is produced that the core cannot get rid of it Subsequent evolution is a stable configuration where He fuses in the core into C and O. cool off. Only the presence of the stellar envelope—the outer layers—contains the blast. (D11) With the sudden rise in temperature. evolution is as above. But it can’t. (D12) White dwarfs have to be less massive than 1. But only in the densest parts of the core. Instead. This overcrowding is known as electron degeneracy21 and it produces a pressure— degeneracy pressure—that begins to resist gravity and slows the core’s contraction22. The rapid addition of energy causes the core to become even hotter. soon. but separate from our Galaxy. yet still near 1 M (sun) . shape and orientation. The orbits of the stars are random in size. (D11) Nature of the Magellanic Clouds: these are independent dwarf galaxies. Know where the WDs lie in the HR diagram! Know that white dwarfs are small! About the size of the Earth. Still a red giant. The core gets hot enough for He fusion while still degenerate. He fusion commences throughout the core almost simultaneously. There just is not enough gravitational energy. Yet it is stable. All they do is cool down with time. (D11) White dwarfs are the remnants of cores of low-mass stars.4 M (sun) —more massive and . Outside the central degenerate zone. causing the rate of energy production from He fusion to skyrocket.ble. This is another way to have a stable stellar system other than a disk.
Stars become black holes in this case. fusion eats up the energy. For heavier elements. but likely a massive explosion. So.electron degeneracy cannot support them. He runs out. no know force can stop gravity. (D12) Know the evidence for supernovae. (D12) Review and understand the basic model for how pulsars operate. Core collapses. Mass loss is required for the most massive ‘low-mass’ stars for them to become white dwarfs. core contracts. (D12) Nature of neutron stars: So dense that electrons and protons merge to form neutrons. Total energy similar to what you’d expect of a contracted core. Know that for the smaller elements you generate energy from fusion. As bright or brighter than all other stars in a Galaxy for a few days or weeks. C fusion starts. The key point is that the final result of this evolution is that stars become something other than white dwarfs. This is the Chandrasekhar limit. These neutrons can also exert a degeneracy pressure. Such stars are seen as ‘supernovae’ (plural of supernova). (D12) Understand why the core of the exploded star should be rotating very fast and have a strong magnetic field. (D12) Only source of energy left in the core is gravitational. Star may end up totally disrupted. the offset of the magnetic and rotation poles. The key ingredients include the strong magnetic field. as a black hole or as a neutron star. you consume energy if you try to fuse the nuclei. the rotation. (D12) . (D12) Know that the big difference in high mass evolution is that the core is always able to start a new fusion reaction before it becomes electron degenerate. core contracts. etc. These stars are only around 10 km in radius! If remnant is more massive than about 3 m sun . H runs out. The general process is more important than knowing the individual fusion steps. (D12) Why is fusion of elements more massive than Iron fundamentally different than for less massive nuclei. He fusion starts. (D12) Outward result of this: complicated. (D12) Stars above 8 M (sun) follow a different sequence of events characteristic of high-mass stellar evolution. and the infall of matter that can radiate synchrotron radiation into beams that are seen as flashes to a distant observer. but not until much higher densities. SN1987A in the LMC is one example. core collapses even faster. Runaway situation.
(D12) Pulsars found in centers of expanding supernova shells. Strong evidence connecting them to supernova explosions. (D12) .Why can’t white dwarfs be pulsars? Too big and too low-density to rotate as fast as pulsars are observed. Know how this story relates to the properties of the Crab nebula and its pulsar.
for example. (D13) What are dwarf spheroidal galaxies. (D12) Know the role of an accretion disk in making the matter falling into a black hole very hot and very luminous (again. extend over at most a couple of kpc. Power-Law density. and (generally) satellite galaxies and where are they found? Review the properties dwarf spheroidal galaxies (such as the Sculptor Dwarf) and dwarf irregular galaxies. The shape of Sculptor—nearly circular in the sky—also suggests that it is more-or-less spherical in shape. And though it contains a respectable number of stars—around 5-10 million. or even thousands or more.How can we find stellar-mass black holes? Understand the basic role of binary systems in this. know how LMC X-3 illustrates this). (D12) The empty (as far as stars are concerned) nature of the Galactic Halo. dwarf irregular galaxies. (D13) these galaxies are certainly tiny by the standards of larger systems such as our Galaxy.3). Know that LMC X-3 appears to be an example of a black hole in a binary system. by factors of tens. significantly more than M 92—it is still very much a dwarf when compared to the population of a trillion or so stars found in the Galaxy. approximately spherical in shape)? Appreciate that the typical star of the Galactic Halo has much fewer heavy elements (those other than H and He) compared to the Sun. much smaller than our Galaxy. (D13) Know how the mass of the Milky Way can be measured at very large distances from . more extended. We shall see later that the reason these objects deserve to be called ‘galaxies’ is a bit more complicated. What is the Galactic Halo? Where is it located and how is it distributed relative to the Galactic Disk and Bulge (same center. What is velocity dispersion? How do we use it to measure masses? In this respect. understand the Virial Theorem’s role in measuring galaxy masses. The stars in Sculptor. hundreds. or even the LMC (see Figure 13. So the ‘dwarf’ and ‘spheroidal’ parts of the name make sense.
What is the mass-to-light ratio of the Milky Way? Know that large values of mass-to-light imply Dark Matter and understand why. (D13) Be aware that the Coronal component of the ISM pervades the Galactic Halo and that the particles in this gas have the same characteristic velocity dispersion seen for the satellite galaxies in the Halo. What does this say about the Dark Matter content of the Halo? (D13) Mass-to-light ratio. Know it is usually expressed in solar units. What is the masstolight ratio for the Sun (ANSWER: 1 M(sun)/1 L(sun) = 1). (D13) .the Galactic Center using satellite galaxies and the Virial Theorem.
C fusion starts. The key point is that the final result of this evolution is that stars become something other than white dwarfs. shape and orientation. (D12) Know that the big difference in high mass evolution is that the core is always able to start a new fusion reaction before it becomes electron degenerate. H runs out. (D11) White dwarfs are the remnants of cores of low-mass stars. core contracts. Mass loss is required for the most massive ‘low-mass’ stars for them to become white dwarfs. the core reaches a terminal state where electron degeneracy pressure equals the inward pull of gravity. etc. We call that low-mass stellar evolution. He fusion starts. core contracts. (D12) . evolution is as above.There just is not enough gravitational energy. (D11) Mass loss causes the envelope to evaporate away. The general process is more important than knowing the individual fusion steps. Yet it is stable. So. (D12) Stars above 8 M (sun) follow a different sequence of events characteristic of high-mass stellar evolution. (D12) For stars less massive than 8 M(sun) . Satellites of the Milky Way. Instead. but separate from our Galaxy. All they do is cool down with time. Know where the WDs lie in the HR diagram! Know that white dwarfs are small! About the size of the Earth. Such stars all evolve into white dwarfs eventually. (D11) The shape of M92 is not a disk. This is another way to have a stable stellar system other than a disk. (D12) White dwarfs have to be less massive than 1.4 M (sun) — more massive and electron degeneracy cannot support them. leaving the inert core. (D11) Nature of the Magellanic Clouds: these are independent dwarf galaxies. He runs out. This is the Chandrasekhar limit. yet still near 1 M (sun) . The orbits of the stars are random in size.
fusion eats up the energy. Why is fusion of elements more massive than Iron fundamentally different than for less massive nuclei. Core collapses. Total energy similar to what you’d expect of a contracted core. the rotation. (D12) Outward result of this: complicated. Stars become black holes in this case. Such stars are seen as ‘supernovae’ (plural of supernova). Runaway situation. you consume energy if you try to fuse the nuclei. Star may end up totally disrupted. as a black hole or as a neutron star. These stars are only around 10 km in radius! If remnant is more massive than about 3 m sun . Know that for the smaller elements you generate energy from fusion. the offset of the magnetic and rotation poles. The key ingredients include the strong magnetic field. As bright or brighter than all other stars in a Galaxy for a few days or weeks. (D12) Review and understand the basic model for how pulsars operate. These neutrons can also exert a degeneracy pressure. (D12) Nature of neutron stars: So dense that electrons and protons merge to form neutrons. but not until much higher densities. and the infall of matter that can radiate synchrotron radiation into beams that are seen as flashes to a distant observer. no know force can stop gravity. core collapses even faster. (D12) Only source of energy left in the core is gravitational. (D12) Know the evidence for supernovae. but likely a massive explosion. SN1987A in the LMC is one example. For heavier elements. (D12) Why can’t white dwarfs be pulsars? Too big and too low-density to . (D12) Understand why the core of the exploded star should be rotating very fast and have a strong magnetic field.
rotate as fast as pulsars are observed. Strong evidence connecting them to supernova explosions. Know how this story relates to the properties of the Crab nebula and its pulsar. (D12) Pulsars found in centers of expanding supernova shells. (D12) .
(D12) The empty (as far as stars are concerned) nature of the Galactic Halo. The stars in Sculptor. significantly more . hundreds. And though it contains a respectable number of stars—around 5-10 million. and (generally) satellite galaxies and where are they found? Review the properties dwarf spheroidal galaxies (such as the Sculptor Dwarf) and dwarf irregular galaxies. (D13) What are dwarf spheroidal galaxies. (D12) Know the role of an accretion disk in making the matter falling into a black hole very hot and very luminous (again. for example. know how LMC X-3 illustrates this). What is the Galactic Halo? Where is it located and how is it distributed relative to the Galactic Disk and Bulge (same center. or even the LMC (see Figure 13. or even thousands or more. dwarf irregular galaxies. much smaller than our Galaxy. Power-Law density. extend over at most a couple of kpc. more extended.3). Know that LMC X-3 appears to be an example of a black hole in a binary system. How can we find stellar-mass black holes? Understand the basic role of binary systems in this. by factors of tens. approximately spherical in shape)? Appreciate that the typical star of the Galactic Halo has much fewer heavy elements (those other than H and He) compared to the Sun. (D13) these galaxies are certainly tiny by the standards of larger systems such as our Galaxy.
So the ‘dwarf’ and ‘spheroidal’ parts of the name make sense. We shall see later that the reason these objects deserve to be called ‘galaxies’ is a bit more complicated. (D13) . What is the mass-tolight ratio for the Sun (ANSWER: 1 M(sun)/1 L(sun) = 1). What is the mass-to-light ratio of the Milky Way? Know that large values of mass-to-light imply Dark Matter and understand why. understand the Virial Theorem’s role in measuring galaxy masses. What does this say about the Dark Matter content of the Halo? (D13) Mass-to-light ratio.than M 92—it is still very much a dwarf when compared to the population of a trillion or so stars found in the Galaxy. The shape of Sculptor—nearly circular in the sky— also suggests that it is more-or-less spherical in shape. (D13) Know how the mass of the Milky Way can be measured at very large distances from the Galactic Center using satellite galaxies and the Virial Theorem. Know it is usually expressed in solar units. What is velocity dispersion? How do we use it to measure masses? In this respect. (D13) Be aware that the Coronal component of the ISM pervades the Galactic Halo and that the particles in this gas have the same characteristic velocity dispersion seen for the satellite galaxies in the Halo.
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